Science.gov

Sample records for advanced expert cae

  1. Expert system for web based collaborative CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Liang; Lin, Zusheng

    2006-11-01

    An expert system for web based collaborative CAE was developed based on knowledge engineering, relational database and commercial FEA (Finite element analysis) software. The architecture of the system was illustrated. In this system, the experts' experiences, theories and typical examples and other related knowledge, which will be used in the stage of pre-process in FEA, were categorized into analysis process and object knowledge. Then, the integrated knowledge model based on object-oriented method and rule based method was described. The integrated reasoning process based on CBR (case based reasoning) and rule based reasoning was presented. Finally, the analysis process of this expert system in web based CAE application was illustrated, and an analysis example of a machine tool's column was illustrated to prove the validity of the system.

  2. Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.

  3. Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES)-a useful tool to practice and learn medical acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chi Fai David; Leung, Kwong Sak; Heng, Pheng Ann; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Wong, Felix Wu Shun

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) that will assist the learning and practice of medical acupuncture. This was the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System which incorporated eight functional modules. These modules were 1) Add Patient Record subsystem; 2) Diagnosis subsystem ; 3) Acupuncture Prescription subsystem ; 4) Needle Insertion Position Animation subsystem ; 5) Acupuncture Points Usage Statistic subsystem ; 6) History Query subsystem; 7) Acupuncture Points Query subsystem and 8) Diagnosis Remarks and Diagnosis Record Save subsystem. Two databases were built-Patient Record database and Diagnosis (Acupuncture) Knowledge database. All the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) knowledge and acupuncture treatment prescriptions were extracted from officially used TCM textbooks and received guidance and expert advice from two acupuncturists working in this project. A Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) was built, which after the input from users of any Chinese disease symptoms and signs, it can provide a list of related TCM syndrome diagnoses based on the patients' disease symptoms and signs, and at the same time it can offer advice of the appropriate Chinese acupuncture treatment to the users. CAES also provided text descriptions and acupuncture animations showing the acupoint locations and the direction and depth of the needle insertion technique. Therefore users can easily learn acupuncture and practice it. This new acupuncture expert system will hopefully provide an easy way for users to learn and practice Chinese Acupuncture and establish its usefulness after it was fully evaluated.

  4. Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES)-a useful tool to practice and learn medical acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chi Fai David; Leung, Kwong Sak; Heng, Pheng Ann; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Wong, Felix Wu Shun

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) that will assist the learning and practice of medical acupuncture. This was the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System which incorporated eight functional modules. These modules were 1) Add Patient Record subsystem; 2) Diagnosis subsystem ; 3) Acupuncture Prescription subsystem ; 4) Needle Insertion Position Animation subsystem ; 5) Acupuncture Points Usage Statistic subsystem ; 6) History Query subsystem; 7) Acupuncture Points Query subsystem and 8) Diagnosis Remarks and Diagnosis Record Save subsystem. Two databases were built-Patient Record database and Diagnosis (Acupuncture) Knowledge database. All the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) knowledge and acupuncture treatment prescriptions were extracted from officially used TCM textbooks and received guidance and expert advice from two acupuncturists working in this project. A Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) was built, which after the input from users of any Chinese disease symptoms and signs, it can provide a list of related TCM syndrome diagnoses based on the patients' disease symptoms and signs, and at the same time it can offer advice of the appropriate Chinese acupuncture treatment to the users. CAES also provided text descriptions and acupuncture animations showing the acupoint locations and the direction and depth of the needle insertion technique. Therefore users can easily learn acupuncture and practice it. This new acupuncture expert system will hopefully provide an easy way for users to learn and practice Chinese Acupuncture and establish its usefulness after it was fully evaluated. PMID:21234792

  5. Radionuclide Emission Estimation for the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley J Schrader

    2010-02-01

    An Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC)-7 model dose assessment was performed to evaluate maximum Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) boundary effective dose equivalent (EDE, in mrem/yr) for potential individual releases of radionuclides from the facility. The CAES is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding educational opportunities at Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed a strategic plan (INL/EXT-07-12950) based on the balanced scorecard approach. At the present time it is unknown exactly what processes will be used in the facility in support of this strategic plan. What is known is that the Idaho State University (ISU) Radioactive Materials License (Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] license 11-27380-01) is the basis for handling radioactive material in the facility. The material in this license is shared between the ISU campus and the CAES facility. There currently are no agreements in place to limit the amount of radioactive material at the CAES facility or what is done to the material in the facility. The scope of this analysis is a summary look at the basis dose for each radionuclide included under the license at a distance of 100, 500, and 1,000 m. Inhalation, ingestion and ground surface dose was evaluated using the NRC design basis guidelines. The results can be used to determine a sum of the fractions approach to facility safety. This sum of the fractions allows a facility threshold value (TV) to be established and potential activities to be evaluated against

  6. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  7. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-08-05

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  8. CAES Annual Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Kortny Rolston

    2011-10-01

    The Center for Advanced Energy Studies was created to lead research programs important to the nation, attract students and faculty to the Idaho universities and act as a catalyst for technology-based economic development. CAES is striving to meet those goals by continuing to develop its infrastructure and equipment capabilities, expand its research portfolio and bolster Idaho's energy workforce. This Annual Report details the progress CAES made in FY 2011 toward fulfilling its research, education and economic development missions.

  9. Autonomous power expert system advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Todd M.; Walters, Jerry L.

    1991-01-01

    The autonomous power expert (APEX) system is being developed at Lewis Research Center to function as a fault diagnosis advisor for a space power distribution test bed. APEX is a rule-based system capable of detecting faults and isolating the probable causes. APEX also has a justification facility to provide natural language explanations about conclusions reached during fault isolation. To help maintain the health of the power distribution system, additional capabilities were added to APEX. These capabilities allow detection and isolation of incipient faults and enable the expert system to recommend actions/procedure to correct the suspected fault conditions. New capabilities for incipient fault detection consist of storage and analysis of historical data and new user interface displays. After the cause of a fault is determined, appropriate recommended actions are selected by rule-based inferencing which provides corrective/extended test procedures. Color graphics displays and improved mouse-selectable menus were also added to provide a friendlier user interface. A discussion of APEX in general and a more detailed description of the incipient detection, recommended actions, and user interface developments during the last year are presented.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  12. Advancement of online systems in engineering by Expert TA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jeremy

    This dissertation introduces a new online system called Expert TA. The system was developed based on the hypothesis that expressions are key elements in engineering problems and that the treatment of expressions is critical to the advancement of online systems. This dissertation identifies ergonomic problems with expression entry that Expert TA overcomes through the use of a problem-customize integrated expression editor, called a palate. Then the dissertation shows, using an expression analyzer that operates in the background of Expert TA, that specific mathematical mistakes within an entered expression can now be located. Emulating standard instructional practices, detailed feedback pertaining to specific mistakes and grading on the basis of specific mistakes is now possible.

  13. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  14. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  15. Anticipation in squash: differences in advance cue utilization between expert and novice players.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, B

    1990-01-01

    The time of occurrence and spatial location of the advance cues used to anticipate the direction and force of an opponent's stroke in squash were examined using a film task. This task, designed to stimulate the normal perceptual display of the defensive player, consisted of two discrete parts, each containing 160 individual stroke sequences (trials). In the first part of the film task, the display was occluded at different time intervals throughout the development of the opponent's stroke and the 16 expert and 20 novice subjects had to predict both the direction (down-wall or cross-court) and force (drive or drop shot) of the opponent's stroke. In the second part of the film task, visibility to selected advance cues was occluded by placing opaque mats on the film surface. Across all of the film task conditions experts were superior to novices in predicting the event outcome from the information available, highlighting the important contribution anticipatory skills make to expert performance in this sport. Analysis of lateral (direction) error showed that the most critical time periods for extracting information about stroke direction are the periods between 160-80 ms prior to racket-ball contact and the period of extended ball flight arising at least 80 ms after contact. Whereas both groups were attuned to this ball flight information, only the experts were capable of picking up information from the early part of the opponent's actions. This early information appeared to be provided by the opposing player's arm action. Similar time periods were found to be also important for the prediction of stroke depth, but in this case both experts and novices were similar in their cue dependence.

  16. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  17. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  18. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  19. Upstream Design and 1D-CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hiroyuki

    Recently, engineering design environment of Japan is changing variously. Manufacturing companies are being challenged to design and bring out products that meet the diverse demands of customers and are competitive against those produced by rising countries(1). In order to keep and strengthen the competitiveness of Japanese companies, it is necessary to create new added values as well as conventional ones. It is well known that design at the early stages has a great influence on the final design solution. Therefore, design support tools for the upstream design is necessary for creating new added values. We have established a research society for 1D-CAE (1 Dimensional Computer Aided Engineering)(2), which is a general term for idea, methodology and tools applicable for the upstream design support, and discuss the concept and definition of 1D-CAE. This paper reports our discussion about 1D-CAE.

  20. Expert Systems: Concepts and Applications. Advances in Library Information Technology, Issue Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenly, Charles; Harris, Howard

    The Processing Services department of the Library of Congress initiated a project to learn about expert systems technology and to examine potential applications of expert systems to functions in their department, e.g., acquisitions, cataloging, and serials control. (An expert system is defined as an artificial intelligence computer program which…

  1. User's guide for Department 9140 CAE workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Salguero, D.E.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information to beginning users of Department 9140's Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) workstations. These workstations are all Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) color VAXstations, and they use the VAX/VMS operating system. This manual shows users how to boot the workstations, login, use the window interface, and use some basic VMS commands. It also discusses some of the CAE software available on the workstations, such as ANVIL-5000. References are given so users can get additional information. 25 refs., 27 figs.

  2. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baum, Jeffrey

    2014-03-10

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  3. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  4. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  5. Right person, right skills, right job: the contribution of objective structured clinical examinations in advancing staff nurse experts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marion; Strube, Petra; Vaux, Amanda; West, Nicky; Auditore, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Recruitment processes need to discriminate among candidates to ensure that the right person with the right skills is selected for advancement opportunities. An innovative recruitment process using an objective structured clinical examination grounded in best practice guidelines resulted in improved recruitment practices for senior nursing clinical expert roles. Candidates' skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the areas of patient focus, clinical expertise, teamwork, and leadership were assessed using a clinical simulation. Candidates achieving advancement were assessed at 6 months to validate the efficacy of the process.

  6. GenSAA: A tool for advancing satellite monitoring with graphical expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real time data for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.

  7. Evaluation of hot forming effects mapping for CAE analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoerr, L.; Faath, T.; Dykeman, J.; Malcolm, S.

    2016-08-01

    Hot forming has grown significantly in the manufacturing of structural components within the vehicle Body-In-White construction. The superior strength of press hardened steels not only guarantee high resistance to deformation, it also brings a significant weight saving compared to conventional cold formed products. However, the benefit of achieving ultrahigh strength with hot stamping, comes with a reduction in ductility of the press hardened part. This will require advanced material modeling to capture the predicted performances accurately. A technique to optically measure and map the thinning distribution after hot stamping has shown to improve numerical analysis for fracture prediction. The proposed method to determine the forming effects and mapping to CAE models can be integrated into the Vehicle Development Process to shorten the time to production.

  8. FAST Modular Wind Turbine CAE Tool: Nonmatching Spatial and Temporal Meshes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jonkman, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose and examine numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. In particular, we examine algorithms for coupling modules where spatial grids are non- matching at interfaces and module solutions are time advanced with different time increments and different time integrators. Sharing of data between modules is accomplished with a predictor-corrector approach, which allows for either implicit or explicit time integration within each module. Algorithms are presented in a general framework, but are applied to simple problems that are representative of the systems found in a whole-turbine analysis. Numerical experiments are used to explore the stability, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed algorithms. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. The algorithms described here will greatly increase the flexibility and efficiency of FAST.

  9. Advancing Research on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Breast Cancer: Expert Panel Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Reinlib, Les

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence continues to increase in the US and Europe, a reflection of the growing influence of environment factors that interact with personal genetics. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that over 85,000 endocrine disrupting chemicals are among the common daily exposures that could affect the risk of disease. The daunting tasks of identifying, characterizing, and elucidating the mechanisms of endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer need to be addressed to produce a comprehensive model that will facilitate preventive strategies and public policy. An expert panel met to describe and bring attention to needs linking common environmental exposures, critical windows of exposure, and optimal times of assessment in investigating breast cancer risk. The group included investigators with extensive experience in the use of rodent models and in leading population studies and produced a set of recommendations for effective approaches to gaining insights into the environmental origins of breast cancer across the lifespan. PMID:25549947

  10. Advancing research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer: Expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Susan L; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Reinlib, Les

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence continues to increase in the US and Europe, a reflection of the growing influence of environment factors that interact with personal genetics. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are approximately 10,000 endocrine disrupting chemicals among the common daily exposures that could affect the risk of disease. The daunting tasks of identifying, characterizing, and elucidating the mechanisms of endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer need to be addressed to produce a comprehensive model that will facilitate preventive strategies and public policy. An expert panel met to describe and bring attention to needs linking common environmental exposures, critical windows of exposure, and optimal times of assessment in investigating breast cancer risk. The group included investigators with extensive experience in the use of rodent models and in leading population studies and produced a set of recommendations for effective approaches to gaining insights into the environmental origins of breast cancer across the lifespan.

  11. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  12. CAE applications in a thermoforming mould design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjuki, AR; Mohd Ghazali, FA; Ismail, N. M.; Sulaiman, S.; Mohd Khairuddin, I.; Majeed, Anwar P. P. A.; Jaafar, AA; Mustapha, F.; Basri, S.

    2016-02-01

    Preparation of honeycomb layer is a critical step for successful fabrications of thermoformed based sandwiched structures. This paper deals with an initial investigation on the rapid manufacturing process of corrugated sheet with 120° dihedral angles. Time history of local displacements and thickness, assuming viscous dominated material model for a 1mm thick thermoformable material, was computed by using ANSYS® Polyflow solver. The quality of formed surfaces was evaluated for selection of mould geometry and assessment of two common variants of thermoforming process. Inadequate mesh refinement of a membrane elements produces satisfactorily detailing and incomplete forming. A perfectly uniform material distribution was predicted using drape forming process. However, the geometrical properties of vacuum formed part are poorly distributed and difficult to control with increasing inflation volumes. Details of the discrepancies and the contributions of the CAE tool to complement traditional trial and error methodology in the process and design development are discussed.

  13. Where Experts Meet to Exchange Knowledge: Biotechnet's Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Science and progress thrive on an open mind and a transnational exchange of ideas and experience. That's why, in 2005, two scientists with a vision launched the biotechnet Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology. This year, too, the Summer School - now held at ZHAW in Waedenswil - is attracting researchers from all over the globe, and is also celebrating its 10(th) anniversary.

  14. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician man hours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  15. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-05-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124

  16. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians

    PubMed Central

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124

  17. SCAI expert consensus statement for advanced training programs in pediatric and congenital interventional cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Armsby, Laurie; Beekman, Robert H; Benson, Lee; Fagan, Thomas; Hagler, Donald J; Hijazi, Ziyad M; Holzer, Ralf; Ing, Frank; Kreutzer, Jacqueline; Lang, Peter; Levi, Daniel S; Latson, Larry; Moore, Phillip; Mullins, Charles; Ruiz, Carlos; Vincent, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric and Congenital Interventional Cardiology is the practice of catheter-based techniques that improve cardiac physiology and circulation through the treatment of heart disease in children and adults with congenital or acquired heart defects. Over the last decade, and since last published training guidelines for pediatric cardiac catheterization and interventional cardiology were published in 2005 [1] the field of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Catheterization has evolved into a predominantly interventional discipline. As there is no sub-specialty certification for interventional cardiac catheterization in pediatrics, the Congenital Heart Disease Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions has put together this consensus statement for advanced training in pediatric and congenital interventional cardiac catheterization. The statement puts forth recommendations for program infrastructure in terms of teaching, personnel, equipment, facilities, conferences, patient volume and trainee assessment. This is meant to set a standard for training programs as well as giving applicants a basis on which to judge and compare programs.

  18. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-05-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit.

  19. Acoustic performance of industrial mufflers with CAE modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Soohong; Kim, Daehwan; Hong, Chinsuk; Jeong, Weuibong

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the noise transmission performance of industrial mufflers widely used in ships based on the CAE modeling and simulation. Since the industrial mufflers have very complicated internal structures, the conventional Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) is of limited use. The CAE modeling and simulation is therefore required to incorporate commercial softwares: CATIA for geometry modeling, MSC/PATRAN for FE meshing and LMS/ SYSNOISE for analysis. Main sources of difficulties in this study are led by complicated arrangement of reactive elements, perforated walls and absorption materials. The reactive elements and absorbent materials are modeled by applying boundary conditions given by impedance. The perforated walls are modeled by applying the transfer impedance on the duplicated node mesh. The CAE approach presented in this paper is verified by comparing with the theoretical solution of a concentric-tube resonator and is applied for industrial mufflers.

  20. NESD CAE facility minimal implementation plan (June 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, H. S.

    1983-08-04

    In conjunction with other divisions in the EE Department, the Nuclear Energy Systems Division is developing a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) capability. Some of our needs in areas such as drafting, PC design, and IC design can be satisfied with existing turnkey systems. Many of our other needs, including modeling, analysis, document management and communication, software development, project management, and project communication will require the gradual development of an expanded computing environment. The purpose of this document is to describe our initial plans to implement a CAE facility.

  1. Construction CAE; Integration of CAD, simulation, planning and cost control

    SciTech Connect

    Wickard, D.A. ); Bill, R.D.; Gates, K.H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Ohcoshi, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Construction CAE is a simulation, planning, scheduling, and cost control tool that is integrated with a computer aided design (CAD) system. The system uses a CAD model and allows the user to perform construction simulation on objects defined within the model. Initial cost/schedule reports as well as those required for project chronicling are supported through an interface to a work breakdown structure (WBS) and a client's existing schedule reporting system. By integrating currently available project control tools with a simulation system, Construction CAE is more effective than its individual components.

  2. Prognostic role of the LCS6 KRAS variant in locally advanced rectal cancer: results of the EXPERT-C trial

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, F.; Chau, I.; Cunningham, D.; Peckitt, C.; Lampis, A.; Hahne, J.C.; Braconi, C.; Tabernero, J.; Glimelius, B.; Cervantes, A.; Begum, R.; Gonzalez De Castro, D.; Hulkki Wilson, S.; Eltahir, Z.; Wotherspoon, A.; Tait, D.; Brown, G.; Oates, J.; Valeri, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lethal-7 (let-7) is a tumour suppressor miRNA which acts by down-regulating several oncogenes including KRAS. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs61764370, T > G base substitution) in the let-7 complementary site 6 (LCS-6) of KRAS mRNA has been shown to predict prognosis in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) and benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies in metastatic CRC. Patients and methods We analysed rs61764370 in EXPERT-C, a randomised phase II trial of neoadjuvant CAPOX followed by chemoradiotherapy, surgery and adjuvant CAPOX plus or minus cetuximab in locally advanced rectal cancer. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue and genotyped using a PCR-based commercially available assay. Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate survival estimates and compare treatment arms. Results A total of 155/164 (94.5%) patients were successfully analysed, of whom 123 (79.4%) and 32 (20.6%) had the LCS-6 TT and LCS-6 TG genotype, respectively. Carriers of the G allele were found to have a statistically significantly higher rate of complete response (CR) after neoadjuvant therapy (28.1% versus 10.6%; P = 0.020) and a trend for better 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) [77.4% versus 64.5%: hazard ratio (HR) 0.56; P = 0.152] and overall survival (OS) rates (80.3% versus 71.9%: HR 0.59; P = 0.234). Both CR and survival outcomes were independent of the use of cetuximab. The negative prognostic effect associated with KRAS mutation appeared to be stronger in patients with the LCS-6 TT genotype (HR PFS 1.70, P = 0.078; HR OS 1.79, P = 0.082) compared with those with the LCS-6 TG genotype (HR PFS 1.33, P = 0.713; HR OS 1.01, P = 0.995). Conclusion This analysis suggests that rs61764370 may be a biomarker of response to neoadjuvant treatment and an indicator of favourable outcome in locally advanced rectal cancer possibly by mitigating the poor prognosis of KRAS mutation. In

  3. Surgery for Intermediate and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Consensus Report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Nagano, Hiroaki; Lee, Young-Joo; Chau, Gar-Yang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Chih-Chi; Choi, Young Rok; Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging and treatment strategy does not recommended surgery for treating BCLC stage B and C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, numerous Asia-Pacific institutes still perform surgery for this patient group. This consensus report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting aimed to share opinions and experiences pertaining to liver resection for intermediate and advanced HCCs and to provide evidence to issue recommendations for surgery in this patient group. Summary Thirteen experts from five Asia-Pacific regions were invited to the meeting; 10 of them (Japan: 2, Taiwan: 3, South Korea: 2, Hong Kong: 1, and China: 2) voted for the final consensus. The discussion focused on evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve and surgery for large tumors, multiple tumors, HCCs with vascular invasion, and HCCs with distant metastasis. The feasibility of future prospective randomized trials comparing surgery with transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate HCC and with sorafenib for advanced HCC was also discussed. The Child-Pugh score (9/10 experts) and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (8/10) were the most widely accepted methods for evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve. All (10/10) experts agreed that portal hypertension, tumor size >5 cm, portal venous invasion, hepatic venous invasion, and extrahepatic metastasis are not absolute contraindications for the surgical resection of HCC. Furthermore, 9 of the 10 experts agreed that tumor resection may be performed for patients with >3 tumors. The limitations of surgery are associated with a poor liver functional reserve, incomplete tumor resection, and a high probability of recurrence. Key Messages Surgery provides significant survival benefits for Asian-Pacific patients with intermediate and advanced HCCs, particularly when the liver functional reserve is favorable. However, prospective randomized controlled trials

  4. Establishing of Simple Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    In order to study the effect of microgravity on the operation of Closed Ecosystem A two-element Closed Aquatic Ecosystem CAES were established by microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and snail Bulinus australianus By remote sensing to investigate the two-element Closed Aquatic Ecosystem CAES on spacecraft SHENZHOU- the real-time data of operation of CAES in real microgravity was got firstly The 1g centrifuge on board was also designed to be the control at the first time ground 1g and 1 4g centrifuged were set up too It found that microgravity is the major factor to affect the operation of CAES in space The change of biomass of producer during every day in microgravity group is much bigger than that other control groups The meal value of biomass of each day decreased but that of other control groups increased for days and then balanced Microgravity s effect on biomass of producer maybe result from microgravity lead to the increasing of metabolism of consumer and change of that of producer

  5. Performance of a simple closed aquatic ecosystem (CAES) in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.-H.; Li, G.-B.; Hu, C.-X.; Liu, Y.-D.; Song, L.-R.; Tong, G.-H.; Liu, X.-M.; Cheng, E.-T.

    2004-01-01

    A simple Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) consisting of single-celled green algae ( Chlorella pyrenoidosa, producer), a spiral snail ( Bulinus australianus, consumer) and a data acquisition and control unit was flown on the Chinese Spacecraft SHENZHOU-II in January 2001 for 7 days. In order to study the effect of microgravity on the operation of CAES, a 1 g centrifuge reference group in space, a ground 1 g reference group and a ground 1 g centrifuge reference group (1.4 g group) were run concurrently. Real-time data about algae biomass (calculated from transmission light intensity), temperature, light and centrifugation of the CAES were logged at minute intervals. It was found that algae biomass of both the microgravity group and the ground 1 g centrifuge reference group (1.4 g) fluctuated during the experiment, but the algae biomass of the 1 g centrifuge reference group in space and the ground 1 g reference group increased during the experiment. The results may be attributable to influences of microgravity and 1.4 g gravity on the algae and snails metabolisms. Microgravity is the main factor to affect the operation of CAES in space and the contribution of microgravity to the effect was also estimated. These data may be valuable for the establishment of a complex CELSS in the future.

  6. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  7. Advancing the future of physical activity guidelines in Canada: an independent expert panel interpretation of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, in partnership with the Public Health Agency of Canada, has initiated a review of their physical activity guidelines to promote healthy active living for Canadian children, youth, adults and older adults; previous guidelines were released in 2002, 2002, 1998 and 1999 respectively. Several background papers from this project were published recently and provide foundation evidence upon which to base new guidelines. Furthermore, comprehensive systematic reviews were completed to ensure a rigorous evaluation of evidence informing the revision of physical activity guidelines for asymptomatic populations. The overall guideline development process is being guided and assessed by the AGREE II instrument. A meeting of experts was convened to present the evidence complied to inform the guideline revisions. An independent expert panel was assembled to review the background materials and systematic reviews; listen to the presentations and discussions at the expert meeting; ask for clarification; and produce the present paper representing their interpretation of the evidence including grading of the evidence and their identification of needs for future research. The paper includes also their recommendations for evidence-informed physical activity guidelines. PMID:20459785

  8. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research – outcome of an expert survey

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shôn W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mental health research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. Methods The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Results Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Conclusion Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs. PMID:25061300

  9. Potential impact of the VITEK 2 system and the Advanced Expert System on the clinical laboratory of a university-based hospital.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C C; Peyret, M; Moland, E S; Cavalieri, S J; Shubert, C; Thomson, K S; Boeufgras, J M; Sanders, W E

    2001-07-01

    A study was designed to assess the impact of the VITEK 2 automated system and the Advanced Expert System (AES) on the clinical laboratory of a typical university-based hospital. A total of 259 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates of Enterobacteriaceae members, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected and tested by the VITEK 2 system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the results were analyzed by the AES. The results were also analyzed by a human expert and compared to the AES analyses. Among the 259 isolates included in this study, 245 (94.6%) were definitively identified by VITEK 2, requiring little input from laboratory staff. For 194 (74.9%) isolates, no inconsistencies between the identification of the strain and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined by VITEK 2 were detected by the AES. Thus, no input from laboratory staff was required for these strains. The AES suggested one or more corrections to results obtained with 65 strains to remove inconsistencies. The human expert thought that most of these corrections were appropriate and that some resulted from a failure of the VITEK 2 system to detect certain forms of resistance. Antimicrobial phenotypes assigned to the strains by the AES for beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, and glycopeptides were similar to those assigned by the human expert for 95.7 to 100% of strains. These results indicate that the VITEK 2 system and AES can provide accurate information in tests for most of the clinical isolates examined and remove the need for human analysis of results for many. Certain problems were identified in the study that should be remediable with further work on the software supporting the AES. PMID:11427542

  10. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  11. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  12. CAD/CAE Integration Enhanced by New CAD Services Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.

    2002-01-01

    A Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a computer interface standard for accessing data from computer-aided design (CAD) systems. The Object Management Group, an international computer standards organization, has adopted this CAD services standard. The new standard allows software (e.g., computer-aided engineering (CAE) and computer-aided manufacturing software to access multiple CAD systems through one programming interface. The interface is built on top of a distributed computing system called the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). CORBA allows the CAD services software to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment.

  13. Asian consensus workshop report: expert consensus guideline for the management of intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia.

    PubMed

    Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kudo, Masatochi; Ye, Sheng-Long; Choi, Jong Young; Poon, Roonni Tung-Ping; Seong, Jinsil; Park, Joong-Won; Ichida, Takafumi; Chung, Jin Wook; Chow, Pierce; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent disease in many Asian countries, accounting for 80% of victims worldwide. Screening programs improve the detection of early HCC and have a positive impact on survival, but the majority of HCC patients in Asia still present with advanced stage disease. The treatment outcomes of HCC are affected by multiple variables, including liver function, performance status of the patient, and tumor stage. Therefore, it is not easy to apply a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach for optimal management. At present, limited numbers of HCC patients are eligible for curative therapies such as surgery or ablation in Asia. Therefore, most patients are eligible for only palliative treatments. For optimal management, the treatment choice is guided by staging systems and treatment guidelines. Numerous staging systems have been proposed and treatment guidelines vary by region. According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) guideline based on evidence from randomized clinical trials, only transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended for intermediate stage HCC and sorafenib for advanced stage HCC. However, treatment guidelines from Asian countries have adopted several other therapeutic modalities such as a surgical approach, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, external radiation, and their combinations based on clinical experiences for intermediate and advanced stage HCC. Although TACE is the main therapeutic modality in the intermediate stage, overall therapeutic outcomes depend on the tumor size. In the advanced stage, the prognosis depends on the tumor status, e.g. major vessel invasion or extrahepatic spread. Thus, a new staging system representing prognoses suitable for Asian HCC patients and a corresponding optimal treatment algorithm should be further investigated using evidence-based data, which will finally bring about an Asian consensus for the management of intermediate and advanced stage HCC.

  14. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  15. Advances in the Science, Treatment, and Prevention of the Disease of Obesity: Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Bray, George A; Home, Philip D; Garvey, W Timothy; Klein, Samuel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Hu, Frank B; Raz, Itamar; Van Gaal, Luc; Wolfe, Bruce M; Ryan, Donna H

    2015-08-01

    As obesity rates increase, so too do the risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other detrimental conditions. The prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 15.0 to 36.1%. Although this trend may be leveling off, obesity and its individual, societal, and economic costs remain of grave concern. In June 2014, a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum convened to review the state of obesity research and discuss the latest prevention initiatives and behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies. This article, an outgrowth of the forum, offers an expansive view of the obesity epidemic, beginning with a discussion of its root causes. Recent insights into the genetic and physiological factors that influence body weight are reviewed, as are the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and the concept of metabolically healthy obesity. The authors address the crucial question of how much weight loss is necessary to yield meaningful benefits. They describe the challenges of behavioral modification and predictors of its success. The effects of diabetes pharmacotherapies on body weight are reviewed, including potential weight-neutral combination therapies. The authors also summarize the evidence for safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and surgical obesity treatments. The article concludes with an impassioned call for researchers, clinicians, governmental agencies, health policymakers, and health-related industries to collectively embrace the urgent mandate to improve prevention and treatment and for society at large to acknowledge and manage obesity as a serious disease. PMID:26421334

  16. Advances in the Science, Treatment, and Prevention of the Disease of Obesity: Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Home, Philip D.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Klein, Samuel; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Hu, Frank B.; Raz, Itamar; Van Gaal, Luc; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Ryan, Donna H.

    2015-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, so too do the risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other detrimental conditions. The prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 15.0 to 36.1%. Although this trend may be leveling off, obesity and its individual, societal, and economic costs remain of grave concern. In June 2014, a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum convened to review the state of obesity research and discuss the latest prevention initiatives and behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies. This article, an outgrowth of the forum, offers an expansive view of the obesity epidemic, beginning with a discussion of its root causes. Recent insights into the genetic and physiological factors that influence body weight are reviewed, as are the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and the concept of metabolically healthy obesity. The authors address the crucial question of how much weight loss is necessary to yield meaningful benefits. They describe the challenges of behavioral modification and predictors of its success. The effects of diabetes pharmacotherapies on body weight are reviewed, including potential weight-neutral combination therapies. The authors also summarize the evidence for safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and surgical obesity treatments. The article concludes with an impassioned call for researchers, clinicians, governmental agencies, health policymakers, and health-related industries to collectively embrace the urgent mandate to improve prevention and treatment and for society at large to acknowledge and manage obesity as a serious disease. PMID:26421334

  17. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  18. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  19. Numerical Stability and Accuracy of Temporally Coupled Multi-Physics Modules in Wind-Turbine CAE Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gasmi, A.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jones, W. B.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we examine the stability and accuracy of numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. We employ two simple examples as test systems, while algorithm descriptions are kept general. Coupled-system governing equations are framed in monolithic and partitioned representations as differential-algebraic equations. Explicit and implicit loose partition coupling is examined. In explicit coupling, partitions are advanced in time from known information. In implicit coupling, there is dependence on other-partition data at the next time step; coupling is accomplished through a predictor-corrector (PC) approach. Numerical time integration of coupled ordinary-differential equations (ODEs) is accomplished with one of three, fourth-order fixed-time-increment methods: Runge-Kutta (RK), Adams-Bashforth (AB), and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (ABM). Through numerical experiments it is shown that explicit coupling can be dramatically less stable and less accurate than simulations performed with the monolithic system. However, PC implicit coupling restored stability and fourth-order accuracy for ABM; only second-order accuracy was achieved with RK integration. For systems without constraints, explicit time integration with AB and explicit loose coupling exhibited desired accuracy and stability.

  20. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  1. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) environmental control concerns and program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, M.A.; Boehm, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report assesses the required environmental research and recommends a program plan to assist DOD's Environmental Control Technology Division (ECT) in performing its mission of ensuring that the procedures, processes, systems, and strategies necessary to minimize any adverse environmental impacts of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are developed in a timely manner so as not to delay implementation of the technology. To do so, CAES technology and the expected major environmental concerns of the technology are described. Second, ongoing or planned research in related programs and the applicability of results from these programs to CAES environmental research are discussed. Third, the additional research and development required to provide the necessary environmental data base and resolve concerns in CAES are outlined. Finally, a program plan to carry out this research and development effort is presented.

  2. Performance evaluation of the NASA/KSC CAD/CAE and office automation LAN's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1994-01-01

    This study's objective is the performance evaluation of the existing CAD/CAE (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Engineering) network at NASA/KSC. This evaluation also includes a similar study of the Office Automation network, since it is being planned to integrate this network into the CAD/CAE network. The Microsoft mail facility which is presently on the CAD/CAE network was monitored to determine its present usage. This performance evaluation of the various networks will aid the NASA/KSC network managers in planning for the integration of future workload requirements into the CAD/CAE network and determining the effectiveness of the planned FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) migration.

  3. Validation of the VITEK2 and the Advance Expert System with a collection of Enterobacteriaceae harboring extended spectrum or inhibitor resistant beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Cantón, R; Pérez-Vázquez, M; Oliver, A; Coque, T M; Loza, E; Ponz, F; Baquero, F

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibility testing accuracy of the VITEK2 system and the ability of the Advance Expert System (AES) to provide interpretive readings were evaluated against 86 extended spectrum (ESBL) and 6 inhibitor-resistant-TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates. VITEK2 MICs of 12 beta-lactams were compared with those obtained by the standard NCCLS microdilution technique. The overall essential agreement ( +/- 1 log dilution) was 87.8%. Discrepancies were mainly observed with cefepime (30.3% of total number of discrepancies), ceftazidime (21.2%), and cefotaxime (15.1%). MIC discrepancies were slightly higher in CTX-M- (14.4%) than in TEM- (12.5%) or SHV- (11.9%) type ESBL producers and were rare in IRT producers (1.4%). Overall interpretive agreement was 92.5% and minor, major, and very major errors were 5.4%, 1.7%, and 2.1%, respectively. The AES was able to identify an ESBL phenotype in 85 out of 86 isolates (98.8%) and an IRT phenotype in all 6 isolates harboring these enzymes, thus reducing very major errors to 0.9%. The VITEK2 system, in conjunction with the AES software, is a reliable tool for detection of ESBL or IRT producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates. PMID:11687316

  4. The New Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Bond; K. Kostelnik; R.A. Wharton; A. Kadak

    2006-06-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundation to enable future economic growth. The next generation energy workforce in the U.S. is a critical element in meeting both national and global energy needs. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) was established in 2005 in response to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. CAES, located at the new Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will address critical energy education, research, policy study and training needs. CAES is a unique joint partnership between the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), the State of Idaho, an Idaho University Consortium (IUC), and a National University Consortium (NUC). CAES will be based in a new facility that will foster collaborative academic and research efforts among participating institutions.

  5. CAE Based Die Face Engineering Development to Contribute to the Revitalization of the Tool & Die Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing C.; St. Pierre, Shawn; He, Jeanne; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin C.

    2005-08-01

    Over the past two decades, the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have emerged as one of the most important engineering tools in various industries, due to its flexibility and accuracy in prediction. Nowadays, CAE tools are widely used in the sheet metal forming industry to predict the forming feasibility of a wide variety of complex components, ranging from aerospace and automotive components to household products. As the demand of CAE based formability accelerates, the need for a robust and streamlined die face engineering tool becomes more crucial, especially in the early stage when the tooling layout is not available, but a product design decision must be made. Ability to generate blank, binder and addendum surfaces with an appropriate layout of Drawbead, Punch Opening Line, Trim Line are the primary features and functions of a CAE based die face engineering tool. Once the die face layout is ready, a formability study should be followed to verify the die face layout is adequate to produce a formable part. If successful, the established die face surface should be exported back to the CAD/CAM environment to speed up the tooling and manufacturing design process with confidence that this particular part is formable with this given die face. With a CAE tool as described above, the tool & die industry will be greatly impacted as the processes will enable the bypass of hardware try-out and shorten the overall vehicle production timing. The trend has shown that OEMs and first tiers will source to low cost producers in the world which will have a negative impact to the traditional tool & die makers in the developed countries. CAE based tool as described should be adopted, along with many other solutions, in order to maintain efficiency of producing high quality product and meeting time-to-market requirements. This paper will describe how a CAE based die face engineering (DFE) tool could be further developed to enable the traditional tool & die makers to meet the

  6. Cloud and Aerosol Characterization During CAEsAR 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.; Tesche, M.; Krejci, R.; Baumgardner, D.; Walther, A.; Rosati, B.; Widequist, U.; Tunved, P.; O'Connor, E.; Ström, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud and Aerosol Experiment at Åre (CAEsAR 2014) campaign took place from June to October 2014 at Mt. Åreskutan, Sweden, a remote mountain site in Northern Sweden. The campaign was designed to study the physical and chemical properties of clouds and aerosols under orographic forcing. A unique and comprehensive set-up allowed an in-situ characterization of both constituents at a mountain top station at 1200 m a.s.l. including instruments to measure cloud droplet size distribution, meteorological parameters, cloud residual properties (using a counterflow virtual impactor inlet), cloud water composition and various aerosol chemical and microphysical properties (e.g. size, optical and hygroscopic properties). At the same time, a remote sensing site was installed below the mountain site at 420 m a.s.l. in the immediate vicinity (< 3 km horizontally), with vertical profiling from an aerosol lidar, winds and turbulence from a scanning Doppler lidar, a Sun photometer measuring aerosol columnar optical properties, and a precipitation sampler taking rain water for chemical analysis. In addition, regular radiosoundings were performed from the valley. Here, we present the results of this intensive campaign which includes approx. 900 hours of in-cloud sampling. Various unique cloud features were frequently observed such as dynamically-driven droplet growth, bimodal droplet distributions, and the activation of particles down to approx. 20 nm in dry particle diameter. During the campaign, a forest fire smoke plume was transported over the site with measureable impacts on the cloud properties. This data will be used to constrain cloud and aerosol models, as well as to validate satellite retrievals. A first comparison to VIIRS and MODIS satellite retrievals will also be shown.

  7. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  8. Application of Skeleton Method in Interconnection of Cae Programs Used in Vehicle Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucha, Jozef; Gavačová, Jana; Milesich, Tomáš

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the application of the skeleton method as the main element of interconnection of CAE programs involved in the process of vehicle design. This article focuses on the utilization of the skeleton method for mutual connection of CATIA V5 and ADAMS/CAR. Both programs can be used simultaneously during various stages of vehicle design.

  9. A Personal Memoir of Policy Failure: The Failed Merger of ANU and the Canberra CAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The more immediate context of the events the author describes in this article is needed in order to identify the policy framework within which the Australian National University (ANU)-Canberra CAE (CCAE) merger was placed as a component of a wider public policy initiative undertaken by John Dawkins. There were four major components in that wider…

  10. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician manhours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  11. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  12. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  13. Expert consensus document: Mind the gaps—advancing research into short-term and long-term neuropsychological outcomes of youth sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.

  14. Utilization of CAD/CAE for concurrent design of structural aircraft components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of installing the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy telescope (named SOFIA) into an aircraft for NASA astronomy studies is investigated using CAD/CAE equipment to either design or supply data for every facet of design engineering. The aircraft selected for the platform was a Boeing 747, chosen on the basis of its ability to meet the flight profiles required for the given mission and payload. CAD models of the fuselage of two of the aircraft models studied (747-200 and 747 SP) were developed, and models for the component parts of the telescope and subsystems were developed by the various concurrent engineering groups of the SOFIA program, to determine the requirements for the cavity opening and for design configuration. It is noted that, by developing a plan to use CAD/CAE for concurrent engineering at the beginning of the study, it was possible to produce results in about two-thirds of the time required using traditional methods.

  15. Performance evaluation of NASA/KSC CAD/CAE graphics local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George

    1988-01-01

    This study had as an objective the performance evaluation of the existing CAD/CAE graphics network at NASA/KSC. This evaluation will also aid in projecting planned expansions, such as the Space Station project on the existing CAD/CAE network. The objectives were achieved by collecting packet traffic on the various integrated sub-networks. This included items, such as total number of packets on the various subnetworks, source/destination of packets, percent utilization of network capacity, peak traffic rates, and packet size distribution. The NASA/KSC LAN was stressed to determine the useable bandwidth of the Ethernet network and an average design station workload was used to project the increased traffic on the existing network and the planned T1 link. This performance evaluation of the network will aid the NASA/KSC network managers in planning for the integration of future workload requirements into the existing network.

  16. Micromechanics-Based Structural Analysis (FEAMAC) and Multiscale Visualization within Abaqus/CAE Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Hussain, Aquila; Katiyar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    A unified framework is presented that enables coupled multiscale analysis of composite structures and associated graphical pre- and postprocessing within the Abaqus/CAE environment. The recently developed, free, Finite Element Analysis--Micromechanics Analysis Code (FEAMAC) software couples NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) with Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit to perform micromechanics based FEA such that the nonlinear composite material response at each integration point is modeled at each increment by MAC/GMC. The Graphical User Interfaces (FEAMAC-Pre and FEAMAC-Post), developed through collaboration between SIMULIA Erie and the NASA Glenn Research Center, enable users to employ a new FEAMAC module within Abaqus/CAE that provides access to the composite microscale. FEA IAC-Pre is used to define and store constituent material properties, set-up and store composite repeating unit cells, and assign composite materials as sections with all data being stored within the CAE database. Likewise FEAMAC-Post enables multiscale field quantity visualization (contour plots, X-Y plots), with point and click access to the microscale i.e., fiber and matrix fields).

  17. MF-CAE: A Novel Lab on a Chip Simulation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Mastrangelo, C. H.; Sun, Li

    The design of microfluidic systems with a large number of dynamic 011-chip components poses a challenge because today it is difficult to simulate time dependent transport of solvent and solutes through complex chips inclusive of dispersion and convection with low time-cost. Present approaches based on 3D C'FD tools are inadequate for system-level simulation. To address these needs, we propose a novel general simulation method for the approximate solution of linear and nonlinear, static and time-dependent solute and solvent transport in large chips with no need for analytical solution. Some design, modeling, and simulation features of a computer aided engineering tool for microfluidic systems called MF-CAE (Microfluidic CAE) are presented. The features include: an extensible modeling framework for computationally efficient lumped models; a flexible SPICE-like netlist language for microfluidic system design; a user friendly graphical user interface that allows users to quickly configure complex system; and a compact toolkit integrating design, simulation and data displaying. In this paper MF-CAE's architecture, reduced order modeling technique and design methodology are described. A comparison of behavior of microfluidic dilution networks indicates that the simulation results are in good agreement with the model simulations.

  18. What Are Expert Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  19. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  20. Expert Systems as a Statistics Tutor on Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Naveed; Azad, Abbas N.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the application of expert systems to provide computer-assisted instruction support to students to facilitate their learning of both fundamental and advanced statistical concepts. Provides examples of both a modular system and an integrated system which utilize VP-Expert, an expert system development shell. (14 references) (Author)

  1. Shell stability analysis in a computer aided engineering (CAE) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, J.; Hol, J. M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of 'DISDECO', the Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde is described. The purpose of this project is to make the accumulated theoretical, numerical and practical knowledge of the last 25 years or so readily accessible to users interested in the analysis of buckling sensitive structures. With this open ended, hierarchical, interactive computer code the user can access from his workstation successively programs of increasing complexity. The computational modules currently operational in DISDECO provide the prospective user with facilities to calculate the critical buckling loads of stiffened anisotropic shells under combined loading, to investigate the effects the various types of boundary conditions will have on the critical load, and to get a complete picture of the degrading effects the different shapes of possible initial imperfections might cause, all in one interactive session. Once a design is finalized, its collapse load can be verified by running a large refined model remotely from behind the workstation with one of the current generation 2-dimensional codes, with advanced capabilities to handle both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  2. Testing expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Stachowitz, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Software quality is of primary concern in all large-scale expert system development efforts. Building appropriate validation and test tools for ensuring software reliability of expert systems is therefore required. The Expert Systems Validation Associate (EVA) is a validation system under development at the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center. EVA provides a wide range of validation and test tools to check correctness, consistency, and completeness of an expert system. Testing a major function of EVA. It means executing an expert system with test cases with the intent of finding errors. In this paper, we describe many different types of testing such as function-based testing, structure-based testing, and data-based testing. We describe how appropriate test cases may be selected in order to perform good and thorough testing of an expert system.

  3. Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, M. J.

    1981-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints included the selection of turbomachinery designs that would require little development and would therefore be available for near-term plant construction and demonstration. The design was to be based upon the DOE/EPRI/PEPCO-funded 231 MW/unit conventional CAES plant design prepared for a site in Maryland. This report summarizes the project, its findings, and the recommendations of the study team; presents the development and optimization of the plant heat cycle and the selection and thermal design of the thermal energy storage system; discusses the selection of turbomachinery and estimated plant performance and operational capability; describes the control system concept; and presents the conceptual design of the adiabatic CAES plant, the cost estimates and economic evaluation, and an assessment of technical and economic feasibility. Particular areas in the plant design requiring further development or investigation are discussed. It is concluded that the adiabatic concept appears to be the most attractive candidate for utility application in the near future. It is operationally viable, economically attractive compared with competing concerns, and will require relatively little development before the construction of a plant can be undertaken. It is estimated that a utility could start the design of a demonstration plant in 2 to 3 years if research regarding TES system design is undertaken in a timely manner. (LCL)

  4. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  5. Expert System Software Assistant for Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Mark N.

    1997-01-01

    The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.

  6. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  7. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  8. Food webs: experts consuming families of experts.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, A G; Matsuda, H; Amemiya, T; Itoh, K

    2006-08-01

    Food webs of habitats as diverse as lakes or desert valleys are known to exhibit common "food-web patterns", but the detailed mechanisms generating these structures have remained unclear. By employing a stochastic, dynamical model, we show that many aspects of the structure of predatory food webs can be understood as the traces of an evolutionary history where newly evolving species avoid direct competition with their relatives. The tendency to avoid sharing natural enemies (apparent competition) with related species is considerably weaker. Thus, "experts consuming families of experts" can be identified as the main underlying food-web pattern. We report the results of a systematic, quantitative model validation showing that the model is surprisingly accurate.

  9. Expert Blind Spot among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.; Petrosino, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This study (N = 48) examined the relationship between preservice secondary teachers' subject-matter expertise in mathematics and their judgments of students' algebra problem-solving difficulty. As predicted by the "expert blind spot" hypothesis, participants with more advanced mathematics education, regardless of their program affiliation or…

  10. Transfer of expert visual anticipation to a similar domain.

    PubMed

    G Moore, Christopher; Müller, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The experiment reported in this paper examined the capability of expert and near-expert baseball batters and novices to transfer anticipatory skill to a cricket batting prediction task. A video-simulation temporal occlusion paradigm was used to first assess the anticipatory skill of expertise groups in a baseball batting prediction task (learning sport) and, second, to assess the capability of expertise groups to transfer anticipation skill to a cricket batting prediction task (transfer sport). Results showed that expert and near-expert baseball batters were superior to novices at anticipating pitch type based upon pre-ball-flight advance information. Only expert baseball batters were capable of transferring their anticipatory skill to predict delivery type based upon advance information in the bowler's action, whilst near-experts and novices relied upon ball-flight information. The findings extend understanding of transfer of learning in the motor domain and some theoretical/empirical concepts of transfer.

  11. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  12. Design and development of a quad copter (UMAASK) using CAD/CAM/CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manarvi, Irfan Anjum; Aqib, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Khurshid, Saqib; Sikandar, Usman

    Micro flying vehicles1 (MFV) have become a popular area of research due to economy of production, flexibility of launch and variety of applications. A large number of techniques from pencil sketching to computer based software are being used for designing specific geometries and selection of materials to arrive at novel designs for specific requirements. Present research was focused on development of suitable design configuration using CAD/CAM/CAE tools and techniques. A number of designs were reviewed for this purpose. Finally, rotary wing Quadcopter flying vehicle design was considered appropriate for this research. Performance requirements were planned as approximately 10 meters ceiling, weight less than 500grams and ability to take videos and pictures. Parts were designed using Finite Element Analysis, manufactured using CNC machines and assembled to arrive at final design named as UMAASK. Flight tests were carried out which confirmed the design requirements.

  13. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare; Cunningham, David; Tait, Diana; Giralt, Jordi; Glimelius, Bengt; Keränen, Susana Roselló; Bateman, Andrew; Hickish, Tamas; Tabernero, Josep; Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.

  14. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  15. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  16. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  17. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  18. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  19. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  20. Expert Systems Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and geology)…

  1. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  2. Experts, Dialects, and Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Examines "expert" discourse--complexes of signs and practices that organize and legitimize social existence and social reproduction--to demonstrate the ideological process involved in the manufacture of Standard English ideology and its continual duplication as necessitated by the three axiomatic conceptions of the English-sacred imagined…

  3. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  4. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  5. Increasing productivity of the McAuto CAD/CAE system by user-specific applications programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotrowski, S. M.; Vu, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Significant improvements in the productivity of the McAuto Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD/CAE) system were achieved by applications programming using the system's own Graphics Interactive Programming language (GRIP) and the interface capabilities with the main computer on which the system resides. The GRIP programs for creating springs, bar charts, finite element model representations and aiding management planning are presented as examples.

  6. The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program: A Year-Four Research Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Impey, C.; Prather, E. E.; Lee, K. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to improving teaching & learning in Astro 101 by creating research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments for use in Astro 101 & by providing Astro 101 instructors professional development opportunities to increase their pedagogical content knowledge & instructional skills at implementing these curricula & assessment materials. To create sustainability and further expand this work, CAE, in collaboration with other national leaders in astronomy education & research, developed the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program. The primary goals of CATS are to: 1) increase the number of Astro 101 instructors conducting fundamental research in astronomy education; 2) increase the amount of research-validated curriculum and assessment instruments available for use in Astro 101; and 3) increase the number of people prepared to develop and conduct their own CAE Teaching Excellence Workshops. Our year-four research updates include an analysis of the LSCI using multiple psychometrics, results from teaching "mega-courses,” learning gains related to Citizen Science, common conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to cosmology, new resources available for instructors, a further look into science literacy, and many more. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  7. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  8. Measures of Adequacy for Library Collections in Australian Colleges of Advanced Education. Report of a Research Project Conducted in Behalf of the Commission on Advanced Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, E. J.; Dean, J. E.

    This study investigates the bases for constructing quantitative and qualitative measures of Australian Colleges of Advanced Education (CAE) library collection adequacy, and the feasibility of producing specialized and appropriate measures to guide future collection planning. Adequacy is based on the libraries' policies for providing materials to…

  9. ALICE Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, C.; Carena, F.

    2014-06-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period.

  10. Emerging CAE technologies and their role in Future Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Dramatic improvements are on the horizon in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and various simulation technologies. The improvements are due, in part, to the developments in a number of leading-edge technologies and their synergistic combinations/convergence. The technologies include ubiquitous, cloud, and petascale computing; ultra high-bandwidth networks, pervasive wireless communication; knowledge based engineering; networked immersive virtual environments and virtual worlds; novel human-computer interfaces; and powerful game engines and facilities. This paper describes the frontiers and emerging simulation technologies, and their role in the future virtual product creation and learning/training environments. The environments will be ambient intelligence environments, incorporating a synergistic combination of novel agent-supported visual simulations (with cognitive learning and understanding abilities); immersive 3D virtual world facilities; development chain management systems and facilities (incorporating a synergistic combination of intelligent engineering and management tools); nontraditional methods; intelligent, multimodal and human-like interfaces; and mobile wireless devices. The Virtual product creation environment will significantly enhance the productivity and will stimulate creativity and innovation in future global virtual collaborative enterprises. The facilities in the learning/training environment will provide timely, engaging, personalized/collaborative and tailored visual learning.

  11. Expert and Knowledge Based Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaid, Adrian; Edwards, Lyndon

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature and current state of knowledge-based systems and expert systems. Describes an expert system from the viewpoints of a computer programmer and an applications expert. Addresses concerns related to materials selection and forecasts future developments in the teaching of materials engineering. (ML)

  12. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics of expert systems (computer programs designed to replicate human expertise in a variety of areas), describes recently available expert system development tools, suggests applications within the field of special education, and reviews recent efforts to apply expert systems technology to special education…

  13. Expert systems development and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Current research in the application of expert systems to problems in the flight research environment is discussed. In what is anticipated to be a broad research area, a real time expert system flight status monitor has been identified as the initial project. This real time expert system flight status monitor is described in terms of concept, application, development, and schedule.

  14. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  15. The psychiatric expert in court.

    PubMed

    Kenny, A

    1984-05-01

    The law about expert evidence is unsatisfactory: it gives scope for the expert to usurp the role of judge, jury and parliament; it brings the professions of the experts into disrepute; and it sets juries the impossible task of sorting pseudo sciences from genuine ones. The law should be reformed by changing statutes which force expert witnesses to testify beyond their science, by taking the provision of expert evidence out of the adversarial context, and by removing from the courts the decision whether a nascent discipline is or is not a science.

  16. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential. PMID:24730171

  17. Confessions and expert testimony.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    In this clinical paper, the author discusses criminal confessions from the point of view of the expert witness who may be asked to comment on the reliability of the statement and waiver of rights. From the time a suspect is in police custody, constitutional protections against self-incrimination and for due process are in place. The Supreme Court set the standard for these situations in the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona decision. Although it has long been criticized by law enforcement, the decision was upheld in the 2000 decision in Dickerson v. U.S. For a waiver of rights to be valid, it must be a knowing, intelligent, and voluntary decision. Voluntariness is an equation of objective and subjective variables. Treatment by police, physical conditions of interrogation, the suspect's experience and mental state can alter the reliability of a confession. Accordingly, the author has devised a mnemonic for the recognition of conditions that may give rise to expert testimony. The conditions are: Mental illness, Intoxication, Retardation, Acquiescence, Narcotic withdrawal, Deception, and Abuse. These are discussed, supported by examples from the author's practice.

  18. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential.

  19. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  20. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  1. The SIGNAL expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Struve, R.

    1996-12-31

    The SIGNAL insurance companies have developed an expert system for the support of its customer sales service. It was introduced at the end of 1993 and is currently used by approximately 500 customer service representatives. It involves a counseling system, which enables customer sales personnel to produce high-quality benefit analyses at the point of sale. It is not only an information system for the agent but involves the customer in an active role (through the implementation of sales talks, the conscious visualization of facts, the generation of natural language explanations etc.). Thus, the customer is not faced with a fait accompli but is actively involved in solving the problem. To meet these requirements, several Al techniques are used, as described further below. The application has increased sales efficiency, optimized customer contact time and decreased training requirements. The system is developed with KEE (and reimplemented in Allegro CL/PC) and runs on notebooks with 8 MB RAM.

  2. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  3. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  4. Assessing the Importance of Nonlinearities in the Development of a Substructure Model for the Wind Turbine CAE Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Song, H.

    2013-03-01

    Design and analysis of wind turbines are performed using aero-servo-elastic tools that account for the nonlinear coupling between aerodynamics, controls, and structural response. The NREL-developed computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool FAST also resolves the hydrodynamics of fixed-bottom structures and floating platforms for offshore wind applications. This paper outlines the implementation of a structural-dynamics module (SubDyn) for offshore wind turbines with space-frame substructures into the current FAST framework, and focuses on the initial assessment of the importance of structural nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects include: large displacements, axial shortening due to bending, cross-sectional transverse shear effects, etc.

  5. Deploying expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1989-01-01

    As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

  6. Expert systems in seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, L.R.

    1985-02-01

    Artificial intelligence research has produced few practical results in most of its branches. However, expert systems in limited fields of expertise are potentially practical and cost-effective tools in many fields of exploration geophysics. Recent breakthroughs, such as writing expert systems in languages less exotic than Lisp, have made it possible to install a practical expert system on even the smallest computer. A recently published expert system written in Forth compiles a rule base into very compact code, and then uses it to reach decisions based on data supplied by the user. Such a system makes it possible for a small computer to be the geophysicist's advisor on many different subjects, because one expert system can use any number of rule bases. The expert system then becomes a practical tool for standardizing the decision-making process, even in comparatively trivial areas.

  7. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  8. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  9. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  10. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    software " Solid Works" and computer aided engineering (CAE) software " ANSYS" with corrosion elongation transformed into thermal elongation. We established a current collector corrosion elongation forecast and found that the microstructure controlled the Pb-Ca-Sn alloy; thus newly designed VRLA batteries (MU-series [A. Takemasa, I. Mukaitani, Y. Yoshiyama, K. Fukui, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuwano, M. Fukuda, H. Misaki, K. Uwatari, Shin-Kobe Technical Report 9 (1999) 11] for telecommunication and LL-series [H. Takabayashi, T. Shibahara, Y. Mastuda, K. Fukui, S. Hazui, Y. Matsumura, S. Kondo, Shin-Kobe Tech. Rep. 11 (2001) 35] for electric energy storage) which are lightweight and have long life are introduced here.

  11. Expert Systems: Instructional Design Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Joellyn; Grabinger, R. Scott

    1989-01-01

    Description of the components of expert systems highlights their potential uses in the field of instructional design. Uses of expert systems are described for determining the cost-effectiveness of instructional media; as instructional management aids; as job aids; in helping to diagnose student problems; and as student feedback/evaluation systems.…

  12. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  13. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of expert…

  14. Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuclear Industry, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

  15. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  16. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  17. Cognitive resources of physics experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Darrick C.

    One important goal of physics education is to help students develop reasoning patterns similar to those of expert physicists. To achieve this goal, physics educators must know what makes physics experts so successful at solving challenging physics problems. However, this dimension of physics expertise has not been fully explored by the physics education research (PER) community. In this dissertation, I describe several studies I have conducted that further the PER community's understanding of physics expertise. In these studies, I investigate how expert physicists reason as they solve unfamiliar, challenging physics problems by using a resource-based model of cognition to analyze videotaped recordings of problem solving sessions. By developing a way to determine when experts are making conceptual breakthroughs I analyze what resources experts use during conceptual breakthroughs. In the first study, I show that physics conceptual breakthroughs are characterized by reasoning which combines resources related to intuitive knowledge, higher level physics based conceptual knowledge, and epistemological knowledge. In the second study, I develop a way to reliably code for epistemological resources and determine what epistemological resources experts rely on most during conceptual breakthroughs. My findings show that experts rely on contrasting cases more often than any other epistemological resource. In the third study, I use variation theory to investigate how experts use contrasting cases. I look for patterns across all instances when experts use contrasting cases to make a conceptual breakthrough and show how scientific epistemology can be used to better understand experts' use of contrasting cases. I discuss how the findings of each study can be used to inform physics education.

  18. Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of <30%. Selected patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. PMID:26172136

  19. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  20. The Comparison of Inductive Reasoning under Risk Conditions between Chinese and Japanese Based on Computational Models: Toward the Application to CAE for Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yujie; Terai, Asuka; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Inductive reasoning under risk conditions is an important thinking process not only for sciences but also in our daily life. From this viewpoint, it is very useful for language learning to construct computational models of inductive reasoning which realize the CAE for foreign languages. This study proposes the comparison of inductive reasoning…

  1. Gene Cloning and Characterization of the Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11 Carboxylesterase CaesCCR11, a New Member of Family XV.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Luna, Graciela; Sánchez-Otero, María Guadalupe; Quintana-Castro, Rodolfo; Matus-Toledo, Rodrigo Eloir; Oliart-Ros, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    A gene encoding a carboxylesterase produced by Geobacillus thermoleovoras CCR11 was cloned in the pET-3b cloning vector, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Gene sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 750 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues (27.3 kDa) named CaesCCR11. The enzyme showed its maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 5-8, with preference for C4 substrates, confirming its esterase nature. It displayed good resistance to temperature, pH, and the presence of organic solvents and detergents, that makes this enzyme biotechnologically applicable in the industries such as fine and oleo-chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, organic synthesis, biodiesel production, detergents, and food industries. A 3D model of CaesCCR11 was predicted using the Bacillus sp. monoacyl glycerol lipase bMGL H-257 structure as template (PBD code 3RM3, 99 % residue identity with CaesCCR11). Based on its canonical α/β hydrolase fold composed of 7 β-strands and 6 α-helices, the α/β architecture of the cap domain, the GLSTG pentapeptide, and the formation of distinctive salt bridges, we are proposing CaesCCR11 as a new member of family XV of lipolytic enzymes.

  2. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  3. Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Clay

    1989-01-01

    Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

  4. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  5. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  6. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  7. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  8. Fault isolation detection expert (FIDEX). Part 1: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has recently completed the design of a Ka-band satellite transponder system, as part of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. To enhance the reliability of this satellite, NASA funded the University of Akron to explore the application of an expert system to provide the transponder with an autonomous diagnosis capability. The results of this research was the development of a prototype diagnosis expert system called FIDEX (fault-isolation and diagnosis expert). FIDEX is a frame-based expert system that was developed in the NEXPERT Object development environment by Neuron Data, Inc. It is a MicroSoft Windows version 3.0 application, and was designed to operate on an Intel i80386 based personal computer system.

  9. Geotechnical Feasibility Analysis of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Bedded Salt Formations: a Case Study in Huai'an City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guimin; Li, Yinping; Daemen, Jaak J. K.; Yang, Chunhe; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    The lower reaches of the Yangtze River is one of the most developed regions in China. It is desirable to build compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plants in this area to ensure the safety, stability, and economic operation of the power network. Geotechnical feasibility analysis was carried out for CAES in impure bedded salt formations in Huai'an City, China, located in this region. First, geological investigation revealed that the salt groups in the Zhangxing Block meet the basic geological conditions for CAES storage, even though the possible unfavorable characteristics of the salt formations include bedding and different percentages of impurities. Second, mechanical tests were carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of the bedded salt formations. It is encouraging that the samples did not fail even when they had undergone large creep deformation. Finally, numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stability and volume shrinkage of the CAES under the following conditions: the shape of a single cavern is that of a pear; the width of the pillar is adopted as two times the largest diameter; three regular operating patterns were adopted for two operating caverns (internal pressure 9-10.5 MPa, 10-11.5 MPa, and 11-12.5 MPa), while the other two were kept at high pressure (internal pressure 10.5, 11.5, and 12.5 MPa) as backups; an emergency operating pattern in which two operating caverns were kept at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) for emergency while the backups were under operation (9-10.5 MPa), simulated for 12 months at the beginning of the 5th year. The results of the analysis for the plastic zone, displacement, and volume shrinkage support the feasibility of the construction of an underground CAES power station.

  10. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  11. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  12. Standards for evaluating expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Sharon S.; Gevarter, William

    1991-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature and proposal for a standard methodology for evaluating expert system building tools are discribed. Criteria for expert systems environmental factors and expert systems tool features are also discussed.

  13. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert... SJA or legal adviser. In no event, may present or former DA personnel furnish expert or...

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Dianne

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  15. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  16. Analysis of the Hexapod Work Space using integration of a CAD/CAE system and the LabVIEW software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the problems related to the integration of a CAD/CAE system with the LabVIEW software. The purpose of the integration is to determine the workspace of a hexapod model basing on a mathematical model describing it motion. In the first stage of the work concerning the integration task the 3D model to simulate movements of a hexapod was elaborated. This phase of the work was done in the “Motion Simulation” module of the CAD/CAE/CAM Siemens NX system. The first step was to define the components of the 3D model in the form of “links”. Individual links were defined according to the nature of the hexapod elements action. In the model prepared for movement simulation were created links corresponding to such elements as: electric actuator, top plate, bottom plate, ball-and-socket joint, toggle joint Phillips. Then were defined the constraints of the “joint” type (e.g.: revolute joint, slider joint, spherical joint) between the created component of the “link” type, so that the computer simulation corresponds to the operation of a real hexapod. The next stage of work included implementing the mathematical model describing the functioning of a hexapod in the LabVIEW software. At this stage, particular attention was paid to determining procedures for integrating the virtual 3D hexapod model with the results of calculations performed in the LabVIEW. The results relate to specific values of the jump of electric actuators depending on the position of the car on the hexapod. The use of integration made it possible to determine the safe operating space of a stationary hexapod taking into consideration the security of a person in the driving simulator designed for the disabled.

  17. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  18. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system. PMID:2394090

  19. Applied, theoretical modeling of space-based assembly, using expert system architecture for computer-aided engineering tool development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Steven Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The challenges associated with constructing interplanetary spacecraft and space platforms in low earth orbit are such that it is imperative that comprehensive, preliminary process planning analyses be completed before committing funds for Phase B design (detail design, development). Phase A and 'pre-Phase A' design activities will commonly address engineering questions such as mission-design structural integrity, attitude control, thermal control, etc. But the questions of constructability, maintainability and reliability during the assembly phase usually go unaddressed until the more mature stages of design (or very often production) are reached. This is an unacceptable strategy for future space missions whether they be government or commercial ventures. After interviews with expert Aerospace and Construction industry planners a new methodology was formulated and a Blackboard Metaphor Knowledge-based Expert System synthesis model has been successfully developed which can decompose interplanetary vehicles into deliverable orbital subassemblies. Constraint propagation, including launch vehicle payload shroud envelope, is accomplished with heuristic and numerical algorithms including a unique adaptation of a reasoning technique used by Stanford researchers in terrestrial automated process planning. The model is a hybrid combination of rule and frame-based representations, designed to integrate into a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. Emphasis is placed on the actual joining, rendezvous, and refueling of the orbiting, dynamic spacecraft. Significant results of this new methodology upon a large Mars interplanetary spacecraft (736,000 kg) designed by Boeing, show high correlation to manual decomposition and planning analysis studies, but at a fraction of the time, and with little user interaction. Such Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools would greatly leverage the designers ability to assess constructability.

  20. Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, J.K. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

  1. Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action: Its Impromptu Development by an Expert Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Research into pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has advanced over the years. Yet, since most research has developed within specific subject areas, this paper aims to investigate how an expert teacher generates PCK by using various forms of knowledge. This study draws upon the case of an expert Japanese teacher, Mr. T, an educational consultant…

  2. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  3. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  4. [Medical expert assessment in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pietzcker, A

    1996-11-01

    Especially regarding two respects, the psychiatric expert assessment differs from the expert assessment of other medical specialties: (1) No laboratory tests or technical equipment are available for the psychiatrist except for mental disturbances due to physical impacts such as brain injuries or intoxications. The psychiatrist depends on a carefully compiled case history and a differentiated psychodiagnostic. This may lead to a wrong assessment due to a lack of objectiveness. (2) There are a lot of legal areas where only the psychiatric or psychological expert opinion is required: i.e., the question of criminal responsibility during a trial, the assessment of legal capacity and the capability to will, for decisions about the custody of children etc. This is demonstrated with some cases as an example.

  5. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. PMID:23062586

  6. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  7. Robotic planner expert system (RPLANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, Ervin Oneal

    1987-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis of the Johnson Space Center has developed a prototype of an expert system for robotic planning. A robot is given a high level goal to perform an action (i.e., swap, adjust, or stow) on a component unit of an object such as a satellite and the Robotic Planner Expert System (RPLANES) generates the necessary goals for arm actions. RPLANES is designed using the Inference Corp. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) development tool. It resides on a SYMBOLICS 3670. RPLANES and its evolution are described.

  8. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  10. Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

  11. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  12. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  13. Expert Panels, Consumers, and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the attributes, properties, and consumer acceptance of antiperspirant products through responses of 400 consumers (consumer data), expert panel data, and analytical data about the products. Results show how the Rasch model can provide the tool necessary to combine data from several sources. (SLD)

  14. Murder, insanity, and medical expert witnesses.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, J R

    1992-06-01

    Recent advances in the ability to study brain anatomy and function and attempts to link these findings with human behavior have captured the attention of the legal system. This had led to the increasing use of the "neurological defense" to support a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. This article explores the history of the insanity defense and explores the role of the medical expert witnesses in integrating clinical and laboratory findings, eg, computed tomographic scans, magnetic resonance scans, and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans. Three cases involving murder and brain dysfunction are discussed: the first case involves a subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting in visual perceptual and memory impairment; the second case, a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; and the third case, the controverted diagnosis of complex partial seizures in a serial killer.

  15. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čančula, Maja Poklinek; Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  16. Medical Expert Systems—Knowledge Tools for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence have led to the emergence of expert systems, computational tools designed to capture and make available the knowledge of experts in a field. Although much of the underlying technology available today is derived from basic research on biomedical advice systems during the 1970s, medical application packages are thus far generally unavailable from the young artificial intelligence industry. Medical expert systems will begin to appear, however, as researchers in medical artificial intelligence continue to make progress in key areas such as knowledge acquisition, model-based reasoning and system integration for clinical environments. It is accordingly important for physicians to understand the current state of such research and the theoretic and logistic barriers that remain before useful systems can be made available. One experimental system, ONCOCIN, provides a glimpse of the kinds of knowledge-based tools that will someday be available to physicians. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:3811349

  17. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC-Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, A. A.; Pencea, I.; Branzei, M.; Trancă, D. E.; Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C. E.; Ciovica (Coman), E.; Gherghilescu, A. I.; Stanciu, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC-Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (Eoc), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (Eoc) and corrosion potential (Ecorr) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC-Co while on corrosion current density (icorr) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC-Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  18. Making a team of experts into an expert team.

    PubMed

    Charney, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Health care has traditionally been delivered primarily by experts working individually in a decentralized system lacking cohesive organization among professional disciplines. Only recently have the advantages of teamwork training been acknowledged in health care. This article explores the history, benefits, and recommendations for team training in neonatal care. TeamSTEPPS (Rockville, MD) and the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Program are cited as promising models for improved neonatal outcomes through professional teamwork.

  19. TIMSS Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden, Robert A.; Lie, Svein; Robitaille, David F.; Angell, Carl; Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2006-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks was a collaborative venture involving mathematics and physics experts from around the world. The document contains two frameworks for implementing TIMSS Advanced 2008--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics. It also contains…

  20. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    PubMed

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) and expert testimony.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ronald; Maciewicz, Raymond; Scrivani, Steven J

    2009-03-01

    Medical experts frequently use imaging studies to illustrate points in their court testimony. This article reviews how these studies impact the credibility of expert testimony with judges and juries. The apparent "objective" evidence provided by such imaging studies can lend strong credence to a judge's or jury's appraisal of medical expert's testimony. However, as the court usually has no specialized scientific expertise, the use of complex images as part of courtroom testimony also has the potential to mislead or at least inappropriately bias the weight given to expert evidence. Recent advances in brain imaging may profoundly impact forensic expert testimony. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and other physiologic imaging techniques currently allow visualization of the activation pattern of brain regions associated with a wide variety of cognitive and behavioral tasks, and more recently, pain. While functional imaging technology has a valuable role in brain research and clinical investigation, it is important to emphasize that the use of imaging studies in forensic matters requires a careful scientific foundation and a rigorous legal assessment. PMID:19254335

  2. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24–30% reductions by 2030 and 35–41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  3. Expert credibility in climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Prall, James W; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H

    2010-07-01

    Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97-98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

  4. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  5. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  6. Expert disagreement in bitemark casework.

    PubMed

    Bowers, C Michael; Pretty, Iain A

    2009-07-01

    Bitemark cases continue to raise controversy due to the degree of expert disagreement which is frequently seen. Using a case mix of 49 bitemark cases from 2000 to 2007 each injury was independently assessed for its forensic significance using a previously described bitemark severity scale. Following the assessment, the mean value for the bites was categorized according to the crime type, the degree of expert agreement, and the judicial outcome. Results suggest that bitemarks found in child abuse cases have statistically significantly lower forensic value than those in other crime types, that bites where there is mutual agreement between experts will have higher forensic value than those where there is disagreement at trial, and that cases in which DNA has provided an exoneration will demonstrate similar quality to those where a conviction was secured. Forensic odontologists should carefully assess bitemark evidence and ensure that it meets certain minimums in relation to the presence of class and unique features before undertaking an analysis. PMID:19486248

  7. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  8. Onboard navigation rendezvous expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, Michelle

    The Onboard Navigation rendezvous expert system is designed to aid the ground flight controller in monitoring the shuttle onboard navigation system. The system is designed to keep track of the navigation sensors and relative state vectors. In addition, the system also keeps an event log and fills out forms usually handled by the flight controller. This expert system is one of the few rendezvous specific systems being developed for the Mission Control Center. The expert system has been in development for six years. Through these years the system has seen hardware, software, and personnel changes. Initial development was done by the Information Systems Directorate (ISD) and Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at Johnson Space Center. As of October 1, 1991 the system has been turned over to MOD. The system is completely developed except for some minor adjustments to the user interface. The rule base is in the verification stage with total certification of the system due to be completed by May 1992. Test cases for verification are obtained by saving data used for flight controller integrated simulations. The actual data comes from both the shuttle mission simulator and the Mission Control Center Computer. So far no actual flight data has been available. This paper covers all aspects of the system from the development history to the current hardware, software, and use of the system.

  9. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  10. Galaxy Classification: Citizen Scientists versus Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsch, Stefan J.; Vazquez, Richard; Phung, Chau; VanHilst, Michael; Castro, Victor H.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We present the differences of morphological galaxy classification between non-experts and experts. The non-experts are represented by college students and a retired adult community, who use an online application to visually classify galaxies selected from a galaxy morphology catalog. We find that the non-expert group lags the expert classification by one Hubble type behind, for instance, the non-experts classify a set of galaxies with Sb, while the experts classify the same set as Sc. We believe the reason is because the Hubble sequence is increasing the asymmetric structures towards later types. Our results show that the experts have the ability to identify more detailed structures, which the laymen commonly do not recognize.

  11. SciVal Experts: a collaborative tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya; Moore, Mary

    2011-01-01

    SciVal Experts is a resource for finding experts and fostering collaboration. The tool creates researcher profiles with automatically updated publication and grant information and faculty-inputted curriculum vitae, more fully capturing a researcher's body of work. SciVal Experts indexes campus-based "experts" by research topic, allowing faculty to find potential research partners and mentors, furthering translational research opportunities and dissemination of knowledge.

  12. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  13. What Is An Expert System? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    This digest describes and defines the various components of an expert system, e.g., a computerized tool designed to enhance the quality and availability of knowledge required by decision makers. It is noted that expert systems differ from conventional applications software in the following areas: (1) the existence of the expert systems shell, or…

  14. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  15. Expert Systems and Intelligent Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores what an intelligent information retrieval system involves and why expert system techniques might interest system designers. Expert systems research is reviewed with emphasis on components, architecture, and computer interaction, and it is concluded that information retrieval is not an ideal problem domain for expert system application at…

  16. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expert witnesses. 1025.44 Section 1025.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience,...

  17. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expert witnesses. 1025.44 Section 1025.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience,...

  18. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  19. CAE for thermal management of aerospace electronic boards using the BETAsoft program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobish, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace electronic boards require special attention to thermal management due to constraints such as their need to be light, small, and maintain high power densities. Also, cooling is mainly through conductive and radiative modes with minor or negligible convective cooling. Due to these particular requirements, thermal design has become an integrated part of the electronic design process in order to avoid expensive repeat prototyping and to ensure high reliability. To achieve high speed simulations, the BETAsoft code uses semi-empirical formulations and an advanced finite difference scheme that incorporates local adaptive grids. Detailed conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer is considered. Various benchmark verifications of the software simulation compared to infrared images typically prove to be within 10% of each other. The thermal analysis of a sample avionic card in a natural convection environment is shown. Then, the individual effects of attaching metal screws to the casing, increasing radiative emissivities of the casing, increasing the conductance of the wedge lock, adding an aluminum core to the board, adding metal strips in board layers, inserting conduction pads under components, and adding heat sinks to components are demonstrated.

  20. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  1. Explanation production by expert planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

  2. World Ocean Assessment experts needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The United Nations (UN) is inviting interested scientists to apply to be members of an international pool of 1000-2000 experts who will be authors and reviewers of its first World Ocean Assessment (WOA) report, slated for completion in 2014. The UN anticipates that subsequent WOA reports will be generated on a 5-year cycle. The first report will include more than 50 subjects grouped within four main themes: marine environment and understanding of the ocean's role in the global integrated Earth system, food security and safety, human activities that influence the ocean or are influenced by the ocean, and marine biological diversity. A scientific and technical summary is also planned.

  3. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  4. Expert system for train control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drish, William F., Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The train energy model (TEM), a general train simulator developed at the Association of American Railroads, is widely used in the railroad industry. Recently, a new train controller, the general automatic train-controller (GAT), has been developed for TEM. In the GAT, the 'intelligence' or 'expertise' is a set of 'if-then' train-handling rules in an external file. The expert system for train control presented in this paper is a slightly simplified version of the GAT. The main thesis of this paper is: simple, unchained rules are adequate for complex train control. Thus, an 'inference engine' using forward chaining is not required.

  5. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  6. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  7. Species identification by experts and non-experts: comparing images from field guides

    PubMed Central

    Austen, G. E.; Bindemann, M.; Griffiths, R. A.; Roberts, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification is fundamental when recording ecological data. However, the ability to correctly identify organisms visually is rarely questioned. We investigated how experts and non-experts compared in the identification of bumblebees, a group of insects of considerable conservation concern. Experts and non-experts were asked whether two concurrent bumblebee images depicted the same or two different species. Overall accuracy was below 60% and comparable for experts and non-experts. However, experts were more consistent in their answers when the same images were repeated, and more cautious in committing to a definitive answer. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of correctly identifying bumblebees using images from field guides. Such error rates need to be accounted for when interpreting species data, whether or not they have been collected by experts. We suggest that investigation of how experts and non-experts make observations should be incorporated into study design, and could be used to improve training in species identification. PMID:27644140

  8. Species identification by experts and non-experts: comparing images from field guides.

    PubMed

    Austen, G E; Bindemann, M; Griffiths, R A; Roberts, D L

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification is fundamental when recording ecological data. However, the ability to correctly identify organisms visually is rarely questioned. We investigated how experts and non-experts compared in the identification of bumblebees, a group of insects of considerable conservation concern. Experts and non-experts were asked whether two concurrent bumblebee images depicted the same or two different species. Overall accuracy was below 60% and comparable for experts and non-experts. However, experts were more consistent in their answers when the same images were repeated, and more cautious in committing to a definitive answer. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of correctly identifying bumblebees using images from field guides. Such error rates need to be accounted for when interpreting species data, whether or not they have been collected by experts. We suggest that investigation of how experts and non-experts make observations should be incorporated into study design, and could be used to improve training in species identification. PMID:27644140

  9. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  10. Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that experts are particularly adept at recalling and/or recognizing the key features of domain-relevant patterns. We compared the recall performance of expert and novice basketball players when viewing static and moving patterns. A novel method of analysis was used where the accuracy of the participants in recalling player positions was compared to actual player positions both at the final frame of pattern presentation and at 50 successive 40 ms increments thereafter. Experts encoded the locations of the players in both the static and moving patterns significantly further in advance of their actual finishing point than did nonexperts. Experts' use of an anticipatory encoding process, which was of a magnitude unmatched by nonexperts, suggests that many previous investigations may have underestimated the extent of the expert advantage in pattern recall.

  11. Knowing for Nursing Practice: Patterns of Knowledge and Their Emulation in Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ivo L.; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of clinical knowledge in nursing, and the feasibility of emulating this knowledge into expert system technology. The perspective on patterns of knowing for nursing practice, advanced by Carper (1978), serves as point of departure. The four patterns of knowing -- empirics, esthetics, ethics, personal knowledge -- are evaluated as to the extent to which they can be emulated in clinical expert systems, given constraints imposed by the current technology of these systems.

  12. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  14. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise.

  15. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise. PMID:17435598

  16. Hierarchical Model of Assessing and Selecting Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, T. Y.; Кorchuganova, M. A.; Borisov, V. V.; Min’kov, S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Revealing experts’ competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.

  17. MAESTRO -- A Model and Expert System Tuning Resource for Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, D.L.; Brand, H.R.; Maurer, W.J.; Coffield, F.E.; Chambers, F.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed MAESTRO, a Model And Expert System Tuning Resource for Operators. It provides a unified software environment for optimizing the performance of large, complex machines, in particular the Advanced Test Accelerator and Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system incorporates three approaches to tuning: a mouse-based manual interface to select and control magnets and to view displays of machine performance; an automation based on cloning the operator'' by implementing the strategies and reasoning used by the operator; an automation based on a simulator model which, when accurately matched to the machine, allows downloading of optimal sets of parameters and permits diagnosing errors in the beamline. The latter two approaches are based on the Artificial Intelligence technique known as Expert Systems. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Design of an expert-system flight status monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, V. A.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The modern advanced avionics in new high-performance aircraft strains the capability of current technology to safely monitor these systems for flight test prior to their generalized use. New techniques are needed to improve the ability of systems engineers to understand and analyze complex systems in the limited time available during crucial periods of the flight test. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is involved in the design and implementation of an expert system to provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer. The need for new techniques in monitoring flight systems and the conceptual design of an expert-system flight status monitor is discussed. The status of the current project and its goals are described.

  19. The crystal structure of pyrimidine/thiamin biosynthesis precursor-like domain-containing protein CAE31940 from proteobacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50, and evolutionary insight into the NMT1/THI5 family

    PubMed Central

    Bajor, Jacek; Tkaczuk, Karolina L.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Hutton; Kagan, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2014-01-01

    We report a 2.0 Å structure of the CAE31940 protein, a proteobacterial NMT1/THI5-like domain-containing protein. We also discuss the primary and tertiary structure similarity with its homologs. The highly conserved FGGXMP motif was identified in CAE31940, which corresponds to the GCCCX motif located in the vicinity of the active center characteristic for THi5-like proteins found in yeast. This suggests that the FGGXMP motif may be a unique hallmark of proteobacterial NMT1/THI5-like proteins. PMID:24908050

  20. The crystal structure of pyrimidine/thiamin biosynthesis precursor-like domain-containing protein CAE31940 from proteobacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50, and evolutionary insight into the NMT1/THI5 family.

    PubMed

    Bajor, Jacek; Tkaczuk, Karolina L; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Hutton; Kagan, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2014-06-01

    We report a 2.0 Å structure of the CAE31940 protein, a proteobacterial NMT1/THI5-like domain-containing protein. We also discuss the primary and tertiary structure similarity with its homologs. The highly conserved FGGXMP motif was identified in CAE31940, which corresponds to the GCCCX motif located in the vicinity of the active center characteristic for THi5-like proteins found in yeast. This suggests that the FGGXMP motif may be a unique hallmark of proteobacterial NMT1/THI5-like proteins. PMID:24908050

  1. The crystal structure of pyrimidine/thiamin biosynthesis precursor-like domain-containing protein CAE31940 from proteobacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50, and evolutionary insight into the NMT1/THI5 family.

    PubMed

    Bajor, Jacek; Tkaczuk, Karolina L; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Hutton; Kagan, Olga; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2014-06-01

    We report a 2.0 Å structure of the CAE31940 protein, a proteobacterial NMT1/THI5-like domain-containing protein. We also discuss the primary and tertiary structure similarity with its homologs. The highly conserved FGGXMP motif was identified in CAE31940, which corresponds to the GCCCX motif located in the vicinity of the active center characteristic for THi5-like proteins found in yeast. This suggests that the FGGXMP motif may be a unique hallmark of proteobacterial NMT1/THI5-like proteins.

  2. The consultant nurse - expert practitioner and much more.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Theresa; Butler-Williams, Carole; Easton, Karen; Ingledew, Ian; Parkin, Donna; Wade, Sharon; Warner, Richard

    The consultant nurse (CN) role is usually described in terms of four domains devised by the Department of Health - clinical practice, education and training, leadership, and research and service development. This study set out to explicate the diversity and complexity of CN roles in an NHS trust; to describe aspects of extraordinary practice and to identify perceived differences between this role and other advanced practice roles. Accounts were written by six CNs and subjected to concept mapping to facilitate identification of extraordinary practice. Four themes emerged: entrepreneurial activity and innovation; clinical autonomy and role dynamism; influential national and international research conduct; consultancy and education across discipline boundaries. These included descriptions of higher order skills that surpass usual requirements of 'expert' or 'advanced' practice. Comparisons with other advanced practice roles are drawn from the literature and data collected in this study. Differences between the roles have implications for sustainability.

  3. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  4. [The notion and classification of expert errors].

    PubMed

    Klevno, V A

    2012-01-01

    The author presents the analysis of the legal and forensic medical literature concerning currently accepted concepts and classification of expert malpractice. He proposes a new easy-to-remember definition of the expert error and considers the classification of such mistakes. The analysis of the cases of erroneous application of the medical criteria for estimation of the harm to health made it possible to reveal and systematize the causes accounting for the cases of expert malpractice committed by forensic medical experts and health providers when determining the degree of harm to human health. PMID:22686055

  5. 20 CFR 405.10 - Medical and Vocational Expert System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical and Vocational Expert System. 405.10... Vocational Expert System. (a) General. The Medical and Vocational Expert System is comprised of the Medical... Vocational Expert System. (3) Experts who provide evidence at your request. Experts whom you ask to...

  6. Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

  7. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  8. [Causalgia in neurologic expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Suchenwirth, R M

    1990-08-01

    Rendering an expert opinion on causalgia, after having clear determined it as the disease, poses many problems to the examiner. One ought to make this diagnosis with its serious consequences only under the following conditions: --when it is a case of a mostly partial trauma of a nerve with considerable intermingling of sympathetic fibres; --when the pains have a burning and primarily superficial character; --when the pain appear soon (hours, mostly days or weeks, more rarely months afterward) after the trauma; --when the pains are accompanied by considerable vasovegetative symptoms (cold sweats, cyanosis, hyperhidrosis and others). Secondary algodystrophic changes (muscle, joints, bones, and skin) are to be considered. In quantitatively judging the effects, an over-evaluation, as well as an underevaluation, is to be avoided by all means. Therapeutic effects and spontaneous remission after six to twelve months are to be considered. An exemplary case, in which a deterioriation of the capacity to work from 20 to 100% (!) was assumed, showed the need for taking the personality structure of patient into consideration. PMID:2399634

  9. HITACHI Construction CAE system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, M.

    1994-12-31

    Construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants have important problems such as shortening the construction period and reducing the construction cost. Recently, the problem of insufficient construction labor has arisen, and as drastic strategic development has become a necessary counter-measure. The following four principles are included in the measures to be taken for efficient execution of the construction work within the short construction period: (1) Reduction of on-site work. Expansion of module block making, etc.; (2) Improvement of the accuracy of the on-site work process. Adjustment and expansion of the work in parallel with the construction process, etc.; (3) Improvement of efficiency of the on-site work; and (4) Improvement of the accuracy of the management of the construction.

  10. 12 CFR 1081.210 - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material outside the scope of fair rebuttal is presented, a party may file a motion not later than five... witness has testified or sought to testify as an expert at trial or hearing, or by deposition within the... expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. Unless otherwise ordered by the hearing officer,...

  11. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert or opinion witnesses from DOJ or other attorneys representing the United States will be referred to Litigation Division unless the request involves a matter that has been delegated by Litigation Division to...

  12. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert or opinion witnesses from DOJ or other attorneys representing the United States will be referred to Litigation Division unless the request involves a matter that has been delegated by Litigation Division to...

  13. The Beliefs of Two Expert EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Much of the research into "expert" language learners has focused largely on their learning strategies or styles. Less attention has been paid to other expert learner characteristics, such as learner beliefs. However, the importance of learners' beliefs in guiding their behaviours and how they interpret their experiences is widely recognised. This…

  14. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  15. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  16. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Brudnoy, David M.; Englund, James M.; Loomis, Kent C.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  17. Graphic Novels in Libraries: An Expert's Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Katy

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Gordon a librarian and computer expert from Gotham city is a genius level intellect and photographic memory expert at research and analysis. According to her, graphic novels and comics are wildly appealing to readers of all ages and intensely popular with adolescents.

  18. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  19. Expert witness testimony: rules of engagement.

    PubMed

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2006-01-01

    Overlooked in most legislative remedies to address the medical malpractice (MMP) crisis is stringent prohibition against the use of "junk science'' in the courtroom and defining the qualifications of an expert witness. Expert witnesses should be required to: (1) to disclose information materially related to the reliability of expert testimony. (2) Filing of a "Daubert brief'': a summary of the plaintiff's expert's opinion along with a resume outlining his/her knowledge, skill, experience, training and education, reputation in the field relevant to the litigation, and complete details of the methodology employed by the expert. (3) An oath or declaration that acknowledges the duty to disclose to the court all information known to the person to be material to the reliability of the expert witness. Rules of evidence: The "Frye test'' or the "general acceptance rule'' has been used by judges to exclude expert testimony unless it is "sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs.'' Stricter standards need to be legislated at the state level. The mandatory use of scientific panels by judges in all MMP cases is needed. Legislative relief has been sought by the medical community to address the serious disconnect between negligence and MMP litigation. The use of junk science in the courtroom remains largely unaddressed in the judicial system. Medical societies and legislatures must act to define an expert witness and restrain plaintiff's attorneys from using junk science to influence juries.

  20. Expert Systems Technology for Training Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebowitz, Jay

    1989-01-01

    Description of the use of expert systems for training applications presents three case studies of expert systems that are currently in use: (1) CESA, used for government contracting; (2) TOPSCO, for training in telecommunications; and (3) EVIDENT, for law students learning admissibility of evidence. (13 references) (LRW)

  1. Using Expert Systems For Computational Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Brazee, Marylouise; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation technique enables inefficient expert systems to run in real time. Paper suggests use of knowledge compiler to transform knowledge base and inference mechanism of expert-system computer program into conventional computer program. Main benefit, faster execution and reduced processing demands. In avionic systems, transformation reduces need for special-purpose computers.

  2. On Getting Expertise into an Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemann, Philip W.; Markle, Susan M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the problems involved in the creation of expert systems by knowledge engineers, i.e., experts at translating human abilities and knowledge into computer programs, and the major issues dealt with in the planning/analysis phases of instructional development. (MBR)

  3. Unravelling the Mysteries of Expert Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    The processes and procedures used by expert mental calculators are identified from a literature review. Experts are characterized by knowledge of a variety of methods, ability to recall numerical equivalents, and ability to remember the numbers involved in various stages of calculations. (MNS)

  4. Multiple strategies of reasoning for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yuchuan; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    In expert systems the heuristics used for combining the weight of evidence can be based on probabilistic, fuzzy set, or subjective confidence factors. Although the underlying assumptions for each of the methods differ, it can be shown that there are correspondences between them and that it is possible to develop a model of expert reasoning for medical consultation using any one of the methods. The authors have developed a system for representing expert knowledge, called ESMES, which is an outgrowth of the expert scheme developed earlier at Rutgers. ESMES allows the use of alternative strategies in the solution of a consultation problem. The authors report on the performance of ESMES for a prototype glaucoma consultation model, using reasoning mechanisms similar to those of the expert, MYCIN, Internist I, and Prospector systems. 9 references.

  5. CLIPS: An expert system building tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 3,300 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as a basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  6. Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana.

  7. Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Sharon M; Ribero, Dario; O=Reilly, Eileen M; Kokudo, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Masaru; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree on consensus statements. The treatment of ICC requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize survival. Biopsy is not necessary if the surgeon suspects ICC and is planning curative resection, although biopsy should be obtained before systemic or locoregional therapies are initiated. Assessment of resectability is best accomplished using cross-sectional imaging [computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], but the role of positron emission tomography (PET) is unclear. Resectability in ICC is defined by the ability to completely remove the disease while leaving an adequate liver remnant. Extrahepatic disease, multiple bilobar or multicentric tumours, and lymph node metastases beyond the primary echelon are contraindications to resection. Regional lymphadenectomy should be considered a standard part of surgical therapy. In patients with high-risk features, the routine use of diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended. The preoperative diagnosis of combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC–CC) by imaging studies is extremely difficult. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, but survival is worse than in HCC alone. There are no adequately powered, randomized Phase III trials that can provide definitive recommendations for adjuvant therapy for ICC. Patients with high-risk features (lymphovascular invasion, multicentricity or satellitosis, large tumours) should be encouraged to enrol in clinical trials and to consider adjuvant therapy. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine represents the standard-of-care, front-line systemic therapy for metastatic ICC. Genomic analyses of biliary cancers support the development of targeted therapeutic interventions

  8. An expert system for tuning particle-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lager, D.L.; Brand, H.R.; Maurer, W.J.; Searfus, R.M.; Hernandez, J.E.

    1989-01-12

    We have developed a proof-of-concept prototype of an expert system for tuning particle beam accelerators. It is designed to function as an intelligent assistant for an operator. In its present form it implements the strategies and reasoning followed by the operator for steering through the beam transport section of the Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300. The system is implemented in the language LISP using the Artificial Intelligence concepts of frames, daemons, and a representation we developed called a Monitored Decision Script. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. An Expert System For Tuning Particle-Beam Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lager, Darrel L.; Brand, Hal R.; Maurer, William J.; Searfus, Robert M.; Hernandez, Jose E.

    1989-03-01

    We have developed a proof-of-concept prototype of an expert system for tuning particle beam accelerators. It is designed to function as an intelligent assistant for an operator. In its present form it implements the strategies and reasoning followed by the operator for steering through the beam transport section of the Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300. The system is implemented in the language LISP using the Artificial Intelligence concepts of frames, daemons, and a representation we developed called a Monitored Decision Script.

  10. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  11. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    PubMed

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  12. Ocean acidification and its impacts: an expert survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, J.; Mach, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The number of scientists investigating ocean acidification as well as the number of papers published on this issue have increased considerably in the past few years. On the one hand, the advances are welcome for the assessment of ocean acidification and its impacts. On the other hand, the volume and rapidity of the scientific developments as well as some contradictory results have created challenges for assessing the current state of knowledge and informing policy makers. Two tools are being used to synthesize the current information: meta-analysis and expert survey. In January this year, Working Groups I and II of the IPCC organized an expert meeting on ocean acidification in Okinawa. Following this meeting, we built a set of 22 statements, in consultation with several of the meeting participants. An expert survey was then conducted. It involved 52 experts who provided a considerable amount of information. The statements covered a broad array of research fields and were grouped in 3 categories: chemical aspects, biological and biogeochemical responses, and policy and socio-economic aspects. The survey results indicate a relatively strong consensus for most statements related to the past, present and future chemical aspects. Examples of consensual issues are: non-anthropogenic ocean acidification events have occurred in the geological past, anthropogenic CO2 emissions is the main (but not the only) mechanism generating the current ocean acidification event, and ocean acidification will be felt for centuries. The experts generally agreed that there will be impacts on biological and ecological processes and biogeochemical feedbacks, but for such statements, the levels of agreement were lower overall, with more variability across responses. Levels of agreements among experts surveyed were comparatively higher for statements regarding calcification, primary production and nitrogen fixation, as compared to impacts on food-webs. The levels of agreement for statements

  13. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  14. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  15. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  16. Expert systems for Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.; Firschein, O.

    1985-01-01

    The expert systems required for automating key functions of the Manned Space Station (MSS) are explored. It is necessary that the expert systems developed be flexible, degrade gracefully in the case of a failure, and be able to work with incomplete data. The AI systems will have to perform interpretation and diagnosis, design, prediction and induction, and monitoring and control functions. Both quantitative and qualitative reasoning capabilities need improvements, as do automatic verification techniques, explanation and learning capabilities, and the use of metaknowledge, i. e., knowledge about the knowledge contained in the knowledge base. Information retrieval, fault isolation and manufacturing process control demonstrations are needed to validate expert systems for the MSS.

  17. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ

    1992-07-01

    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  18. Development of a knowledge acquisition tool for an expert system flight status monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    Two of the main issues in artificial intelligence today are knowledge acquisition dion and knowledge representation. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is presently involved in the design and implementation of an expert system flight status monitor that will provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer in monitoring today's advanced high-performance aircraft. The flight status monitor can be divided into two sections: the expert system itself and the knowledge acquisition tool. The knowledge acquisition tool, the means it uses to extract knowledge from the domain expert, and how that knowledge is represented for computer use is discussed. An actual aircraft system has been codified by this tool with great success. Future real-time use of the expert system has been facilitated by using the knowledge acquisition tool to easily generate a logically consistent and complete knowledge base.

  19. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    to the use of expert systems for more advanced supervision capabilities.

  20. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  1. Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines Boys and girls should start the shots at age 11 or ... on HPV vaccination: HPV vaccination should begin for girls and boys at 11 or 12 years, but children as ...

  2. Expert testimony in cult-related litigation.

    PubMed

    Young, J L; Griffith, E E

    1989-01-01

    The work of forensic psychiatrists has expanded into the controversial area of cases involving new religious movements. Challenges to the expert witness in such cases include new questions and a large body of relevant literature. Published appeals decisions have appeared with judicial comments on the conduct of the involved experts. This article presents the comments about expert witnesses from judges who decided cases involving the major new issues of coercion both in recruitment into and forcible abduction from cults, and competency to join and make donations to these groups. The judicial comments are evaluated using relevant literature from the fields of law, psychiatry, and religion. This provides a basis for general observations and suggestions regarding the involvement of psychiatric experts in cult-related cases. PMID:2676025

  3. 75 FR 76467 - Draft Concept for Government-Wide “ExpertNet” Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Draft Concept for Government-Wide ``ExpertNet'' Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public... (working title ``ExpertNet''). ExpertNet would tap the expertise of the public in a manageable and structured format. The goal of ExpertNet is to enable government officials to search for and communicate...

  4. Debunking the myths around expert witnesses.

    PubMed

    Deal, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The expert witness is a well known legal role, which conjures up images of a glowering judge and fierce cross-examination by a Rumpole of the Bailey-style barrister. Nick Deal is a barrister who works for Bond Solon, a company that provides training for expert witnesses. Here, he considers some of the points raised during a course for pathologists at the Royal Veterinary College. PMID:25556145

  5. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  6. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  7. Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Bertch, W.J.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running on a mainframe. Concluding remarks will identify potential areas of expert system application with specific areas that are being considered in a current research program. The difficulty of interaction between an analysis code and an expert system is due to the incompatibility between the FORTRAN environment used for the analysis code and the AI environment used for the expert system. Three methods, excluding file transfer techniques, are discussed to help overcome this incompatibility. The first method is linking the FORTRAN routines to the LISP environment on the same computer. Various LISP dialects available on mainframes and their interlanguage communication capabilities are discussed. The second method involves network interaction between a LISP machine and a mainframe computer. Comparisons between the linking method and networking are noted. The third method involves the use of an expert system tool that is campatible with a FORTRAN environment. Several available tools are discussed. With the interaction methods identified, several potential application areas are considered. Selection of the specific areas that will be developed for the pilot project and applied to a thermal-hydraulic energy analysis code are noted.

  8. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis in Reading: An Expert Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts on which expert systems are based. Considers how expert systems might be productively applied in education. Describes an experimental expert system with applications in reading diagnosis and teacher training. (SR)

  9. Structuring Knowledge for Expert System Solutions. Part 1: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinger, R. Scott

    1988-01-01

    This introductory article defines and delimits expert systems. The discussion covers the concepts of artificial intelligence, the components of an expert system, and the significance of expert systems when compared to more traditional decision making tools. (CLB)

  10. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  11. Space stations: Living in zero gravity, developmental task for psychologists and space environmental experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, E.

    1984-01-01

    The recent advances in the psychological aspects of space station design are discussed, including the impact of the increase in awareness of both the public in general as well as space environmental experts of the importance of psychological factors when designing space stations and training astronauts.

  12. Optimizing Instructional Designer--Subject Matter Expert Communication in the Design and Development of Multimedia Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a study which explored the development, trial, and implementation of the Content Production Process (CPP) which was designed to assist instructional designers in eliciting and conceptualizing unfamiliar content from subject matter experts. Highlights include advance organizers, schema theory, consultation practices, knowledge…

  13. Expert Models and Modeling Processes Associated with a Computer-Modeling Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, BaoHui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using "think aloud" technique…

  14. Physical Activity and Older Adults: Expert Consensus for a New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Marquez, David X.; Moni, Gwen; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Desai, Pankaja; Jones, Dina L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to advance the state of knowledge regarding physical activity and aging by identifying areas of agreement among experts regarding topics that are well understood versus those that are in urgent need of continued research efforts. Design and methods: We used a web-based survey with snowball sampling to identify 348…

  15. Improving Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Expert Convening Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    On December 5, 2014, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's DC office hosted an invitation-only gathering of fifteen federal, state, and local education policy experts in both the public and nonprofit sectors. The goal of the meeting was to explore strategies to improve Title II, Part A of the federal Elementary and Secondary…

  16. Quiet eye gaze behavior of expert, and near-expert, baseball plate umpires.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane G; Hines, Bridget B; Smith, Melissa S

    2013-02-01

    The quiet eye gaze behavior of 4 near-expert and 4 expert baseball umpires who called balls and strikes in simulated pitch-hit situations was assessed with a mobile eye cornea tracker system. Statistical analyses of the umpires' gaze behavior (fixation/pursuit tracking, saccades, and blinks)--onset, duration, offset, and frequency--were performed between and within 4 stages (pitcher's preparation, pitcher's delivery, ball in flight, and umpire call) by umpire's skill level. The results indicated that the quiet eye of expert umpires at onset of the pitcher's release point occurred earlier and was longer in duration than near-expert umpires. Expert expert umpires. The area outside the pitcher's ball release point may be the key environment cue for the behind-the-plate umpire.

  17. Equating an expert system to a classifier in order to evaluate the expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Patrick L.

    1989-01-01

    A strategy to evaluate an expert system is formulated. The strategy proposed is based on finding an equivalent classifier to an expert system and evaluate that classifier with respect to an optimal classifier, a Bayes classifier. Here it is shown that for the rules considered an equivalent classifier exists. Also, a brief consideration of meta and meta-meta rules is included. Also, a taxonomy of expert systems is presented and an assertion made that an equivalent classifier exists for each type of expert system in the taxonomy with associated sets of underlying assumptions.

  18. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area. PMID:20542936

  19. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  20. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  1. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. Methods: The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. Results: The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Conclusion: Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time. PMID:26793666

  2. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing.

  3. Adding an Expert to the Team: The Expert Flight Plan Critic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew; Waki, Randy; Fairweather, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a practical tool that provides expert feedback to students following an extended simulation exercise in cross-country flight planning. In contrast to development for laboratory settings, the development of an expert instructional product for everyday use posed some interesting challenges, including dealing…

  4. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  5. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  6. Expert witness immunity: surveying the karnage!

    PubMed

    Pamplin, Chris

    2014-03-01

    For most expert witnesses, the decidedly disturbing decision-making of the Supreme Court in Jones v Kaney (2011) UKSC 13, has little immediate impact as, being conscientious professionals, they will be unlikely to be found negligent and will carry professional indemnity insurance just in case. Indeed, they will view existing professional disciplinary risks as a greater concern! But there are a number of potential consequences of this disturbing decision that should be considered by all expert witnesses and some clear actions that may be necessary. These include including obtain appropriate professional indemnity insurance, considering the potential for limiting liability through contract, becoming more circumspect about the way they express their opinions and consider whether accepting single joint expert instructions is still an option. PMID:24619841

  7. Ethical issues of expert witness testimony.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Alberto R

    2014-07-01

    Being a surgical expert witness (EW) in professional liability claims implies ethical responsibilities, which are usually unknown to the parties who try to obtain such testimony as well as to the surgeons involved in providing the expert opinion required by the courts. Giving medical testimony can be included in the field of surgery since (1) being an expert medical witness and judge the performance of another surgeon means that the witness must have a medical license and preferably be board-certified as a surgeon, and (2) the EW opinion sets the standard of care to be applied in each particular case. Thus, the role of the surgeon EW in the legal arena must have the same degree of integrity as the surgeon in his practice with direct patient care and it should be reviewed and subject to regulation. PMID:24852436

  8. The expert witness in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Chaplow, D G; Peters, J L; Kydd, R R

    1992-12-01

    Forensic psychiatry operates at the interface of the Justice and Health systems and has been defined as: "That branch of psychiatry which requires special knowledge and training in the law as it relates to the mental state of the offender, or alleged offender" [1]. As a consequence of working in this area, psychiatrists are often called into court to give evidence as "expert witnesses". This article examines some of the professional and legal issues involved in providing expert testimony. Secondly, it aims to outline some practical guidelines for giving evidence in the court-room. The predominant focus is on criminal, rather than civil, proceedings in which the forensic psychiatrist gives expert testimony; however much of the information is also relevant to other psychiatrists and psychologists undertaking this role in the legal arena.

  9. Cooperation between experts in fitness proceedings.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, H; Verschoor, T

    1992-01-01

    The handling of the mentally ill offender involves the law as well as psychiatry and it is, therefore, essential that a good relationship exists between the jurist and the psychiatrist. The answering of questions of law by the courts needs the assistance and cooperation of mental health experts. This cooperation between the law and mental health professions is inevitable and necessary because the court is not an expert in the field of psychiatry. The duty of the psychiatric expert is to furnish the judge with necessary scientific criteria for testing the accuracy of the conclusions, so as to enable the court to form its own independent judgment by the application of these criteria to the facts proved in evidence.

  10. Overproduction timing errors in expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Minvielle-Moncla, Joëlle; Audiffren, Michel; Macar, Françoise; Vallet, Cécile

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated how expert dancers achieve accurate timing under various conditions. They designed the conditions to interfere with the dancers' attention to time and to test the explanation of the interference effect provided in the attentional model of time processing. Participants were 17 expert contemporary dancers who performed a freely chosen duration while walking and executing a bilateral cyclic arm movement over a given distance. The dancers reproduced that duration in different situations of interference. The process yielded temporal overproductions, validating the attentional model and extending its application to expert populations engaged in complex motor situations. The finding that the greatest overproduction occurred in the transfer-with-improvisation condition suggests that improvisation within a time deadline requires specific training.

  11. Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Chet

    1990-01-01

    Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

  12. How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  13. From expert judgement to supervised classification: a new approach to assess ecological status in lowland streams.

    PubMed

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Larsen, Søren E; Riis, Tenna

    2013-03-01

    The EC Water Framework Directive (WFD) clearly states that undisturbed reference states of aquatic ecosystems should be used to set standards for restoration. Across Europe defining biological reference status and setting boundaries for ecological status classes continues to represent a major challenge. In the present study we investigate if a paradigm exists among experts that can guide the development of assessment systems based on the normative definitions of ecological status classes of the WFD. Our main questions were: 1) Will experts from species abundance data and typology descriptors independently arrive at similar assessments of ecological status, and 2) Can the expert interpretation of ecological status be transferred into a statistical model allowing for a standardization of assessments from plant assemblages in lowland streams? We used a large dataset covering 1244 randomly distributed stream sites in Denmark and asked a group of experts to independently classify the sites using the WFD's normative definitions of ecological status. According to the combined expert group, no Danish stream sites belonged to the undisturbed reference state. For the remaining ecological status classes we found good concordance in the classification made by the five experts. From this we infer that a common paradigm does exist, which may guide the development of assessment methods for aquatic plants in lowland streams. We also found that the common view of the experts could be transferred into a supervised classification model that can serve as a classification tool for aquatic plant assemblages in lowland streams. We conclude that the combined use of experts and advanced multivariate statistics can provide a useful approach in the development of systems for assessment of ecological status in water types, where a reference network cannot be established.

  14. The Management and Security Expert (MASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Mark D.; Barr, Stanley J.; Gryphon, Coranth D.; Keegan, Jeff; Kniker, Catherine A.; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1991-01-01

    The Management and Security Expert (MASE) is a distributed expert system that monitors the operating systems and applications of a network. It is capable of gleaning the information provided by the different operating systems in order to optimize hardware and software performance; recognize potential hardware and/or software failure, and either repair the problem before it becomes an emergency, or notify the systems manager of the problem; and monitor applications and known security holes for indications of an intruder or virus. MASE can eradicate much of the guess work of system management.

  15. The Technologist As An Expert Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, R. E. K.; Hall, Morse

    1985-03-01

    Decisions in our legal system are made by laymen. Even the most technical and complex cases are heard and decided by a judge or jury who may very well have no expertise on the questions which confront them. As a result, our legal system permits experts to explain complex phenomena to the fact finder and even to express his opinion on the issue which the fact finder ultimately has to decide. For example, an expert may explain not only how an airplane accident occurred, but also may testify that someone was at fault.

  16. Confessions of an expert ethics witness.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, K

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this essay is to describe and reflect upon the concrete particulars of one academician's work as an expert ethics witness. The commentary on my practices and the narrative descriptions of three cases are offered as evidence for the thesis that it is possible to act honorably within a role that some have considered to be inherently illicit. Practical measures are described for avoiding some of the best known pitfalls. The discussion concludes with a listing of the distinctive competencies and understandings that are useful in serving as an expert ethics witness. PMID:9309547

  17. GOMER: a PC-based expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, G.D.

    1986-04-01

    The algorithm for a PC-based expert system for interpretation of seismic data from remote sensors is described. The original expert system was written on a Symbolics computer using Zeta LISP. The PC version is written in Pascal and runs on the IBM PC or on any IBM-compatible computer. The Pascal source code is included with this report. To date the software has been used only on simulated sensor data but will be modified to accept data from fielded sensors. Extensive field testing will be required to refine the program's knowledge base. 8 figs.

  18. Developing an Expert System for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.; Schultz, Samuel; Swain, Mary Ann P.; Abraham, Ivo L.; Farchaus-Stein, Karen

    1984-01-01

    The American Nurses' Association has set eight Standards of Nursing Practice related to the nursing process. Computer-aided information systems intended to facilitate the nursing process must be designed to promote adherence to these professional standards. For each of the eight standards, the paper tells how a hypothetical expert system could help nurses to meet the standard. A prototype of such an expert system is being developed. The paper describes issues in conceptualizing clinical decision-making and developing decision strategies for the prototype system. The process of developing the prototype system is described.

  19. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale; Tessmer, Martin A.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether the process of constructing an expert system model promotes the formation of expert-like mental models. Discusses expert systems as mindtools, expert systems as learning tools, the assessment of mental models, results of pretests and posttests, and future research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/LRW)

  20. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

    Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

  1. The Development and Application of Expert Systems: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossinger, June; Milheim, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems focuses on a national survey that gathered information concerning the attention and investment given to expert systems by managers and computer professionals in a variety of fields. Highlights include uses of expert systems, types of computers and software used, and expert systems shells and development costs. (18…

  2. Exploring a Conceptual Framework for Expert Noticing during Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Pamela; Gibson, Sharan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the characteristics of expert and less expert teachers' noticing ability during observation of literacy instruction, and builds a conceptual framework for expert noticing during such teaching. Expert participants (n = 7) were defined as university faculty in reading with intensive and long-term experience in…

  3. Image interpretation for landforms using expert systems and terrain analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Al-garni, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Most current research in digital photogrammetry and computer vision concentrates on the early vision process; little research has been done on the late vision process. The late vision process in image interpretation contains descriptive knowledge and heuristic information which requires artificial intelligence (AI) in order for it to be modeled. This dissertation has introduced expert systems, as AI tools, and terrain analysis to the late vision process. This goal has been achieved by selecting and theorizing landforms as features for image interpretation. These features present a wide spectrum of knowledge that can furnish a good foundation for image interpretation processes. In this dissertation an EXpert system for LANdform interpretation using Terrain analysis (EXPLANT) was developed. EXPLANT can interpret the major landforms on earth. The system contains sample military and civilian consultations regarding site analysis and development. A learning mechanism was developed to accommodate necessary improvement for the data base due to the rapidly advancing and dynamically changing technology and knowledge. Many interface facilities and menu-driven screens were developed in the system to aid the users. Finally, the system has been tested and verified to be working properly.

  4. 12 CFR 1081.210 - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... material outside the scope of fair rebuttal is presented, a party may file a motion not later than five... witness has testified or sought to testify as an expert at trial or by deposition within the preceding... whose opinions may be presented at trial. Unless otherwise ordered by the hearing officer, a...

  5. Teenage Technological Experts' Views of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicola F.

    2009-01-01

    Utilising Pierre Bourdieu's formula for studying social practice, this study explored the construction of technological expertise amongst a heterogeneous group of New Zealand teenagers. The qualitative study employed observations and interviews with five boys and three girls aged 13-17, who considered themselves to be technological experts; their…

  6. Genesis of an Electronic Database Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Wei; Cole, Timothy W.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the creation of a prototype, Web-based expert system that helps users better navigate library databases at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Discusses concerns that gave rise to the project. Summarizes previous work/research and common approaches in academic libraries today. Describes plans for testing the prototype,…

  7. Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

  8. Concept of an expert system for EQCreator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Jiri; Telnarova, Zdenka; Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the design of an ideal, and to some extent general, expert system for evaluation of randomly generated algebra with the help of EQCreator program, which is able to generate EQ of algebra. It was created for the purpose of future expansion of the program for the possibility of generating any algebra specified by the user.

  9. Hispania White Paper: Where Are the Experts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Most collegiate departments where one can find Spanish, French, German, and other non-English disciplines are referred to as "language departments," either formally or informally. Such designations are interesting as they suggest to the outsider (i.e., non-language person) that these departments consist of experts in language. In this…

  10. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... peculiar knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or her testimony relates and from... otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, a detailed written statement of the elements of the direct... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  12. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... peculiar knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or her testimony relates and from... otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, a detailed written statement of the elements of the direct... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  13. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... peculiar knowlege concerning the matter of science or skill to which his or her testimony relates and from... otherwise ordered by the Presiding Officer, a detailed written statement of the elements of the direct... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  14. The Humanist Scholar as Public Expert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Although the rhetoric of expertise stemming from the hard and social sciences has been well researched, the scholarship has not tended to focus on acts of public expertise by scholars from the humanities. This article reports a case study in the rhetorical practices of a theologian, acting as a public expert, first attempting to affect decision…

  15. An Expert Map of Gambling Risk Perception.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the moderating or mediating role played by risk perception in decision-making, gambling behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Eleven gambling expert clinicians and researchers completed a semi-structured interview derived from mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Expert interview data was used to construct a comprehensive expert mental model 'map' detailing risk-perception related factors contributing to harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and emergent themes. Findings indicated that experts considered idiosyncratic beliefs among gamblers result in overall underestimates of risk and loss, insufficient prioritization of needs, and planning and implementation of risk management strategies. Additional contextual factors influencing use of risk information (reinforcement and learning; mental states, environmental cues, ambivalence; and socio-cultural and biological variables) acted to shape risk perceptions and increase vulnerabilities to harm or disordered gambling. It was concluded that understanding the nature, extent and processes by which risk perception predisposes an individual to maintain gambling despite adverse consequences can guide the content of preventative educational responsible gambling campaigns.

  16. A Prototype Expert System for Fishway Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of a prototype expert system to recommend the most suitable type of fishway for given design conditions. Recommendations are provided on the basis of fishway hydraulics, fish passage performance, and cost requirements. An appendix provides an example consultation. (MDH)

  17. EXPERT SYSTEMS SHOW PROMISE FOR CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  18. KASER: Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Stuart H; Murthy, S N Jayaram; Smith, Michael H; Trajković, Ljiljana

    2004-12-01

    In this paper and attached video, we present a third-generation expert system named Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization (KASER) for which a patent has been filed by the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA (SSC SD). KASER is a creative expert system. It is capable of deductive, inductive, and mixed derivations. Its qualitative creativity is realized by using a tree-search mechanism. The system achieves creative reasoning by using a declarative representation of knowledge consisting of object trees and inheritance. KASER computes with words and phrases. It possesses a capability for metaphor-based explanations. This capability is useful in explaining its creative suggestions and serves to augment the capabilities provided by the explanation subsystems of conventional expert systems. KASER also exhibits an accelerated capability to learn. However, this capability depends on the particulars of the selected application domain. For example, application domains such as the game of chess exhibit a high degree of geometric symmetry. Conversely, application domains such as the game of craps played with two dice exhibit no predictable pattern, unless the dice are loaded. More generally, we say that domains whose informative content can be compressed to a significant degree without loss (or with relatively little loss) are symmetric. Incompressible domains are said to be asymmetric or random. The measure of symmetry plus the measure of randomness must always sum to unity.

  19. Estrogen receptor expert system overview and examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogen receptor expert system (ERES) is a rule-based system developed to prioritize chemicals based upon their potential for binding to the ER. The ERES was initially developed to predict ER affinity of chemicals from two specific EPA chemical inventories, antimicrobial pe...

  20. Knowledge-based expert system configurator

    SciTech Connect

    Wakefield, K.A.; Gould, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The term knowledge-based expert system'' usually brings to mind a rather extensive list of commercially available expert system shells with the associated complexity of implementing the given inferencing strategies to drive a rule base of knowledge for solving particular classes of problems. A significant amount of learning time is required to understand all of the intricacies of the systems in order to effectively utilize their salient features while working around the canned'' constraints. The amount of effort required to prototype the first attempt'' is therefore substantial and can quickly lead to the unfortunate effect of reticence toward applying expert systems. This paper describes an alternative approach to use of specialized shells in developing or prototyping first-attempting knowledge-based expert systems using Lotus 123, a commonly used spreadsheet software package. The advantages of using this approach are discussed. The working example presented makes use of the forward-chaining capabilities available to determine automatically the hardware jumper and switch configuration for a distributed process control system. Hardware configuration control documentation is generated for use by field engineers and maintenance technicians. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Expert Behavior in Children's Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…

  2. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  3. Expert Concept Mapping Study on Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper introduces concept mapping as a structured participative conceptualization approach to identify clusters of ideas and opinions generated by experts within the domain of mobile learning. Utilizing this approach, the paper aims to contribute to a definition of key domain characteristics by identifying the main educational…

  4. Experts Divide on Responses to Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The cheating scandal that has rocked the 48,000-student Atlanta school system was an egregious, but not entirely unexpected, byproduct of accountability pressures, many testing experts say. The reason: As long as test scores are used in any field to make decisions on rewards or punishments, including for schools or educators, a small percentage of…

  5. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements... expert judgment elicitation comports with the level of knowledge required by the questions or issues... judgment elicitation comports with the level and variety of knowledge required by the questions or...

  6. 32 CFR 516.49 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATIONS LITIGATION Release of Information and Appearance of Witnesses Scope Da Personnel As Witnesses in Private Litigation § 516.49 Expert witnesses. (a) General rule. Present DA personnel will not provide... in which the United States has an interest for a party other than the United States. Former...

  7. Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, T.

    2011-01-01

    Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

  8. A Virtual Panel of Expert Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the observations of a panel of research experts who have conducted research on music and the brain. States that the participants are Andrea Halpern, Larry Parsons, Ralph Spintge, and Sandra Trehub. After an introduction of each person, the participants characterized their principal findings. (CMK)

  9. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  10. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  11. Natural Language interactions with artificial experts

    SciTech Connect

    Finin, T.W.; Joshi, A.K.; Webber, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to justify why Natural Language (NL) interaction, of a very rich functionality, is critical to the effective use of Expert Systems and to describe what is needed and what has been done to support such interaction. Interactive functions discussed here include defining terms, paraphrasing, correcting misconceptions, avoiding misconceptons, and modifying questions.

  12. Visual Cues for an Adaptive Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Helen B.

    NCR (National Cash Register) Corporation is pursuing opportunities to make their point of sale (POS) terminals easy to use and easy to learn. To approach the goal of making the technology invisible to the user, NCR has developed an adaptive expert prototype system for a department store POS operation. The structure for the adaptive system, the…

  13. Expert systems built by the Expert: An evaluation of OPS5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Two expert systems were written in OPS5 by the expert, a Ph.D. astronomer with no prior experience in artificial intelligence or expert systems, without the use of a knowledge engineer. The first system was built from scratch and uses 146 rules to check for duplication of scientific information within a pool of prospective observations. The second system was grafted onto another expert system and uses 149 additional rules to estimate the spacecraft and ground resources consumed by a set of prospective observations. The small vocabulary, the IF this occurs THEN do that logical structure of OPS5, and the ability to follow program execution allowed the expert to design and implement these systems with only the data structures and rules of another OPS5 system as an example. The modularity of the rules in OPS5 allowed the second system to modify the rulebase of the system onto which it was grafted without changing the code or the operation of that system. These experiences show that experts are able to develop their own expert systems due to the ease of programming and code reusability in OPS5.

  14. Scientist's Expert Assistant to Support NGST Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, T.; Koratkar, A.; Jones, J.; Ruley, L.; Grosvenor, S.

    1998-05-01

    The Scientist's Expert Assistant is a prototype effort to explore new alternatives for developing observing proposals. Supporting the Phase II proposal effort at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is currently a manually intensive effort. In order to meet the operational cost objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), this process needs to be dramatically less time consuming and less costly. Our approach is to use a combination of artificial intelligence and user interface techniques to provide a system that minimizes redundant data entry, allows users to approach the process visually, and provides a guided interview process to structure observations. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA Goddard's Information Systems Center is working with the STScI to explore alternatives for SEA, using an iterative prototype-review-revise cycle. We are testing the usefulness of rule-based expert systems to painlessly guide a scientist to his or her desired observation specification. We are also prototyping an interactive, visual tool (The Visual Target Tuner, VTT) for fine-tuning the target location and orientation, and an Exposure Time Calculator (ETC). Both the VTT and ETC are essential tools during proposal preparation, because they help an observer determine important observational constraints. In developing our prototype, we are using STScI's two-phase proposal submission approach and Hubble Space Telescope's upcoming Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as our testbed instrument. We are using the latest release of Java as our development language for its object-oriented capabilities and platform independence. This gives us the ability to easily extend the tools capabilities and to provide a means to easily "plug-in" customized components such as new or different detectors, new observing modes, or even the characteristics of a completely different observatory.

  15. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  16. A model for a space shuttle safing and failure-detection expert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeilingold, Daphna; Hoey, John

    1990-01-01

    The safing and failure-detection expert (SAFE) is a prototype for a malfunction detection, diagnosis, and safing system for the atmospheric revitalization subsystem (ARS) in the Space Shuttle orbiter. SAFE, whose knowledge was extracted from expert-provided heuristics and documented procedures, automatically manages all phases of failure handling: detection, diagnosis, testing procedures, and recovery instructions. The SAFE architecture allows it to handle correctly sensor failures and multiple malfunctions. Since SAFE is highly interactive, it was used as a test bed for the evaluation of various advanced human-computer interface (HCI) techniques. The use of such expert systems in the next generation of space vehicles would increase their reliability and autonomy to levels not achievable before.

  17. [Expert witness and expert testimony in New Slovak Criminal Procedure Code].

    PubMed

    Kovác, P

    2006-04-01

    As of 1st January 2006, new criminal law consisting of the Act No. 300/2004 Coll. (Penal Code) and the Act No. 301/2005 Coll. (Criminal Procedure Code) became effective in the Slovak Republic. These two acts replaced Criminal Law originating from 1961. The author analyses impact and changes introduced with new Criminal Procedure Code in the regulation of expert witness in general and expert witness testimony.

  18. BMExpert: Mining MEDLINE for Finding Experts in Biomedical Domains Based on Language Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beichen; Chen, Xiaodong; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of biomedical sciences, a great number of documents have been published to report new scientific findings and advance the process of knowledge discovery. By the end of 2013, the largest biomedical literature database, MEDLINE, has indexed over 23 million abstracts. It is thus not easy for scientific professionals to find experts on a certain topic in the biomedical domain. In contrast to the existing services that use some ad hoc approaches, we developed a novel solution to biomedical expert finding, BMExpert, based on the language model. For finding biomedical experts, who are the most relevant to a specific topic query, BMExpert mines MEDLINE documents by considering three important factors: relevance of documents to the query topic, importance of documents, and associations between documents and experts. The performance of BMExpert was evaluated on a benchmark dataset, which was built by collecting the program committee members of ISMB in the past three years (2012-2014) on 14 different topics. Experimental results show that BMExpert outperformed three existing biomedical expert finding services: JANE, GoPubMed, and eTBLAST, with respect to both MAP (mean average precision) and P@50 (Precision). BMExpert is freely accessed at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/service/BMExpert/.

  19. BMExpert: Mining MEDLINE for Finding Experts in Biomedical Domains Based on Language Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beichen; Chen, Xiaodong; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of biomedical sciences, a great number of documents have been published to report new scientific findings and advance the process of knowledge discovery. By the end of 2013, the largest biomedical literature database, MEDLINE, has indexed over 23 million abstracts. It is thus not easy for scientific professionals to find experts on a certain topic in the biomedical domain. In contrast to the existing services that use some ad hoc approaches, we developed a novel solution to biomedical expert finding, BMExpert, based on the language model. For finding biomedical experts, who are the most relevant to a specific topic query, BMExpert mines MEDLINE documents by considering three important factors: relevance of documents to the query topic, importance of documents, and associations between documents and experts. The performance of BMExpert was evaluated on a benchmark dataset, which was built by collecting the program committee members of ISMB in the past three years (2012-2014) on 14 different topics. Experimental results show that BMExpert outperformed three existing biomedical expert finding services: JANE, GoPubMed, and eTBLAST, with respect to both MAP (mean average precision) and P@50 (Precision). BMExpert is freely accessed at http://datamining-iip.fudan.edu.cn/service/BMExpert/. PMID:26671801

  20. NESSUS/expert and NESSUS/FPI in the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures under Stress (NESSUS) is the primary computer code being developed in the NASA Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project. It consists of four modules NESSUS/EXPERT, NESSUS/FPI, NESSUS/PRE and NESSUS/FEM. This presentation concentrates on EXPERT and FPI. To provide an effective interface between NESSUS and the user, an expert system module called NESSUS/EXPERT is being developed. That system uses the CLIPS artificial intelligence code developed to NASA-JSC. The code is compatible with FORTRAN, the standard language for codes in PSAM. The user interacts with the CLIPS inference engine, which is linked to the knowledge database. The perturbation database generated by NESSUS/FEM and managed in EXPERT is used to develop the so-called response or performance model in the random variables. Two independent probabilistic methods are available in PSAM for the computation of the probabilistic structural response. These are the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) method and Monte Carlo simulation. FPI is classified as an advanced reliability method and has been developed over the past ten years by researchers addressing the reliability of civil engineering structures. Monte Carlo is a well-established technique for computing probabilities by conducting a number of deterministic analyses with specified input distributional information.

  1. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  2. Expert Elicitation of Population-Level Effects of Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty. PMID:26610972

  3. Development of an expert data reduction assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn E.; Johnston, Mark D.; Hanisch, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    We propose the development of an expert system tool for the management and reduction of complex data sets. The proposed work is an extension of a successful prototype system for the calibration of CCD images developed by Dr. Johnston in 1987. The reduction of complex multi-parameter data sets presents severe challenges to a scientist. Not only must a particular data analysis system be mastered, (e.g. IRAF/SDAS/MIDAS), large amounts of data can require many days of tedious work and supervision by the scientist for even the most straightforward reductions. The proposed Expert Data Reduction Assistant will help the scientist overcome these obstacles by developing a reduction plan based on the data at hand and producing a script for the reduction of the data in a target common language.

  4. Development of an expert data reduction assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn E.; Johnston, Mark D.; Hanisch, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    We propose the development of an expert system tool for the management and reduction of complex datasets. the proposed work is an extension of a successful prototype system for the calibration of CCD (charge coupled device) images developed by Dr. Johnston in 1987. (ref.: Proceedings of the Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence). The reduction of complex multi-parameter data sets presents severe challenges to a scientist. Not only must a particular data analysis system be mastered, (e.g. IRAF/SDAS/MIDAS), large amounts of data can require many days of tedious work and supervision by the scientist for even the most straightforward reductions. The proposed Expert Data Reduction Assistant will help the scientist overcome these obstacles by developing a reduction plan based on the data at hand and producing a script for the reduction of the data in a target common language.

  5. Expert system for generating fuel movement procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power reactors are required by federal law and their operating license to track and control the movement of nuclear fuel. Planning nuclear fuel movements during a refueling outage by hand is a tedious process involving an initial state and final state separated by physical and administrative constraints. Since the initial and final states as well as all constraints are known, an expert computer system for planning this process is possible. Turkey Point station worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-selected vendor to implement such a system. Over the course of a 2-yr period, the EPRI Fuel Shuffle Planning System evolved from a high-tech word processor to an expert system capable of planning all fuel movement sequences required to refuel a nuclear reactor core. Turkey Point site is composed to two pressurized water reactor units owned and operated by Florida Power and Light Company.

  6. Expert system support for HST operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    1987-01-01

    An expert system is being developed to support vehicle anomaly diagnosis for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Following a study of safemode entry analyses, a prototype system was developed which reads engineering telemetry formats, and when a safemode event is detected, extracts telemetry from the downlink and writes it into a knowledge base for more detailed analyses. The prototype then summarizes vehicle events (limits exceeded, specific failures). This prototype, the Telemetry Analysis Logic for Operations Support (TALOS) uses the Lockheed Expert System (LES) shell, and includes over 1600 facts, 230 rules, and 27 goals. Although considered a prototype, it is already an operationally useful system. The history leading into the TALOS prototype will be discussed, an overview of the present TALOS system will be presented, and the role of the TALOS system in contingency planning will be delineated.

  7. Expert Robots For Automated Packaging And Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.; Shell, R. L.

    1989-02-01

    A variety of problems in automated packaging and processing seem ready for expert robotic solutions. Such problems as automated palletizing, bin-picking, automated stoilw and retrieval, automated kitting of parts for assembly, and automated warehousing are currently being considered. The use of expert robots which consist of specialized computer programs, manipulators and integrated sensors has been demonstrated with robot Chedkers, peg games, etc. Actual solutions for automated palletizing, pit-carb basket loading, etc. have also been developed for industrial applications at our Center. The generic concepts arising from this research will be described, unsolved problems discussed, and some important tools demonstrated. The significance of this work lies in its broad application to a host of generic industrial problems which can improve quality, reduce waste, are eliminate human injuries.

  8. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  9. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  10. Assertive women as expert witnesses: a study of assertive and defensive responses in male and female experts.

    PubMed

    Larson, Bridget A; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2014-01-01

    This investigation of expert witness gender used scenarios addressing threats to the expert, sexuality, parenting by the expert, and lying, and in which intrusive and non-intrusive gender cross-examinations were presented to 352 mock jurors. Male and female experts were matched carefully on attractiveness and other social desirability dimensions. In half of the situations the expert witnesses replied with defensive answers, and in the other half, they replied assertively. The assertive responses were found to be significantly more effective on a number of dependent measures, including perceived credibility. In results consistent with other studies, the male experts were evaluated more positively than the female experts. Sexism and other attitudes of the mock jurors were unrelated to credibility and expert gender. The results are discussed in the context of managing aggressive cross-examinations, role demands for women in the courtroom, and methodological approaches to the study of expert witness gender. PMID:24691753

  11. Using expert systems to analyze ATE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.

  12. Expert systems in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  13. Building America Expert Meeting. Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Larry

    2013-03-01

    This is an overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World," held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  14. Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2013-03-01

    This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  15. Expert care of the performing artist.

    PubMed

    Bird, Howard; Macdonald, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Compared to elite athletes, elite performers, especially musicians and dancers, invariably lack expert medical backup even though their needs are just as great as the sportspeople. In some countries, this is now being realised and addressed. It is hoped that a new MSc in Performing Arts Medicine, recently introduced in the UK, will go some way towards correcting this, and its syllabus has provided the catalyst for this themed issue.

  16. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Expert testimony in capital sentencing: juror responses.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, John H; Ciccone, J Richard; Garvey, Stephen P; Eisenberg, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court, in Furman v. Georgia (1972), held that the death penalty is constitutional only when applied on an individualized basis. The resultant changes in the laws in death penalty states fostered the involvement of psychiatric and psychologic expert witnesses at the sentencing phase of the trial, to testify on two major issues: (1) the mitigating factor of a defendant's abnormal mental state and (2) the aggravating factor of a defendant's potential for future violence. This study was an exploration of the responses of capital jurors to psychiatric/psychologic expert testimony during capital sentencing. The Capital Jury Project is a multi-state research effort designed to improve the understanding of the dynamics of juror decision-making in capital cases. South Carolina data (n = 214) were used to investigate the impact of expert testimony on the mitigating factor of mental illness and the aggravating factor of future dangerousness. Ordered logit regression analyses revealed significant correlations (p < .005) between the presence of a defense psychiatrist or psychologist expert witness during the sentencing phase and jurors' having the impression that the defendant was mentally disturbed. Similar analyses revealed no significant relationship between the presence of state-introduced psychiatric testimony and jurors' having the impression that the defendant, if not executed, would be violent in the future. These findings seem to contradict the view that psychiatric testimony on future dangerousness in death penalty cases has a powerful impact on jurors. The jurors in this study were significantly influenced, however, by psychiatric/psychologic testimony in the area of a defendant's mitigating mental abnormality.

  18. A distributed expert system for fault diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, E.; Talukdar, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel in a network of computers. Speeds sufficient for real-time applications can thereby be obtained.

  19. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  20. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  1. Exercise countermeasure protocol management expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L.; Chen, J. G.; Flores, L.; Tan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise will be used primarily to countermeasure against deconditioning on extended space flight. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of an expert system for exercise countermeasure protocol management. Currently, the system includes two major subsystems: baseline prescription and prescription adjustment. The baseline prescription subsystem is designed to provide initial exercise prescriptions while prescription adjustment subsystem is designed to modify the initial prescription based on the exercised progress. The system runs under three different environments: PC, SUN workstation, and Symbolic machine. The inference engine, baseline prescription module, prescription adjustment module and explanation module are developed under the Symbolic environment by using the ART (Automated Reasoning Tool) software. The Sun environment handles database management features and interfaces with PC environment to obtain physical and physiological data from exercise units on-board during the flight. Eight subjects' data have been used to evaluate the system performance by comparing the prescription of nine experienced exercise physiologists and the one prescribed by the expert system. The results of the validation test indicated that the performance of the expert system was acceptable.

  2. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    A study of intelligent guidance and control concepts for protecting against the adverse effects of wind shear during aircraft takeoffs and landings is being conducted, with current emphasis on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. Principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information , for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the manually controlled flight. The program has begun with the development of the WindShear Safety Advisor, an expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the FAA Windshear Training Aid; a two-volume manual that presents an overview , pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The WindShear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 200 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language.

  3. Expert communication link management: overview and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    1998-08-01

    Consider the downsizing of our forces, the increasing complexity of our tactical platforms, and the ever widening array of communication options and the conclusion is inevitable. The need for automated support to reduce communication-related workload is critical to continued task force effectiveness. In a previous era, communication management expertise resided solely in the form of human experts. These experts flew with the pilots, providing the most effective means of communication in real time; they have since been removed from a great number of platforms due to force downsizing and real estate value in the cockpit. This burden has typically been shifted to the pilot, providing another set of tasks in an environment which is already far too taxing. An Expert Communication Link Manger (ECLM) is required -- a trusted, reliable assistant which can determine optimal link, channel, and waveform data for the communication requirements at hand and translate those requirements transparently into communication device control. Technologies are at hand which make ECLM possible; the mixture of these elements in the correct proportions can provide a capable, deployable, and cost effective ECLM in the near term. This paper describes specific applied ECLM research work in progress funded by the USAF under a four year effort. Operational objectives, technical objectives, a reference design, and technical excursions within the broad ECLM scope will be discussed in detail. Results of prototypes built to date in the area of communication inference from speech understanding, dynamic adaptive routing, and packet switching networks in the tactical environment will be presented.

  4. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  5. Linking medical records to an expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Trace, David; Desouzaalmeida, Fabio

    1991-01-01

    This presentation will be done using the IMR-Entry (Intelligent Medical Record Entry) system. IMR-Entry is a software program developed as a front-end to our diagnostic consultant software MEDAS (Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System). MEDAS (the Medical Emergency Diagnostic Assistance System) is a diagnostic consultant system using a multimembership Bayesian design for its inference engine and relational database technology for its knowledge base maintenance. Research on MEDAS began at the University of Southern California and the Institute of Critical Care in the mid 1970's with support from NASA and NSF. The MEDAS project moved to Chicago in 1982; its current progress is due to collaboration between Illinois Institute of Technology, The Chicago Medical School, Lake Forest College and NASA at KSC. Since the purpose of an expert system is to derive a hypothesis, its communication vocabulary is limited to features used by its knowledge base. The development of a comprehensive problem based medical record entry system which could handshake with an expert system while creating an electronic medical record at the same time was studied. IMR-E is a computer based patient record that serves as a front end to the expert system MEDAS. IMR-E is a graphically oriented comprehensive medical record. The programs major components are demonstrated.

  6. Quantitative knowledge acquisition for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    A common problem in the design of expert systems is the definition of rules from data obtained in system operation or simulation. While it is relatively easy to collect data and to log the comments of human operators engaged in experiments, generalizing such information to a set of rules has not previously been a direct task. A statistical method is presented for generating rule bases from numerical data, motivated by an example based on aircraft navigation with multiple sensors. The specific objective is to design an expert system that selects a satisfactory suite of measurements from a dissimilar, redundant set, given an arbitrary navigation geometry and possible sensor failures. The systematic development is described of a Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) Expert System from Kalman Filter convariance data. The method invokes two statistical techniques: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 Algorithm. The ANOVA technique indicates whether variations of problem parameters give statistically different covariance results, and the ID3 algorithms identifies the relationships between the problem parameters using probabilistic knowledge extracted from a simulation example set. Both are detailed.

  7. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology.

  8. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology. PMID:23872214

  9. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Larry

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  11. STEMing the tide: using ingroup experts to inoculate women's self-concept in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

    PubMed

    Stout, Jane G; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Hunsinger, Matthew; McManus, Melissa A

    2011-02-01

    Three studies tested a stereotype inoculation model, which proposed that contact with same-sex experts (advanced peers, professionals, professors) in academic environments involving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enhances women's self-concept in STEM, attitudes toward STEM, and motivation to pursue STEM careers. Two cross-sectional controlled experiments and 1 longitudinal naturalistic study in a calculus class revealed that exposure to female STEM experts promoted positive implicit attitudes and stronger implicit identification with STEM (Studies 1-3), greater self-efficacy in STEM (Study 3), and more effort on STEM tests (Study 1). Studies 2 and 3 suggested that the benefit of seeing same-sex experts is driven by greater subjective identification and connectedness with these individuals, which in turn predicts enhanced self-efficacy, domain identification, and commitment to pursue STEM careers. Importantly, women's own self-concept benefited from contact with female experts even though negative stereotypes about their gender and STEM remained active.

  12. Advanced Rock Drilling Technologies Using High Laser Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckstegge, Frederik; Michel, Theresa; Zimmermann, Maik; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    Drilling through hard rock formations causes high mechanical wear and most often environmental disturbance. For the realization of an Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) power plant a new and efficient method for tunneling utilising laser technology to support mechanical ablation of rock formations will be developed. Laser irradiation of inhomogeneous rock surfaces causes irregular thermal expansion leading to the formation of cracks and splintering as well as melting and slag-formation. This study focuses on the interaction of laser irradiation with calcite, porphyrite and siderite rock formations. A high power disc laser system at 1030nm wavelength is used to investigate the specific energy necessary to remove a unit volume depending on interaction times and applied power. Specific energies have been measured and an increase of fragility and brittleness of the rock surface has been observed.

  13. 20 CFR 405.10 - Medical and Vocational Expert System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 405.10 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR... and Vocational Expert Unit and a national network of qualified medical, psychological, and vocational... and psychological experts from the national network may assist a State agency in...

  14. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices...

  15. Investigation of expert system application to spacecraft power system control

    SciTech Connect

    Pistole, C.; Bein, J.

    1984-08-01

    This paper addresses the application of expert systems to spacecraft power system control through investigation of two salient technical issues. These are the maximum speed of an expert system, and interaction between the expert system and transient phenomena. The basis of this discussion will be test data obtained through development of the Fault Isolation Expert System (FIES) at Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver. The expert system was tested to determine the minimum time required to clear a power system fault. This response time will be compared to conventional fault handling techniques, and analyzed to determine the maximum bandwidth of the system to be controlled. The second issue to be investigated is the relationship between expert system speed and power system transients. Specifically, FIES is intended to deal with quasi steady state inputs only. Therefore, expert system inputs must be filtered to eliminate the interaction between the expert system and transient phenomena. This paper will discuss the considerations involved in the tailoring of inputs.

  16. New Moms' Hair Loss Usually Temporary, Expert Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160480.html New Moms' Hair Loss Usually Temporary, Expert Says Blame ... hair is falling out, don't despair. Many new mothers experience hair loss, but an expert says ...

  17. 29 CFR 18.702 - Testimony by experts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Opinions and Expert Testimony § 18.702 Testimony by... to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert...

  18. Expert network development environment for automating machine fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Kristin L.; Levis, Alan P.; Hruska, Susan I.

    1996-03-01

    Automation of machine fault diagnosis is approached using an expert network which captures human expertise in symbolic form and is refined using historical performance data. A development environment for expert networks which draws from knowledge implicit in historical data to build and refine the expert network dynamically is presented. The testbed for the design of this development environment is fault diagnosis for gas chromatographs used in detecting contaminants in soil samples. The expert knowledge capture procedure for this testbed problem and its implementation in the G2 commercial expert system package were presented at AeroSense '95. The development environment for the fault diagnosis system includes several data-assisted methods which complement the expert knowledge embedded in the expert network. The first module presented, NetMaker, automatically constructs the network in G2 from an ASCH knowledge table file. NetMedic, the second module, is a data- assisted method which is used to confirm, refine, and augment expert knowledge in order to make the knowledge table more accurate. These tools form the foundation of the expert network development environment. The basis of the expert networks developed for machine fault diagnosis is the knowledge table, a matrix of signature symptoms and machine faults related by linguistic qualifiers. The knowledge table undergoes frequent revision due to refinements from the experts, data-enhanced knowledge from NetMedic, and improved symptom extraction algorithms. NetMaker satisfies the need to easily revise the knowledge tables and incorporate them seamlessly into the G2 expert network environment. NetMedic is used to improve machine fault diagnosis by suggesting alterations to the physical architecture of the knowledge table and the associated expert network, including several non-trainable parameters. This utility discovers relationships in the sample data using statistics from historical data. The experts may then

  19. RAMBOT: A Connectionist Expert System That Learns by Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozer, Michael C.

    One solution to the problem of getting expert knowledge into expert systems would be to endow the systems with powerful learning procedures that could discover appropriate behaviors by observing an expert in action. A promising source of such learning procedures can be found in recent work on connectionist networks, which are massively parallel…

  20. Applying expertise to data in the Geologist's Assistant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Berkbigler, K.P.; Papcun, G.J.; Marusak, N.L.; Hutson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Geologist's Assistant combines expert system technology with numerical pattern-matching and online communication to a large database. This paper discusses the types of rules used for the expert system, the pattern-matching technique applied, and the implementation of the system using a commercial expert system development environment. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  1. The Development of Expert Learners in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Saemah; Mahmud, Zuria; Yassin, Siti Fatimah Mohd; Amir, Ruslin; Ilias, Khadijah Wan

    2010-01-01

    The term "expert learner" refers to students who are actively engaged with the materials learned and take responsibility for their own learning. Literature reviews suggested the use of metacognitive approach to help develop students to become expert learners. Research on development of expert learners can be traced from movements that…

  2. Expert Systems: A Challenge for the Reading Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest

    The expert systems are designed to imitate the reasoning of a human expert in a content area field. Designed to be advisors, these software systems combine the content area knowledge and decision-making ability of an expert with the user's understanding and knowledge of particular circumstances. The reading diagnosis system, the RD2P System…

  3. Development of an instructional expert system for hole drilling processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Mutawa, Souhaila; Srinivas, Vijay; Moon, Young Bai

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which captures the expertise of workshop technicians in the drilling domain was developed. The expert system is aimed at novice technicians who know how to operate the machines but have not acquired the decision making skills that are gained with experience. This paper describes the domain background and the stages of development of the expert system.

  4. Attorney beliefs concerning scientific evidence and expert witness credibility.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Hayley J; Kehn, Andre; Wise, Richard A; Cramer, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Expert witnesses play a pivotal role in offering a variety of scientific evidence at trial. Although judges are the ultimate gatekeepers of what constitutes valid scientific evidence, attorneys play an important part in determining what evidence is presented to the court. Employing experimental and descriptive analyses, the present study sought to address gaps in the attorney/expert witness literature by addressing three questions: One) To what extent do attorneys prefer forensic or social scientific evidence and experts?, Two) How knowledgeable are attorneys concerning empirically-supported indicators of expert credibility?, Three) What do attorneys believe concerning the frequency and nature of expert errors in their own trials relative to others? Results showed that attorneys prefer forensic science evidence and experts compared to social/psychological counterparts. Moreover, attorneys displayed considerable knowledge of factors that will impact perceived expert credibility. In particular, attorneys value perceived expert trustworthiness, communication skills, content of testimony/reports, perceived expert knowledge, and years and type of expert experience. Finally, attorneys displayed a consistent and strong self-serving bias pattern, such that they believe expert errors occur more much frequently in other attorneys' cases compared to their own. Implications are discussed with respect to vetting expert witnesses, scientific evidence/errors and wrongful conviction, and training for attorneys. PMID:25869850

  5. The Limited Role of Expert Guidelines in Teaching Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the limited usefulness of expert guidelines for teaching psychopharmacology. Method: Potential problems using expert guidelines for teaching psychopharmacology are reviewed. Results: Expert guidelines are an important contribution to the growth of evidence-based psychiatry. As such, they may also be used to teach…

  6. Expert System Shells: Tools to Aid Human Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jack R.; Wilson, Brent G.

    1987-01-01

    Examines expert system shells and the role a microcomputer-based expert system can play as an intelligent job aid. Characteristics of traditional and automated job aids techniques are described, and the role of instructional designers in developing expert systems within organizations is discussed. (Author/LRW)

  7. Expert Graphics System Research in the Department of the Navy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Jon M.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current trends in the development of expert systems within the Department of the Navy, particularly research into expert graphics systems intended to support the Authoring Instructional Methods (AIM) research project. Defines artificial intelligence and expert systems. Discusses the operations and functions of the Navy's intelligent…

  8. 18 CFR 401.85 - Staff and other expert testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... writing to the Hearing Officer the report and proposed testimony of an expert witness. No expert report or... unless the report and proposed testimony shall have been provided to the Commission and all interested... the presentation of testimony by the Commission's technical staff and other experts, as he may...

  9. A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo

    Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

  10. 49 CFR 1503.645 - Expert or opinion witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.645 Expert or opinion witnesses. An employee of the agency may not be called as an expert or opinion witness, for any party other than TSA, in any... an expert or opinion witness for TSA in any proceeding governed by this subpart to which...

  11. Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.

  12. Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    AEMASE searches a database of recorded events for combinations of events that are of interest. It compares matching combinations to a statistical model to determine similarity to previous events of interest and alerts the user as new matching examples are found. AEMASE is currently used by weapons tactics instructors to find situations of interest in recorded tactical training scenarios. AEMASE builds on a sub-component, the Relational Blackboard (RBB), which is being released as open-source software. AEMASE builds on RBB adding interactive expert model construction (automated knowledge capture) and re-evaluation of scenario data.

  13. Describing expert practice in physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Shepard, K F; Hack, L M; Gwyer, J; Jensen, G M

    1999-11-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how grounded theory may be used to develop models for understanding clinical practice. Through a series of research studies involving novice, experienced, and expert physical therapy practitioners, conceptual frameworks were continually revised based on data obtained from returning to the field and relevant literature available at the time. As concepts and relationships moved to larger themes, a theoretical framework for expertise in clinical practice was proposed. Current work on verifying the theoretical framework continues. Grounded theory is an excellent research approach to bound and help guide a multistage research program involving multiple researchers working in multiple settings.

  14. Expert systems for clinical pathology reporting.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Glenn A

    2008-08-01

    * Conventional automated interpretative reporting systems use standard or "canned" comments for patient reports. These are result-specific and do not generally refer to the patient context. * Laboratory information systems (LIS) are limited in their application of patient-specific content of reporting. * Patient-specific interpretation requires extensive cross-referencing to other information contained in the LIS such as previous test results, other related tests, and clinical notes, both current and previous. * Expert systems have the potential to improve reporting quality by enabling patient-specific reporting in clinical laboratories.

  15. Automated Expert Modeling and Student Evaluation

    2012-09-12

    AEMASE searches a database of recorded events for combinations of events that are of interest. It compares matching combinations to a statistical model to determine similarity to previous events of interest and alerts the user as new matching examples are found. AEMASE is currently used by weapons tactics instructors to find situations of interest in recorded tactical training scenarios. AEMASE builds on a sub-component, the Relational Blackboard (RBB), which is being released as open-source software.more » AEMASE builds on RBB adding interactive expert model construction (automated knowledge capture) and re-evaluation of scenario data.« less

  16. HYCONES: a hybrid connectionist expert system.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Reátegui, E. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes HYCONES, a tightly-coupled Hybrid Connectionist Expert System that integrates neural networks with a symbolic approach (frames). The symbolic paradigm provides rich and flexible constructs to describe the domain knowledge, while the connectionist one provides the system with learning capabilities. The paper describes the architecture of the system, focusing on the hybrid aspects of the knowledge base and on its automatic knowledge acquisition technique from a case database. The first validation of the system is presented. At the end, a comparison with related research efforts and future developments are discussed. PMID:8130516

  17. Expert system for LAN media selection

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Bratten, W.A.; Williams, J.M.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    A continued rise in interconnectivity requirements and a shortage of experienced system integrators characterize a growing need for access to data networking information. Telecommunications personnel must make complex decisions regarding transfer media and topology. Informed decision making can be aided by an expert system capturing network planning knowledge. The LAN system has a modular architecture. It contains information regarding the design of Local Area Networks, as well as cost and time considerations. In addition, by including information regarding local constraints (e.g., equipment and distance), the system can be tailored to a new organization. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  18. European expert consensus on rotational atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Emanuele; Carrié, Didier; Dardas, Petros; Fajadet, Jean; Gaul, Georg; Haude, Michael; Khashaba, Ahmed; Koch, Karel; Meyer-Gessner, Markus; Palazuelos, Jorge; Reczuch, Krzysztof; Ribichini, Flavio L; Sharma, Samin; Sipötz, Johann; Sjögren, Iwar; Suetsch, Gabor; Szabó, György; Valdés-Chávarri, Mariano; Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Wijns, William; Windecker, Stephan; de Belder, Adam; Valgimigli, Marco; Byrne, Robert A; Colombo, Antonio; Di Mario, Carlo; Latib, Azeem; Hamm, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The interest in rotational atherectomy (RA) has increased over the past decade as a consequence of more complex and calcified coronary stenoses being attempted with percutaneous coronary interventions. Yet adoption of RA is hampered by several factors: amongst others, by the lack of a standardised protocol. This European expert consensus document stems from the awareness of the large heterogeneity in the protocols adopted to perform rotational atherectomy. The objective of the present document is to provide some points of consensus among highly experienced operators on the most controversial steps of RA in an attempt to build the basis of a standardised and universally accepted protocol.

  19. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 374: Expert testimony.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    It is the duty of obstetricians and gynecologists who testify as expert witnesses on behalf of defendants, the government, or plaintiffs to do so solely in accordance with their judgment on the merits of the case. Obstetrician-gynecologists must limit testimony to their sphere of medical expertise and must be prepared adequately. They must make a clear distinction between medical malpractice and medical maloccurrence. The acceptance of fees that are greatly disproportionate to those customary for professional services can be construed as influencing testimony given by the witness, and it is unethical to accept compensation that is contingent on the outcome of litigation. PMID:17666622

  20. Spanning the Research/Application Interface: Liaisons and Trainers as Agents Bridging Expert and Semi-Expert Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark

    This paper reviews the communicative behavior surrounding the coordination of expert and "semi-expert" groups of scientists and engineers by analyzing several histories of technology that focus on the coordination of research information between a research organization and many development organizations. For the paper's purposes, semi-expert means…

  1. Expert system for first order inelastic analysis of transmission towers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Kempner, L. Jr. ); Mueller, W. III )

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an Expert System is not new. It has been around since the days of the early computers when scientists had dreams of robot automation to do everything from washing windows to automobile design. This paper discusses an application of an expert system and addresses software development issues and various levels of expert system development form a structural engineering viewpoint. An expert system designed to aid the structural engineer in first order inelastic analysis of latticed steel transmission powers is presented. The utilization of expert systems with large numerical analysis programs is discussed along with the software development of such a system.

  2. Explainable expert systems: A research program in information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Cecile L.

    1993-01-01

    Our work in Explainable Expert Systems (EES) had two goals: to extend and enhance the range of explanations that expert systems can offer, and to ease their maintenance and evolution. As suggested in our proposal, these goals are complementary because they place similar demands on the underlying architecture of the expert system: they both require the knowledge contained in a system to be explicitly represented, in a high-level declarative language and in a modular fashion. With these two goals in mind, the Explainable Expert Systems (EES) framework was designed to remedy limitations to explainability and evolvability that stem from related fundamental flaws in the underlying architecture of current expert systems.

  3. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  4. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The concept of “expert patient” has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health. PMID:27445572

  5. Network approaches for expert decisions in sports.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Heinen, Thomas; Johnson, Joseph G; Raab, Markus

    2012-04-01

    This paper focuses on a model comparison to explain choices based on gaze behavior via simulation procedures. We tested two classes of models, a parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS) artificial neuronal network model and an accumulator model in a handball decision-making task from a lab experiment. Both models predict action in an option-generation task in which options can be chosen from the perspective of a playmaker in handball (i.e., passing to another player or shooting at the goal). Model simulations are based on a dataset of generated options together with gaze behavior measurements from 74 expert handball players for 22 pieces of video footage. We implemented both classes of models as deterministic vs. probabilistic models including and excluding fitted parameters. Results indicated that both classes of models can fit and predict participants' initially generated options based on gaze behavior data, and that overall, the classes of models performed about equally well. Early fixations were thereby particularly predictive for choices. We conclude that the analyses of complex environments via network approaches can be successfully applied to the field of experts' decision making in sports and provide perspectives for further theoretical developments.

  6. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    PubMed Central

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, and is the intervention feasible? If the information is true, will it require me to change my practice? If the answer to all three questions is yes, then the information is a common POEM (patient oriented evidence that matters), capable of improving the lives of your patients and must be evaluated for validity. Conclusions based on results of well designed clinical trials are more likely to be valid than those drawn from observations based on experience in clinical practice. Both members of the team, clinicians and experts, must take responsibility for their respective roles. PMID:9099121

  7. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.

  8. A rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state-of-the-art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the hydrogen-oxygen coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One-dimensional equilibrium chemistry was employed in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber and three-dimensional finite-difference analysis of the regenerative cooling channels was used to calculate the pressure drop along the channels and the coolant temperature as it exits the coolant circuit. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  9. A Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state of the art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the H2-O2 coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One dimensional equilibrium chemistry was used in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber. A 3-D conduction and/or 1-D advection analysis is used to predict heat transfer and coolant channel wall temperature distributions, in addition to coolant temperature and pressure drop. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  10. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  11. FIDEX: An expert system for satellite diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Tallo, Donald; Petrik, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A Fault Isolation and Diagnostic Expert system (FIDEX) was developed for communication satellite diagnostics. It was designed specifically for the 30/20 GHz satellite transponder. The expert system was designed with a generic structure and features that make it applicable to other types of space systems. FIDEX is a frame based system that enjoys many of the inherent frame base features, such as hierarchy that describes the transponder's components, with other hierarchies that provide structural and fault information about the transponder. This architecture provides a flexible diagnostic structure and enhances maintenance of the system. FIDEX also includes an inexact reasoning technique and a primitive learning ability. Inexact reasoning was an important feature for this system due to the sparse number of sensors available to provide information on the transponder's performance. FIDEX can determine the most likely faulted component under the constraint of limited information. FIDEX learns about the most likely faults in the transponder by keeping a record of past established faults. FIDEX also has the ability to detect anomalies in the sensors that provide information on the transponders performance.

  12. Statistical weld process monitoring with expert interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Strauss, A.M.; Thompson, F.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data of voltage, current, wire feed speed, gas flow rate, travel speed, and elapsed arc time collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. For purposes of quality control, the control limits required for acceptance are specified in the weld procedure acceptance specifications. The control charts then provide quality assurance documentation for each weld. The statistical data trending analysis performed by the SPC program is not only valuable as a quality assurance monitoring and documentation system, it is also valuable in providing diagnostic assistance in troubleshooting equipment and material problems. Possible equipment/process problems are identified and matched with features of the SPC control charts. To aid in interpreting the voluminous statistical output generated by the SPC system, a large number of If-Then rules have been devised for providing computer-based expert advice for pinpointing problems based on out-of-limit variations of the control charts. The paper describes the SPC monitoring tool and the rule-based expert interpreter that has been developed for relating control chart trends to equipment/process problems.

  13. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) Ada, an Ada Expert system tool is described. ART-Ada allow applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  14. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in an increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. The Automated Reasoning Tool-Ada (ART-Ada), an Ada expert system tool, is explained. ART-Ada allows applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom program and the U.S. Air Force.

  15. Interfacing the expert: Characteristics and requirements for the user interface in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Because expert systems deal with new sets of problems presenting unique interface requirements, special issues requiring special attention are presented to user interface designers. External knowledge representation (how knowdedge is represented across the user interface), modes of user-system interdependence (advisory, cooperative, and autonomous), and management of uncertainty (deciding what actions to take or recommend based on incomplete evidence) are discussed.

  16. From expert witness to defendant: abolition of expert witness protection and its implications.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    In Jones v Kaney [2011] 2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.

  17. Preparing Principals as Instructional Leaders: Perceptions of University Faculty, Expert Principals, and Expert Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…

  18. Sleep spindle detection: crowdsourcing and evaluating performance of experts, non-experts, and automated methods

    PubMed Central

    Warby, Simon C.; Wendt, Sabrina L.; Welinder, Peter; Munk, Emil G.S.; Carrillo, Oscar; Sorensen, Helge B.D.; Jennum, Poul; Peppard, Paul E.; Perona, Pietro; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Sleep spindles are discrete, intermittent patterns of brain activity that arise as a result of interactions of several circuits in the brain. Increasingly, these oscillations are of biological and clinical interest because of their role in development, learning, and neurological disorders. We used an internet interface to ‘crowdsource’ spindle identification from human experts and non-experts, and compared performance with 6 automated detection algorithms in middle-to-older aged subjects from the general population. We also developed a method for forming group consensus, and refined methods of evaluating the performance of event detectors in physiological data such as polysomnography. Compared to the gold standard, the highest performance was by individual experts and the non-expert group consensus, followed by automated spindle detectors. Crowdsourcing the scoring of sleep data is an efficient method to collect large datasets, even for difficult tasks such as spindle identification. Further refinements to automated sleep spindle algorithms are needed for middle-to-older aged subjects. PMID:24562424

  19. Expert models and modeling processes associated with a computer-modeling tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baohui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2006-07-01

    Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using think aloud technique and video recording, we captured their computer screen modeling activities and thinking processes. We also interviewed them the day following their modeling sessions to further probe the rationale of their modeling practices. We analyzed both the audio-video transcripts and the experts' models. We found the experts' modeling processes followed the linear sequence built in the modeling program with few instances of moving back and forth. They specified their goals up front and spent a long time thinking through an entire model before acting. They specified relationships with accurate and convincing evidence. Factors (i.e., variables) in expert models were clustered, and represented by specialized technical terms. Based on the above findings, we made suggestions for improving model-based science teaching and learning using Model-It.

  20. A Model-Based Expert System for Space Power Distribution Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Todd M.; Schlegelmilch, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    When engineers diagnose system failures, they often use models to confirm system operation. This concept has produced a class of advanced expert systems that perform model-based diagnosis. A model-based diagnostic expert system for the Space Station Freedom electrical power distribution test bed is currently being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The objective of this expert system is to autonomously detect and isolate electrical fault conditions. Marple, a software package developed at TRW, provides a model-based environment utilizing constraint suspension. Originally, constraint suspension techniques were developed for digital systems. However, Marple provides the mechanisms for applying this approach to analog systems such as the test bed, as well. The expert system was developed using Marple and Lucid Common Lisp running on a Sun Sparc-2 workstation. The Marple modeling environment has proved to be a useful tool for investigating the various aspects of model-based diagnostics. This report describes work completed to date and lessons learned while employing model-based diagnostics using constraint suspension within an analog system.

  1. Expert scientific evidence in the Israeli court.

    PubMed

    Sahar, A

    2007-06-01

    Most judges, by the very nature of their educational background, are less than sufficiently prepared for the task to fully comprehend the problems in disputes concerning scientific subjects. Judicial cognizance in such matters gives no support. The judge has no recourse but to rely on Expert Evidence. However, such evidence, especially in the adversarial system, requires the ability to evaluate it. Back to square one? Almost. The Israeli court borrowed, and followed for many years, the American solution - the Frye Principle (Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. at 47, 293 F. 1013 (1923) 1014) - "the thing from which the deduction is made must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the particular field in which it belongs " - meaning that an Expert's view is held as true if proven that it had been held by "the scientific community." This solution presented an almost insurmountable problem for novel scientific ideas. The were also exceptions - several Israeli Courts made the rather difficult task of examining the Experts' "working papers", i.e. the "crude" data on which he based his deductions. The model of such effort seems to be the English decision, by Stuart-Smith LJ in Loveday v Renton and Wellcome Foundation Ltd. ( (QBD) 1 Med Law Review, 1990:117). Seventy years after Frye the U.S. Supreme Court reviewed the subject of evaluation of scientific evidence. The new requirements were "... (1) ... whether the theory or technique can be and has been tested; (2) ... whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review ... (3) ... the known or potential rate of error of[the] technique; (4) [no requirement of] a particular degree of acceptance of the theory or technique within that [scientific] community, ... and (5) the inquiry is a flexible one, and the focus must be solely on principles and methodology, not on the conclusions that such principles and methodology generate ". Namely - the Judge, guided by intelligence and logic, is

  2. Gender and the experience of mental health expert witness testimony.

    PubMed

    Kaempf, Aimee C; Baxter, Prudence; Packer, Ira K; Pinals, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Mental health expert witness testimony involves complex tasks, and the capacity to perform under pressure is a fundamental skill of a forensic professional. In this context, it is important to understand the nuances of the provision of expert witness testimony. There have been several efforts to examine gender bias across legal and medical systems. Despite these reviews, little is known about how men and women differ or are similar with regard to performing expert witness functions. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether the testimony experiences of psychiatry and psychology experts vary by gender. Differences across certain domains, such as the sense of never experiencing anxiety and the sense of one's impact on case outcome were seen across genders. Few other gender-based differences in the experience of providing expert witness testimony were seen. Although the findings of this study raise further questions, they highlight some of the important subtleties noted in forensic practice and the work of the expert witness. In future studies, researchers should continue to explore these findings on the influence of gender and expand to consider culture and race as additional factors in the experience of expert witness testimony. As forensic professional practice evolves, it is important to understand unique aspects of forensic practice, to improve training of forensic experts, and to assist forensic experts in anticipating what they may experience related to the provision of expert testimony.

  3. Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

    2013-02-01

    The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

  4. Gender and the experience of mental health expert witness testimony.

    PubMed

    Kaempf, Aimee C; Baxter, Prudence; Packer, Ira K; Pinals, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Mental health expert witness testimony involves complex tasks, and the capacity to perform under pressure is a fundamental skill of a forensic professional. In this context, it is important to understand the nuances of the provision of expert witness testimony. There have been several efforts to examine gender bias across legal and medical systems. Despite these reviews, little is known about how men and women differ or are similar with regard to performing expert witness functions. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether the testimony experiences of psychiatry and psychology experts vary by gender. Differences across certain domains, such as the sense of never experiencing anxiety and the sense of one's impact on case outcome were seen across genders. Few other gender-based differences in the experience of providing expert witness testimony were seen. Although the findings of this study raise further questions, they highlight some of the important subtleties noted in forensic practice and the work of the expert witness. In future studies, researchers should continue to explore these findings on the influence of gender and expand to consider culture and race as additional factors in the experience of expert witness testimony. As forensic professional practice evolves, it is important to understand unique aspects of forensic practice, to improve training of forensic experts, and to assist forensic experts in anticipating what they may experience related to the provision of expert testimony. PMID:25770280

  5. Successful expert systems for space shuttle payload integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems are successfully applied to solve recurring NASA Space Shuttle orbiter payload integration problems. Recurrence of these problems is the result of each Space Shuttle mission being unique. The NASA Space Shuttle orbiter was designed to be extremely flexible in its ability to handle many types and combinations of satellites and experiments. This flexibility results in different and unique engineering resource requirements for each of the payload satellites and experiments. The first successful expert system to be applied to these problems was the Orbiter Payload Bay Cabling Expert System (EXCABL), developed at Rockwell International Space Transportation Systems Division. The operational version of EXCABL was delivered in 1986 and successfully solved the payload electrical support services cabling layout problem. As a result of this success, a second expert system, Expert Drawing Matching System (EXMATCH), was developed to generate a list of the reusable installation drawings available for each EXCABL solution. EXMATCH went operational in 1987. As a result of these initial successes, the need for a third expert system was defined and is awaiting development. This new Expert System, called Technical Order Listing Expert System (EXTOL), will generate a list of all the applicable reusable installation drawings available to support the total payload bay mission provisioning and installation effort. This paper describes these expert systems, the individual problems that they were designed to solve, their individual solutions, and the degree of success achieved. These expert systems' instantiate the applicability of this technology to the solution of real-world Space Shuttle payload integration problems.

  6. Technical Report of Successful Deployment of Tandem Visual Tracking During Live Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Between Novice and Expert Surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Baronia, Benedicto C

    2016-01-01

    With the recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons’ eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices and developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movement utilizing simulators and live surgery. None have evaluated simultaneous visual tracking between an expert and a novice during live surgery. Here, we describe a successful simultaneous deployment of visual tracking of an expert and a novice during live laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One expert surgeon and one chief surgical resident at an accredited surgical program in Lubbock, TX, USA performed a live laparoscopic cholecystectomy while simultaneously wearing the visual tracking devices. Their visual attitudes and movements were monitored via video recordings. The recordings were then analyzed for correlation between the expert and the novice. The visual attitudes and movements correlated approximately 85% between an expert surgeon and a chief surgical resident. The surgery was carried out uneventfully, and the data was abstracted with ease. We conclude that simultaneous deployment of visual tracking during live laparoscopic surgery is a possibility. More studies and subjects are needed to verify the success of our results and obtain data analysis. PMID:27774359

  7. Expert-System Consultant To Operating Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Astrid E.; Pinkowski, Patrick P.; Adler, Richard M.; Hosken, R. Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence aids engineers and technicians in controlling and monitoring complicated systems. Operations Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA) software is developmental suite of expert-system computer programs helping engineers and technicians operating from number of computer workstations to control and monitor spacecraft during prelaunch and launch phases of operation. OPERA designed to serve as consultant to operating engineers and technicians. It preprocesses incoming data, using expertise collected from conglomerate of specialists in design and operation of various parts of system. Driven by menus and mouse-activated commands. Modified versions of OPERA used in chemical-processing plants, factories, banks, and other enterprises in which there are distributed-computer systems including computers that monitor or control other computers.

  8. Expert Meeting Report. Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an expert meeting on Foundations–Research Results on November 15, 2011, in Minneapolis, MN. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover needs and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals. Key results were: greater understanding of the role of moisture transport through foundation and insulation materials and its potential impact on building durability; greater understanding of the role of foundation type in the process of selecting an insulation system for energy performance and building durability; need for research to quantify the risks associated with insulation processes to better enable users to weigh costs and benefits against the existing conditions of a home; need for improved performance modeling capabilities that address variations in foundation types and soil conditions.

  9. Verifying shuttle onboard software using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingert, William B.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle uses a complex set of software to guide, navigate, and control it through all phases of flight. Adding to the complexity is the fact that the software is reconfigured for each flight, i.e., thousands of constants in the software are changed to reflect the unique properties of a given mission. In the last level of tests, the software is flown through end to end nominal and abort scenarios taking the shuttle from liftoff to landing. The analysis of the results of the testing is experience and labor intensive. A set of pass/fail criteria were defined for each test case and in parallel with the knowledge acquisition, tools were developed which allowed the automation of the knowledge being gathered on paper. A prototype of the Analysis Criteria Expert System (ACES) was put into production in the verification of the reconfigured onboard flight software.

  10. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  11. Modified mixture of experts for diabetes diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2009-08-01

    Diagnosis tasks are among the most interesting activities in which to implement intelligent systems. The major objective of the paper is to be a guide for the readers, who want to develop an automated decision support system for detection of diabetics and subjects having risk factors of diabetes. The purpose was to determine an optimum classification scheme with high diagnostic accuracy for this problem. Several different classification algorithms were tested and their performances in detection of diabetics were compared. The performance of the classification algorithms was illustrated on the Pima Indians diabetes data set. The present research demonstrated that the modified mixture of experts (MME) achieved diagnostic accuracies which were higher than that of the other automated diagnostic systems. PMID:19697696

  12. Development of a data reduction expert assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn E.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the development and deployment of the Data Reduction Expert Assistant (DRACO). The system was successfully applied to two astronomical research projects. The first was the removal of cosmic ray artifacts from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera data. The second was the reduction and calibration of low-dispersion CCD spectra taken from a ground-based telescope. This has validated our basic approach and demonstrated the applicability of this technology. This work has been made available to the scientific community in two ways. First, we have published the work in the scientific literature and presented papers at relevant conferences. Secondly, we have made the entire system (including documentation and source code) available to the community via the World Wide Web.

  13. PLANET: a phage library analysis expert tool.

    PubMed

    Leplae, R; Tramontano, A

    1995-01-01

    In recent years random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage have been widely used and new ideas and techniques are continuously developing in the field (1-5). Notwithstanding this growing interest in the technique and in its promising results, and the enormous increase in usage and scope, very little effort has been devoted to the implementation of software able to handle and analyze the growing number of phage library-derived sequences. In our laboratory, phage libraries are extensively used and peptide sequences are continuously produced, so that the need arose of creating a database (6) to collect all the experimental results in a format compatible with GCG sequence analysis packages (7). We present here the description of an XWindow-based software package named PLANET (Phage Library ANalysis Expert Tool) devoted to the maintenance and statistical analysis of the database.

  14. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  15. Program for Experimentation With Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engle, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    CERBERUS is forward-chaining, knowledge-based system program useful for experimentation with expert systems. Inference-engine mechanism performs deductions according to user-supplied rule set. Information stored in intermediate area, and user interrogated only when no applicable data found in storage. Each assertion posed by CERBERUS answered with certainty ranging from 0 to 100 percent. Rule processor stops investigating applicable rules when goal reaches certainty of 95 percent or higher. Capable of operating for wide variety of domains. Sample rule files included for animal identification, pixel classification in image processing, and rudimentary car repair for novice mechanic. User supplies set of end goals or actions. System complexity decided by user's rule file. CERBERUS written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process. PMID:25890886

  17. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process.

  18. Development of an Expert System for Representing Procedural Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1985-01-01

    A high level of automation is of paramount importance in most space operations. It is critical for unmanned missions and greatly increases the effectiveness of manned missions. However, although many functions can be automated by using advanced engineering techniques, others require complex reasoning, sensing, and manipulatory capabilities that go beyond this technology. Automation of fault diagnosis and malfunction handling is a case in point. The military have long been interested in this problem, and have developed automatic test equipment to aid in the maintenance of complex military hardware. These systems are all based on conventional software and engineering techniques. However, the effectiveness of such test equipment is severely limited. The equipment is inflexible and unresponsive to the skill level of the technicians using it. The diagnostic procedures cannot be matched to the exigencies of the current situation nor can they cope with reconfiguration or modification of the items under test. The diagnosis cannot be guided by useful advice from technicians and, when a fault cannot be isolated, no explanation is given as to the cause of failure. Because these systems perform a prescribed sequence of tests, they cannot utilize knowledge of a particular situation to focus attention on more likely trouble spots. Consequently, real-time performance is highly unsatisfactory. Furthermore, the cost of developing test software is substantial and time to maturation is excessive. Significant advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have recently led to the development of powerful and flexible reasoning systems, known as expert or knowledge-based systems. We have devised a powerful and theoretically sound scheme for representing and reasoning about procedural knowledge.

  19. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  20. Development of an expert system for fire management in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Abtahi, H. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic elements of an integrated fire management system (FMS) for buildings. The system is designed in the context of an expert system that incorporates detection and sensing modules, a software-based decision-making module, and an actuation/communication module. The physical and behavioral aspects of a fire occurrence are incorporated in a system model. The model can be simulated in real time in an actual fire, or used as a training tool for architects, engineers, building managers, and fire fighters. Detected data from a fire occurrence, such as flame height or smoke generation, are used in conjunction with a knowledge library and an inference engine, not only to activate the mechanical systems of the building, but to communicate information regarding optimum escape paths to both the occupants and fire fighters. The paper also discusses the need for advances in fire safety codes, especially the need for enhancement of way finding devices. Finally, preliminary results of a LISP-based program that determines escape path based on occupancy, fire and smoke conditions, and building geometry are presented.

  1. An Expert System For Multispectral Threat Assessment And Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1987-05-01

    A concept has been defined for an automatic system to manage the self-defense of a combat aircraft. Distinctive new features of this concept include: a. the flexible prioritization of tasks and coordinated use of sensor, countermeasures, flight systems and weapons assets by means of an automated planning function; b. the integration of state-of-the-art data fusion algorithms with event prediction processing; c. the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence tools to emulate the decision processes of tactical EW experts. Threat Assessment functions (a) estimate threat identity, lethality and intent on the basis of multi-spectral sensor data, and (b) predict the time to critical events in threat engagements (e.g., target acquisition, tracking, weapon launch, impact). Response Management functions (a) select candidate responses to reported threat situations; (b) estimate the effects of candidate actions on survival; and (c) coordinate the assignment of sensors, weapons and countermeasures with the flight plan. The system employs Finite State Models to represent current engagements and to predict subsequent events. Each state in a model is associated with a set of observable features, allowing interpretation of sensor data and adaptive use of sensor assets. Defined conditions on state transitions allow prediction of times to critical future states and are used in planning self-defensive responses, which are designed either to impede a particular state transition or to force a transition to a lower threat state.

  2. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  3. The forensic expert witness--an issue of competency.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Jehuda; Freund, Maya; Kahana, Tzipi

    2007-05-24

    Scientists submitting expert opinions within the legal system are expected to be knowledgeable in the forensic aspects of their particular science, as well as to be ethical and unbiased. Scientists are seldom able to decline a request to provide an expert opinion in their field, even when their forensic expertise is minimal. The competence of scientists providing expert opinions in forensic cases is reviewed here. Three examples of the perils of uninformed "expertise" in forensic biology, medicine and anthropology are presented.

  4. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  5. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  6. Expert diagnostics system as a part of analysis software for power mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jennifer A.; Bahrami, Khosrow A.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of interplanetary spacecraft at JPL has become an increasingly complex activity. This complexity is due to advanced spacecraft designs and ambitious mission objectives which lead to operations requirements that are more demanding than those of any previous mission. For this reason, several productivity enhancement measures are underway at JPL within mission operations, particularly in the spacecraft analysis area. These measures aimed at spacecraft analysis include: the development of a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment; the introduction of automated tools into this environment; and the development of an expert diagnostics system. This paper discusses an effort to integrate the above mentioned productivity enhancement measures. A prototype was developed that integrates an expert diagnostics system into a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment using the Galileo Power / Pyro Subsystem as a testbed. This prototype will be discussed in addition to background information associated with it.

  7. An hierarchical approach to performance evaluation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1985-01-01

    The number and size of expert systems is growing rapidly. Formal evaluation of these systems - which is not performed for many systems - increases the acceptability by the user community and hence their success. Hierarchical evaluation that had been conducted for computer systems is applied for expert system performance evaluation. Expert systems are also evaluated by treating them as software systems (or programs). This paper reports many of the basic concepts and ideas in the Performance Evaluation of Expert Systems Study being conducted at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  8. Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.

  9. An expert system development methodology which supports verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems have demonstrated commercial viability in a wide range of applications, but still face some obstacles to widespread use. A major stumbling block is the lack of well defined verification and validation (V and V) techniques. The primary difficulty with expert system V and V is the use of development methodologies which do not support V and V. As with conventional code, the key to effective V and V is the development methodology. An expert system development methodology is described which is based upon a panel review approach, that allows input from all parties concerned with the expert system.

  10. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  11. Gender-intrusive questioning: a survey of expert witnesses.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; O'Connor, Maureen; Mechanic, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of male and female psychologists with expert witness experience. The survey explored the roles of both expert witness gender and valence of the testimony to provide preliminary empirical data on whether gender in combination with the valence of testimony leads to perceived bias targeted towards female experts. The presence of such bias might diminish the credibility of the expert and subsequently the proffered testimony and, thus, undermine the legal system as effective fact-finder by leading to decision-making based on extra-legal factors. PMID:24723506

  12. Unloading the hired gun: Inoculation effects in expert witness testimony.

    PubMed

    Ziemke, Mitchell H; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of inoculation as a trial strategy designed to counter mock jurors' perceptions that an expert is a hired gun in a criminal trial. The effect of narrative and fragmented expert responses to cross-examination questions was also examined. The significant results were that not using inoculation led to higher ratings of expert knowledge compared to other conditions. Response style did not make a difference in the criminal setting. Implications of these results regarding "hired gun" expert witnesses and courtroom persuasion are discussed. PMID:26299600

  13. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Matthews; L. K. Burggraf; W. J. Reece

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

  14. Expert System for Computer-assisted Annotation of MS/MS Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Nadin; Michalski, Annette; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    An important step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides by their fragment spectra. Regardless of the identification score achieved, almost all tandem-MS (MS/MS) spectra contain remaining peaks that are not assigned by the search engine. These peaks may be explainable by human experts but the scale of modern proteomics experiments makes this impractical. In computer science, Expert Systems are a mature technology to implement a list of rules generated by interviews with practitioners. We here develop such an Expert System, making use of literature knowledge as well as a large body of high mass accuracy and pure fragmentation spectra. Interestingly, we find that even with high mass accuracy data, rule sets can quickly become too complex, leading to over-annotation. Therefore we establish a rigorous false discovery rate, calculated by random insertion of peaks from a large collection of other MS/MS spectra, and use it to develop an optimized knowledge base. This rule set correctly annotates almost all peaks of medium or high abundance. For high resolution HCD data, median intensity coverage of fragment peaks in MS/MS spectra increases from 58% by search engine annotation alone to 86%. The resulting annotation performance surpasses a human expert, especially on complex spectra such as those of larger phosphorylated peptides. Our system is also applicable to high resolution collision-induced dissociation data. It is available both as a part of MaxQuant and via a webserver that only requires an MS/MS spectrum and the corresponding peptides sequence, and which outputs publication quality, annotated MS/MS spectra (www.biochem.mpg.de/mann/tools/). It provides expert knowledge to beginners in the field of MS-based proteomics and helps advanced users to focus on unusual and possibly novel types of fragment ions. PMID:22888147

  15. Expert system for computer-assisted annotation of MS/MS spectra.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Nadin; Michalski, Annette; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    An important step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides by their fragment spectra. Regardless of the identification score achieved, almost all tandem-MS (MS/MS) spectra contain remaining peaks that are not assigned by the search engine. These peaks may be explainable by human experts but the scale of modern proteomics experiments makes this impractical. In computer science, Expert Systems are a mature technology to implement a list of rules generated by interviews with practitioners. We here develop such an Expert System, making use of literature knowledge as well as a large body of high mass accuracy and pure fragmentation spectra. Interestingly, we find that even with high mass accuracy data, rule sets can quickly become too complex, leading to over-annotation. Therefore we establish a rigorous false discovery rate, calculated by random insertion of peaks from a large collection of other MS/MS spectra, and use it to develop an optimized knowledge base. This rule set correctly annotates almost all peaks of medium or high abundance. For high resolution HCD data, median intensity coverage of fragment peaks in MS/MS spectra increases from 58% by search engine annotation alone to 86%. The resulting annotation performance surpasses a human expert, especially on complex spectra such as those of larger phosphorylated peptides. Our system is also applicable to high resolution collision-induced dissociation data. It is available both as a part of MaxQuant and via a webserver that only requires an MS/MS spectrum and the corresponding peptides sequence, and which outputs publication quality, annotated MS/MS spectra (www.biochem.mpg.de/mann/tools/). It provides expert knowledge to beginners in the field of MS-based proteomics and helps advanced users to focus on unusual and possibly novel types of fragment ions.

  16. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  17. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

  18. Experts bodies, experts minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sperduti, Marco; Di Rienzo, Franck; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define "expertise" from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery), and meditation as a paradigmatic example of "pure" mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  19. America's most computer advanced healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Healthcare Informatics polled industry experts for nominations for this listing of America's Most Computer-Advanced Healthcare Facilities. Nominations were reviewed for extent of departmental automation, leading-edge applications, advanced point-of-care technologies, and networking communications capabilities. Additional consideration was given to smaller facilities automated beyond "normal expectations." Facility representatives who believe their organizations should be included in our next listing, please contact Healthcare Informatics for a nomination form.

  20. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  1. Training experts in family medicine teaching.

    PubMed

    Švab, Igor; Allen, Justin; Žebiene, Egle; Petek Šter, Marija; Windak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine teachers require specific educational skills. A framework for their professional development is essential for future development of the discipline in Europe. EURACT developed a framework on educational expertise, and subsequently applied it in a curriculum of teaching-skills courses of various levels. The aim of this article is to describe the development of the teaching framework, and of an international three-level course programme for 'teaching-the-teachers'. Furthermore, we describe our experiences and lessons learned, in particular with regard to the level-three programme for proficient teachers, which was new. We conclude that it is possible to develop a theoretical framework of family medicine teaching expertise and to apply it in an international high-level educational programme for future experts in family medicine education. Research evidence of the usefulness of this approach is needed, and the threats for its further development into a sustainable activity are its high teacher/student ratio associated with relatively high costs and difficulties in recruiting suitable participants.

  2. SSME fault monitoring and diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Norman, Arnold M.; Gupta, U. K.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system, called LEADER, has been designed and implemented for automatic learning, detection, identification, verification, and correction of anomalous propulsion system operations in real time. LEADER employs a set of sensors to monitor engine component performance and to detect, identify, and validate abnormalities with respect to varying engine dynamics and behavior. Two diagnostic approaches are adopted in the architecture of LEADER. In the first approach fault diagnosis is performed through learning and identifying engine behavior patterns. LEADER, utilizing this approach, generates few hypotheses about the possible abnormalities. These hypotheses are then validated based on the SSME design and functional knowledge. The second approach directs the processing of engine sensory data and performs reasoning based on the SSME design, functional knowledge, and the deep-level knowledge, i.e., the first principles (physics and mechanics) of SSME subsystems and components. This paper describes LEADER's architecture which integrates a design based reasoning approach with neural network-based fault pattern matching techniques. The fault diagnosis results obtained through the analyses of SSME ground test data are presented and discussed.

  3. Expert system for neurosurgical treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Chung, Sally S. Y.; Kwok, John C. K.

    1996-04-01

    A specially designed expert system is in development for neurosurgical treatment planning. The knowledge base contains knowledge and experiences on neurosurgical treatment planning from neurosurgeon consultants, who also determine the risks of different regions in human brains. When completed, the system can simulate the decision making process of neurosurgeons to determine the safest probing path for operation. The Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan images for each patient are grabbed as the input. The system also allows neurosurgeons to include for any particular patient the additional information, such as how the tumor affects its neighboring functional regions, which is also important for calculating the safest probing path. It can then consider all the relevant information and find the most suitable probing path on the patient's brain. A 3D brain model is constructed for each set of the CT/MRI scan images and is displayed real-time together with the possible probing paths found. The precise risk value of each path is shown as a number between 0 and 1, together with its possible damages in text. Neurosurgeons can view more than one possible path simultaneously, and make the final decision on the selected path for operation.

  4. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. )

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  5. Expert system for automatically correcting OCR output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Borsack, Julie; Condit, Allen

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes a new expert system for automatically correcting errors made by optical character recognition (OCR) devices. The system, which we call the post-processing system, is designed to improve the quality of text produced by an OCR device in preparation for subsequent retrieval from an information system. The system is composed of numerous parts: an information retrieval system, an English dictionary, a domain-specific dictionary, and a collection of algorithms and heuristics designed to correct as many OCR errors as possible. For the remaining errors that cannot be corrected, the system passes them on to a user-level editing program. This post-processing system can be viewed as part of a larger system that would streamline the steps of taking a document from its hard copy form to its usable electronic form, or it can be considered a stand alone system for OCR error correction. An earlier version of this system has been used to process approximately 10,000 pages of OCR generated text. Among the OCR errors discovered by this version, about 87% were corrected. We implement numerous new parts of the system, test this new version, and present the results.

  6. [The surgeon, the expert, the judge].

    PubMed

    Vayre, P

    1996-12-01

    A study of 125 medico-legal opinions and evaluation of the literature allows for: an appreciation of the evolution in the concept in the jurisprudence pertaining to the responsibility of the surgeon in France in present practice conditions, a definition of the role of the legal expert, an explanation of the development of paths outside the procedural setting. In the present state of our knowledge the responsibility related to a prejudicial error has a frequency of 25-30% all jurisdictions and disciplines considered together. In 66% of cases the error is the absence of a timely treatment decision or a defective postoperative follow up. A mishap without proven error is present 50% of the cases which justifies a decision of coverage outside the civil responsibility of the surgeon. The modern conditions of surgical practice, the implications of the new technologies, the evolution of economic and socio-cultural ideas must lead the political decision makers and health-professionals to rapidly define a clear line of conduct. In the absence of comprehensive statistics from the courts, the qualitative and quantitative information contained in the national database "Remedhos France", now available, will be useful to inform the surgical community on the risk and its prevention, as well as to orient a homogenous doctrine and its applications in view of a common European approach.

  7. What Makes an Expert Barrett's Histopathologist?

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Myrtle J; Jansen, Marnix; Vieth, Michael; Meijer, Sybren L

    2016-01-01

    Clonal evolution to esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus (BO) is characterized by relentless clonal competition. Developing markers that capture the dynamics of clonal competition in BO patients for risk stratification purposes is a key goal of translational research. Dysplastic epithelial changes in patients who progress to neoplasia can be viewed as a proxy marker of the clonal dynamics in BO progression. However, this marker is relatively insensitive because it does not pick up on clonal expansions that are not accompanied by morphologic changes. Moreover, interobserver variability between histopathologists hampers the specificity of this marker in predicting disease progression. International guidelines now stipulate that dysplasia should be confirmed by a second gastrointestinal histopathologist. This recommendation emphasizes the importance of special expertise in Barrett's histopathology. Currently, though there are no criteria that lay down "what makes an expert Barrett's histopathologist?" Here we review the histopathology of Barrett's dysplasia with an emphasis on the collaborative role of the histopathologist in the management of BO patients who progress to dysplasia, while the accompanying paper by Shepherd and colleagues discusses the histopathology of nondysplastic BO. We evaluate factors that may contribute to interobserver variability and provide details on adjunct tests (such as p53 immunohistochemistry) and standardized handling and reporting of risk factors in endoscopic resection specimens. Strict application of diagnostic criteria fosters diagnostic uniformity and facilitates tailored care of patients with early stage esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. PMID:27573771

  8. Review calls Avanti safe; expert questions validity.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    A review of company studies of the Avanti polyurethane condom suggests that the condom slips and breaks less often or with the same frequency as latex condoms. Results of another study of the plastic condom, sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD), are expected later this spring. The government study was requested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after previous studies showed high breakage rates with the new condom. Approved in 1991 for latex-sensitive individuals, Avanti is the only male condom, other than lamb skin, available to the estimated one percent to two percent of the general population that is sensitive to latex. Experts expect more people to develop greater sensitivity to latex with repeated exposure. Meanwhile, the maker of Avanti, London International Group of Cambridge, England, reported that the condoms broke at a rate of 0.9 percent and that latex condoms broke at a rate of 2.1 percent. These study results contradicted pilot NICHHD studies, however, and the FDA later asked the company and the NICHHD to conduct new research. Several other plastic condoms have been submitted to the FDA for approval, and a thicker version of Avanti was approved last year. PMID:11363405

  9. Knowledge representation and problem solution in expert and novice youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    French, K E; Nevett, M E; Spurgeon, J H; Graham, K C; Rink, J E; McPherson, S L

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in knowledge representation and problem solutions in expert and novice youth baseball players. Ninety-four players in two age divisions, 7-8 years of age and 9-10 years of age, were assigned to three levels of expertise: high; average; and low skilled. Each subject participated in an interview session to elicit knowledge representation and solutions to five different defensive game situations. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content, solution to the problem, errors in problem solution, and qualitative trends. The frequency of advanced solutions to each of the five situations were analyzed in separate chi-square tests for age and expertise. Differences among the levels of expertise were found for the accuracy of solutions to three complex situations. Age was significant for only one situation. Patterns of knowledge content accessed during advanced and less advanced responses indicated both experts and novices were in a beginning stage of developing baseball knowledge structures. Errors in problem solutions indicated children had difficulty monitoring critical conditions and making correct inferences. Players' and teammates' ability to execute baseball skills seemed to influence the content and structure of tactical knowledge accessed during problem solution.

  10. 16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a respondent's expert reports. If material outside the scope of fair rebuttal is presented, a... trial or by deposition within the preceding 4 years. A rebuttal or surrebuttal report need not include... person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. Unless...

  11. 16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a respondent's expert reports. If material outside the scope of fair rebuttal is presented, a... trial or by deposition within the preceding 4 years. A rebuttal or surrebuttal report need not include... person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. Unless...

  12. 16 CFR 3.31A - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a respondent's expert reports. If material outside the scope of fair rebuttal is presented, a... trial or by deposition within the preceding 4 years. A rebuttal or surrebuttal report need not include... person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. Unless...

  13. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  14. A Cognitive Model of Experts' Algebraic Solving Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Anibal

    2003-01-01

    We studied experts' solving methods and analyzed the nature of mathematical knowledge as well as their efficiency in algebraic calculations. We constructed a model of the experts cognitive functioning (notably teachers) in which the observed automatisms were modeled in terms of schemes and instruments. Mathematical justification of transformation…

  15. Uncovering Predictors of Disagreement: Ensuring the Quality of Expert Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoth, Jessica; Schwarz, Björn; Kaiser, Gabriele; Busse, Andreas; König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Rating scales are a popular item format used in many types of assessments. Yet, defining which rating is correct often represents a challenge. Using expert ratings as benchmarks is one approach to ensuring the quality of a rating instrument. In this paper, such expert ratings are analyzed in detail taking a video-based test instrument of teachers'…

  16. Recruiting Expert Teachers into Hard-to-Staff Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    America's most highly qualified teachers are underrepresented in America's most challenging schools. Across the nation, only about 15% of America's expert teachers teach in high-poverty, underachieving schools. Most expert teachers teach in schools with fewer racial minority students, fewer students from low-income households, and fewer students…

  17. Zambian Teachers' Perceptions of Expert Teaching: Resourcefulness, Punctuality, and Sobriety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carolyn M.; Thomas, Matthew A. M.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines Zambian teachers' perceptions of expert teaching, as identified by characteristics possessed by a theoretical "expert teacher". One primary question guided the study: In the minds of teachers at basic schools (grades one to nine) in Choma District, Zambia, what specific characteristics are believed to be essential for…

  18. The Principles of Designing an Expert System in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salekhova, Lailya; Nurgaliev, Albert; Zaripova, Rinata; Khakimullina, Nailya

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals general didactic concepts of the Expert Systems (ES) development process in the educational area. The proof of concept is based on the example of teaching the 8th grade Algebra subject. The main contribution in this work is the implementation of innovative approaches in analysis and processing of data by expert system as well as…

  19. The Expert Mathematician. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "The Expert Mathematician" is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A three-year program of instruction, "The Expert Mathematician" uses a software and consumable print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the "Logo" programming language. Each lesson ranges…

  20. MOORE: A prototype expert system for diagnosing spacecraft problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlin, Katherine; Weissert, Jerry; Krantz, Kerry

    1988-01-01

    MOORE is a rule-based, prototype expert system that assists in diagnosing operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) problems. It is intended to assist spacecraft engineers at the TDRS ground terminal in trouble shooting problems that are not readily solved with routine procedures, and without expert counsel. An additional goal of the prototype system is to develop in-house expert system and knowledge engineering skills. The prototype system diagnoses antenna pointing and earth pointing problems that may occur within the TDRS Attitude Control System (ACS). Plans include expansion to fault isolation of problems in the most critical subsystems of the TDRS spacecraft. Long term benefits are anticipated with use of an expert system during future TDRS programs with increased mission support time, reduced problem solving time, and retained expert knowledge and experience. Phase 2 of the project is intended to provide NASA the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite. Phase 2 also envisions addressing two unexplored applications for expert systems, spacecraft integration and tests (I and T) and support to launch activities. The concept, goals, domain, tools, knowledge acquisition, developmental approach, and design of the expert system. It will explain how NASA obtained the knowledge and capability to develop the system in-house without assistance from outside consultants. Future plans will also be presented.

  1. An Expert System Adviser for Tourists Planning To Visit Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchanosatha, Vinita

    This document reports on an examination of the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of an interactive computer program. The program is called an expert system adviser, and is for tourists planning on visiting Thailand. The expert system contains well-organized information that provides detailed coverage of Thailand. The…

  2. Solving Accounting Problems: Differences between Accounting Experts and Novices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, P. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…

  3. Expert Systems in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 174.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles W., Jr., Comp.; Myers, Judy E., Comp.

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) kit presents the results of a survey of library members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) which assessed their perceptions of expert systems and determined their level of expert system development activity; 78 of these ARL libraries returned useable surveys, and 7 submitted planning…

  4. Artificial Experts: The Computer as Diagnostician Has Definite Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Argues that, although expert systems--which are supposed to give users all the advantages of consulting with human experts--can be useful for medical diagnosis, where tests tend to be reliable, they can be hazardous in such areas as psychological testing, where test reliability is difficult to measure. (MBR)

  5. Being an Expert Mathematics Online Tutor: What Does Expertise Entail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinovic, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…

  6. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  7. Figuring the World of Designing: Expert Participation in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to analyze the interaction between elementary students and a professional design expert. The expert was present in the classroom, facilitating a collaborative lamp designing process together with the teacher. Using the notion of "figured worlds" (Holland et al. 1998), we explored how learning could be…

  8. Expert and Naive Raters Using the PAG: Does it Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Edwin T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Questions the observed correlation between job experts and naive raters using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ); and conducts a replication of the Smith and Hakel study (1979) with college students (N=39). Concluded that PAQ ratings from job experts and college students are not equivalent and therefore are not interchangeable. (LLL)

  9. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  10. The Dark Side of CML: A Look at Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Dale C.

    The paper examines implications of the application of computer expert systems in the field of education, particularly special education. The development of expert systems in general is reviewed as are its applications in education as intelligent tutoring systems and in special education in the areas of student classification, teacher education,…

  11. [Medical expert assessment in psychiatry from the legal viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, H L

    1996-11-01

    The subjects of psychiatric assessments do vary greatly. The main subject of criminal proceedings seems to be that of criminal responsibility. This leads to many misunderstandings. Court and expert have to use the same definitions. Criminal responsibility cannot be the deterministically interpreted freedom of will. The prevailing law does only answer insufficiently the question of selection or consultation of further experts.

  12. College-Admissions Experts Differ on Value of Summer Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to getting into college, admissions experts differ on the value of summer jobs compared with that of academic programs, unpaid internships, foreign travel, or other activities designed to look good on a college application. This article presents some views from these experts regarding the value of students' summer jobs. They believe,…

  13. Curricula for Media Literacy Education According to International Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander; Levitskaya, Anastasia; Camarero, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of the international experts' survey regarding the curriculum of media literacy education, which was administrated by the authors in September-October 2015. The expert panel includes specialists actively involved in the real process of media literacy education in schools, universities and other educational…

  14. The Finishing Touch: Anatomy of Expert Lesson Closures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Connolly, Graeme; Schempp, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Based on the idea that students remember best what is presented last, the lesson closure is commonly identified as an important component of effective teaching and has recently surfaced as a routine practice of expert teachers in sport. Despite its link to both effective and expert instruction, the lesson closure has seen scarce…

  15. An expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.; Oppenlander, J.E.; Brudnoy, D.M.; Englund, J.M.; Loomis, K.C.

    1991-12-31

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits, DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, an obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  16. Cataloging and Expert Systems: AACR2 as a Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerppe, Roland; Olander, Birgitta

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project that developed two expert systems for library cataloging using the second edition of the Anglo American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) as a knowledge base. The discussion covers cataloging as interpretation, the structure of AACR2, and the feasibility of using expert systems for cataloging in traditional library settings. (26…

  17. Toward the efficient implementation of expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the development of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert system applications for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force. Additional information is given on dynamic memory allocation.

  18. 42 CFR 411.377 - Expert opinions from outside sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expert opinions from outside sources. 411.377 Section 411.377 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.377 Expert...

  19. 42 CFR 1008.33 - Expert opinions from outside sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expert opinions from outside sources. 1008.33 Section 1008.33 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Advisory Opinion Fees § 1008.33 Expert opinions...

  20. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…