Science.gov

Sample records for advanced expert cae

  1. Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.

  2. Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES)-a useful tool to practice and learn medical acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chi Fai David; Leung, Kwong Sak; Heng, Pheng Ann; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Wong, Felix Wu Shun

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) that will assist the learning and practice of medical acupuncture. This was the development of a Chinese Acupuncture Expert System which incorporated eight functional modules. These modules were 1) Add Patient Record subsystem; 2) Diagnosis subsystem ; 3) Acupuncture Prescription subsystem ; 4) Needle Insertion Position Animation subsystem ; 5) Acupuncture Points Usage Statistic subsystem ; 6) History Query subsystem; 7) Acupuncture Points Query subsystem and 8) Diagnosis Remarks and Diagnosis Record Save subsystem. Two databases were built-Patient Record database and Diagnosis (Acupuncture) Knowledge database. All the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) knowledge and acupuncture treatment prescriptions were extracted from officially used TCM textbooks and received guidance and expert advice from two acupuncturists working in this project. A Chinese Acupuncture Expert System (CAES) was built, which after the input from users of any Chinese disease symptoms and signs, it can provide a list of related TCM syndrome diagnoses based on the patients' disease symptoms and signs, and at the same time it can offer advice of the appropriate Chinese acupuncture treatment to the users. CAES also provided text descriptions and acupuncture animations showing the acupoint locations and the direction and depth of the needle insertion technique. Therefore users can easily learn acupuncture and practice it. This new acupuncture expert system will hopefully provide an easy way for users to learn and practice Chinese Acupuncture and establish its usefulness after it was fully evaluated.

  3. Radionuclide Emission Estimation for the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley J Schrader

    2010-02-01

    An Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC)-7 model dose assessment was performed to evaluate maximum Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) boundary effective dose equivalent (EDE, in mrem/yr) for potential individual releases of radionuclides from the facility. The CAES is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding educational opportunities at Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed a strategic plan (INL/EXT-07-12950) based on the balanced scorecard approach. At the present time it is unknown exactly what processes will be used in the facility in support of this strategic plan. What is known is that the Idaho State University (ISU) Radioactive Materials License (Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] license 11-27380-01) is the basis for handling radioactive material in the facility. The material in this license is shared between the ISU campus and the CAES facility. There currently are no agreements in place to limit the amount of radioactive material at the CAES facility or what is done to the material in the facility. The scope of this analysis is a summary look at the basis dose for each radionuclide included under the license at a distance of 100, 500, and 1,000 m. Inhalation, ingestion and ground surface dose was evaluated using the NRC design basis guidelines. The results can be used to determine a sum of the fractions approach to facility safety. This sum of the fractions allows a facility threshold value (TV) to be established and potential activities to be evaluated against

  4. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  5. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-08-05

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  6. CAES Annual Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Kortny Rolston

    2011-10-01

    The Center for Advanced Energy Studies was created to lead research programs important to the nation, attract students and faculty to the Idaho universities and act as a catalyst for technology-based economic development. CAES is striving to meet those goals by continuing to develop its infrastructure and equipment capabilities, expand its research portfolio and bolster Idaho's energy workforce. This Annual Report details the progress CAES made in FY 2011 toward fulfilling its research, education and economic development missions.

  7. Simulating the dynamic behavior of chain drive systems by advanced CAE programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.; Meyer, J.

    1996-09-01

    Due to the increased requirements for chain drive systems of 4-stroke internal combustion engines CAE-tools are necessary to design the optimum dynamic system. In comparison to models used din the past the advantage of the new model CDD (Chain Drive Dynamics) is the capability of simulating the trajectory of each chain link around the drive system. Each chain link is represented by a mass with two degrees of freedom and is coupled to the next by a spring-damper element. The drive sprocket can be moved with a constant or non-constant speed. As in reality the other sprockets are driven by the running chain and can be excited by torques. Due to these unique model features it is possible to calculate all vibration types of the chain, polygon effects and radial or angular vibrations of the sprockets very accurately. The model includes the detailed simulation of a mechanical or a hydraulic tensioner as well. The method is ready to be coupled to other detailed calculation models (e.g. valve train systems, crankshaft, etc.). The high efficiency of the tool predicting the dynamic and acoustic behavior of a chain drive system will be demonstrated in comparison to measurements.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  9. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  10. Advancement of online systems in engineering by Expert TA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jeremy

    This dissertation introduces a new online system called Expert TA. The system was developed based on the hypothesis that expressions are key elements in engineering problems and that the treatment of expressions is critical to the advancement of online systems. This dissertation identifies ergonomic problems with expression entry that Expert TA overcomes through the use of a problem-customize integrated expression editor, called a palate. Then the dissertation shows, using an expression analyzer that operates in the background of Expert TA, that specific mathematical mistakes within an entered expression can now be located. Emulating standard instructional practices, detailed feedback pertaining to specific mistakes and grading on the basis of specific mistakes is now possible.

  11. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  12. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  13. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  14. The CAE/CATS Guest Moderator Program: Fostering Better Astronomy Education Through Professional Discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier, John J.; Brissenden, G.; Robinson, P. E.; Sudol, J. J.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE; http://astronomy101.jpl.nasa.gov/)sponsors many professional development opportunities intended to aid astronomers in improving astronomy education.  One of these activities is the Astrolrner@CAE listserv (astronomy101.jpl.nasa.gov/discussion), which is intended for everyone who is interested in improving college-level astronomy teaching and learning.  Astrolrner@CAE is now over a decade old, with over 2700 posts from astronomy educators at numerous institutions.  In order to ensure high-quality discussions, the listserv is moderated, and in 2007,  CAE, through the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) program, created the Guest Moderator program. Guest Moderators are chosen from members of the greater CAE community.  The program was created to elevate members of the CAE community who had shown themselves to be advanced in their pedagogical content knowledge through their own postings to Astrolrner@CAE. An additional goal was to create particular conversations about issues related to instruction by having Guest Moderators offer a monthly posting of instructional issues they, themselves, have been considering.  We detail the insights gained from the first three years of the guest moderator program, and provide evidence of increased discussion due to this interaction.  We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  15. Expert googling: best practices and advanced strategies for using google in health sciences libraries.

    PubMed

    Ripple, Ammon S

    2006-01-01

    Google is the search engine of choice for most Internet users. For a variety of reasons, librarians and other expert searchers do not always use Google to its full potential, even though it provides capabilities not possible in traditional bibliographic databases and other search engines. Applying expert searching principles and practices, such as the use of advanced search operators, information retrieval strategies, and search hedges to Google will allow health sciences librarians to find quality information on the Internet more efficiently and effectively.

  16. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  17. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  18. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  19. Optimizing treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer: expert recommendations and the multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Anderson, John; Sternberg, Cora N; Fleshner, Neil; Fizazi, Karim; Rébillard, Xavier; Dogliotti, Luigi; Conti, Giario; Turesson, Ingela; James, Nicholas; Heidenreich, Axel; Solsona, Eduardo; Guillem, Vicente; Herchenhorn, Daniel; Moul, Judd; van Moorselaar, Jeroen; Coetzee, Lance J E; Wilson, Andrew; Bamias, Aristotelis; De Wit, Ronald; Chrisofos, Michael

    2008-10-01

    A multidisciplinary panel of 20 international experts, including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists, convened during the Advanced Prostate Cancer Multidisciplinary Team meeting in Rome, Italy, in January 2007, to discuss the multidisciplinary team approach and current patterns of care for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). During the meeting, the experts discussed several definitions currently used in prostate cancer management, including those for senior adult patients. In addition, the panel reviewed a series of patient case studies in order to provide feedback on current treatment practices and to identify possible strategies for best practice. It was stressed that treatment decisions for senior adult patients should not be based solely on patient age. Additionally, although historically treatment decisions for advanced prostate cancer have focused on palliative care, given the survival benefit associated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy across patient subgroups, more men are likely to be offered chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease in the future.

  20. Upstream Design and 1D-CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hiroyuki

    Recently, engineering design environment of Japan is changing variously. Manufacturing companies are being challenged to design and bring out products that meet the diverse demands of customers and are competitive against those produced by rising countries(1). In order to keep and strengthen the competitiveness of Japanese companies, it is necessary to create new added values as well as conventional ones. It is well known that design at the early stages has a great influence on the final design solution. Therefore, design support tools for the upstream design is necessary for creating new added values. We have established a research society for 1D-CAE (1 Dimensional Computer Aided Engineering)(2), which is a general term for idea, methodology and tools applicable for the upstream design support, and discuss the concept and definition of 1D-CAE. This paper reports our discussion about 1D-CAE.

  1. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop: April 5-7, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: (1) Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; (2) Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; (3) Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; (4) Identify synergies across different industries; (5) Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; (6) Understand who are the leading experts; (7) Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  2. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  3. An Expert Opinion on Advanced Insulin Pump Use in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bode, Bruce W; Kaufman, Francine R; Vint, Nan

    2017-03-01

    Among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the use of insulin pump therapy has increased since its introduction in the early 1980s. Optimal management of type 1 diabetes mellitus depends on sufficient understanding by patients, their families, and healthcare providers on how to use pump technology. The goal for the use of insulin pump therapy should be to advance proficiency over time from the basics taught at the initiation of pump therapy to utilizing advanced settings to obtain optimal glycemic control. However, this goal is often not met, and appropriate understanding of the full features of pump technology can be lacking. The objective of this review is to provide an expert perspective on the advanced features and use of insulin pump therapy, including practical guidelines for the successful use of insulin pump technology, and other considerations specific to patients and healthcare providers.

  4. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baum, Jeffrey

    2014-03-10

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  5. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  6. Expert perspectives on hereditary angioedema: Key areas for advancements in care across the patient journey

    PubMed Central

    Baş, Murat; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Bova, Maria; Dempster, John; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Magerl, Markus; Poarch, Kimberly; Ferreira, Manuel Branco

    2016-01-01

    Background: Published literature documents the substantial burden of hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency on the quality of life and work productivity of patients. However, despite advances in the field and the availability of guidelines to advise health care providers (HCP) on the diagnosis and management of HAE, there are still many challenges to overcome. For example, delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis are common, and treatment practices vary worldwide. Objective: An international expert panel was convened to consider opportunities for improvements that would benefit patients with HAE. Methods: Based on professional and personal experiences, the experts developed schematics to describe the journey of patients through the following stages: (1) onset of symptoms and initial evaluation; (2) referral/diagnosis; and (3) management of HAE. More importantly, the panel identified key areas in which it was possible to optimize the support provided to patients and HCPs along this journey. Results: Overall, this approach highlighted the need for wider dissemination of algorithms and scientific data to more effectively educate HCPs from multiple disciplines and the need for more research to inform appropriate treatment decisions. Furthermore, HAE awareness campaigns, accurate online information, and referral to patient advocacy groups were all considered helpful approaches to support patients. Conclusion: More detailed and widespread information on the diagnosis and management of HAE is needed and may lead to advancements in care throughout the journey of the patient with HAE. PMID:27661998

  7. Expert Systems: Concepts and Applications. Advances in Library Information Technology, Issue Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenly, Charles; Harris, Howard

    The Processing Services department of the Library of Congress initiated a project to learn about expert systems technology and to examine potential applications of expert systems to functions in their department, e.g., acquisitions, cataloging, and serials control. (An expert system is defined as an artificial intelligence computer program which…

  8. CAES/UPH hybrid plant design study. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    In spite of the technical and economic feasibility of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Storage (UPH), there appears to be several barriers to their implementation and commercialization. These potential barriers include: large installed capacity is required to bring UPH plant economics into a favorable position and CAES requires consumption of petroleum distillate or natural gas. This study was undertaken to investigate means to remove these barriers by: identifying and evaluating the potential benefits that might be achieved by combining UPH, CAES and other related processes, and developing potential combination designs incorporating these benefits to determine their technical and economical feasibility. The development of specific UPH, CAES, and hybrid UPH/CAES concepts are discussed and evaluated. The results of the work performed to date show that development of conventional CAES and UPH design configurations is proceeding rapidly. The direction of this development will probably eventually result in a range of large scale energy storage plant types that will be attractive to electric utilities. However, the rate of development may be unacceptably slow for some of these variants to assist in effective reduction of distillate oil consumption for peaking power. It is recommended that an acceleration of the development rate of coal-fired CAES and adiabatic CAES concepts be organized. These two concepts, if adopted by electric utilities, could make a substantial contribution to the nation's effort to reduce oil imports. (LCL)

  9. The NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE): 2007 College Astronomy Teaching Excellence Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.; Greene, W. M.; Thaller, M.

    2006-12-01

    Since 2003 the NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to the professional development of introductory college astronomy faculty with a special focus on faculty teaching at community colleges. As part of our efforts CAE conducts 2-day and 3-day Teaching Excellence Workshops. In Tier I (introductory) Workshops, the overarching goal is for participants to become familiar with learner-centered teaching and assessment materials, as well as how to implement them in their college introductory astronomy courses. To accomplish this goal, participants learn how to create productive learning environments by reviewing research on the nature of teaching and learning; setting course goals and objectives; and using interactive lectures, peer instruction, engaging demonstrations, collaborative groups, tutorials, and ranking tasks. Participants also learn how to create more effective multiple-choice tests. In Tier II (advanced) Workshops, the overarching goal is to help past workshop participants with their obstacles to implementing a learner-centered introductory college astronomy course. Workshop participants work to understand how students learn while engaged in learner-centered activities and what the role of the instructor is in the learner-centered class. CAE regional workshops are held at community colleges around the country, NASA Research Centers, and in conjunction with professional society meetings, such as the American Astronomical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, and also through the infrastructure of the National Science Foundation's Summer Chautauqua Workshop program. The NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) is a partnership with the Univ. of Arizona Conceptual Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team. CAE is supported by NASA JPL's Navigator Public Engagement program (consisting of several space telescopes--including SIM PlanetQuest, the Terrestrial Planet Finder, the Keck Interferometer, and the Large

  10. Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research: Expert Panel Proceedings and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Miaskowski, Christine; Barsevick, Andrea; Berger, Ann; Casagrande, Rocco; Grady, Patricia A; Jacobsen, Paul; Kutner, Jean; Patrick, Donald; Zimmerman, Lani; Xiao, Canhua; Matocha, Martha; Marden, Sue

    2017-04-01

    An overview of proceedings, findings, and recommendations from the workshop on "Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research" sponsored by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, is presented. This workshop engaged an expert panel in an evidenced-based discussion regarding the state of the science of symptom clusters in chronic conditions including cancer and other rare diseases. An interdisciplinary working group from the extramural research community representing nursing, medicine, oncology, psychology, and bioinformatics was convened at the National Institutes of Health. Based on expertise, members were divided into teams to address key areas: defining characteristics of symptom clusters, priority symptom clusters and underlying mechanisms, measurement issues, targeted interventions, and new analytic strategies. For each area, the evidence was synthesized, limitations and gaps identified, and recommendations for future research delineated. The majority of findings in each area were from studies of oncology patients. However, increasing evidence suggests that symptom clusters occur in patients with other chronic conditions (eg, pulmonary, cardiac, and end-stage renal disease). Nonetheless, symptom cluster research is extremely limited and scientists are just beginning to understand how to investigate symptom clusters by developing frameworks and new methods and approaches. With a focus on personalized care, an understanding of individual susceptibility to symptoms and whether a "driving" symptom exists that triggers other symptoms in the cluster is needed. Also, research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie symptom clusters is essential to developing targeted interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Screening of antibiotics resistance to Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii by an advanced expert system.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2005-12-01

    The VITEK2 advanced expert system (AES) gives information about the antibiotics-resistance mechanisms based on the biological validation derived from the VITEK2 susceptibility result. In this study, we investigated whether or not this system correctly categorized the beta-lactamase resistance mechanism data derived from the VITEK2 susceptibility result using the testing card, AST-N025, with Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We used 131 strains, and their phenotypes were determined according to the biological and genetic screening. The AES analysis result matched the phenotype testing in 120 (91.6%) of the 131 strains. Incorrect findings were found in six strains, including three strains of Serratia marcescens. The resistance mechanism could not be determined in five strains, including three strains of Providencia rettgeri. The analysis of those phenotypes agreed in 34 (97.1%) among 35 strains with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), and in 27 (96.4%) among 28 strains with high-level cephalosporinase. The agreement ratio in the phenotype was very high as we expected. The incorrect and nondeterminable samples were strains with relatively high cephalosporinase that has variation of outer membrane protein. The AES was able to detect the phenotype for carbapenemase. The AES is a clinically useful system that allows taking prompt measures to treat patients because it can provide information about the resistance mechanism in less than half a day after starting the analysis.

  12. The impact of IAIMS on the work of information experts. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ash, J

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) programs differ but have certain characteristics in common. Technological and organizational integration are universal goals. As integration takes place, what happens to those implementing the vision? A survey of 125 staff members, or information experts, involved in information or informatics at an IAIMS-funded institution was conducted during the last year of the implementation phase. The purpose was to measure the impact of IAIMS on the jobs of those in the library and related service units, and the computing, telecommunications, and health informatics divisions. The researchers used newly developed scales measuring levels of integration (knowledge of and involvement with other departments), customer orientation (focus on the user), and informatedness (changes in the nature of work beyond automation of former routines). Ninety-four percent of respondents indicated that their jobs had changed a great deal; the changes were similar regardless of division. To further investigate the impact of IAIMS on librarians in particular, a separate skills survey was conducted. The IAIMS librarians indicated that technology and training skills are especially needed in the new, integrated environment. PMID:8547905

  13. The impact of IAIMS on the work of information experts. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Ash, J

    1995-10-01

    Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) programs differ but have certain characteristics in common. Technological and organizational integration are universal goals. As integration takes place, what happens to those implementing the vision? A survey of 125 staff members, or information experts, involved in information or informatics at an IAIMS-funded institution was conducted during the last year of the implementation phase. The purpose was to measure the impact of IAIMS on the jobs of those in the library and related service units, and the computing, telecommunications, and health informatics divisions. The researchers used newly developed scales measuring levels of integration (knowledge of and involvement with other departments), customer orientation (focus on the user), and informatedness (changes in the nature of work beyond automation of former routines). Ninety-four percent of respondents indicated that their jobs had changed a great deal; the changes were similar regardless of division. To further investigate the impact of IAIMS on librarians in particular, a separate skills survey was conducted. The IAIMS librarians indicated that technology and training skills are especially needed in the new, integrated environment.

  14. CAE applications in a thermoforming mould design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjuki, AR; Mohd Ghazali, FA; Ismail, N. M.; Sulaiman, S.; Mohd Khairuddin, I.; Majeed, Anwar P. P. A.; Jaafar, AA; Mustapha, F.; Basri, S.

    2016-02-01

    Preparation of honeycomb layer is a critical step for successful fabrications of thermoformed based sandwiched structures. This paper deals with an initial investigation on the rapid manufacturing process of corrugated sheet with 120° dihedral angles. Time history of local displacements and thickness, assuming viscous dominated material model for a 1mm thick thermoformable material, was computed by using ANSYS® Polyflow solver. The quality of formed surfaces was evaluated for selection of mould geometry and assessment of two common variants of thermoforming process. Inadequate mesh refinement of a membrane elements produces satisfactorily detailing and incomplete forming. A perfectly uniform material distribution was predicted using drape forming process. However, the geometrical properties of vacuum formed part are poorly distributed and difficult to control with increasing inflation volumes. Details of the discrepancies and the contributions of the CAE tool to complement traditional trial and error methodology in the process and design development are discussed.

  15. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  16. On the Advancement of the Expert Performance Approach via a Deep Understanding of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented the achievements of the expert performance approach. The 10-year rule of expertise is one of them, a very practical rule. However, the expert performance approach does not answer some important questions directly arising out of its main statements. The cognitive-developmental theory of giftedness can help in this regard…

  17. FAST Modular Wind Turbine CAE Tool: Nonmatching Spatial and Temporal Meshes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jonkman, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose and examine numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. In particular, we examine algorithms for coupling modules where spatial grids are non- matching at interfaces and module solutions are time advanced with different time increments and different time integrators. Sharing of data between modules is accomplished with a predictor-corrector approach, which allows for either implicit or explicit time integration within each module. Algorithms are presented in a general framework, but are applied to simple problems that are representative of the systems found in a whole-turbine analysis. Numerical experiments are used to explore the stability, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed algorithms. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. The algorithms described here will greatly increase the flexibility and efficiency of FAST.

  18. An integrated environment for developing object-oriented CAE tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, P.; Ryba, M.; Baitinger, U.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents how object oriented techniques can applied to improve the development of CAE tools. For the design of modular and reusable software systems we use predefined and well tested building blocks. These building blocks are reusable software components based on object-oriented technology which allows the assembling of software systems. Today CAE tools are typically very complex and computation extensive. Therefore we need a concept, that join the advantages of the object-oriented paradigm with the advantages of parallel and distributed programming. So we present a design environment for the development of concurrent-object oriented CAE tools called CoDO.

  19. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-11-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool.

  20. Right person, right skills, right job: the contribution of objective structured clinical examinations in advancing staff nurse experts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marion; Strube, Petra; Vaux, Amanda; West, Nicky; Auditore, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Recruitment processes need to discriminate among candidates to ensure that the right person with the right skills is selected for advancement opportunities. An innovative recruitment process using an objective structured clinical examination grounded in best practice guidelines resulted in improved recruitment practices for senior nursing clinical expert roles. Candidates' skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the areas of patient focus, clinical expertise, teamwork, and leadership were assessed using a clinical simulation. Candidates achieving advancement were assessed at 6 months to validate the efficacy of the process.

  1. GenSAA: A tool for advancing satellite monitoring with graphical expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real time data for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.

  2. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research - outcome of an expert survey.

    PubMed

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shôn W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mental health research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The "subjectivity gap" between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs.

  3. Acoustic performance of industrial mufflers with CAE modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Soohong; Kim, Daehwan; Hong, Chinsuk; Jeong, Weuibong

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the noise transmission performance of industrial mufflers widely used in ships based on the CAE modeling and simulation. Since the industrial mufflers have very complicated internal structures, the conventional Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) is of limited use. The CAE modeling and simulation is therefore required to incorporate commercial softwares: CATIA for geometry modeling, MSC/PATRAN for FE meshing and LMS/ SYSNOISE for analysis. Main sources of difficulties in this study are led by complicated arrangement of reactive elements, perforated walls and absorption materials. The reactive elements and absorbent materials are modeled by applying boundary conditions given by impedance. The perforated walls are modeled by applying the transfer impedance on the duplicated node mesh. The CAE approach presented in this paper is verified by comparing with the theoretical solution of a concentric-tube resonator and is applied for industrial mufflers.

  4. Construction CAE; Integration of CAD, simulation, planning and cost control

    SciTech Connect

    Wickard, D.A. ); Bill, R.D.; Gates, K.H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Ohcoshi, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Construction CAE is a simulation, planning, scheduling, and cost control tool that is integrated with a computer aided design (CAD) system. The system uses a CAD model and allows the user to perform construction simulation on objects defined within the model. Initial cost/schedule reports as well as those required for project chronicling are supported through an interface to a work breakdown structure (WBS) and a client's existing schedule reporting system. By integrating currently available project control tools with a simulation system, Construction CAE is more effective than its individual components.

  5. Expert consensus document: Advances in the physiological assessment and diagnosis of GERD.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Edoardo; Bredenoord, Albert J; Fox, Mark; Pandolfino, John E; Roman, Sabine; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2017-09-27

    GERD is a common condition worldwide. Key mechanisms of disease include abnormal oesophagogastric junction structure and function, and impaired oesophageal clearance. A therapeutic trial of acid-suppressive PPI therapy is often the initial management, with endoscopy performed in the setting of alarm symptoms and to exclude other conditions. If symptoms persist and endoscopy does not reveal evidence of GERD, oesophageal function tests are performed, including oesophageal manometry and ambulatory reflux monitoring. However, reflux episodes can be physiological, and some findings on endoscopy and manometry can be encountered in asymptomatic individuals without GERD symptoms. The diagnosis of GERD on the basis of functional oesophageal testing has been previously reported, but no updated expert recommendations on indications and the interpretation of oesophageal function testing in GERD has been made since the Porto consensus over a decade ago. In this Consensus Statement, we aim to describe modern oesophageal physiological tests and their analysis with an emphasis on establishing indications and consensus on interpretation parameters of oesophageal function testing for the evaluation of GERD in clinical practice. This document reflects the collective conclusions of the international GERD working group, incorporating existing data with expert consensus opinion.

  6. Technology assessment report for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. compressed air energy storage system (CAES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The design and operational features of compressed air energy storage systems (CAES) in general and, specifically, of a proposed 220 MW plant being planned by the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc., in Illinois are described. The need for peaking capacity, CAES requirements for land, fuel, water, and storage caverns, are discussed, and the costs, environmental impacts and licensing requirements of CAES are compared with those of power plants using simple cycle or combined cycle combustion turbines. It is concluded that during the initial two years of CAES operation, the CAES would cost more than a combustion turbine or combined cycle facility, but thereafter the CAES would have a increasing economic advantage. The overall environmental impact of a CAES plant is minimal, and there should be no great difficulties with CAES licensing.

  7. Advancing research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer: Expert panel recommendations.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Susan L; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Reinlib, Les

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence continues to increase in the US and Europe, a reflection of the growing influence of environment factors that interact with personal genetics. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are approximately 10,000 endocrine disrupting chemicals among the common daily exposures that could affect the risk of disease. The daunting tasks of identifying, characterizing, and elucidating the mechanisms of endocrine disrupting chemicals in breast cancer need to be addressed to produce a comprehensive model that will facilitate preventive strategies and public policy. An expert panel met to describe and bring attention to needs linking common environmental exposures, critical windows of exposure, and optimal times of assessment in investigating breast cancer risk. The group included investigators with extensive experience in the use of rodent models and in leading population studies and produced a set of recommendations for effective approaches to gaining insights into the environmental origins of breast cancer across the lifespan.

  8. A simple closed aquatic ecosystem (CAES) for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding; Li, Genbao; Hu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan

    A closed aquatic ecosystem (CAES) was developed to study the effects of microgravity on the function of closed ecosystems aboard the Chinese retrieved satellite and on the spacecraft SHENZHOU-II. These systems housed a small freshwater snail (Bulinus australianus) and an autotrophic green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). The results of the test on the satellite were that the concentration of algae changed little, but that the snails died during the experiments. We then sought to optimize the function of the control system, the cultural conditions and the data acquisition system and carried out an experiment on the spacecraft SHENZHOU-II. Using various sensors to monitor the CAES, real-time data regarding the operation of the CAES in microgravity was acquired. In addition, an on-board 1g centrifuge was included to identify gravity-related factors. It was found that microgravity is the major factor affecting the operation of the CAES in space. The change in biomass of the primary producer during each day in microgravity was larger than that of the control groups. The mean biomass concentration per day in the microgravity group decreased, but that of the control groups increased for several days and then leveled off. Space effects on the biomass of a primary producer may be a result of microgravity effects leading to increasing metabolic rates of the consumer combined with decreases in photosynthesis.

  9. Performance of a simple Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) in space.

    PubMed

    Wang, G-H; Li, G-B; Hu, C-X; Liu, Y-D; Song, L-R; Tong, G-H; Liu, X-M; Cheng, E-T

    2004-01-01

    A simple Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) consisting of single-celled green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, producer), a spiral snail (Bulinus australianus, consumer) and a data acquisition and control unit was flown on the Chinese Spacecraft SHENZHOU-II in January 2001 for 7 days. In order to study the effect of microgravity on the operation of CAES, a 1 g centrifuge reference group in space, a ground 1 g reference group and a ground 1 g centrifuge reference group (1.4 g group) were run concurrently. Real-time data about algae biomass (calculated from transmission light intensity), temperature, light and centrifugation of the CAES were logged at minute intervals. It was found that algae biomass of both the microgravity group and the ground 1 g-centrifuge reference group (1.4 g) fluctuated during the experiment, but the algae biomass of the 1 g centrifuge reference group in space and the ground 1 g reference group increased during the experiment. The results may be attributable to influences of microgravity and 1.4 g gravity on the algae and snails metabolisms. Microgravity is the main factor to affect the operation of CAES in space and the contribution of microgravity to the effect was also estimated. These data may be valuable for the establishment of a complex CELSS in the future.

  10. Establishing of Simple Closed Aquatic Ecosystem (CAES) in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    In order to study the effect of microgravity on the operation of Closed Ecosystem A two-element Closed Aquatic Ecosystem CAES were established by microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and snail Bulinus australianus By remote sensing to investigate the two-element Closed Aquatic Ecosystem CAES on spacecraft SHENZHOU- the real-time data of operation of CAES in real microgravity was got firstly The 1g centrifuge on board was also designed to be the control at the first time ground 1g and 1 4g centrifuged were set up too It found that microgravity is the major factor to affect the operation of CAES in space The change of biomass of producer during every day in microgravity group is much bigger than that other control groups The meal value of biomass of each day decreased but that of other control groups increased for days and then balanced Microgravity s effect on biomass of producer maybe result from microgravity lead to the increasing of metabolism of consumer and change of that of producer

  11. Where Experts Meet to Exchange Knowledge: Biotechnet's Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Science and progress thrive on an open mind and a transnational exchange of ideas and experience. That's why, in 2005, two scientists with a vision launched the biotechnet Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology. This year, too, the Summer School - now held at ZHAW in Waedenswil - is attracting researchers from all over the globe, and is also celebrating its 10(th) anniversary.

  12. Identifying locally advanced basal cell carcinoma eligible for treatment with vismodegib: an expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Peris, Ketty; Licitra, Lisa; Ascierto, Paolo A; Corvò, Renzo; Simonacci, Marco; Picciotto, Franco; Gualdi, Giulio; Pellacani, Giovanni; Santoro, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide. Most occur on the head and neck, where cosmetic and functional outcomes are critical. BCC can be locally destructive if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. Surgery is the treatment of choice for the majority of high-risk lesions. Aggressive, recurrent or unresectable tumors can be difficult to manage. Until recently, no approved systemic therapy was available for locally advanced or metastatic BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Vismodegib provides a systemic treatment option. However, a consensus definition of advanced BCC is lacking. A multidisciplinary panel with expertise in oncology, dermatology, dermatologic surgery and radiation oncology proposes a consensus definition based on published evidence and clinical experience.

  13. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.

    PubMed

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-05-03

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit.

  14. Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians

    PubMed Central

    Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124

  15. Productivity increase through implementation of CAD/CAE workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The tracking and communication division computer aided design/computer aided engineering system is now operational. The system is utilized in an effort to automate certain tasks that were previously performed manually. These tasks include detailed test configuration diagrams of systems under certification test in the ESTL, floorplan layouts of future planned laboratory reconfigurations, and other graphical documentation of division activities. The significant time savings achieved with this CAD/CAE system are examined: (1) input of drawings and diagrams; (2) editing of initial drawings; (3) accessibility of the data; and (4) added versatility. It is shown that the Applicon CAD/CAE system, with its ease of input and editing, the accessibility of data, and its added versatility, has made more efficient many of the necessary but often time-consuming tasks associated with engineering design and testing.

  16. Productivity increase through implementation of CAD/CAE workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The tracking and communication division computer aided design/computer aided engineering system is now operational. The system is utilized in an effort to automate certain tasks that were previously performed manually. These tasks include detailed test configuration diagrams of systems under certification test in the ESTL, floorplan layouts of future planned laboratory reconfigurations, and other graphical documentation of division activities. The significant time savings achieved with this CAD/CAE system are examined: (1) input of drawings and diagrams; (2) editing of initial drawings; (3) accessibility of the data; and (4) added versatility. It is shown that the Applicon CAD/CAE system, with its ease of input and editing, the accessibility of data, and its added versatility, has made more efficient many of the necessary but often time-consuming tasks associated with engineering design and testing.

  17. A SINDA thermal model using CAD/CAE technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Spencer, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The approach to thermal analysis described by this paper is a technique that incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a thermal model that has the advantages of Finite Element Methods (FEM) without abandoning the unique advantages of Finite Difference Methods (FDM) in the analysis of thermal systems. The incorporation of existing CAD geometry, the powerful use of a pre and post processor and the ability to do interdisciplinary analysis, will be described.

  18. CAE for Injection Molding — Past, Present and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuo K.

    2004-06-01

    It is well known that injection molding is the most effective process for mass-producing discrete plastic parts of complex shape to the highest precision at the lowest cost. However, due to the complex property of polymeric materials undergoing a transient non-isothermal process, it is equally well recognized that the quality of final products is often difficult to be assured. This is particularly true when a new mold or material is encountered. As a result, injection molding has often been viewed as an art than a science. During the past few decades, numerical simulation of injection molding process based on analytic models has become feasible for practical use as computers became faster and cheaper continually. A research effort was initiated at the Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) in 1974 under a grant from the National Science Foundation. Over a quarter of the century, CIMP has established some scientific bases ranging from materials characterization, flow analysis, to prediction of part quality. Use of such CAE tools has become common place today in industry. Present effort has been primarily aimed at refinements of many aspects of the process. Computational efficiency and user-interface have been main thrusts by commercial software developers. Extension to 3-dimensional flow analysis for certain parts has drawn some attention. Research activities are continuing on molding of fiber-filled materials and reactive polymers. Expanded molding processes such as gas-assisted, co-injection, micro-molding and many others are continually being investigated. In the future, improvements in simulation accuracy and efficiency will continue. This will include in-depth studies on materials characterization. Intelligent on-line process control may draw more attention in order to achieve higher degree of automation. As Internet technology continues to evolve, Web-based CAE tools for design, production, remote process monitoring and control can come to path. The CAE

  19. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  20. CAD/CAE Integration Enhanced by New CAD Services Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.

    2002-01-01

    A Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a computer interface standard for accessing data from computer-aided design (CAD) systems. The Object Management Group, an international computer standards organization, has adopted this CAD services standard. The new standard allows software (e.g., computer-aided engineering (CAE) and computer-aided manufacturing software to access multiple CAD systems through one programming interface. The interface is built on top of a distributed computing system called the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). CORBA allows the CAD services software to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment.

  1. Integration of a CAD/CAE/CAM operation using various software and platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Millaud, J.E.; Goulding, F.S.; Obegi, G.; Whichard, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes how the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Electronic Engineering Department responded to a variety of CAD/CAE needs in the changing environment of platforms, operating systems, CAD/CAE software and in the absence of usable exchange standards. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  2. CAD and CAE Analysis for Siphon Jet Toilet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhua; Xiu, Guoji; Tan, Haishu

    The high precision 3D laser scanner with the dual CCD technology was used to measure the original design sample of a siphon jet toilet. The digital toilet model was constructed from the cloud data measured with the curve and surface fitting technology and the CAD/CAE systems. The Realizable k - ɛ double equation model of the turbulence viscosity coefficient method and the VOF multiphase flow model were used to simulate the flushing flow in the toilet digital model. Through simulating and analyzing the distribution of the flushing flow's total pressure, the flow speed at the toilet-basin surface and the siphoning bent tube, the toilet performance can be evaluated efficiently and conveniently. The method of "establishing digital model, flushing flow simulating, performances evaluating, function shape modifying" would provide a high efficiency approach to develop new water-saving toilets.

  3. Characteristics study of the gears by the CAD/CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. Y.; Chang, S. L.; Lee, B. Y.; Nguyen, D. H.; Cao, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are the most important transmission component in machines. The rapid development of the machines in industry requires a shorter time of the analysis process. In traditional, the gears are analyzed by setting up the complete mathematical model firstly, considering the profile of cutter and coordinate systems relationship between the machine and the cutter. It is a really complex and time-consuming process. Recently, the CAD/CAE software is well developed and useful in the mechanical design. In this paper, the Autodesk Inventor® software is introduced to model the spherical gears firstly, and then the models can also be transferred into ANSYS Workbench for the finite element analysis. The proposed process in this paper is helpful to the engineers to speed up the analyzing process of gears in the design stage.

  4. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  5. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  6. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research – outcome of an expert survey

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shôn W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mental health research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. Methods The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Results Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Conclusion Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs. PMID:25061300

  7. Numerical Stability and Accuracy of Temporally Coupled Multi-Physics Modules in Wind-Turbine CAE Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gasmi, A.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J. M.; Jones, W. B.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we examine the stability and accuracy of numerical algorithms for coupling time-dependent multi-physics modules relevant to computer-aided engineering (CAE) of wind turbines. This work is motivated by an in-progress major revision of FAST, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) premier aero-elastic CAE simulation tool. We employ two simple examples as test systems, while algorithm descriptions are kept general. Coupled-system governing equations are framed in monolithic and partitioned representations as differential-algebraic equations. Explicit and implicit loose partition coupling is examined. In explicit coupling, partitions are advanced in time from known information. In implicit coupling, there is dependence on other-partition data at the next time step; coupling is accomplished through a predictor-corrector (PC) approach. Numerical time integration of coupled ordinary-differential equations (ODEs) is accomplished with one of three, fourth-order fixed-time-increment methods: Runge-Kutta (RK), Adams-Bashforth (AB), and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (ABM). Through numerical experiments it is shown that explicit coupling can be dramatically less stable and less accurate than simulations performed with the monolithic system. However, PC implicit coupling restored stability and fourth-order accuracy for ABM; only second-order accuracy was achieved with RK integration. For systems without constraints, explicit time integration with AB and explicit loose coupling exhibited desired accuracy and stability.

  8. The potential strategic, operating and environmental benefits of TVA's compressed air energy storage (CAES) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, D.T.; Brewer, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority is currently looking at compressed air energy storage (CAES), a new but mature technology, as a new capacity option. The technology is mature because all pieces/components have been in existence and use for over 50 years. The compressors are standard components for the gas industry, and the turbo expander and motor generator are standard components in the utility business. The newness of the CAES technology is due to the integration of these components and the use of underground storage of air in porous media or possibly in abandoned mines. Although the integration of these components is new to the Untied States, they have been demonstrated in Germany for over 10 years in the 290 MWe CAES unit located in a salt cavern near Huntorf, Germany. The CAES unit has been very successful, operating with a 99% start-up reliability, and has been operated remotely.

  9. Performance evaluation of the NASA/KSC CAD/CAE and office automation LAN's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1994-01-01

    This study's objective is the performance evaluation of the existing CAD/CAE (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Engineering) network at NASA/KSC. This evaluation also includes a similar study of the Office Automation network, since it is being planned to integrate this network into the CAD/CAE network. The Microsoft mail facility which is presently on the CAD/CAE network was monitored to determine its present usage. This performance evaluation of the various networks will aid the NASA/KSC network managers in planning for the integration of future workload requirements into the CAD/CAE network and determining the effectiveness of the planned FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) migration.

  10. Potential Impact of the VITEK 2 System and the Advanced Expert System on the Clinical Laboratory of a University-Based Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Christine C.; Peyret, Michel; Moland, Ellen Smith; Cavalieri, Stephen J.; Shubert, Carole; Thomson, Kenneth S.; Boeufgras, Jean-Marc; Sanders, W. Eugene

    2001-01-01

    A study was designed to assess the impact of the VITEK 2 automated system and the Advanced Expert System (AES) on the clinical laboratory of a typical university-based hospital. A total of 259 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates of Enterobacteriaceae members, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected and tested by the VITEK 2 system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the results were analyzed by the AES. The results were also analyzed by a human expert and compared to the AES analyses. Among the 259 isolates included in this study, 245 (94.6%) were definitively identified by VITEK 2, requiring little input from laboratory staff. For 194 (74.9%) isolates, no inconsistencies between the identification of the strain and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined by VITEK 2 were detected by the AES. Thus, no input from laboratory staff was required for these strains. The AES suggested one or more corrections to results obtained with 65 strains to remove inconsistencies. The human expert thought that most of these corrections were appropriate and that some resulted from a failure of the VITEK 2 system to detect certain forms of resistance. Antimicrobial phenotypes assigned to the strains by the AES for β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, and glycopeptides were similar to those assigned by the human expert for 95.7 to 100% of strains. These results indicate that the VITEK 2 system and AES can provide accurate information in tests for most of the clinical isolates examined and remove the need for human analysis of results for many. Certain problems were identified in the study that should be remediable with further work on the software supporting the AES. PMID:11427542

  11. Experimental Campaign Definition For Sheet Hydroforming Through CAE Tools Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, A.; Anglani, A.; Papadia, G.

    2007-05-01

    A metal forming simulation tool has been used in a non conventional way. Infact, instead to use numerical codes in order to simulate, verify or optimize a metal forming process like sheet hydroforming, in this specific case, numerical simulation has been used to support the definition of an experimental activity having as objective the attempt to define a correlation between the process performance and its variables. Sheet metal panel hydroforming is a well known technique. It has been recognized like a real opportunity for medium-low volume productions in alternative to conventional metal forming processes. The given technological opportunity it is not evaluated as fully positive due to the difficulty to manage the high number of process variables: fluid chamber pressure, blank holder force distribution, preforming height, etc. The situation becomes more difficult taking in account geometrical characteristics of the product, like the presence of more than one hydroforming depth, possible deep reverse drawing, small tools radius and so on. The activity reported in this paper illustrates the design of an experimental campaign through the use of simulation tools which allow to define the process design space boundaries. Infact, the use of CAE tools gives the chance to understand the influence of process parameters and geometrical characteristics and then, applying a scientific method to reduce the great number of calculations necessary to simulate all possible combinations, to define a complete and specific experimental campaign.

  12. Cloud and Aerosol Characterization During CAEsAR 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.; Tesche, M.; Krejci, R.; Baumgardner, D.; Walther, A.; Rosati, B.; Widequist, U.; Tunved, P.; O'Connor, E.; Ström, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud and Aerosol Experiment at Åre (CAEsAR 2014) campaign took place from June to October 2014 at Mt. Åreskutan, Sweden, a remote mountain site in Northern Sweden. The campaign was designed to study the physical and chemical properties of clouds and aerosols under orographic forcing. A unique and comprehensive set-up allowed an in-situ characterization of both constituents at a mountain top station at 1200 m a.s.l. including instruments to measure cloud droplet size distribution, meteorological parameters, cloud residual properties (using a counterflow virtual impactor inlet), cloud water composition and various aerosol chemical and microphysical properties (e.g. size, optical and hygroscopic properties). At the same time, a remote sensing site was installed below the mountain site at 420 m a.s.l. in the immediate vicinity (< 3 km horizontally), with vertical profiling from an aerosol lidar, winds and turbulence from a scanning Doppler lidar, a Sun photometer measuring aerosol columnar optical properties, and a precipitation sampler taking rain water for chemical analysis. In addition, regular radiosoundings were performed from the valley. Here, we present the results of this intensive campaign which includes approx. 900 hours of in-cloud sampling. Various unique cloud features were frequently observed such as dynamically-driven droplet growth, bimodal droplet distributions, and the activation of particles down to approx. 20 nm in dry particle diameter. During the campaign, a forest fire smoke plume was transported over the site with measureable impacts on the cloud properties. This data will be used to constrain cloud and aerosol models, as well as to validate satellite retrievals. A first comparison to VIIRS and MODIS satellite retrievals will also be shown.

  13. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  14. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  15. Advances in the Science, Treatment, and Prevention of the Disease of Obesity: Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Home, Philip D.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Klein, Samuel; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Hu, Frank B.; Raz, Itamar; Van Gaal, Luc; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Ryan, Donna H.

    2015-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, so too do the risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other detrimental conditions. The prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 15.0 to 36.1%. Although this trend may be leveling off, obesity and its individual, societal, and economic costs remain of grave concern. In June 2014, a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum convened to review the state of obesity research and discuss the latest prevention initiatives and behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies. This article, an outgrowth of the forum, offers an expansive view of the obesity epidemic, beginning with a discussion of its root causes. Recent insights into the genetic and physiological factors that influence body weight are reviewed, as are the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and the concept of metabolically healthy obesity. The authors address the crucial question of how much weight loss is necessary to yield meaningful benefits. They describe the challenges of behavioral modification and predictors of its success. The effects of diabetes pharmacotherapies on body weight are reviewed, including potential weight-neutral combination therapies. The authors also summarize the evidence for safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and surgical obesity treatments. The article concludes with an impassioned call for researchers, clinicians, governmental agencies, health policymakers, and health-related industries to collectively embrace the urgent mandate to improve prevention and treatment and for society at large to acknowledge and manage obesity as a serious disease. PMID:26421334

  16. Advances in the Science, Treatment, and Prevention of the Disease of Obesity: Reflections From a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Bray, George A; Home, Philip D; Garvey, W Timothy; Klein, Samuel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Hu, Frank B; Raz, Itamar; Van Gaal, Luc; Wolfe, Bruce M; Ryan, Donna H

    2015-08-01

    As obesity rates increase, so too do the risks of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other detrimental conditions. The prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults more than doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 15.0 to 36.1%. Although this trend may be leveling off, obesity and its individual, societal, and economic costs remain of grave concern. In June 2014, a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum convened to review the state of obesity research and discuss the latest prevention initiatives and behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies. This article, an outgrowth of the forum, offers an expansive view of the obesity epidemic, beginning with a discussion of its root causes. Recent insights into the genetic and physiological factors that influence body weight are reviewed, as are the pathophysiology of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and the concept of metabolically healthy obesity. The authors address the crucial question of how much weight loss is necessary to yield meaningful benefits. They describe the challenges of behavioral modification and predictors of its success. The effects of diabetes pharmacotherapies on body weight are reviewed, including potential weight-neutral combination therapies. The authors also summarize the evidence for safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic and surgical obesity treatments. The article concludes with an impassioned call for researchers, clinicians, governmental agencies, health policymakers, and health-related industries to collectively embrace the urgent mandate to improve prevention and treatment and for society at large to acknowledge and manage obesity as a serious disease.

  17. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  18. CAE "FOCUS" for modelling and simulating electron optics systems: development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubitsyn, Andrey; Grachev, Evgeny; Gurov, Victor; Bochkov, Ilya; Bochkov, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Electron optics is a theoretical base of scientific instrument engineering. Mathematical simulation of occurring processes is a base for contemporary design of complicated devices of the electron optics. Problems of the numerical mathematical simulation are effectively solved by CAE system means. CAE "FOCUS" developed by the authors includes fast and accurate methods: boundary element method (BEM) for the electric field calculation, Runge-Kutta- Fieghlberg method for the charged particle trajectory computation controlling an accuracy of calculations, original methods for search of terms for the angular and time-of-flight focusing. CAE "FOCUS" is organized as a collection of modules each of which solves an independent (sub) task. A range of physical and analytical devices, in particular a microfocus X-ray tube of high power, has been developed using this soft.

  19. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  20. Repetitive use of levosimendan for treatment of chronic advanced heart failure: clinical evidence, practical considerations, and perspectives: an expert panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, M S; Altenberger, J; Ben-Gal, T; Böhmer, A; Comin-Colet, J; Dickstein, K; Edes, I; Fedele, F; Fonseca, C; García-González, M J; Giannakoulas, G; Iakobishvili, Z; Jääskeläinen, P; Karavidas, A; Kettner, J; Kivikko, M; Lund, L H; Matskeplishvili, S T; Metra, M; Morandi, F; Oliva, F; Parkhomenko, A; Parissis, J; Pollesello, P; Pölzl, G; Schwinger, R H G; Segovia, J; Seidel, M; Vrtovec, B; Wikström, G

    2014-06-15

    The intravenous inodilator levosimendan was developed for the treatment of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. In the last decade scientific and clinical interest has arisen for its repetitive or intermittent use in patients with advanced chronic, but not necessarily acutely decompensated, heart failure. Recent studies have suggested long-lasting favourable effects of levosimendan when administered repetitively, in terms of haemodynamic parameters, neurohormonal and inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes. The existing data, however, requires further exploration to allow for definitive conclusions on the safety and clinical efficacy of repetitive use of levosimendan. A panel of 30 experts from 15 countries convened to review and discuss the existing data, and agreed on the patient groups that can be considered to potentially benefit from intermittent treatment with levosimendan. The panel gave recommendations regarding patient dosing and monitoring, derived from the available evidence and from clinical experience. The current data suggest that in selected patients and support out-of-hospital care, intermittent/repetitive levosimendan can be used in advanced heart failure to maintain patient stability. Further studies are needed to focus on morbidity and mortality outcomes, dosing intervals, and patient monitoring. Recommendations for the design of further clinical studies are made. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Maintenance treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of an international expert panel meeting of the Italian association of thoracic oncology.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Di Maio, Massimo; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Belani, Chandra P; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Fidias, Panagiotis; Paz-Ares, Luis; Perrone, Francesco; Pirker, Robert; De Petris, Luigi; Stahel, Rolf

    2012-06-01

    Several randomized trials have recently investigated the role of maintenance treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with responding or stable disease after completion of first-line chemotherapy. Maintenance strategy has relevant implications in terms of potential toxicity, logistics and costs, and all of these aspects should be taken into account, together with the magnitude of benefit for the patient. In order to assess the strengths and limitations of available evidence, to help clinical practice, and to suggest priorities for future clinical research, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) organized an International Experts Panel Meeting on maintenance treatment of advanced NSCLC, which took place in Sperlonga (Italy) in May 2011. Based on the available evidence, panelists agreed that maintenance therapy represents a treatment option in advanced NSCLC. Maintenance should be discussed with patients not progressed after 4-6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy, who are fit (performance status 0-1) and without persistent chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Patients need to be well informed about potential advantages and disadvantages of accepting additional therapy without a "treatment-free period". Two different strategies, switch or continuation maintenance, are supported by available evidence. At the moment, there is no direct comparison between switch maintenance and continuation maintenance. For future trials, the panel recommends the use of overall survival as the primary endpoint, with pre-defined second-line treatment. Translational research is essential to identify predictive factors, and should be performed, whenever feasible, in order to achieve treatment optimization with proper patient selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre- and posttreatment voice and speech outcomes in patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy: expert listeners' and patient's perception.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Lisette; van Rossum, Maya A; Jacobi, Irene; van Son, Rob J J H; Smeele, Ludi E; Rasch, Coen R N; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2012-09-01

    Perceptual judgments and patients' perception of voice and speech after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer. Prospective clinical trial. A standard Dutch text and a diadochokinetic task were recorded. Expert listeners rated voice and speech quality (based on Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain), articulation (overall, [p], [t], [k]), and comparative mean opinion scores of voice and speech at three assessment points calculated. A structured study-specific questionnaire evaluated patients' perception pretreatment (N=55), at 10-week (N=49) and 1-year posttreatment (N=37). At 10 weeks, perceptual voice quality is significantly affected. The parameters overall voice quality (mean, -0.24; P=0.008), strain (mean, -0.12; P=0.012), nasality (mean, -0.08; P=0.009), roughness (mean, -0.22; P=0.001), and pitch (mean, -0.03; P=0.041) improved over time but not beyond baseline levels, except for asthenia at 1-year posttreatment (voice is less asthenic than at baseline; mean, +0.20; P=0.03). Perceptual analyses of articulation showed no significant differences. Patients judge their voice quality as good (score, 18/20) at all assessment points, but at 1-year posttreatment, most of them (70%) judge their "voice not as it used to be." In the 1-year versus 10-week posttreatment comparison, the larynx-hypopharynx tumor group was more strained, whereas nonlarynx tumor voices were judged less strained (mean, -0.33 and +0.07, respectively; P=0.031). Patients' perceived changes in voice and speech quality at 10-week post- versus pretreatment correlate weakly with expert judgments. Overall, perceptual CCRT effects on voice and speech seem to peak at 10-week posttreatment but level off at 1-year posttreatment. However, at that assessment point, most patients still perceive their voice as different from baseline. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The New Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Bond; K. Kostelnik; R.A. Wharton; A. Kadak

    2006-06-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundation to enable future economic growth. The next generation energy workforce in the U.S. is a critical element in meeting both national and global energy needs. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) was established in 2005 in response to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. CAES, located at the new Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will address critical energy education, research, policy study and training needs. CAES is a unique joint partnership between the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), the State of Idaho, an Idaho University Consortium (IUC), and a National University Consortium (NUC). CAES will be based in a new facility that will foster collaborative academic and research efforts among participating institutions.

  4. Expert System Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    Expert System Management System (ESMS) Small Business Innovative Research Contract developed a distributed fault-tolerant expert system shell for...multiple expert systems in a multiprocessor environment. The ESMS contained four domain specific expert systems called Manager Expert System , Route...Planner Expert System , Weapon Expert System , and Situation Awareness and Display Expert System . The ESMS expert system shell was written in LISP

  5. Application of Skeleton Method in Interconnection of Cae Programs Used in Vehicle Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucha, Jozef; Gavačová, Jana; Milesich, Tomáš

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the application of the skeleton method as the main element of interconnection of CAE programs involved in the process of vehicle design. This article focuses on the utilization of the skeleton method for mutual connection of CATIA V5 and ADAMS/CAR. Both programs can be used simultaneously during various stages of vehicle design.

  6. A Personal Memoir of Policy Failure: The Failed Merger of ANU and the Canberra CAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The more immediate context of the events the author describes in this article is needed in order to identify the policy framework within which the Australian National University (ANU)-Canberra CAE (CCAE) merger was placed as a component of a wider public policy initiative undertaken by John Dawkins. There were four major components in that wider…

  7. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  8. Ability of the VITEK 2 Advanced Expert System To Identify β-Lactam Phenotypes in Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Christine C.; Peyret, Michel; Moland, Ellen Smith; Shubert, Carole; Thomson, Kenneth S.; Boeufgras, Jean-Marc; Sanders, W. Eugene

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Expert System (AES) was used in conjunction with the VITEK 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility test system to ascertain the β-lactam phenotypes of 196 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae and the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These isolates represented a panel of strains that had been collected from laboratories worldwide and whose β-lactam phenotypes had been characterized by biochemical and molecular techniques. The antimicrobial susceptibility of each isolate was determined with the VITEK 2 instrument, and the results were analyzed with the AES to ascertain the β-lactam phenotype. The results were then compared to the β-lactam resistance mechanism determined by biochemical and molecular techniques. Overall, the AES was able to ascertain a β-lactam phenotype for 183 of the 196 (93.4%) isolates tested. For 111 of these 183 (60.7%) isolates, the correct β-lactam phenotype was identified definitively in a single choice by the AES, while for an additional 46 isolates (25.1%), the AES identified the correct β-lactam phenotype provisionally within two or more choices. For the remaining 26 isolates (14.2%), the β-lactam phenotype identified by the AES was incorrect. However, for a number of these isolates, the error was due to remediable problems. These results suggest that the AES is capable of accurate identification of the β-lactam phenotypes of gram-negative isolates and that certain modifications can improve its performance even further. PMID:10655347

  9. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  10. Expert reports

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, article 4590i of the Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated, the statutory provision that governs health care liability claims in Texas, was amended to require claimants to file expert reports within 180 days as part of the prosecution of their claims. Sufficient expert reports include explanations of the standard of care, the deviation from that standard, and how the deviation caused the claimant's damages. Two provisions allow courts to grant a 30-day extension for filing expert reports. A good cause extension can be used to extend the filing deadline to 210 days; however, case law has not clearly defined what constitutes good cause. An accident or mistake grace period can be used to justify reports filed >210 days after the suit has been filed; judges determine whether the failure is due to a mistake or intentional indifference. As with any statute, the language is not as important as how the courts (judges) interpret that language. The statute may appear strict but room for interpretation exists. PMID:16389359

  11. Clinical Influences on Nurse-Academics' Instructional Planning Decisions in the Implementation of Basic Nursing Curricula in Colleges of Advanced Education in New South Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    A study examined the clinical influences on the instructional planning decisions made by registered nurses who are lecturers in basic nursing at colleges of advanced education (CAEs) in New South Wales, Australia. Data were collected from a questionnaire that was completed by 98 nurse-academics from 12 of New South Wales' 15 CAEs offering basic…

  12. A Proposal of the Topology CAD and CAE Integrated System for the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Shiiba, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    3D-CAD system is needed for the Designing of plastic processing products that are required art-design. But the current use Boolean 3D-CAD system takes too match man-power of the operation, and design engineers can not use it directly. And this situation have made the degeneration of the design technology. We have developed the new topology-CAD system as next generation-CAD. Also the current CAE system has the same problems as CAD. And so, the design engineers depend on the out-source-technology. We have also developed the new genera- use-CAE system integrated in the Topology-CAD using particle analysis.

  13. The impact of software and CAE tools on SEU in field programmable gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R.; Wang, J.; McCollum, J.; Cronquist, B.

    1999-12-01

    Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, heavily used in spacecraft electronics, have grown substantially in size over the past few years, causing designers to work at a higher conceptual level, with computer aided engineering (CAE) tools synthesizing and optimizing the logic from a description. It is shown that the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) CAE tools can produce unreliable circuit designs when the device is used in a radiation environment and a flip-flop is upset. At a lower level, software can be used to improve the SEU performance of a flip-flop, exploiting the configurable nature of FPGA technology and on-chip delay, parasitic resistive, and capacitive circuit elements.

  14. Utilization of CAD/CAE for concurrent design of structural aircraft components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of installing the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy telescope (named SOFIA) into an aircraft for NASA astronomy studies is investigated using CAD/CAE equipment to either design or supply data for every facet of design engineering. The aircraft selected for the platform was a Boeing 747, chosen on the basis of its ability to meet the flight profiles required for the given mission and payload. CAD models of the fuselage of two of the aircraft models studied (747-200 and 747 SP) were developed, and models for the component parts of the telescope and subsystems were developed by the various concurrent engineering groups of the SOFIA program, to determine the requirements for the cavity opening and for design configuration. It is noted that, by developing a plan to use CAD/CAE for concurrent engineering at the beginning of the study, it was possible to produce results in about two-thirds of the time required using traditional methods.

  15. Utilization of CAD/CAE for concurrent design of structural aircraft components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of installing the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy telescope (named SOFIA) into an aircraft for NASA astronomy studies is investigated using CAD/CAE equipment to either design or supply data for every facet of design engineering. The aircraft selected for the platform was a Boeing 747, chosen on the basis of its ability to meet the flight profiles required for the given mission and payload. CAD models of the fuselage of two of the aircraft models studied (747-200 and 747 SP) were developed, and models for the component parts of the telescope and subsystems were developed by the various concurrent engineering groups of the SOFIA program, to determine the requirements for the cavity opening and for design configuration. It is noted that, by developing a plan to use CAD/CAE for concurrent engineering at the beginning of the study, it was possible to produce results in about two-thirds of the time required using traditional methods.

  16. Performance evaluation of NASA/KSC CAD/CAE graphics local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George

    1988-01-01

    This study had as an objective the performance evaluation of the existing CAD/CAE graphics network at NASA/KSC. This evaluation will also aid in projecting planned expansions, such as the Space Station project on the existing CAD/CAE network. The objectives were achieved by collecting packet traffic on the various integrated sub-networks. This included items, such as total number of packets on the various subnetworks, source/destination of packets, percent utilization of network capacity, peak traffic rates, and packet size distribution. The NASA/KSC LAN was stressed to determine the useable bandwidth of the Ethernet network and an average design station workload was used to project the increased traffic on the existing network and the planned T1 link. This performance evaluation of the network will aid the NASA/KSC network managers in planning for the integration of future workload requirements into the existing network.

  17. Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

  18. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  19. A NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) Texas Regional Teaching Exchange: Our Second Attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, W. Lee, Jr.; Sherman, Greg

    2010-10-01

    The NASA Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) is dedicated to improving the quality of instruction in the astronomy 101 classroom environment. One tool that the CAE is using in this endeavor around the country is the regional teaching exchange. The idea behind the exchange is to get together people who have attended a CAE teaching workshop or would like to know what goes on at one, to talk about techniques they use in their own classroom and to hear about the available teaching tools coming out of the Astronomy Education Research community. The regional exchanges help build a local community of educators to share ideas, give advice, and perhaps work together on education research of their own. In this talk I will discuss our first attempt to hold an exchange in Texas and what we learned from its failure. I will also announce the details of our upcoming second exchange attempt. The next Texas exchange will be held in the DFW area in February. We will offer a teaching workshop, and are accepting papers to be presented at the exchange.

  20. MF-CAE: A Novel Lab on a Chip Simulation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Mastrangelo, C. H.; Sun, Li

    The design of microfluidic systems with a large number of dynamic 011-chip components poses a challenge because today it is difficult to simulate time dependent transport of solvent and solutes through complex chips inclusive of dispersion and convection with low time-cost. Present approaches based on 3D C'FD tools are inadequate for system-level simulation. To address these needs, we propose a novel general simulation method for the approximate solution of linear and nonlinear, static and time-dependent solute and solvent transport in large chips with no need for analytical solution. Some design, modeling, and simulation features of a computer aided engineering tool for microfluidic systems called MF-CAE (Microfluidic CAE) are presented. The features include: an extensible modeling framework for computationally efficient lumped models; a flexible SPICE-like netlist language for microfluidic system design; a user friendly graphical user interface that allows users to quickly configure complex system; and a compact toolkit integrating design, simulation and data displaying. In this paper MF-CAE's architecture, reduced order modeling technique and design methodology are described. A comparison of behavior of microfluidic dilution networks indicates that the simulation results are in good agreement with the model simulations.

  1. Micromechanics-Based Structural Analysis (FEAMAC) and Multiscale Visualization within Abaqus/CAE Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Hussain, Aquila; Katiyar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    A unified framework is presented that enables coupled multiscale analysis of composite structures and associated graphical pre- and postprocessing within the Abaqus/CAE environment. The recently developed, free, Finite Element Analysis--Micromechanics Analysis Code (FEAMAC) software couples NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) with Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit to perform micromechanics based FEA such that the nonlinear composite material response at each integration point is modeled at each increment by MAC/GMC. The Graphical User Interfaces (FEAMAC-Pre and FEAMAC-Post), developed through collaboration between SIMULIA Erie and the NASA Glenn Research Center, enable users to employ a new FEAMAC module within Abaqus/CAE that provides access to the composite microscale. FEA IAC-Pre is used to define and store constituent material properties, set-up and store composite repeating unit cells, and assign composite materials as sections with all data being stored within the CAE database. Likewise FEAMAC-Post enables multiscale field quantity visualization (contour plots, X-Y plots), with point and click access to the microscale i.e., fiber and matrix fields).

  2. Energy channeling from trapped to passing fast ions mediated by GAE/CAE activity in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Belova, E.; Kramer, G.; Podesta, M.; Liu, D.

    2013-10-01

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment, an increased charge exchange neutral flux localized at the neutral beam full injection energy is measured by the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer. Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the beam-injected energetic ion spectrum in discharges where NTM or kink modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 - 1200 kHz) is robust. The HEF exhibits a growth time of t ~ 20-80 ms and develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods > 100 ms. HEFs are observed only in H-mode discharges with NB power Pb >= 4 MW and in the pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 - 0.9. The HEF appears to be caused by a CAE/GAE wave-particle interaction that modifies the fast ion distribution, fi(E,v||/v,r). This mechanism was studied using the SPIRAL code that evolves an initial TRANSP-calculated fi(E,v||/v,r) distribution in the presence of background plasma profiles under drive from wave-particle resonances with CAE/GAE Alfvén eigenmodes. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. An experimental study of the response of the Galesville sandstone to simulated CAES conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, R L; Stottlemyre, J A; Smith, R P

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to determine how the mineralogical and physical characteristics of host rock formations are affected by environmental conditions anticipated for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous, permeable rock. In this study, Galesville sandstone cores were reacted in autoclave pressure vessels supporting one of four environments: dry air; heated, air-water vapor; heated, nitrogen-water vapor mixtures; and heated, compressed, liquid water. The simulated CAES environments were maintained in autoclave pressure vessels by controlling the following independent variables: temperature, pressure, time, oxygen content, carbon dioxide content, nitrogen content, and liquid volume. The dependent variables studied were: apparent porosity, gas permeability, water permeability, and friability. These variables were measured at ambient temperature and pressure before and after each sandstone sample was reacted in one of the CAES environments. The experiments gave the following results: the Galesville sandstone exhibited excellent stability in dry air at all temperatures tested (50/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and significant physical alterations occurred in sandstone samples exposed to liquid water above 150/sup 0/C. Samples shielded from dripping water exhibited excellent stability to 300/sup 0/C; sandstone may be a suitable storage media for heated, humid air provided elevated temperature zones are relatively free of mobile liquid water; and observed changes in the physical properties of the rock may have been caused, in part, by the lack of confining stress on the sample. The inability to apply confining pressure is a severe limitation of autoclave experiments.

  4. The inhibition of the apoptosis pathway by the Coxiella burnetii effector protein CaeA requires the EK repetition motif, but is independent of survivin.

    PubMed

    Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Borges, Vítor; Sobotta, Katharina; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Menge, Christian; Heydel, Carsten; Gomes, João Paulo; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-05-18

    ABSRTACT Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Query (Q) fever, a zoonotic disease. It requires a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocate bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and thereby facilitates bacterial replication. To date, more than 130 effector proteins have been identified, but their functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that one of these proteins, CaeA (CBU1524) localized to the host cell nucleus and inhibited intrinsic apoptosis of HEK293 or CHO cells. In the present study we addressed the question whether CaeA also affects the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Ectopic expression of CaeA reduced extrinsic apoptosis and prevented the cleavage of the executioner caspase 7, but did not impair the activation of initiator caspase 9. CaeA expression resulted in an up-regulation of survivin (an inhibitor of activated caspases), which, however, was not causal for the anti-apoptotic effect of CaeA. Comparing the sequence of CaeA from 25 different C. burnetii isolates we identified an EK (glutamic acid/ lysine) repetition motif as a site of high genetic variability. The EK motif of CaeA was essential for the anti-apoptotic activity of CaeA. From these data, we conclude that the C. burnetii effector protein CaeA interferes with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway. The process requires the EK repetition motif of CaeA, but is independent of the upregulated expression of survivin.

  5. Shell stability analysis in a computer aided engineering (CAE) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, J.; Hol, J. M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of 'DISDECO', the Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde is described. The purpose of this project is to make the accumulated theoretical, numerical and practical knowledge of the last 25 years or so readily accessible to users interested in the analysis of buckling sensitive structures. With this open ended, hierarchical, interactive computer code the user can access from his workstation successively programs of increasing complexity. The computational modules currently operational in DISDECO provide the prospective user with facilities to calculate the critical buckling loads of stiffened anisotropic shells under combined loading, to investigate the effects the various types of boundary conditions will have on the critical load, and to get a complete picture of the degrading effects the different shapes of possible initial imperfections might cause, all in one interactive session. Once a design is finalized, its collapse load can be verified by running a large refined model remotely from behind the workstation with one of the current generation 2-dimensional codes, with advanced capabilities to handle both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  6. Conceptual design and engineering studies of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (CAES) with thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, M. J.

    1981-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a conceptual engineering design and evaluation study and to develop a design for an adiabatic CAES system using water-compensated hard rock caverns for compressed air storage. The conceptual plant design was to feature underground containment for thermal energy storage and water-compensated hard rock caverns for high pressure air storage. Other design constraints included the selection of turbomachinery designs that would require little development and would therefore be available for near-term plant construction and demonstration. The design was to be based upon the DOE/EPRI/PEPCO-funded 231 MW/unit conventional CAES plant design prepared for a site in Maryland. This report summarizes the project, its findings, and the recommendations of the study team; presents the development and optimization of the plant heat cycle and the selection and thermal design of the thermal energy storage system; discusses the selection of turbomachinery and estimated plant performance and operational capability; describes the control system concept; and presents the conceptual design of the adiabatic CAES plant, the cost estimates and economic evaluation, and an assessment of technical and economic feasibility. Particular areas in the plant design requiring further development or investigation are discussed. It is concluded that the adiabatic concept appears to be the most attractive candidate for utility application in the near future. It is operationally viable, economically attractive compared with competing concerns, and will require relatively little development before the construction of a plant can be undertaken. It is estimated that a utility could start the design of a demonstration plant in 2 to 3 years if research regarding TES system design is undertaken in a timely manner. (LCL)

  7. Using the CAE technologies of engineering analysis for designing steam turbines at ZAO Ural Turbine Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshumova, V. N.; Kortenko, V. V.; Pokhoriler, V. L.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Ivanovskii, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the experience ZAO Ural Turbine Works specialists gained from mastering the series of CAD/CAE/CAM/PDM technologies, which are modern software tools of computer-aided engineering. We also present the results obtained from mathematical simulation of the process through which high-and intermediate-pressure rotors are heated for revealing the most thermally stressed zones, as well as the results from mathematical simulation of a new design of turbine cylinder shells for improving the maneuverability of these turbines.

  8. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  9. A single-center study evaluating the effect of the controlled adverse environment (CAE(SM)) model on tear film stability.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Richard; Lane, Keith J; Rodriguez, John; Johnston, Patrick; Angjeli, Endri; Ousler, George; Montgomery, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    To investigate use of an improved ocular tear film analysis protocol (OPI 2.0) in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAE(SM)) model of dry eye disease, and to examine the utility of new metrics in the identification of subpopulations of dry eye patients. Thirty-three dry eye subjects completed a single-center, single-visit, pilot CAE study. The primary endpoint was mean break-up area (MBA) as assessed by the OPI 2.0 system. Secondary endpoints included corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time, and OPI 2.0 system measurements. Subjects were also asked to rate their ocular discomfort throughout the CAE. Dry eye endpoints were measured at baseline, immediately following a 90-minute CAE exposure, and again 30 minutes after exposure. The post-CAE measurements of MBA showed a statistically significant decrease from the baseline measurements. The decrease was relatively specific to those patients with moderate to severe dry eye, as measured by baseline MBA. Secondary endpoints including palpebral fissure size, corneal staining, and redness, also showed significant changes when pre- and post-CAE measurements were compared. A correlation analysis identified specific associations between MBA, blink rate, and palpebral fissure size. Comparison of MBA responses allowed us to identify subpopulations of subjects who exhibited different compensatory mechanisms in response to CAE challenge. Of note, none of the measures of tear film break-up time showed statistically significant changes or correlations in pre-, versus post-CAE measures. This pilot study confirms that the tear film metric MBA can detect changes in the ocular surface induced by a CAE, and that these changes are correlated with other, established measures of dry eye disease. The observed decrease in MBA following CAE exposure demonstrates that compensatory mechanisms are initiated during the CAE exposure, and that this compensation may provide the means to identify and characterize clinically relevant

  10. The application of CAD, CAE & CAM in development of butterfly valve’s disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiff Razif Shah Ranjit, Muhammad; Hanie Abdullah, Nazlin

    2017-06-01

    The improved design of a butterfly valve disc is based on the concept of sandwich theory. Butterfly valves are mostly used in various industries such as oil and gas plant. The primary failure modes for valves are indented disc, keyways and shaft failure and the cavitation damage. Emphasis on the application of CAD, a new model of the butterfly valve’s disc structure was designed. The structure analysis was analysed using the finite element analysis. Butterfly valve performance factors can be obtained is by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software to simulate the physics of fluid flow in a piping system around a butterfly valve. A comparison analysis was done using the finite element to justify the performance of the structure. The second application of CAE is the computational fluid flow analysis. The upstream pressure and the downstream pressure was analysed to calculate the cavitation index and determine the performance throughout each opening position of the valve. The CAM process was done using 3D printer to produce a prototype and analysed the structure in form of prototype. The structure was downscale fabricated based on the model designed initially through the application of CAD. This study is utilized the application of CAD, CAE and CAM for a better improvement of the butterfly valve’s disc components.

  11. Economic comparison of CAES designs employing hardrock, salt and aquifer storage reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, R. W.; Schainker, R. B.

    The economic performance of three compressed air energy storage (CAES) designs is briefly examined. Each design was developed under different assumptions and constraints, and each employed a different ytpe of air storage facility: a hardrock-mined cavity, a solution mined salt deposit, and an aquifer. The results indicate that aquifer and salt storage facilities cost roughly 60 to 70% of the equivalent hardrock mined cavern. In this comparison the aquifer storage facility was somewhat less expensive than the salt cavity, but this difference could be reversed with different salt and/or aquifer characteristics. For instance, if the aquifer was less permeable, then more wells would be required for the same power level, and total storage cost would be higher. The major difference between the plant cost estimates lies not in the cost of storage facilities, but rather in vendor estimates of turbomachinery cost. And, since turbomachinery contributes about half of total plant cost, this difference could be critical to the decision to build a CAES plant.

  12. Economic comparison of CAES designs employing hardrock, salt, and aquifer storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, R.W.; Schainker, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The economic performance of three CAES designs is briefly examined. Each design was developed by a different A and E under different assumptions and constraints, and each employed a different type of air storage facility: a hardrock-mined cavity, a solution-mined salt deposit, and an aquifer. The results indicate that aquifer and salt storage facilities cost roughly 60 to 70% of the equivalent hardrock-mined cavern. In this comparison the aquifer storage facility was somewhat less expensive than the salt cavity, but this difference could be reversed with different salt and/or aquifer characteristics. For instance, if the aquifer had been less permeable, then more wells would have been required for the same power level, and total storage cost would have been higher. The major difference between the plant cost estimates lies not in the cost of storage facilities, but rather in vendor estimates of turbomachinery cost. And, since turbomachinery contributes about half of total plant cost, this difference could be critical to the decision to build a CAES plant.

  13. Document Delivery Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Anne K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the design of an expert system developed using VP-Expert for document delivery decision making in a law library. Presents methods used in knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation after a brief review of the literature on expert system use in libraries. An appendix includes the rules of the expert system. (Author/AEF)

  14. The inhibition of the apoptosis pathway by the Coxiella burnetii effector protein CaeA requires the EK repetition motif, but is independent of survivin

    PubMed Central

    Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Borges, Vítor; Sobotta, Katharina; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Menge, Christian; Heydel, Carsten; Gomes, João Paulo; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    ABSRTACT Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Query (Q) fever, a zoonotic disease. It requires a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocate bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and thereby facilitates bacterial replication. To date, more than 130 effector proteins have been identified, but their functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that one of these proteins, CaeA (CBU1524) localized to the host cell nucleus and inhibited intrinsic apoptosis of HEK293 or CHO cells. In the present study we addressed the question whether CaeA also affects the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Ectopic expression of CaeA reduced extrinsic apoptosis and prevented the cleavage of the executioner caspase 7, but did not impair the activation of initiator caspase 9. CaeA expression resulted in an up-regulation of survivin (an inhibitor of activated caspases), which, however, was not causal for the anti-apoptotic effect of CaeA. Comparing the sequence of CaeA from 25 different C. burnetii isolates we identified an EK (glutamic acid/ lysine) repetition motif as a site of high genetic variability. The EK motif of CaeA was essential for the anti-apoptotic activity of CaeA. From these data, we conclude that the C. burnetii effector protein CaeA interferes with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway. The process requires the EK repetition motif of CaeA, but is independent of the upregulated expression of survivin. PMID:26760129

  15. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  16. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  17. Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 6: CAES plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    The preliminary plant design for a compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant is presented. The design is based upon the facility criteria; the specific site; and the systems, subsystems. The compressed air is stored in two solution mined caverns in the salt dome. The details concerning the major equipment and the operation of the mechanical systems are described. The project schedule from start of licensing to commercial operation is estimated to be 70 months, with actual construction (including dewatering of the caverns) estimated for 39 months. Based on the cost estimate developed in this task and the modified financial data and fuel cost projections, the economic introduction of CAES into the MSS system was examined for the No. 2 oil-fired plant. The economic analysis did not extend beyond the year 1988. The economic introduction of CAES in the MSS system before 1990 is unlikely because the older oil fired units in the MSS system may be economically used for cycling and peaking, if required. For a system with a different composition of generating units, CAES may be economical at an earlier data.

  18. Expert consensus document: Mind the gaps—advancing research into short-term and long-term neuropsychological outcomes of youth sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.

  19. Design and development of a quad copter (UMAASK) using CAD/CAM/CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manarvi, Irfan Anjum; Aqib, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Khurshid, Saqib; Sikandar, Usman

    Micro flying vehicles1 (MFV) have become a popular area of research due to economy of production, flexibility of launch and variety of applications. A large number of techniques from pencil sketching to computer based software are being used for designing specific geometries and selection of materials to arrive at novel designs for specific requirements. Present research was focused on development of suitable design configuration using CAD/CAM/CAE tools and techniques. A number of designs were reviewed for this purpose. Finally, rotary wing Quadcopter flying vehicle design was considered appropriate for this research. Performance requirements were planned as approximately 10 meters ceiling, weight less than 500grams and ability to take videos and pictures. Parts were designed using Finite Element Analysis, manufactured using CNC machines and assembled to arrive at final design named as UMAASK. Flight tests were carried out which confirmed the design requirements.

  20. ANSYS UIDL-Based CAE Development of Axial Support System for Optical Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-Hua; Shao, Liang

    2008-09-01

    The Whiffle-tree type axial support mechanism is widely adopted by most relatively large optical mirrors. Based on the secondary developing tools offered by the commonly used Finite Element Anylysis (FEA) software ANSYS, ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) is used for creating the mirror FEA model driven by parameters, and ANSYS User Interface Design Language (UIDL) for generating custom menu of interactive manner, whereby, the relatively independent dedicated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) module is embedded in ANSYS for calculation and optimization of axial Whiffle-tree support of optical mirrors. An example is also described to illustrate the intuitive and effective usage of the dedicated module by boosting work efficiency and releasing related engineering knowledge of user. The philosophy of secondary-developed special module with commonly used software also suggests itself for product development in other industries.

  1. A guide to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waterman, D.

    1986-01-01

    This is a general guide to expert systems written specifically for the reader without a computer science background. Contents: Introduction; Introduction to expert systems; Expert system tools; Building an expert system; Difficulties with expert system development; Expert systems in the marketplace; Expert systems and tools; Glossary of expert system terms; References; Author index; Subject index.

  2. Comparison of Compressional Alfvén Eigenmodes in NSTX-U with Simulation Using the CAE3B Eigenmode Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, N.; Crocker, N. A.; Smith, H.; Fredrickson, E. D.

    2016-10-01

    In fusion research devices like the NSTX-U, compressional Alfvén eigenmodes (CAEs) occur at a discrete set of frequencies, or eigenmodes, and can be classified by three mode numbers. The code CAE3B simulates a Hall-MHD plasma with realistic geometry, allowing predictions of CAE frequency and structure for experimental plasmas. We compare CAE3B results with experimentally observed modes in NSTX plasmas in order to validate the physics of CAE3B. To make comparisons, it is necessary to develop techniques to determine which simulated modes should be compared to the experimental modes. Two techniques will be assessed: (1) mapping based on patterns of frequency clustering and (2) mapping based on similarity of long-term frequency evolution as plasma parameters change. Preliminary comparisons for an NSTX discharge at a single time show that high-n experimental modes (e.g. n =6) have frequencies significantly lower than the lowest predicted eigenmodes, suggesting that these experimental modes are not CAEs, but global Alfvén eigenmodes. Low-n experimental modes (e.g. n =3), however, have frequencies higher than the lowest predicted eigenmodes, suggesting that the modes are CAEs with higher poloidal or radial quantum numbers than the lowest eigenmode. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-SC0011810 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. What Are Expert Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  4. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  5. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  6. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  7. Increasing productivity of the McAuto CAD/CAE system by user-specific applications programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotrowski, S. M.; Vu, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Significant improvements in the productivity of the McAuto Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD/CAE) system were achieved by applications programming using the system's own Graphics Interactive Programming language (GRIP) and the interface capabilities with the main computer on which the system resides. The GRIP programs for creating springs, bar charts, finite element model representations and aiding management planning are presented as examples.

  8. Increasing productivity of the McAuto CAD/CAE system by user-specific applications programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotrowski, S. M.; Vu, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Significant improvements in the productivity of the McAuto Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD/CAE) system were achieved by applications programming using the system's own Graphics Interactive Programming language (GRIP) and the interface capabilities with the main computer on which the system resides. The GRIP programs for creating springs, bar charts, finite element model representations and aiding management planning are presented as examples.

  9. Expert consensus document: Advances in the management of oesophageal motility disorders in the era of high-resolution manometry: a focus on achalasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Bredenoord, Albert J; Fox, Mark; Gyawali, C Prakash; Roman, Sabine; Smout, André J P M; Pandolfino, John E

    2017-09-27

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) and new analysis algorithms, summarized in the Chicago Classification, have led to a restructured classification of oesophageal motility disorders. This advance has led to increased detection of clinically relevant disorders, in particular achalasia. It has become apparent that the cardinal feature of achalasia - impaired lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation - can occur in several disease phenotypes: without peristalsis (type I), with pan-oesophageal pressurization (type II), with premature (spastic) distal oesophageal contractions (type III), or with preserved peristalsis (outlet obstruction). Furthermore, no manometric pattern is perfectly sensitive or specific for achalasia caused by a myenteric plexopathy, and there is no biomarker for this pathology. Consequently, physiological testing reveals other syndromes not meeting achalasia criteria that also benefit from therapies formerly reserved for achalasia. These findings have become particularly relevant with the development of a minimally invasive technique for performing a long oesophageal myotomy, the per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). Optimal management is to render treatment in a phenotype-specific manner; that is, POEM calibrated to patient-specific physiology for spastic achalasia and the spastic disorders, and more conservative strategies such as pneumatic dilation for the disorders limited to the LES. This Consensus Statement examines the effect of HRM on our understanding of oesophageal motility disorders, with a focus on the diagnosis, epidemiology and management of achalasia and achalasia-like syndromes.

  10. The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program: A Year-Four Research Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Impey, C.; Prather, E. E.; Lee, K. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to improving teaching & learning in Astro 101 by creating research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments for use in Astro 101 & by providing Astro 101 instructors professional development opportunities to increase their pedagogical content knowledge & instructional skills at implementing these curricula & assessment materials. To create sustainability and further expand this work, CAE, in collaboration with other national leaders in astronomy education & research, developed the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program. The primary goals of CATS are to: 1) increase the number of Astro 101 instructors conducting fundamental research in astronomy education; 2) increase the amount of research-validated curriculum and assessment instruments available for use in Astro 101; and 3) increase the number of people prepared to develop and conduct their own CAE Teaching Excellence Workshops. Our year-four research updates include an analysis of the LSCI using multiple psychometrics, results from teaching "mega-courses,” learning gains related to Citizen Science, common conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to cosmology, new resources available for instructors, a further look into science literacy, and many more. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  11. Emerging CAE technologies and their role in Future Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Dramatic improvements are on the horizon in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) and various simulation technologies. The improvements are due, in part, to the developments in a number of leading-edge technologies and their synergistic combinations/convergence. The technologies include ubiquitous, cloud, and petascale computing; ultra high-bandwidth networks, pervasive wireless communication; knowledge based engineering; networked immersive virtual environments and virtual worlds; novel human-computer interfaces; and powerful game engines and facilities. This paper describes the frontiers and emerging simulation technologies, and their role in the future virtual product creation and learning/training environments. The environments will be ambient intelligence environments, incorporating a synergistic combination of novel agent-supported visual simulations (with cognitive learning and understanding abilities); immersive 3D virtual world facilities; development chain management systems and facilities (incorporating a synergistic combination of intelligent engineering and management tools); nontraditional methods; intelligent, multimodal and human-like interfaces; and mobile wireless devices. The Virtual product creation environment will significantly enhance the productivity and will stimulate creativity and innovation in future global virtual collaborative enterprises. The facilities in the learning/training environment will provide timely, engaging, personalized/collaborative and tailored visual learning.

  12. Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation or ALK gene rearrangement: results of an international expert panel meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Cappuzzo, Federico; Di Maio, Massimo; Hirsch, Fred R; Mok, Tony; Morgillo, Floriana; Rosell, Rafael; Spigel, David R; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2014-05-01

    The availability of targeted drugs has made the assessment of the EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement critical in choosing the optimal treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In May 2013, the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) organized an International Experts Panel Meeting to review strengths and limitations of the available evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of advanced NSCLC with EGFR or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) alterations and to discuss implications for clinical practice and future clinical research. All patients with advanced NSCLC, with the exclusion of pure squamous cell carcinoma in former or current smokers, should be tested for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements before decisions are made on first-line treatment. First-line treatment of EGFR-mutated cases should be with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Any available agent (gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib) can be used, until further data from comparative studies may better guide TKI selection. As general rule, and when clinically feasible, results of EGFR mutational status should be awaited before starting first-line treatment. Panelists agreed that the use of crizotinib is justified in any line of treatment. Although solid evidence supporting the continuation of EGFR TKIs or crizotinib beyond progression is lacking, in some cases (minimal, asymptomatic progression, or oligoprogression manageable by local therapy), treatment continuation beyond progression could be justified. Experimental strategies to target tumor heterogeneity and to treat patients after failure of EGFR TKIs or crizotinib are considered high-priority areas of research. A number of relevant research priorities were identified to optimize available treatment options.

  13. Expert System Software Assistant for Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Mark N.

    1997-01-01

    The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.

  14. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  15. Expert Teacher Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Eva

    The expert teacher action program is to improve classroom teaching performance. The program has been tested in workshop sessions involving more than 1,200 educators representing 50 school districts. A set of standards, consisting of 25 variables, lead to the definition of expert teaching. Each variable deals with a major aspect of the duties of…

  16. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  17. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  18. Expert networks in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  19. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  20. The Higher Education Policy of Global Experts Recruitment Program: Focused on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in how to train and use national experts around the world. Major advanced countries are putting their national efforts into attracting global experts overseas and preventing domestic experts from flowing out of their countries. China has also endeavored much to attract global experts for its economic development and…

  1. Expert Assessment of Advanced Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    developments include: ydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ( PEMFC ): gh- own. There is renewed interest in lithium/air, aluminum/air and carbon...of the small format fuel cells are of the PEM type, b H Because of the intense development of hydrogen fueled PEMFCs , largely for automotive... PEMFC . Two classes of hydrogen source can be identified: hydrogen storage or hydroge generation sources. Within each class they can be further

  2. Laypeople's and experts' perception of nanotechnology hazards.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kastenholz, Hans; Frey, Silvia; Wiek, Arnim

    2007-02-01

    Public perception of nanotechnology may influence the realization of technological advances. Laypeople's (N=375) and experts' (N=46) perception of 20 different nanotechnology applications and three nonnanotechnology applications were examined. The psychometric paradigm was utilized and applications were described in short scenarios. Results showed that laypeople and experts assessed asbestos as much more risky than nanotechnology applications. Analyses of aggregated data suggested that perceived dreadfulness of applications and trust in governmental agencies are important factors in determining perceived risks. Similar results were observed for experts and laypeople, but the latter perceived greater risks than the former. Analyses of individual data showed that trust, perceived benefits, and general attitudes toward technology influenced the perceived risk of laypeople. In the expert sample, confidence in governmental agencies was an important predictor of risks associated with nanotechnology applications. Results suggest that public concerns about nanotechnology would diminish if measures were taken to enhance laypeople's trust in governmental agencies.

  3. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  4. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  5. Subsurface monitoring of reservoir pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and water content at the CAES Field Experiment, Pittsfield, Illinois: system design

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, D.D.; Childs, S.W.; Phillips, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    This subsurface-instrumentation design has been developed for the first Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) field experiment to be performed in porous media. Energy storage will be accomplished by alternating the injection and withdrawal of compressed air in a confined sandstone aquifer near Pittsfield, Illinois. The overall experiment objective is to characterize the reservoir's geochemical and thermohydraulic response to imposed CAES conditions. Specific experiment objectives require monitoring: air-bubble development; thermal development; cyclic pressure response; reservoir dehydration; and water coning. Supporting these objectives, four parameters will be continuously monitored at depth in the reservoir. They are: temperature; pressure; pore-air relative humidity; and pore-water content. Reservoir temperatures and pressures will range to maximum values approaching 200/sup 0/C and 300 psi, respectively. Both pore-air relative humidity and pore-water content will range from approx. 0 to 100%. This report discusses: instrumentation design; sensor and sensor system calibration; field installation and testing; and instrument-system operation. No comprehensive off-the-shelf instrument package exists to adequately monitor CAES reservoir parameters at depth. The best available sensors were selected and adapted for use under expected ranges of reservoir conditions. The instrumentation design criteria required: suitable sensor accuracy; continuous monitoring capability; redundancy; maximum sensor integrity; contingency planning; and minimum cost-information ratio. Three wells will be instrumented: the injection/withdrawal (I/W) well and the two instrument wells. Sensors will be deployed by wireline suspension in both open and backfilled (with sand) wellbores. The sensors deployed in the I/W well will be retrievable; the instrument-well sensors will not.

  6. Assessing the Importance of Nonlinearities in the Development of a Substructure Model for the Wind Turbine CAE Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Song, H.

    2013-03-01

    Design and analysis of wind turbines are performed using aero-servo-elastic tools that account for the nonlinear coupling between aerodynamics, controls, and structural response. The NREL-developed computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool FAST also resolves the hydrodynamics of fixed-bottom structures and floating platforms for offshore wind applications. This paper outlines the implementation of a structural-dynamics module (SubDyn) for offshore wind turbines with space-frame substructures into the current FAST framework, and focuses on the initial assessment of the importance of structural nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects include: large displacements, axial shortening due to bending, cross-sectional transverse shear effects, etc.

  7. Knowledge-Acquisition Tool For Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.

    1988-01-01

    Digital flight-control systems monitored by computer program that evaluates and recommends. Flight-systems engineers for advanced, high-performance aircraft use knowlege-acquisition tool for expert-system flight-status monitor suppling interpretative data. Interpretative function especially important in time-critical, high-stress situations because it facilitates problem identification and corrective strategy. Conditions evaluated and recommendations made by ground-based engineers having essential knowledge for analysis and monitoring of performances of advanced aircraft systems.

  8. Knowledge-Acquisition Tool For Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.

    1988-01-01

    Digital flight-control systems monitored by computer program that evaluates and recommends. Flight-systems engineers for advanced, high-performance aircraft use knowlege-acquisition tool for expert-system flight-status monitor suppling interpretative data. Interpretative function especially important in time-critical, high-stress situations because it facilitates problem identification and corrective strategy. Conditions evaluated and recommendations made by ground-based engineers having essential knowledge for analysis and monitoring of performances of advanced aircraft systems.

  9. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  10. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    software " Solid Works" and computer aided engineering (CAE) software " ANSYS" with corrosion elongation transformed into thermal elongation. We established a current collector corrosion elongation forecast and found that the microstructure controlled the Pb-Ca-Sn alloy; thus newly designed VRLA batteries (MU-series [A. Takemasa, I. Mukaitani, Y. Yoshiyama, K. Fukui, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuwano, M. Fukuda, H. Misaki, K. Uwatari, Shin-Kobe Technical Report 9 (1999) 11] for telecommunication and LL-series [H. Takabayashi, T. Shibahara, Y. Mastuda, K. Fukui, S. Hazui, Y. Matsumura, S. Kondo, Shin-Kobe Tech. Rep. 11 (2001) 35] for electric energy storage) which are lightweight and have long life are introduced here.

  11. Expert systems - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.C.; Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This is the 1987 updated version of expert systems which includes diverse areas such as CAD/CAM, business management, robotics, welding, computer hardware and software support, electronic design, medicine, insurance, transportation, and maintenance. AI Language Compilers are also inventoried. This handbook is designed to give an overview of the entire field and to assist the reader in sorting through the hundreds of expert systems which are developed to identify cost-effective tools and applications for in-house implementation.

  12. Corrosion consultant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.L.

    1994-12-31

    The development and use of an expert system to recommend coatings for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plant is described. The system ranks coatings by their material properties, experimental test and plant performance scores when the component to be coated and its working environment are specified. The user interface, the inference engine, the knowledge base and the implementation of the expert system are presented with comments on its suitability and application for corrosion consultations.

  13. Expert Blind Spot among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.; Petrosino, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This study (N = 48) examined the relationship between preservice secondary teachers' subject-matter expertise in mathematics and their judgments of students' algebra problem-solving difficulty. As predicted by the "expert blind spot" hypothesis, participants with more advanced mathematics education, regardless of their program affiliation or…

  14. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare; Cunningham, David; Tait, Diana; Giralt, Jordi; Glimelius, Bengt; Keränen, Susana Roselló; Bateman, Andrew; Hickish, Tamas; Tabernero, Josep; Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.

  15. Air storage requirements for a 220 MWe CAES plant as a function of turbomachinery selection and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Karalis, A.J.; Sosnowicz, E.J.; Stys, Z.S.

    1985-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of compressor train selection, turbine operation and the generation/compression cycle for a 220 MWe CAES plant which operates with a HP turbine inlet pressure of 44 bar (638 psia). The required air storage mass for a particular CAES generation/compression cycle is a function of both the total air mass withdrawn (during generation) and the total air mass added (during compression). Thus, the air storage mass is dependent upon both the air mass flow rates and daily operating times for the individual turbine and compressor selected. The volumetric requirements of the underground cavities are examined as a function of geologic formation and inlet pressure. While constant volume air storage in a salt formation is emphasized, air storage in a variable volume compensated rock cavern and variable pressure storage in an aquifer are also discussed. Both a daily and weekly compression cycle are addressed and the affect of duty cycle on the compressor train selection is shown. For a given turbine design the effect of constant vs. variable pressure operation on overall plant performance is noted.

  16. Mössbauer and Structural Studies of f.c.c. Fe-Ni-C-based PVD CAE Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Panarin, V. Ye.; Kosintsev, S. G.; Kramar, O. V.; Svystunov, Ye. O.; Volosevich, P. Yu.

    2008-10-01

    The physical vapor deposition by cathode arc evaporation (PVD CAE) technique in microdrops mode was applied for deposition of austenitic nanocrystalline coatings of the Fe-31.2%Ni-2%Co-0.002%Y and Fe-31.4%Ni-2%Co-0.72%C-0.001%Y alloys on Cu substrate. The Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and dilatometry have been used to study the structure, magnetic order and thermal expansion of coatings. The estimated coherently diffracting domains values (CDD) and the TEM data testify that austenitic structure in coatings is dispersed and the presence of carbon intensifies the dispersion process of structural elements. Mössbauer analysis has shown that PVD CAE process results in the decomposition of an austenitic solid solution on microareas enriched both in Ni and Co and in Fe, which leads to the formation of a specific magnetic order characterized by existence of the ferromagnetic low-moment (FM LM) and antiferomagnetic high-moment (AM HM) phases and provides stable Invar properties of a coating at the 110-400 K temperatures.

  17. CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search Jiepu Jiang1, Wei Lu1, Haozhen Zhao2 1 Center for Studies of...AND SUBTITLE CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...15. J. Jiang, W. Lu, D. Liu. CSIR at TREC 2007. In Proceedings of the 16th Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), 2007. 16. J. Jiang, W. Lu. IR

  18. Avionic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshani, Forouzan

    1988-01-01

    At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

  19. Transient stability expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshizawa, J.; Klapper, D.B.; Price, W.W.; Wirgau, K.A.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to develop expert system concepts for use with power system stability studies, and provide proof of the concepts in a prototype computer program. Power system stability analysis consists of several activities (procedures), each with it's own technology. An analysis of the transient stability problem-solving process indicates that it is an iterative design procedure. Portions of this procedure are analogous to a closed loop feedback control system. For example, the Remedial Measures procedure determines changes in the system to satisfy a performance criterion. The user, with the help of the expert system, incorporates these changes into the design and determines the impact on the system performance. This process continues until satisfactory performance is achieved. The following conclusions were found: power system transient stability is a meaningful area for application of expert systems. The expert system can cover a broad spectrum of activities which includes qualitative and quantitative evaluation of system transient performance, suggestions for further processing, and contributions to study organization. It was determined that the expert system inferencing procedure should be highly efficient to process this type of problem.

  20. Expert and Novice Solutions of Genetic Pedigree Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark W.; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

    1988-01-01

    Compares experts', advanced students', and novice students' use of genetics knowledge to generate and test hypotheses while solving genetic pedigree problems. Reports that experts identified more critical cues, tested more hypotheses, were more rigorous in the falsification of alternative hypotheses, and were more flexible to their solving…

  1. Expert and Novice Solutions of Genetic Pedigree Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark W.; Lawrence, Jeanette A.

    1988-01-01

    Compares experts', advanced students', and novice students' use of genetics knowledge to generate and test hypotheses while solving genetic pedigree problems. Reports that experts identified more critical cues, tested more hypotheses, were more rigorous in the falsification of alternative hypotheses, and were more flexible to their solving…

  2. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., background information provided to experts, and deliberations and formal interactions among experts shall be... and technical views to expert panels as input to any expert elicitation process....

  3. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  4. Fracture mechanics expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform. 7 refs.

  5. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  6. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  7. Modeling Expert Control Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    body of rese:inlh results characterize expert domain knowledge and problem-solving mechanisms for a variet td problem domains. By contrast, little is...ident ification of regions of secuml:u I structure, since these regions are used as solid-level components of the struture to he determined. ABC is an...similar to that of human experts in the field, who themselves do not alwas agree on the interpretation of data. This was illustrated vi,,idlf by three

  8. Validation of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachowitz, Rolf A.; Combs, Jacqueline B.

    1988-01-01

    The validation of expert systems (ESs) has only recently become an active AI research topic. Current approaches have concentrated mainly on the validation of rule properties of such systems. The efforts presented improves on current methods by also exploiting the structural and semantic information of such systems. To increase programmer productivity, more and more companies have begun exploiting the advent of AI technology by developing applications using ES shells or other AI-based high level program generators. The architecture, functionality, and future goals of Expert Systems Validation are described along with the features that have been implemented for and in Automated Reasoning Tool, the ES shell presented.

  9. Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-23

    An expert system has been developed by The Aerospace Corporation, Space and Environment Technology Center for use in the diagnosis of satellite...anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to determine the probable cause of an anomaly from the following candidates...in the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instrument’s Personal Consultant Plus expert - system shell. The expert

  10. Expert Systems Application In Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Pradip; Chitturi, Ramesh; Babu, A. J. G.

    1987-05-01

    Expert system, a special branch of Artificial Intelligence finds its way in the domain of manufacturing. This paper presents the basic ideas and features of the expert systems, problems in manufacturing and application of expert systems in manufacturing. As the process planning is an important phase in manufacturing, the suitability of expert systems for process planning area has been highlighted. Several expert systems, developed to solve manufacturing problems are also discussed in the paper.

  11. Expert systems in civil engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kostem, C.N.; Maher, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on expert systems in civil engineering. Topics considered at the symposium included problem solving using expert system techniques, construction schedule analysis, decision making and risk analysis, seismic risk analysis systems, an expert system for inactive hazardous waste site characterization, an expert system for site selection, knowledge engineering, and knowledge-based expert systems in seismic analysis.

  12. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  13. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  14. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  15. Expert Systems Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and…

  16. Capital Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  17. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  18. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Marcille, T.F.; Protsik, R.; Deane, N.A.; Hoover, D.G. )

    1993-01-15

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  19. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcille, Thomas F.; Protsik, Robert; Deane, Nelson A.; Hoover, Darryl G.

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability.

  20. MEANINGS & MOTIVES Experts Debating Tobacco Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Sarah G.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a “habituation” in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately. PMID:18703459

  1. Gene Cloning and Characterization of the Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11 Carboxylesterase CaesCCR11, a New Member of Family XV.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Luna, Graciela; Sánchez-Otero, María Guadalupe; Quintana-Castro, Rodolfo; Matus-Toledo, Rodrigo Eloir; Oliart-Ros, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    A gene encoding a carboxylesterase produced by Geobacillus thermoleovoras CCR11 was cloned in the pET-3b cloning vector, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Gene sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 750 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues (27.3 kDa) named CaesCCR11. The enzyme showed its maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 5-8, with preference for C4 substrates, confirming its esterase nature. It displayed good resistance to temperature, pH, and the presence of organic solvents and detergents, that makes this enzyme biotechnologically applicable in the industries such as fine and oleo-chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, organic synthesis, biodiesel production, detergents, and food industries. A 3D model of CaesCCR11 was predicted using the Bacillus sp. monoacyl glycerol lipase bMGL H-257 structure as template (PBD code 3RM3, 99 % residue identity with CaesCCR11). Based on its canonical α/β hydrolase fold composed of 7 β-strands and 6 α-helices, the α/β architecture of the cap domain, the GLSTG pentapeptide, and the formation of distinctive salt bridges, we are proposing CaesCCR11 as a new member of family XV of lipolytic enzymes.

  2. Cae I: an endonuclease isolated from the African green monkey with properties indicating site-specific cleavage of homologous and heterologous mammalian DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, F L; Musich, P R; Maio, J J

    1978-01-01

    Component alpha DNA is a highly repetitive sequence that comprises nearly a quarter of the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) genome. A previous microbial restriction enzyme analysis showed that the repeat structure of component alpha DNA is based upon a monomeric unit of 176 +/- 4 base-pairs. An endonuclease, provisionally termed Case I, has been isolated from African green monkey testes that cleaves component alpha DNA into multimeric segments based upon the same repeat periodicity as that revealed by microbial restriction enzymes. The primary sites of Cae I cleavage in the component alpha sequence appear to be 120 +/- 6 base-pairs distant from the Hind III sites and 73 +/- 6 base-pairs distant from the Eco RI* sites. Cae I has been partially characterized with special reference to the effects of ATP and S-adenosylmethionine on the cleavage of component alpha DNA. Cae I may be a member of a class of similar site-specific nucleases present in mammalian cells. Cae I also cleaves mouse satellite DNA into a multimeric series of discrete segments: the periodicity of this series is shorter than that revealed by Eco RII retriction analysis of mouse satellite DNA. Images PMID:206873

  3. The Comparison of Inductive Reasoning under Risk Conditions between Chinese and Japanese Based on Computational Models: Toward the Application to CAE for Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yujie; Terai, Asuka; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Inductive reasoning under risk conditions is an important thinking process not only for sciences but also in our daily life. From this viewpoint, it is very useful for language learning to construct computational models of inductive reasoning which realize the CAE for foreign languages. This study proposes the comparison of inductive reasoning…

  4. Analysis of the Hexapod Work Space using integration of a CAD/CAE system and the LabVIEW software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the problems related to the integration of a CAD/CAE system with the LabVIEW software. The purpose of the integration is to determine the workspace of a hexapod model basing on a mathematical model describing it motion. In the first stage of the work concerning the integration task the 3D model to simulate movements of a hexapod was elaborated. This phase of the work was done in the “Motion Simulation” module of the CAD/CAE/CAM Siemens NX system. The first step was to define the components of the 3D model in the form of “links”. Individual links were defined according to the nature of the hexapod elements action. In the model prepared for movement simulation were created links corresponding to such elements as: electric actuator, top plate, bottom plate, ball-and-socket joint, toggle joint Phillips. Then were defined the constraints of the “joint” type (e.g.: revolute joint, slider joint, spherical joint) between the created component of the “link” type, so that the computer simulation corresponds to the operation of a real hexapod. The next stage of work included implementing the mathematical model describing the functioning of a hexapod in the LabVIEW software. At this stage, particular attention was paid to determining procedures for integrating the virtual 3D hexapod model with the results of calculations performed in the LabVIEW. The results relate to specific values of the jump of electric actuators depending on the position of the car on the hexapod. The use of integration made it possible to determine the safe operating space of a stationary hexapod taking into consideration the security of a person in the driving simulator designed for the disabled.

  5. Geotechnical Feasibility Analysis of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Bedded Salt Formations: a Case Study in Huai'an City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guimin; Li, Yinping; Daemen, Jaak J. K.; Yang, Chunhe; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    The lower reaches of the Yangtze River is one of the most developed regions in China. It is desirable to build compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plants in this area to ensure the safety, stability, and economic operation of the power network. Geotechnical feasibility analysis was carried out for CAES in impure bedded salt formations in Huai'an City, China, located in this region. First, geological investigation revealed that the salt groups in the Zhangxing Block meet the basic geological conditions for CAES storage, even though the possible unfavorable characteristics of the salt formations include bedding and different percentages of impurities. Second, mechanical tests were carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of the bedded salt formations. It is encouraging that the samples did not fail even when they had undergone large creep deformation. Finally, numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stability and volume shrinkage of the CAES under the following conditions: the shape of a single cavern is that of a pear; the width of the pillar is adopted as two times the largest diameter; three regular operating patterns were adopted for two operating caverns (internal pressure 9-10.5 MPa, 10-11.5 MPa, and 11-12.5 MPa), while the other two were kept at high pressure (internal pressure 10.5, 11.5, and 12.5 MPa) as backups; an emergency operating pattern in which two operating caverns were kept at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) for emergency while the backups were under operation (9-10.5 MPa), simulated for 12 months at the beginning of the 5th year. The results of the analysis for the plastic zone, displacement, and volume shrinkage support the feasibility of the construction of an underground CAES power station.

  6. Use of expert judgment in NUREG--1150

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, N.R.; Wheeler, T.A.; Meyer, M.A.; Keeney, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The expert judgment process used in NUREG--1150, ''Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Plants,'' is an advance over those processes developed in previous probabilistic risk assessments. The new process was used to obtain expert judgment on issues expected to be the main contributors to the potential risk of five nuclear plants. The use of expert judgment helped to incorporate both the experience and the research results obtained since the Reactor Safety Study (US NRC, 1975). The new process also enabled NUREG--1150 to include a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, an analysis that had been lacking in the earlier Reactor Safety Study. This process for gathering expert judgment was developed in response to criticisms applied to the previous Reactor Safety Study by the Lewis Committee (Lewis, 1978) and to review comments of the Kouts Committee (1987) on the draft NUREG--1150. The process is based on accepted decision analysis techniques and findings from the numerous studies involving the quantification of judgment. The result, a formal process for eliciting and documenting expert judgment for risk assessment, is one of the major contributions of NUREG-1150. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  8. Make yourself an expert.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm.

  9. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    two volumes. Volume 1 is the Development Metodology and Volume 2 is an Evaluation Methodology containing methods for evaluation, validation and...system are written in an English -like language which almost anyone can understand. Thus programming in rule based systems can become "programming for...computers and others have little understanding about how computers work. The knowledge engineer must therefore be willing and able to teach the expert

  10. Emergency Supply Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Supply Expert System (ESEX) is one of three studies being provided to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) under KPMG Peat Marwick delivery order F7-04...benefits of implementing ESEX. The sources of this data included an ESEX Executive Summary Report/Business Case dated February 1992, historical budget...individual AVRS engines. Methodology The study team gathered statistical data from the three sites currently operating ESEX within DLA. Through trips to two

  11. Empirical analysis for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.

    1985-01-01

    This book describes an AI system designed to improve the development of expert systems for classification-type problems. A system referred to as ''seek'' that gives interactive advice about rule refinement in the design of an expert system is presented. The system develops techniques to integrate dual sources of expert knowledge efficiently. The techniques are used to develop a diagnostic consultant for rheumatology.

  12. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics of expert systems (computer programs designed to replicate human expertise in a variety of areas), describes recently available expert system development tools, suggests applications within the field of special education, and reviews recent efforts to apply expert systems technology to special education…

  13. Expert systems development and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Current research in the application of expert systems to problems in the flight research environment is discussed. In what is anticipated to be a broad research area, a real time expert system flight status monitor has been identified as the initial project. This real time expert system flight status monitor is described in terms of concept, application, development, and schedule.

  14. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  15. The expert Neandertal mind.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive anthropology, and cognitive archaeology are combined to yield a picture of Neandertal cognition in which expert performance via long-term working memory is the centerpiece of problem solving. This component of Neandertal cognition appears to have been modern in scope. However, Neandertals' working memory capacity, which is the ability to hold a variety of information in active attention, may not have been as large as that of modern humans. This characteristic helps us understand features of the archaeological record, such as the rarity of innovation, and allows us to make empirically based speculations about Neandertal personality.

  16. The imported forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Larson, C P

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  17. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential.

  18. Building a prototype expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmus, D.; Hutchinson, M.; Hall, D.

    1988-07-01

    In the past few years expert system technology has been gaining increasing respect within the world of computer science as it offers practical solutions to problems which have previously defied computerization. This paper is the culmination of a years investigation into how LBL can practically make use of this technology to solve some of the problems being faced by its scientists. To establish this and gain a greater understanding of expert system technology we attempted to build a prototype expert system using a commercially available expert system shell. The application we chose was to troubleshoot the hardware of the TPC particle detector (used by high energy physicists at LBL) using Neuron Data's expert system shell, Nexpert. This paper gives some brief overviews of the theoretical and practical work done by other people in fields relevant to this project. It includes: expert systems, their development, diagnostic expert systems, and examples of expert systems built to troubleshoot electronic devices. We describe how we selected our prototype expert system and then how we went about designing and building it. For this we have detailed the knowledge necessary to start troubleshooting the TPC and the methods used to represent that knowledge within the expert system shell. Finally we discuss the understanding of expert system technology which we have gained during this project and why we believe that this technology has a place in the future of problem solving at LBL. 31 refs.

  19. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  20. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  1. Expert System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a software shell for developing expert systems is designed to allow research and development of artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Originally developed by Johnson Space Center, it enables highly efficient pattern matching. A collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is built into a rule network. Additional pertinent facts are matched to the rule network. Using the program, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is monitoring chemical production machines; California Polytechnic State University is investigating artificial intelligence in computer aided design; Mentor Graphics has built a new Circuit Synthesis system, and Brooke and Brooke, a law firm, can determine which facts from a file are most important.

  2. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches. CAES. Appendix E: Electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The design approaches provided the basis for development of the preliminary plant design. The electrical systems described include the plant power system, switchyard and electrical motor starting system. The design approaches presented are based on the design criteria presented in the Project Design criteria - CAES. Selection of the preferred approach reflect the Task 3 study results and conform to the greatest extent possible with PEPCO's standard practices.

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 12: Plant design, CAES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Detailed designs were developed for the major components and systems of the CAES plant. These designs were based upon the preliminary economic and technical evaluations and alternative designs developed in Task 3C. The detailed project design drawings for the major plant systems and structures are presented. The site development report, updated cost estimate, cost/schedule risk study, reliability/availability, analysis, and recommendations for additional research and development are included.

  4. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches: CAES, appendix C. Major mechanical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The major mechanical equipment includes the turbine-motor/generator, compressor train, intercooler/aftercooler system, and exhaust gas recuperator. The design criteria for each of these components is interrelated with, and dependent upon, each of the other components within the major mechanical equipment group. Careful consideration of this dependency has resulted in an overall design approach which satisfies the requirements of the CAES operational cycle while providing for a conservative component design.

  5. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  6. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  7. Robotics and expert systems. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a workshop on robotics and expert systems. Topics considered at the conference include: symbolic computation expert systems for software productivity; expert systems, practices; expert systems, methods; and, technology needs and productivity.

  8. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  9. SENLEX: Sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  10. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  11. A unit commitment expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhtari, S.; Singh, J.; Wollenberg, B.

    1987-02-01

    An expert system based consultant has been developed to assist power system operators in scheduling the operation of generating units. First, problems with existing unit commitment algorithms were identified. Then the knowledge of an experienced power system operator and a unit commitment programming expert were combined to create an expert system rule base. To use the expert system as a unit commitment consultant the operator provides information in response to questions. The expert system uses this information along with the rules either to ask for more information or to reach a conclusion. The expert system answers the most frequent questions raised by system operators and improves the unit commitment solution results by indicating how to adjust input data. It concludes the operational constraints not included in the unit commitment base algorithm and results in a more efficient program execution. Numerical examples and test results show that this approach can obtain a better and operationally more acceptable unit commitment solution.

  12. Deploying expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1989-01-01

    As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

  13. Vehicle Corrosion Expert System (CES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-19

    Report developed under SBlR contract for topic A99-092. This report describes the design and development of a vehicle Corrosion Expert System (CES). CES has immediate utility in the automotive industry by vehicle manufactures that have the...eliminate or reduce the expensive Accelerated Corrosion Testing phase of the new vehicle development effort. The Vehicle Corrosion Expert System supports...and level of detail required to allow the user to use the Expert System for his area of interest.

  14. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC-Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, A. A.; Pencea, I.; Branzei, M.; Trancă, D. E.; Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C. E.; Ciovica (Coman), E.; Gherghilescu, A. I.; Stanciu, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC-Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (Eoc), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (Eoc) and corrosion potential (Ecorr) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC-Co while on corrosion current density (icorr) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC-Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  15. Building expert systems: Cognitive emulation

    SciTech Connect

    Slatter, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    This work explores the questions and issues surrounding the capacity of expert systems to emulate human thinking and problem-solving abilities, the extent to which this is possible, and the desirability and limitations involved in applying this new technology. Maintaining a balance between theoretical and practical issues, it reviews psychological research into human expert cognition and discusses the formal arguments for and against cognitive emulation in expert system design. Also analyzes in detail the factors likely to promote or constrain this strategy. Includes a critical survey of expert systems research which outlines the implications of the emulation approach to knowledge acquisition and representation.

  16. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  17. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  18. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  19. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  20. CAE for thermal management of aerospace electronic boards using the BETAsoft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobish, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace electronic boards require special attention to thermal management due to constraints such as their need to be light, small, and maintain high power densities. Also, cooling is mainly through conductive and radiative modes with minor or negligible convective cooling. Due to these particular requirements, thermal design has become an integrated part of the electronic design process in order to avoid expensive repeat prototyping and to ensure high reliability. To achieve high speed simulations, the BETAsoft code uses semi-empirical formulations and an advanced finite difference scheme that incorporates local adaptive grids. Detailed conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer is considered. Various benchmark verifications of the software simulation compared to infrared images typically prove to be within 10% of each other. The thermal analysis of a sample avionic card in a natural convection environment is shown. Then, the individual effects of attaching metal screws to the casing, increasing radiative emissivities of the casing, increasing the conductance of the wedge lock, adding an aluminum core to the board, adding metal strips in board layers, inserting conduction pads under components, and adding heat sinks to components are demonstrated.

  1. Institutional Influences on Nurse-Academics' Instructional Planning Decisions in the Implementation of Basic Nursing Curricula in Colleges of Advanced Education in New South Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    A study examined institutional influences on the instructional planning decisions of nurse-academics presenting basic nursing curricula in colleges of advanced education (CAEs) in New South Wales. Data were collected from the following sources: survey of 86 selected nurse-academics from 12 of New South Wales' 15 tertiary institutions running basic…

  2. EASy: Expert authorizations system

    SciTech Connect

    Altfeld, J.; Landon, D.F.; Daniels, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Equifax Check Services provides retail merchants and other businesses with quality decisions concerning the acceptability. risk. or fraudulence of customer checks. The greatest percentage of these decisions are provided automatically through on-line links with point-of-sale terminals. When a transaction is suspect, a referral notice is generated directing the merchant to call one of Equifax Check Services` authorization centers for additional processing. This processing considers a wide variety of information unavailable through online processing, thereby giving consumers the greatest possible benefit of doubt prior to declining checks. These high-risk authorizations had historically been handled using a legacy mainframe system involving a high degree of manual intervention. Authorizations agents would complete a lengthy, rigorous training regimen, and be monitored as to their performance. Pursuit of service excellence caused Equifax, in conjunction with Brightware Corporation, to develop the Expert Authorization System (EASy), a rule-based solution for check authorizations that uses an innovative twist on a standard blackboard architecture. EASy was deployed and is used today by as many as 300 concurrent users. By encapsulating extensive domain knowledge, EASy has effectively eliminated authorization errors, provided consistent and replicable decisions, reduced elapsed time to a decision, and reduced the average agent training time from 4-6 weeks to 3 days.

  3. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  4. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  5. Artificial Intelligence: The Expert Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems focuses on their use in education. Characteristics of good expert systems are explained; computer software programs that contain applications of AI are described, highlighting one used to help educators identify learning-disabled students; and the future of AI is discussed. (LRW)

  6. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  7. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  8. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of…

  9. Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuclear Industry, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

  10. Are moral philosophers moral experts?

    PubMed

    Gesang, Bernward

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I examine the question of whether ethicists are moral experts. I call people moral experts if their moral judgments are correct with high probability and for the right reasons. I defend three theses, while developing a version of the coherence theory of moral justification based on the differences between moral and nonmoral experience: The answer to the question of whether there are moral experts depends on the answer to the question of how to justify moral judgments. Deductivism and the coherence theory both provide some support for the opinion that moral experts exist in some way. I maintain - within the framework of a certain kind of coherence theory - that moral philosophers are 'semi-experts'.

  11. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  12. Issues in expert system development

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, C.L.

    1988-03-01

    The explicit representation of domain knowledge and its separation from the processes which manipulate it and the representation formalism particular to artificial intelligence allow expert systems to solve problems which are characterized by a high combinatoric complexity or which are sufficiently ill defined as to not have reasonable software engineering solutions. The expert system approach to problem-solving differs radically from it conventional system development counterpart. This paper defines the expert system and introduces the production system architecture. The relative strengths and weaknesses of expert system and software engineering approaches to problem solving are discussed. Also addressed are criteria for identifying problems amenable to expert system solution and some justification for system development.

  13. Expert system for productivity enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Kengskool, K.

    1986-01-01

    This research develops a microcomputer based expert system that assists a human operator with productivity enhancement of work activities using the Method Improvement design strategy. The specific problem domain of this expert system is one of manual jobs performed by one operator at one workplace where the operator totally controls the cycle time of the operation. The specific output of the research is an expert system that effectively and efficiently aids practitioners in performing work system modeling, and enhancement tasks. The research methodology utilizes the Principles of Method Improvement and attempts to incorporate key features of expert system design. The usefulness of this new approach to work system modeling and enhancement is validated through a critical review of the expert system by potential users of the system.

  14. Expert system controlled microwave tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Siambis, J.; Bacher, H.; Bemis, T.; Hargreaves, T.; Rogers, R.; Symons, R.; Vaughan, R.; Kolte, G.; Lee, M.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture, reliable, long-life operation and life-time cost-effective performance and recycling of high value microwave tubes can benefit significantly by the introduction and integration of expert system controls in microwave tubes. Expert systems are based on a computer module equipped with (a) sensors to measure the state of the system (b) a database and computational capability to compare the measured state of the system against a programmed state (c) capable of deciding and initiating corrective action on the state of the system through (d) adaptive controls and activators capable of modifying the operating state. The authors have begun the investigation and development of an expert system using the klystron tube L-5838 as a testbed. Initially, all sensors and controls are placed outside the vacuum envelope of the tube in order to minimize the insertion cost of the expert system. They report here on an expert system for the input cavity of the klystron tube.

  15. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  16. Outcomes for bipolar patients assessed in the French expert center network: A 2-year follow-up observational study (FondaMental Advanced Centers of Expertise for Bipolar Disorder [FACE-BD]).

    PubMed

    Henry, Chantal; Godin, Ophelia; Courtet, Philippe; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Gard, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Polosan, Mircea; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Roux, Paul; Aubin, Valerie; Costagliola, Dominique; Leboyer, Marion; Etain, Bruno

    2017-09-12

    A new health care system for patients with bipolar disorders was established in France under the auspices of Fondation FondaMental, based on thorough clinical assessment of patients and on close collaborations between expert centers and referring practitioners. We report the results of outcomes after 2 years of observational follow-up of adult patients assessed within the network. A total of 984 patients were included in the study. We compared several parameters (e.g., mood episodes and hospitalization) 1 year before inclusion and after 2 years of observational follow-up using the patient as his or her own control. Other outcomes were compared at baseline and during follow-up. We estimated the evolution of these parameters over a period of 2 years using mixed models for continuous parameters and a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model for categorical variables, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Mean age was 42.7 (±12.5) years and 58.8% were women. The number of hospitalization days decreased by 55% when comparing 1 year before inclusion vs the follow-up period. In addition, patients showed a clear functional improvement associated with a reduction of residual mood symptoms, diminished psychiatric comorbidities, improvement of sleep and a better adherence to treatment. This study demonstrates an overall improvement of patients followed for 2 years after an assessment in expert centers for bipolar disorders. This new organization based on a thorough clinical assessment and on personalized recommendations (drug treatments, psycho-social strategies and lifestyle measures) sent to health care professionals, and actively involving patients and families, improves the prognosis of BD patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cognitive resources of physics experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Darrick C.

    One important goal of physics education is to help students develop reasoning patterns similar to those of expert physicists. To achieve this goal, physics educators must know what makes physics experts so successful at solving challenging physics problems. However, this dimension of physics expertise has not been fully explored by the physics education research (PER) community. In this dissertation, I describe several studies I have conducted that further the PER community's understanding of physics expertise. In these studies, I investigate how expert physicists reason as they solve unfamiliar, challenging physics problems by using a resource-based model of cognition to analyze videotaped recordings of problem solving sessions. By developing a way to determine when experts are making conceptual breakthroughs I analyze what resources experts use during conceptual breakthroughs. In the first study, I show that physics conceptual breakthroughs are characterized by reasoning which combines resources related to intuitive knowledge, higher level physics based conceptual knowledge, and epistemological knowledge. In the second study, I develop a way to reliably code for epistemological resources and determine what epistemological resources experts rely on most during conceptual breakthroughs. My findings show that experts rely on contrasting cases more often than any other epistemological resource. In the third study, I use variation theory to investigate how experts use contrasting cases. I look for patterns across all instances when experts use contrasting cases to make a conceptual breakthrough and show how scientific epistemology can be used to better understand experts' use of contrasting cases. I discuss how the findings of each study can be used to inform physics education.

  18. Filtering information from human experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

  19. Filtering information from human experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

  20. How lawyers view psychiatric experts.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H; Skip Simpson, J D

    2012-11-01

    Good lawyers look for integrity in their expert consultants and expert witnesses. They need truthful, accurate information to help them assess and frame cases, win or settle them favorably, and/or withdraw when the case has little merit. Experts should be well qualified to review, interpret, and eventually testify credibly about their portions of the case. They should be able to work with lawyers in the lawyers' own arenas (e.g., courts, hearings) and to convey their opinions to others, such as juries, clearly and without unnecessary distractions.

  1. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  2. Signal Processing Expert Code (SPEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, H.S.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a prototype expert system called SPEC which was developed to demonstrate the utility of providing an intelligent interface for users of SIG, a general purpose signal processing code. The expert system is written in NIL, runs on a VAX 11/750 and consists of a backward chaining inference engine and an English-like parser. The inference engine uses knowledge encoded as rules about the formats of SIG commands and about how to perform frequency analyses using SIG. The system demonstrated that expert system can be used to control existing codes.

  3. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  4. Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Clay

    1989-01-01

    Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

  5. Characterization of Klebsiella isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and determination of antimicrobial resistance with VITEK 2 advanced expert system (AES).

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Alper; Acar, Sümeyra; Körkoca, Hanifi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the VITEK mass spectrometry (MS) (bioMérieux, France) system for the identification of Klebsiella spp. isolated from different sources. Moreover, while assessing the ability of the VITEK 2 automated expert system (AES) to recognize antimicrobial resistance patterns, the researchers have extended the study to compare VITEK 2 with the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing method. This study tested 51 Klebsiella spp. isolates that were isolated from environmental examples and clinical examples. Results of conventional methods and the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS were compared. Then, any differing results were compared against a reference 16S rRNA gene sequence, and when indicated, a recA sequencing analysis was done. VITEK MS correctly identified 100% of the Klebsiella spp. isolates. There were two K. oxytoca isolates incorrectly identified to the species level with conventional methods according to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In addition, a VITEK 2 AST-N261 card was used for the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Using the VITEK 2 AES, ESBL positivity was found at the rate of 16.3% whereas this rate was 4.08% using the disk diffusion method. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate method for the identification of Klebsiella spp. Moreover, the bioMérieux AES provides a useful laboratory tool for the interpretation of susceptibility results.

  6. Fault isolation detection expert (FIDEX). Part 1: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has recently completed the design of a Ka-band satellite transponder system, as part of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. To enhance the reliability of this satellite, NASA funded the University of Akron to explore the application of an expert system to provide the transponder with an autonomous diagnosis capability. The results of this research was the development of a prototype diagnosis expert system called FIDEX (fault-isolation and diagnosis expert). FIDEX is a frame-based expert system that was developed in the NEXPERT Object development environment by Neuron Data, Inc. It is a MicroSoft Windows version 3.0 application, and was designed to operate on an Intel i80386 based personal computer system.

  7. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  8. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035017 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  9. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035016 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Expedition 20 commander, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  10. Russian BAR/EXPERT experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-28

    ISS020-E-035022 (27 Aug. 2009) --- Russian cosmonaut Roman Romanenko, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses the Russian BAR/EXPERT science payload to take various environmental measurements in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  11. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  12. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  13. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  14. Rule groupings in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala; Johnson, Sally C.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify, and almost impossible to verify or validate Partitioning rule-based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert-system software. In this paper, we investigate methods to semi-automatically structure a CLIPS rule base e into groups of rules that carry related information. We discuss three different distance metrics for measuring the relatedness of rules and describe two clustering algorithms based on these distance metrics. The results of our experiment with three sample rule bases are also presented.

  15. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenting, Jacques H. J.; Perre, Michael

    1990-11-01

    The problems encountered in expert systems development are analyzed and a quality framework which takes a view at the quality problem from three perspectives is developed: the quality of the development process, the quality of the specifications and the quality of the expert system viewed as a product. In order to get a better grasp of the problem a number of methods and techniques, derived from conventional and artificial intelligence systems development, are reviewed. The conceptual similarities between data bases and knowledge bases are stressed. The use of conventional specification methods, in particular Nijssens Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM), is considered. In addition to this, algorithms for preserving consistency and integrity of the knowledge base are compared. The modularity and structure of knowledge bases is examined, together with the applicability of conventional testing methodologies in expert systems. The integration of data base theory and artificial intelligence are shown to signify a step in the direction of a better quality control of expert systems.

  16. Communication Alarm Processor Expert System.

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hemmelman, K.M.; Rasmussen, R.D.; Borys, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype expert system is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bonneville Power Administration to process alarms from Bonneville's microwave communication system. The microwave system transmits data from power facilities in four Pacific Northwestern states to a central operations control facility. The communications alarm processor (CAP) will receive real-time data, diagnose operational problems, archive alarm information, and support analysis aimed at improving equipment maintenance. The expert system will operate in an advisory capacity. The ultimate goal is to develop systems that will enhance the operation and maintenance for the entire power system. This paper describes Bonneville's operations, the domain and architecture of the expert system, the methods used for knowledge representation and acquisition, the hardware and software of the prototype, and implementation challenges of real-time expert systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Dianne

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  20. Specification for Qualification and Certification for Level III - Expert Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This document defines the requirements and program for the American Welding Society to certify expert welders through an evaluation process entailing performance qualification and practical knowledge tests requiring the use of advanced reading, computational, and manual skills. The following items are included: statement of the standard's scope;…

  1. Applied, theoretical modeling of space-based assembly, using expert system architecture for computer-aided engineering tool development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Steven Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The challenges associated with constructing interplanetary spacecraft and space platforms in low earth orbit are such that it is imperative that comprehensive, preliminary process planning analyses be completed before committing funds for Phase B design (detail design, development). Phase A and 'pre-Phase A' design activities will commonly address engineering questions such as mission-design structural integrity, attitude control, thermal control, etc. But the questions of constructability, maintainability and reliability during the assembly phase usually go unaddressed until the more mature stages of design (or very often production) are reached. This is an unacceptable strategy for future space missions whether they be government or commercial ventures. After interviews with expert Aerospace and Construction industry planners a new methodology was formulated and a Blackboard Metaphor Knowledge-based Expert System synthesis model has been successfully developed which can decompose interplanetary vehicles into deliverable orbital subassemblies. Constraint propagation, including launch vehicle payload shroud envelope, is accomplished with heuristic and numerical algorithms including a unique adaptation of a reasoning technique used by Stanford researchers in terrestrial automated process planning. The model is a hybrid combination of rule and frame-based representations, designed to integrate into a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. Emphasis is placed on the actual joining, rendezvous, and refueling of the orbiting, dynamic spacecraft. Significant results of this new methodology upon a large Mars interplanetary spacecraft (736,000 kg) designed by Boeing, show high correlation to manual decomposition and planning analysis studies, but at a fraction of the time, and with little user interaction. Such Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools would greatly leverage the designers ability to assess constructability.

  2. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  3. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  4. SENLEX: sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [Professional and ethical medical expert quality].

    PubMed

    Iveković, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The work of court experts, including those of medical profession, is ruled by Regulations on standing court experts. The Regulations determine requirements for performing the job of court expertise, rights and duties of court experts, awards and remuneration for their work. The ethical codex determines relation of experts to performance of expertise, to court and parties, to colleagues court experts and to the community. The expert must obey the rules on performance of the expertise, complete all his duties, protect respectability of all court experts, and justify trust of legal authorities. In relationship with the court, the expert must respond to court summons, give his finding and opinion, and come to hearing summons.

  6. The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) and Our NSF CCLI Phase-III Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program: Our Community-Based Model for Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, G.; Impey, C. D.; Prather, E.; Lee, K.

    2011-09-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to improving teaching and learning in Astro 101 by creating research-validated curriculum and assessment instruments for use in Astro 101 and by providing Astro 101 instructors professional development opportunities to increase their pedagogical content, knowledge, and instructional skills at implementing these curricula and assessment materials. To create sustainability and further expand this work, CAE, in collaboration with other national leaders in astronomy education and research, developed the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program. The primary goals of CATS are to: 1) increase the number of Astro 101 instructors conducting fundamental research in astronomy education; 2) increase the amount of research-validated curriculum and assessment instruments available for use in Astro 101; and 3) increase the number of people prepared to develop and conduct their own CAE Teaching Excellence Workshops. Following are descriptions of our primary research projects.

  7. Thermo-fluidal behavior of the air in a cavern for the CAES-G/T[Compressed Air Energy Storage Gas Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideo; Echigo, Ryozo; Oishi, Yasushi

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, a numerical analysis was performed to gain the detailed features of the thermo-fluidal behavior of the air inside the cavern for the compressed air storage gas turbine (CAES-G/T). The CAES-G/T, a peak shave power plant is now on the installation in Japan, where energy is stored in off peak period by compressed air in an underground cavern at pressure up to 80 atm abs. In the present work, an analytical model based on the two-dimensional laminar flow on the cross-section of the circular cavern was developed to quantify the effect of the transient process occurring in the cavern and wall during injection, storage and release of compressed air in the experimental circular cavern. the air was introduced until the required pressure inside the cavern is reached, then it was released outside after the storage period. It was found that the stratified temperature distribution was maintained in the cavern during compression and expansion periods. The wall temperature varied together with the variation of the air temperature with time, leading to the heat storage in the wall.

  8. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  9. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system.

  10. Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action: Its Impromptu Development by an Expert Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Research into pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has advanced over the years. Yet, since most research has developed within specific subject areas, this paper aims to investigate how an expert teacher generates PCK by using various forms of knowledge. This study draws upon the case of an expert Japanese teacher, Mr. T, an educational consultant…

  11. Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action: Its Impromptu Development by an Expert Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Research into pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has advanced over the years. Yet, since most research has developed within specific subject areas, this paper aims to investigate how an expert teacher generates PCK by using various forms of knowledge. This study draws upon the case of an expert Japanese teacher, Mr. T, an educational consultant…

  12. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  13. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  14. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  15. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings.

  16. TIMSS Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden, Robert A.; Lie, Svein; Robitaille, David F.; Angell, Carl; Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2006-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks was a collaborative venture involving mathematics and physics experts from around the world. The document contains two frameworks for implementing TIMSS Advanced 2008--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics. It also contains…

  17. [Judicial institutions of medical experts].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Roberto Lm

    2016-05-01

    This article considers the evolutive process that judicial organisms of medical experts have experienced in Argentina since their creation and formulates a proposal for its adequacy and modernization. Due to multiple and various evolutive factors, judicial organisms managing medicolegal expert activities show, nowadays, signals that a structural and dynamic reform is needed. They remain as organizational units of Public Administration and their effectiveness and efficiency depends not only of a scientific criteria but a managing one. The present and future challenge will be their conceptual transformation, from "corporate scientific entities" to "public-service-providing units" within the justice administration system.

  18. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  19. The Living Expert System (LEXSYS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-12

    LEXSYS Living ~ ARMY SENIORSy tn LEADER DECISION MAKING TOOL FOR U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 VOL. I DISTRIUIn= STATDIIII...for open publication until It has been cleared by the appropriate mUlitav service or government agency. THE LIVING EXPERT SYSTEM A GROUP STUDY PROJECT...LTC, AR R. A. Pomager, Jr., LTC, MP E. R. Ruff, LTC, EN J. D. Tolleson, LTC, QM TITLE: The Living Expert System FORMAT: Group Study DATE: 1 May 1988

  20. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  1. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Robotic planner expert system (RPLANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, Ervin Oneal

    1987-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis of the Johnson Space Center has developed a prototype of an expert system for robotic planning. A robot is given a high level goal to perform an action (i.e., swap, adjust, or stow) on a component unit of an object such as a satellite and the Robotic Planner Expert System (RPLANES) generates the necessary goals for arm actions. RPLANES is designed using the Inference Corp. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) development tool. It resides on a SYMBOLICS 3670. RPLANES and its evolution are described.

  3. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-11-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  4. From expert to tasks, expert nursing practice redefined?

    PubMed

    Christensen, Martin; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the concept of expertise in nursing from the perspective of how it relates to current driving forces in health care in which it discusses the potential barriers to acceptance of nursing expertise in a climate in which quantification of value and cost containment run high on agendas. Expert nursing practice can be argued to be central to high quality, holistic, individualized patient care. However, changes in government policy which have led to the inception of comprehensive guidelines or protocols of care are in danger of relegating the 'expert nurse' to being an icon of the past. Indeed, it could be argued that expert nurses are an expensive commodity within the nursing workforce. Consequently, with this change to the use of clinical guidelines, it calls into question how expert nursing practice will develop within this framework of care. The article critically reviews the evidence related to the role of the Expert Nurse in an attempt to identify the key concepts and ideas, and how the inception of care protocols has implications for their role. Nursing expertise which focuses on the provision of individualized, holistic care and is based largely on intuitive decision making cannot, should not be reduced to being articulated in positivist terms. However, the dominant power and decision-making focus in health care means that nurses must be confident in articulating the value of a concept which may be outside the scope of knowledge of those with whom they are debating. The principles of abduction or fuzzy logic may be useful in assisting nurses to explain in terms which others can comprehend, the value of nursing expertise.

  5. Development of an expert system for the simulation model for casting metal substructure of a metal-ceramic crown design.

    PubMed

    Matin, Ivan; Hadzistevic, Miodrag; Vukelic, Djordje; Potran, Michal; Brajlih, Tomaz

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the integrated CAD/CAE systems are favored solutions for the design of simulation models for casting metal substructures of metal-ceramic crowns. The worldwide authors have used different approaches to solve the problems using an expert system. Despite substantial research progress in the design of experts systems for the simulation model design and manufacturing have insufficiently considered the specifics of casting in dentistry, especially the need for further CAD, RE, CAE for the estimation of casting parameters and the control of the casting machine. The novel expert system performs the following: CAD modeling of the simulation model for casting, fast modeling of gate design, CAD eligibility and cast ability check of the model, estimation and running of the program code for the casting machine, as well as manufacturing time reduction of the metal substructure. The authors propose an integration method using common data model approach, blackboard architecture, rule-based reasoning and iterative redesign method. Arithmetic mean roughness values was determinated with constant Gauss low-pass filter (cut-off length of 2.5mm) according to ISO 4287 using Mahr MARSURF PS1. Dimensional deviation between the designed model and manufactured cast was determined using the coordinate measuring machine Zeiss Contura G2 and GOM Inspect software. The ES allows for obtaining the castings derived roughness grade number N7. The dimensional deviation between the simulation model of the metal substructure and the manufactured cast is 0.018mm. The arithmetic mean roughness values measured on the casting substructure are from 1.935µm to 2.778µm. The realized developed expert system with the integrated database is fully applicable for the observed hardware and software. Values of the arithmetic mean roughness and dimensional deviation indicate that casting substructures are surface quality, which is more than enough and useful for direct porcelain veneering. The

  6. Towards a science of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the field of AI are discussed. The components and applications of expert systems, which are computer systems designed to simulate the problem-solving behavior of a person expert in a narrow field, are examined. Two types of expert systems, shallow and deep, are described and examples are given. A logic programming system, rule-based system, and framed-based system are utilized as means of representing the expert system's data base. The limitations of expert systems are considered.

  7. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  8. A New Approach to Expert System Explanations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    Expert systems were one of the first applications to emerge from initial research in artificial intelligence, and the explanation of expert system reasoning...desirable functionality in expert systems, natural language generation has not taken a central place in contemporary expert system development. For...present a new approach to enhancing an expert system with an explanation facility. The approach comprises both software components and a methodology for

  9. Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Gilstrap, Lewey; Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) provides an approach to developing expert system software. Because of the uncertainty associated with this process, an element of risk is involved. ESDM is designed to address the issue of risk and to acquire the information needed for this purpose in an evolutionary manner. ESDM presents a life cycle in which a prototype evolves through five stages of development. Each stage consists of five steps, leading to a prototype for that stage. Development may proceed to a conventional development methodology (CDM) at any time if enough has been learned about the problem to write requirements. ESDM produces requirements so that a product may be built with a CDM. ESDM is considered preliminary because is has not yet been applied to actual projects. It has been retrospectively evaluated by comparing the methods used in two ongoing expert system development projects that did not explicitly choose to use this methodology but which provided useful insights into actual expert system development practices and problems.

  10. Computers that Think Like Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

  11. Expert systems for performance review.

    PubMed

    Bowen, T; Payling, L

    1987-10-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system to interpret hospital and community health service data is described. The system analyses performance indicators, which are key statistics describing levels of achievement in terms both of policy objectives and efficiency. The system is being used to support annual performance reviews of English health authorities. The potential for application of similar systems is discussed.

  12. Expert Systems in Civil Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    preparation for the next evaluation. Zozaya- Gorostiza and Hendrickson (18,p.4) allude to the importance of this for sensitivity analysis (i.e.- modifying...Intellignce, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading,1984. Zozaya- Gorostiza , Carlos and Chris Hendrickson, An Expert 8ystem for

  13. Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

  14. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  15. Ask an Expert with Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1999-01-01

    Discusses electronic mail use in elementary/secondary education focusing on a comparison/review of award-winning Internet-based Virtual Reference Desk Exemplary Services (Ask Dr. Math, Ask A Volcanologist, How Things Work, AskERIC, Mad Scientist, Shamu, and American Art) that provide ask-an-expert question and answer services. Home pages, delivery…

  16. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  17. An expert sample analysis planner

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Parks, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical chemists are faced with the problem of choosing an appropriate analytical technique for a particular sample and weighing the options as they affect precision, time, and cost. This paper describes a computer technique to assist managers in reviewing the alternatives and to match needs with the resources available. This paper proposes an expert system, knowledgeable of analytical chemistry techniques, to create sample plans. Sample planning is an appropriate topic for expert systems because scarce human expertise is required to complete sample plans. A sample plan is the description of how samples received at the Savannah River Laboratory are handled, controlled, measured, and dispositioned. Sample planning is difficult because multiple experts are needed, planning is not a static function, and planning is time consuming. An Expert Sample Analyses Planner (XSAP) is proposed to create sample plans for laboratory managers. XSAP supplements the scarce knowledge of analytical techniques creating sample plans based on analysis constraints, methods available, and time requirements. XSAP interacts with the chemist to suggest sample plans. XSAP considers equipment available locally, at other Savannah River laboratories, at other Department of Energy facilities, and at other commercial laboratories. XSAP allows options on scheduling: best solution, cheapest solution, best local solution, and fastest solution. 26 refs.

  18. Expert Panels, Consumers, and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the attributes, properties, and consumer acceptance of antiperspirant products through responses of 400 consumers (consumer data), expert panel data, and analytical data about the products. Results show how the Rasch model can provide the tool necessary to combine data from several sources. (SLD)

  19. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  20. Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

  1. Expert systems in government symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on various applications of expert systems. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge-based reasoning, new directions in knowledge acquisition, software, programming languages, systems engineering, intelligent information retrieval, reactor safety assessment, medical applications, uncertainty management, algorithms, parallel processing, and artificial intelligence.

  2. Coupling expert systems and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Hsieh, B. J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype coupled system called NESS (NASA Expert Simulation System) is described. NESS assists the user in running digital simulations of dynamic systems, interprets the output data to performance specifications, and recommends a suitable series compensator to be added to the simulation model.

  3. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čančula, Maja Poklinek; Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  4. Medical Expert Systems—Knowledge Tools for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence have led to the emergence of expert systems, computational tools designed to capture and make available the knowledge of experts in a field. Although much of the underlying technology available today is derived from basic research on biomedical advice systems during the 1970s, medical application packages are thus far generally unavailable from the young artificial intelligence industry. Medical expert systems will begin to appear, however, as researchers in medical artificial intelligence continue to make progress in key areas such as knowledge acquisition, model-based reasoning and system integration for clinical environments. It is accordingly important for physicians to understand the current state of such research and the theoretic and logistic barriers that remain before useful systems can be made available. One experimental system, ONCOCIN, provides a glimpse of the kinds of knowledge-based tools that will someday be available to physicians. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:3811349

  5. [Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis CAE and Raman spectroscopy as a method identification of beta-glucans, used as biologically and therapeutically active biomaterials].

    PubMed

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Włodzimierz; Paluch, Jadwiga

    2012-01-01

    reaction have been reported for saccharides. The resulting mono- and oligosaccharides were analysed by cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis CAE and Raman spectroscopy. Individual bands or CAE spots were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed sample: oat and oatmeal, mushrooms: Pleurotus ostreatus, Fungus and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of products rich in cell-wall materials based on cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis CAE and Raman spectroscopy for authentication and detection of adulteration of products are discussed.

  6. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  7. Preliminary engineering design and cost of Advanced Compressed-Air Storage (ACAS) A-5 hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowicz, E. J.; Blackman, J.; Woodhull, A. S.; Zaugg, P.

    1981-08-01

    The advanced compressed air energy (ACAS) plant investiated operates on a partial adiabatic, partial fuel fired cycle. Only a limited advancement in state-of-the-art technology is projected for this hybrid arrangement. The A-5 hybrid systems stores the heat of compression from the low pressure and intermediate pressure compressors in a thermal energy store (TES). The heat collected in the TES is available for preheating the air from the storage cavern prior to its entering the low pressure turbine combustor. This reduces the amount of fuel consumed during power generation. The fuel heat rate for the hybrid cycle is 2660 Btu/kWh as compared to approximately 4000 Btu/kWh for a conventional CAES plant. A virtual stand-off between the hybrid plant and a conventional CAES plant at 235 mills/kWh in 1990 dollars is shown. With a lower cost and increased fuel cost projections, the hybrid system operating cost is less than that for a conventional CAES plant.

  8. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    PubMed

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches. CAES. Appendix B: Champagne effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The significance of the release of dissolved air from the water in the water shaft during air compression on the design and operation of a hydrolically compensated CAES plant was investigated. This air release phenomena was named the Champagne Effect. Included is a description of the work to investigate the rate of diffusion of air into water, the rate of the subsequent release of air from the water during passage up the water shaft, and an evaluation of the resulting behavior of the air bubbles in the shaft. Also included is a discussion of dynamic modeling. Simulation was based upon a two fluid model of the PEPCO system and includes an analysis of potential modifications to the design that might further mitigate any operation problems.

  10. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  11. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  12. Expert systems in agriculture and resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    This paper gives a description of some representative examples of expert systems applied to problems in agriculture and biological resource management. The discussion of agricultural expert systems focuses on several decision support systems for crop management, describing the systems themselves and the implementation efforts surrounding them. The examples of the application of expert systems to biological resource management focus on the integration of expert systems with geographic information systems. A description of some of the more recent developments in agricultural expert systems, still in the prototype stage, is then given, followed by a summary discussion of possible environmental implications of the use of expert systems in agriculture and resource management. 63 refs.

  13. Ridiculous statements by mental health experts.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William

    2011-07-01

    When mental health experts express their opinions in testimony, reports, and articles in professional literature, it is expected that their statements will accurately reflect the current state of knowledge. Experts may disagree about the data that they collected. In some cases, however, disagreement occurs because an expert has employed a methodology that is far outside usual procedures or simply disregarded objective facts. When that occurs, the expert's opinions may be considered ridiculous. The author presents examples of ridiculous statements by mental health experts and provides suggestions for how a forensic practitioner might address ridiculous statements by mental health experts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expert credibility in climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Prall, James W; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H

    2010-07-06

    Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97-98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

  15. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  16. Complex fuzzy soft expert sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvachandran, Ganeshsree; Hafeed, Nisren A.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2017-04-01

    Complex fuzzy sets and its accompanying theory although at its infancy, has proven to be superior to classical type-1 fuzzy sets, due its ability in representing time-periodic problem parameters and capturing the seasonality of the fuzziness that exists in the elements of a set. These are important characteristics that are pervasive in most real world problems. However, there are two major problems that are inherent in complex fuzzy sets: it lacks a sufficient parameterization tool and it does not have a mechanism to validate the values assigned to the membership functions of the elements in a set. To overcome these problems, we propose the notion of complex fuzzy soft expert sets which is a hybrid model of complex fuzzy sets and soft expert sets. This model incorporates the advantages of complex fuzzy sets and soft sets, besides having the added advantage of allowing the users to know the opinion of all the experts in a single model without the need for any additional cumbersome operations. As such, this model effectively improves the accuracy of representation of problem parameters that are periodic in nature, besides having a higher level of computational efficiency compared to similar models in literature.

  17. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D.; Hand, Un Kyong |

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  18. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  19. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  20. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  1. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  2. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  3. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (22)Challenge to Development of Expert System stored Knowledge of Expert Power Network Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Hideharu

    Do you remember an expert system? I think there are various impressions about the system. For example, some might say “It reminds me of old days”. On the other hand, some might say “It was really troublesome”. About 25 years ago, from late 1980s to the middle of 1990s, when the Showa era was about to change into the Heisei Era, artificial intelligence boomed. Research and development for an expert system which was equipped with expertise and worked as smart as expert, was advanced in various fields. Our company also picked up the system as the new system which covered weak point of conventional computer technology. We started research and development in 1984, and installed an expert system in a SCADA system, which started operating in March 1990 in the Fukuoka Integrated Control Center. In this essay, as an electric power engineer who involved in development at that time, I introduce the situation and travail story about developing an expert system which support restorative actions from the outage and overload condition of power networks.

  4. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  5. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  6. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  7. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... testimony of that witness. Upon a showing of good cause, the party sponsoring the expert witness may be... witnesses as provided in this section shall deprive the sponsoring party of the use of the expert witness...

  8. Galaxy Classification: Citizen Scientists versus Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsch, Stefan J.; Vazquez, Richard; Phung, Chau; VanHilst, Michael; Castro, Victor H.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We present the differences of morphological galaxy classification between non-experts and experts. The non-experts are represented by college students and a retired adult community, who use an online application to visually classify galaxies selected from a galaxy morphology catalog. We find that the non-expert group lags the expert classification by one Hubble type behind, for instance, the non-experts classify a set of galaxies with Sb, while the experts classify the same set as Sc. We believe the reason is because the Hubble sequence is increasing the asymmetric structures towards later types. Our results show that the experts have the ability to identify more detailed structures, which the laymen commonly do not recognize.

  9. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  10. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  11. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  12. Expert System for Mine Burial Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    of the mine deployment and environmental conditions. Therefore, a probabilistic predictive structure is appropriate. An expert system that synthesizes...Team for Sea Mine Burial Expert System (ST-SMBES). Further research into the scour portion of the expert system is continuing....predictive performance as well as documentation of the operational shell used by NAVOCEANO to provide input and output connectivity with the expert

  13. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  14. WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies. Second report.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Although there is debate about the estimated health burden of rabies, the estimates of direct mortality and the DALYs due to rabies are among the highest of the neglected tropical diseases. Poor surveillance, underreporting in many developing countries, frequent misdiagnosis of rabies, and an absence of coordination among all the sectors involved are likely to lead to underestimation of the scale of the disease It is clear, however, that rabies disproportionately affects poor rural communities, and particularly children. Most of the expenditure for postexposure prophylaxis is borne by those who can least afford it. As a result of growing dog and human populations, the burden of human deaths from rabies and the economic costs will continue to escalate in the absence of concerted efforts and investment for control. Since the first WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies in 2004, WHO and its network of collaborating centres on rabies, specialized national institutions, members of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Rabies and partners such as the Gates Foundation, the Global Alliance for Rabies Control and the Partnership for Rabies Prevention, have been advocating the feasibility of rabies elimination regionally and globally and promoting research into sustainable cost-effective strategies. Those joint efforts have begun to break the cycle of rabies neglect, and rabies is becoming recognized as a priority for investment. This Consultation concluded that human dog-transmitted rabies is readily amenable to control, regional elimination in the medium- term and even global elimination in the long-term. A resolution on major neglected tropical diseases, including rabies, prepared for submission to the World Health Assembly in May 2013 aims at securing Member States' commitment to the control, elimination or eradication of these diseases. Endorsement of the resolution would open the door for exciting advances in rabies prevention and control.

  15. REDEX - The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990s.

  16. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  17. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  18. Interfaces and Expert Systems for Online Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Cynthia A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of separate online system interfaces which led to efforts to develop expert systems for searching databases, particularly for end users, and introduces the research on such expert systems. Appended is a bibliography of sources on interfaces and expert systems for online retrieval. (Author/EJS)

  19. Building Expert Systems for Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Gary W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the development of an expert system that will serve as the primary advisor for individual course sequencing in a graduate program focuses on the characteristics and selection of an expert system shell (i.e., software that facilitates expert system development). Advantages, disadvantages, and prices of several commercial products are…

  20. Expert System Prototype for False Event Discrimination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-14

    This report discusses a prototype expert system for event discrimination. We wanted to determine whether applying an expert system to handle and...other potential sources of erroneous information. The expert system is an apt vehicle for growth of systems knowledge, for quick decision making, and

  1. Expert Systems and Intelligent Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores what an intelligent information retrieval system involves and why expert system techniques might interest system designers. Expert systems research is reviewed with emphasis on components, architecture, and computer interaction, and it is concluded that information retrieval is not an ideal problem domain for expert system application at…

  2. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  3. The chiropractor as an expert witness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman-Smith, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the professional status of the chiropractor as an expert witness in Canada. It commences with an outline of the relevant law then considers the circumstances which affect whether or not a chiropractor’s testimony in a particular instance will be admitted as expert and given weight against conflicting expert evidence. There is brief discussion of related insurance issues.

  4. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    verification, validation and testing of knowledge-based systems, August 1989. Cha, Stephen, Nancy Leveson and Timothy Shimeall. "Safety verification in...89 workshop on verification, validation and testing of knowledge-based systems, August 1989. 5-31 STRESS REPORT NO. GDSS-DSES-89-001 Leveson, Nancy G...34Software safety: why, what, and how." Computing surveys, vol. 18, no. 2, June, 1986. Leveson, Nancy G. "Safety as software quality." IEEE Software

  5. Advancing advanced practice - clarifying the conceptual confusion.

    PubMed

    Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas; Donoghue, Judith

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of nurses holding advanced practice nursing positions. However, the lack of clarity regarding key terms such as 'advanced practice nursing', 'advanced nursing practice', 'scope of practice' and 'extended practice', and international variability in how these terms are used has created significant confusion. This lack of clarity is problematic for nurses, other health professionals, health service consumers, educators and policy makers, particularly given the global mobility of the nursing workforce. 1) To highlight the significant international variability in how advanced practice nursing, and associated terms such as extended and expanded practice, are defined and regulated across a variety of different English speaking countries, including the US, UK, New Zealand, Canada and Australia. 2) To propose innovative formulations for how the nursing profession may attempt to ensure greater precision and agreement around advanced practice terminology. Discursive paper. It was found that there is a considerable lack of clarity regarding the precise definitions of key terms surrounding the discussion of advanced practice. Additionally, there are large disparities in how the five chosen countries regulate advanced practice nursing, and roles such as that of the nurse practitioner. It is suggested that the confusion regarding advanced practice terminology can be reduced definitionally by minimising the use of the term 'expanded practice'; defining advanced practice nursing to refer to the type of practice in defined and regulated advanced practice nursing scopes; and defining advanced nursing practice as expert practice within a regulated nursing scope. © 2013.

  6. Explanation production by expert planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

  7. Knowledge acquisition for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, A.

    1986-01-01

    This guide examines the process, the models, and the techniques used by those involved in the development of expert systems for commerce and industry. The author demonstrates procedures, describes approaches, and emphasizes knowledge elicitation, interviewing, and transcript analysis. The book covers aspects such as the roles of the systems analyst and the knowledge engineer; reasoning and probability theory, including statistical tests, correlation, and the Bayes theorem; fuzziness in reasoning; the advantages and the limitations of machine induction; and the repertory grid. Case studies are used to clarify and supplement discussions.

  8. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  9. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  10. The role of the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Jerrold, Laurance

    2007-08-01

    The role of expert witnesses in medical malpractice litigation is often misunderstood. Much maligned, the expert has been the subject of castigation by a range of people, from his professional colleagues to the jurists who preside over his testimony. From an academic perspective, the expert witness is a necessary evil, and his denigration is his own doing; for the expert is a neutral character who creates his own professional persona. This purpose of this article is to serve as a primer for those interested in understanding the role that the expert is supposed to play in litigation, and the factors surrounding his activities.

  11. Expert system for tactical data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, H.E.; Firschein, O.; Perkins, W.A.; Pecora, V.J.

    1983-01-01

    A computer expert system is a systematic method for representing and manipulating the knowledge and problem solving techniques of human experts. A military computer expert system uses a set of rules (if...Then statements) to represent military doctrine and rules of engagement known by military experts. This paper outlines how an expert system for tactical data fusion can be used to enhance the ability of decision makers in military command and control centers. A simple example system is presented to illustrate the novelties and the pitfalls of the approach. 17 references.

  12. Expert systems for C3I. Volume 1. A user's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, J. A.; Hockett, S. M.; Prelle, M. J.; Tallant, A. M.; Triant, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    There has been a tremendous burgeoning of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) over the last few years. Investments of commercial and government sponsors reflect a widespread belief that AI is now ready for practical applications. The area of AI currently receiving the greatest attention and investment is expert system technology. Most major high tech corporations have begun to develop expert systems, and many software houses specializing in expert system tools and applications have recently appeared. The defense community is one of the heaviest investors in expert system technology, and within this community one of the application areas receiving greatest attention is C3I. Many ESD programs are now beginning to ask whether expert system applications for C3I are ready for incorporation into ESD-developed systems, and, if so, what are the potential benefits and risks of doing so. This report was prepared to help ESD and MITRE personnel working on acquisition programs to address these issues and to gain a better understanding of what expert systems are all about. The primary intention of this report is to investigate what expert systems are and the advances that are being made in expert system technology for C3I applications. The report begins with a brief tutorial on expert systems, emphasizing how they differ from conventional software systems and what they are best at doing.

  13. Expert system for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Venoge, T.P. de; Stauffer, T.B.; Medina, M.; Jacobs, T.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous waste site remedial investigations and feasibility studies generally involve some degree of groundwater modeling. A plethora of models exist and most models are difficult to use. An expert system has been developed to lead the user to the appropriate model(s) based on responses to questions about site conditions and data availability. The system is menu driven, user friendly, and provides assistance in estimating input parameters where field measurements are lacking. The system contains twelve models, both analytical and numerical models, that are in the public domain. Some of the models included in the system are MOC, MODFLOW, BIOPLUME, RESSQ, TDAST and PLUME2D. Preprocessors and post processors have been written to permit easy data input and to provide understandable and interpretable data output. There are two versions of the expert system that are available. One version is a UNIX based system that works through the windows environment and provides excellent graphics capabilities. The other version is DOS based and will run on a 386 processor or higher system with 10 megabytes of available hard disk space.

  14. Expert system validation in prolog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  15. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  16. A pressure transient test design expert system

    SciTech Connect

    MacAllister, D.J.; Kamal, M.M. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes an expert system for routine field use to optimize pressure transient test design and tool selection. The expert system first interacts with the user to determine the well type (exploration, injection, production, or observation) and then queries the user for such facts as reservoir layering, artificial lift, and fracturing. It sometimes asks clarifying questions for a variety of special cases. At this point, the expert system determines if the test is feasible. If not, the user has the option to quit or to continue test is feasible, the expert system calculates test design parameters using accepted technique from the literature and in-house experts. The expert system queries the user for additional data needed for test design calculations. The expert system produces an optimized test procedure and a list of appropriate tools from a data base supplied with the expert system. The tool data base is accessed by the expert system but maintained separately from the expert system code. This allows updates to the data base without the need for rewriting the expert system code. The user also can save and retrieve input data using another data base, making sensitivity studies easy to perform.

  17. Comparison of an expert system to human experts in well-log analysis and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, E.E.; Edwards, K.W. )

    1990-03-01

    Comparisons of results produced by an expert system to those produced by log-analysis experts are discussed using case histories from a variety of wells from several countries. The results, in general, exceeded initial expectations, with the expert system showing surprisingly intelligent behavior in some circumstances and actually highlighting mistakes made by the human experts. In other examples, the expert system fails to emulate the human expert closely. Failures are shown to result from the application of knowledge gathered from outside the realm of log analysis or from a lack of information entered into the expert system.

  18. Aerothermodynamic Reentry Flight Experiments - EXPERT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    today’s capabilities for measuring time-dependent 3D phenomena using non- intrusive techniques, an infrared camera (Figure 40) will be mounted inside the...material ContainerSeals Vapour exhaust Cover plate TUD Passenger Experiment : Enhanced Radiation Cooling Hypersonic Flight Measurement Technique...AEROCAPTURING PHYSICS • ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION; NON INTRUSIVE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES • MHD , RCS INTERACTION, • SHARP LEADING EDGE OR SHARP NOSE ADVANCED

  19. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball.

  20. System for empirical experimentation with expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Politakis, P.; Weiss, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    SEEK is a system which has been developed to give interactive advice about rule refinement during the design of an expert system. The advice takes the form of suggestions for possible experiments in generalizing or specializing rules in an expert model that has been specified based on reasoning rules cited by the expert. Case experience, in the form of stored cases with known conclusions, is used to interactively guide the expert in refining the rules of a model. The design framework of SEEK consists of a tabular model for expressing expert-modeled rules and a general consultation system for applying a model to specific cases. This approach has proven particularly valuable in assisting the expert in a domain where two diagnoses are difficult to distinguish. Examples are given from an expert consultation system being developed for rheumatology. 12 references.

  1. Species identification by experts and non-experts: comparing images from field guides

    PubMed Central

    Austen, G. E.; Bindemann, M.; Griffiths, R. A.; Roberts, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification is fundamental when recording ecological data. However, the ability to correctly identify organisms visually is rarely questioned. We investigated how experts and non-experts compared in the identification of bumblebees, a group of insects of considerable conservation concern. Experts and non-experts were asked whether two concurrent bumblebee images depicted the same or two different species. Overall accuracy was below 60% and comparable for experts and non-experts. However, experts were more consistent in their answers when the same images were repeated, and more cautious in committing to a definitive answer. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of correctly identifying bumblebees using images from field guides. Such error rates need to be accounted for when interpreting species data, whether or not they have been collected by experts. We suggest that investigation of how experts and non-experts make observations should be incorporated into study design, and could be used to improve training in species identification. PMID:27644140

  2. Expert system for adhesive selection of composite material joints

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.B.; Vanderveldt, H.H.

    1994-12-31

    The development of composite joining is still in its infancy and much is yet to be learned. Consequently, this field is developing rapidly and new advances occur with great regularity. The need for up-to-date information and expertise in engineering and planning of composite materials, especially in critical applications, is acute. The American Joining Institute`s (AJI) development of JOINEXCELL (an off-line intelligent planner for joining composite materials) is an intelligent engineering/planning software system that incorporates the knowledge of several experts which can be expanded as these developments occur. Phase I effort of JOINEXCELL produced an expert system for adhesive selection, JOINADSELECT, for composite material joints. The expert system successfully selects from over 26 different adhesive families for 44 separate material types and hundreds of application situations. Through a series of design questions the expert system selects the proper adhesive for each particular design. Performing this {open_quotes}off-line{close_quotes} engineering planning by computer allows the decision to be made with full knowledge of the latest information about materials and joining procedures. JOINADSELECT can greatly expedite the joining design process, thus yielding cost savings.

  3. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  4. [Swan Ganz catheter. Experts opinion].

    PubMed

    Cohen Arazi, Hernán; Nani, Sebastián; Giorgi, Mariano; Guardiani, Fernando; Caturla, Nicolás; Benzadón, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Investigators have raised doubts as to the safety of the Swan Ganz catheter (SGC). In order to define the point of view of cardiologists in our country, the Argentine Society of Cardiology's Emergency Council organized a meeting to analyze their views in different settings (non-cardiac surgery, cardiac surgery, acute coronary syndromes and heart failure) using the RAND-UCLA appropriateness method. A detailed review with the scientific evidence was sent to the experts in cardiology prior to the meeting in the SAC auditorium where the panellists selected the clinical variables create the specific situations. These hypothetic situations were resent to the panellists at a second stage for their individual evaluation, rating the benefit-to-harm ratio of the procedure on a scale of 1 to 9 (1 meant that the expected harms greatly outweighed the expected benefits, and 9 that the expected benefits greatly outweighed the expected harms, 5 could mean either that the harms and benefits were roughly equal). Two experts analyzed the results, describing the agreement/disagreement ratio. Finally, each indication was classified as "appropriate" "uncertain" or "inappropriate" ,for the procedure in accordance with the panelists' median score: median scores in the 1-3 range were classified as inappropriate, those in the 4-6 range as uncertain, and those in the 7-9 range as appropriate. We observed high disagreement rates in SGC indications between cardiologists. However, the panelists were in favor of SGC use when situations included shock and myocardial dysfunction, especially in the presence of organic dysfunction. There were some situations when panelists considered SGC not useful, in patients without organ failure.

  5. Knowing for Nursing Practice: Patterns of Knowledge and Their Emulation in Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ivo L.; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of clinical knowledge in nursing, and the feasibility of emulating this knowledge into expert system technology. The perspective on patterns of knowing for nursing practice, advanced by Carper (1978), serves as point of departure. The four patterns of knowing -- empirics, esthetics, ethics, personal knowledge -- are evaluated as to the extent to which they can be emulated in clinical expert systems, given constraints imposed by the current technology of these systems.

  6. The diagnosis of microcytic anemia by a rule-based expert system using VP-Expert.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M L; McKinney, T

    1989-09-01

    We describe our experience in creating a rule-based expert system for the interpretation of microcytic anemia using the expert system development tool, VP-Expert, running on an IBM personal computer. VP-Expert processes data (complete blood cell count results, age, and sex) according to a set of user-written logic rules (our program) to reach conclusions as to the following causes of microcytic anemia: alpha- and beta-thalassemia trait, iron deficiency, and anemia of chronic disease. Our expert system was tested using previously interpreted complete blood cell count data. In most instances, there was good agreement between the expert system and its pathologist-author, but many discrepancies were found in the interpretation of anemia of chronic disease. We conclude that VP-Expert has a useful level of power and flexibility, yet is simple enough that individuals with modest programming experience can create their own expert systems. Limitations of such expert systems are discussed.

  7. The expert witness. Neither Frye nor Daubert solved the problem: what can be done?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H H

    2001-01-01

    Flawed expert scientific testimony has compromised truth finding in American litigation, including in medical malpractice and in product liability cases. The Federal Rules of Evidence and the Supreme Court in Daubert and other cases have established standards for testimony that include reliability and relevance, and established judges as gatekeepers. However, because of lack of understanding of scientific issues, judges have problems with this role, and juries have difficulties with scientific evidence. Professionals and the judiciary have made some advances, but a better system involving the court's use of neutral experts and a mechanism to hold experts accountable for improprieties is needed.

  8. The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) and Our NSF CCLI Phase-III Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program: A Year-Three Update on Our Community-Based Model for Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Impey, C. D.; Prather, E. E.; Lee, K. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to improving teaching & learning in Astro 101 by creating research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments for use in Astro 101 & by providing Astro 101 instructors professional development opportunities to increase their pedagogical content knowledge & instructional skills at implementing these curricula & assessment materials. To create sustainability and further expand this work, CAE, in collaboration with other national leaders in astronomy education & research, developed the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program. The primary goals of CATS are to: 1) increase the number of Astro 101 instructors conducting fundamental research in astronomy education; 2) increase the amount of research-validated curriculum and assessment instruments available for use in Astro 101; and 3) increase the number of people prepared to develop and conduct their own CAE Teaching Excellence Workshops. Our year-three research updates include a longitudinal look at professional development and expanded professional development opportunities; new instructional tools and curriculum; learning gains related to Citizen Science and cosmology; and an expanded look at our LSCI study. To learn more about our CAE/CATS project, visit this and the other posters in our session. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. In addition, we would like to thank Michael Greene and JPL's NASA Exoplanet Public Engagement Program (EXEP) for their continued support.

  9. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  10. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  11. SENLEX: a sensor layout expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.D.; Sena, K.J.

    1986-06-25

    An expert system is under development to carry out intrusion detection sensor placement for physical security systems. Expert systems are computer programs that use symbolic programming techniques to duplicate the reasoning processes of human experts. Because sensitive facilities often require complex, multi-sensor intrusion detection systems, the design rules for achieving high levels of detection performance are not easily transferred to novices. Since these design rules reside in the minds of the individual experts performing the tasks, the need to consolidate this knowledge in a form that is available to others was a driving force in this project. The first phase of this project is described in this paper. It consists of an expert system for sensor placement in a graded clear zone. The program has the capability of handling several different sensor types and of coordinating the placement of multiple sensor types. The designs produced by the program in comparison with the designs produced by human experts are discussed.

  12. Courting the expert: a clash of culture?

    PubMed

    Caldwell, P

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the utility of expert opinion in legal proceedings and the deployment of expert witnesses in adversarial litigation. The use of expert witnesses to assist courts in making just and fair conclusions may be contrasted with the partisan interests of those who call them. An adversarial system is a bad method of scientific enquiry and undermines the court's capacity to reach the 'right' answer. As a consequence, courts may reach the wrong conclusion based on bad science. The role of the expert as a witness places strain on an expert to provide certainty, where in fact there may be none. Recent reforms in the civil courts have changed little and the problem is even more acute in criminal trials. The expert can rely solely on the integrity of his or her own opinion, tempered with a little humility. However, when filtered through the rhetoric and advocacy of a court arena, even this may be compromised.

  13. Brain response to birdsongs in bird experts.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Filion-Bilodeau, Sarah; Belin, Pascal

    2007-03-05

    Auditory expertise has mostly been studied in relation to musical processing, but expert auditory processing can also involve nonmusical auditory stimuli, such as birdsongs in bird experts. In this study, the neural correlates of bird expertise were investigated by using electroencephalography to measure auditory-evoked potentials in bird experts and novices. Auditory stimuli in three categories (birdsongs, environmental sounds and voices) were presented in a pseudo-random order while participants performed a simple target detection task (pure tone). We observed similar amplitudes and distributions of the N100-component in bird experts and novices. In contrast, the amplitude of the P200 component was significantly smaller in bird experts at the Pz and Cz electrodes, reflecting a more frontal topography of this positivity. Notably, this group difference was observed not only for birdsongs, but also for voices and environmental sounds, suggesting a general processing difference in bird experts, not restricted to the category of expertise.

  14. The consultant nurse - expert practitioner and much more.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Theresa; Butler-Williams, Carole; Easton, Karen; Ingledew, Ian; Parkin, Donna; Wade, Sharon; Warner, Richard

    The consultant nurse (CN) role is usually described in terms of four domains devised by the Department of Health - clinical practice, education and training, leadership, and research and service development. This study set out to explicate the diversity and complexity of CN roles in an NHS trust; to describe aspects of extraordinary practice and to identify perceived differences between this role and other advanced practice roles. Accounts were written by six CNs and subjected to concept mapping to facilitate identification of extraordinary practice. Four themes emerged: entrepreneurial activity and innovation; clinical autonomy and role dynamism; influential national and international research conduct; consultancy and education across discipline boundaries. These included descriptions of higher order skills that surpass usual requirements of 'expert' or 'advanced' practice. Comparisons with other advanced practice roles are drawn from the literature and data collected in this study. Differences between the roles have implications for sustainability.

  15. Design of an expert-system flight status monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, V. A.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The modern advanced avionics in new high-performance aircraft strains the capability of current technology to safely monitor these systems for flight test prior to their generalized use. New techniques are needed to improve the ability of systems engineers to understand and analyze complex systems in the limited time available during crucial periods of the flight test. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is involved in the design and implementation of an expert system to provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer. The need for new techniques in monitoring flight systems and the conceptual design of an expert-system flight status monitor is discussed. The status of the current project and its goals are described.

  16. Sensor-based fault diagnosis in a flight expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Scharnhorst, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype of a knowledge-based flight expert system (FLES) has been developed to assist airplane pilots in monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing faults and to provide support in reducing the pilot's own mistakes. A sensor simulation model has been developed to provide FLES with the airplane status information during the diagnostic process. The simulator is based partly on the Advanced Concept System (ACS), a future-generation airplane, and partly on the Boeing 737, an existing airplane. The architecture of FLES contains several subsystems. One of the major subsystems performs fault diagnosis in the electrical system of the ACS. This paper describes the mechanism and functionality of the automatic diagnosis performed in this expert system.

  17. [Expert systems in risk assessment. Risk or opportunity?].

    PubMed

    Lohn, H

    1997-06-01

    Experts underwriting systems in the risk selection of individual life insurance have a high place value and are, in future, indispensable in the daily underwriting process. The chance to reduce drastically dual operations enables the insurance companies to make more cost-efficient underwriting decisions. The rapidly advancing technology develops not only new dimensions for individualism and for providing customer service but also for a fast underwriting process which is of great benefit to the insurers who are up against stiff competition. The qualified underwriter and the physician will be relieved of standard work and have more time in investing their knowledge and know-how in the underwriting process which calls for an absolutely individual reflection. New activities are inevitably ahead of this group of persons: Maintenance and attendance of the experts system! A task with which the quality of such a system stands and falls. We are expectant to see what the future has in store for this field.

  18. Methods for combining a theoretical and an empirical approach in modelling pressure and flow control valves for CAE-programs for fluid power circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handroos, Heikki

    An analytical mathematical model for a fluid power valve uses equations based on physical laws. The parameters consist of physical coefficients, dimensions of the internal elements, spring constants, etc. which are not provided by the component manufacturers. The valve has to be dismantled in order to determine their values. The model is only in accordance with a particular type of valve construction and there are a large number of parameters. This is a major common problem in computer aided engineering (CAE) programs for fluid power circuits. Methods for solving this problem by combining a theoretical and an empirical approach are presented. Analytical models for single stage pressure and flow control valves are brought into forms which contain fewer parameters whose values can be determined from measured characteristic curves. The least squares criterion is employed to identify the parameter values describing the steady state of a valve. The steady state characteristic curves that are required data for this identification are quite often provided by the manufacturers. The parameters describing the dynamics of a valve are determined using a simple noncomputational method using dynamic characteristic curves that can be easily measured. The importance of the identification accuracy of the different parameters of the single stage pressure relief valve model is compared using a parameter sensitivity analysis method. A new comparison method called relative mean value criterion is used to compare the influences of variations of the different parameters to a nominal dynamic response.

  19. An Expert System for Asset Reconciliation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Expert system technology appears to hold considerable promise for enhancing productivity and promoting better decision-making. The purpose of this...study was to determine if an expert system application for asset reconciliation could improve inventory management procedures and potentially produce...finding that documented a 15 percent increase in the effectiveness of inventory managers when assisted by an expert system . Research was conducted to

  20. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  1. Expert Consensus on Characteristics of Wisdom: A Delphi Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Ardelt, Monika; Blazer, Dan; Kraemer, Helena C.; Vaillant, George; Meeks, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Wisdom has received increasing attention in empirical research in recent years, especially in gerontology and psychology, but consistent definitions of wisdom remain elusive. We sought to better characterize this concept via an expert consensus panel using a 2-phase Delphi method. Design and Methods: A survey questionnaire comprised 53 Likert scale statements related to the concepts of wisdom, intelligence, and spirituality was developed to determine if and how wisdom was viewed as being distinct from the latter 2 concepts. Of the 57 international wisdom experts contacted by e-mail, 30 completed the Phase 1 survey and 27 also completed the Phase 2 survey. Results: In Phase 1, there were significant group differences among the concepts of wisdom, intelligence, and spirituality on 49 of the 53 items rated by the experts. Wisdom differed from intelligence on 46 of these 49 items, whereas wisdom differed from spirituality on 31 items. In Phase 2, we sought to define wisdom further by selecting 12 items based on Phase 1 results. Most experts agreed on many of the suggested characteristics of wisdom—that is, it is uniquely human; a form of advanced cognitive and emotional development that is experience driven; and a personal quality, albeit a rare one, which can be learned, increases with age, can be measured, and is not likely to be enhanced by taking medication. Implications: There was considerable agreement among the expert participants on wisdom being a distinct entity and a number of its characteristic qualities. These data should help in designing additional empirical research on wisdom. PMID:20233730

  2. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Investigation of multi-user expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems have been developed for a wide variety of problems in many different fields. These applications, however, have mostly been limited to implementations which are single-user, single-session systems. That is, a single user poses a question to the expert system and, over the course of that continuous session, an answer is provided. As expert systems tackle larger real-world problems situations have been encountered in which activities extend over long periods of time and involve many people in the process. This has led to the emergence of a new class of expert systems that differ significantly from those developed heretofore: the multi-user expert system. In constructing an expert system of this type, there are many unique difficulties. There problems are addressed in the context of a multi-user expert system supporting the Analytical Integration of Spacelab Payloads. The approach taken in this research was to build a prototype multi-user expert system to serve as a testbed for investigating the effect of a multiple-user requirement on the design and operation of an expert system.

  4. Applications of expert systems for satellite autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciarlo, A.; Donzelli, P.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of the on-board application of expert systems in artificial satellites are discussed. The activities of the study, which include the implementation of two prototypes on a dedicated artificial intelligence machine, are described. The general implications of the experience are then discussed. These concern the interrelationship between the expert system and the architecture of the satellite and the expert system's impact on the mission definition phase of the satellite lifecycle. The main obstacles that need to be overcome before operational use of onboard expert systems can take place are discussed.

  5. Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

  6. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  7. First symposium of ichthyosis experts.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, A; Torrelo-Fernández, A; de Lucas-Laguna, R; Casco, F; González-Sarmiento, R; Vega, A; Pedreira-Massa, J L; de Unamuno-Pérez, P; Larcher, F; Arroyo, I; Traupe, H

    2013-12-01

    On June 22, 2012 the First Symposium of Ichthyosis Experts in Spain was held at the Hospital Niño de Jesús in Madrid. It was a one-day symposium for dermatologists, pediatricians, and physicians-in-training interested in this disease, as well as for other health care professionals involved in the care of patients with ichthyosis. The aim of the meeting was to try to structure the care of ichthyosis patients in Spain. As happens in other rare diseases, because of the low prevalence of ichthyosis and the absence of designated referral centers, the number of patients treated in each center is very low and few dermatologists have any real clinical experience with this condition or know how to order diagnostic genetic tests. This article summarizes the presentations given at the symposium and is intended as a reference for anyone interested in the subject. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of multidrug therapy for leprosy in 1981, an estimated 15 million patients have been cured of the disease and disabilities have been prevented in some 2-3 million individuals. These remarkable results have been brought about by the synergistic efforts of WHO, governmental and nongovernmental bodies, academia, industry and affected communities throughout the world. Nevertheless, much remains to be done--both to sustain this progress and to effect a further reduction in the impact of leprosy on patients and their families. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy, whose eighth meeting reflected the recent shift in emphasis of leprosy elimination to reducing of the impairments and disabilities caused by the disease and ensuring the quality and sustainability of leprosy services. The Committee analysed the global leprosy situation, discussed elements of epidemiology, and reviewed developments in treatment of the disease and management of complications. Sociocultural issues were addressed, as was the need for community care, accessibility of health services, and effective referral systems. Indicators for monitoring and evaluation were outlined and research priorities were set out.

  9. [Medical expert opinion--credibility, ethics, remuneration].

    PubMed

    Sahar, Avraham

    2007-07-01

    Israeli Law requires a Personal Injury Claim to be supported by an Expert Medical Opinion. Such evidence provides the Court with information essential for the evaluation of scientific material, which is beyond the Court's "judicial knowledge". Incongruent Expert Opinions are not necessarily the result of deceit. Experts are entitled to differences in their respective evaluation and interpretation of data and conflicting medical opinions may be legitimate. The Court's duty and prerogative is to select the "legally correct" opinion. The sole tool at the Court's disposal is precise and logical thinking, aided by principles set by the U.S. Supreme Court for the evaluation of scientific evidence, and adopted by the Israeli Court. The choice of the "correct" opinion centers on it's objectivity. A court-appointed expert is not necessarily an effective solution. Remuneration of the expert by the interested party increases the level of mistrust. The difficult questions concerning the credibility of an opinion arise as the result of insufficient specific expertise of the witness, presentation by a pretender to expertise or plain misrepresentation of data, excerpts of literature etc. Such transgressions are best exposed by the opposing party's expert and attorney. The court has effective means for the control of such behavior. The fraudulent expert witness is neither immune to criminal prosecution, nor to civil suit. IMA's Code of Ethics for Experts is adequate. Expert's fees should be consistent with the effort involved, as well as with the expert's rank and experience. Any linkage of fees to the outcome of the procedure should be prohibited, as well as the intervention of "contractors". Attempts to limit experts' fees, may result in the abstention of the most knowledgeable specialists from such duties. The blame for a false opinion does not lie with the paying party, it is mostly the witness who is responsible.

  10. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  11. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  12. Tactical Expert Mission Planner (TEMPLAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    development model was designed to prove Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques could be applied to the large-scale Tactical Air Force problem of Air Tasking...planning, and advanced man-machine interface (MMI) techniques . The TEMPLAR project sponsor was the Air Force Rome Air Development Center (RADC). The end...Research Prjets Agency or the U.S. Government. •~94-31860 Rome Air Development Center Air Force Systems Command 0c . Griffiss Air Force Base, NY 13441-5700

  13. Expert-control accident mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stacklin, C.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The author discusses how failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) aids in pattern recognition. Failure modes can be identified from patterns (symptoms) that they produce within a plant. These patterns are combinations of alarms and instrument readings. The patterns exhibited by failure modes must be documented in advance and stored to use the approach described here. Failures during plant operation can be identified (diagnosed) from the stored patterns. This method is an artificial technique called pattern recognition.

  14. An Expert System for Designing Fire Prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    1987-01-01

    Managers use prescribed fire to accomplish a variety of resource objectives. The knowledge needed to design successful prescriptions is both quantitative and qualitative. Some of it is available through publications and computer programs, but much of the knowledge of expert practitioners has never been collected or published. An expert system being developed at the,...

  15. 12 CFR 1081.210 - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material outside the scope of fair rebuttal is presented, a party may file a motion not later than five... witness has testified or sought to testify as an expert at trial or hearing, or by deposition within the... expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. Unless otherwise ordered by the hearing officer, a...

  16. Expert Systems: Artificial Intelligence for Professional Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes expert systems which are computer programs which use inference schemes to apply generalized human expertise to the facts of a specific case. Basic concepts, potentials and implications are presented along with the issues involved in their development and use. A simple expert system, written in BASIC, is included to illustrate the…

  17. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Brudnoy, David M.; Englund, James M.; Loomis, Kent C.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  18. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  19. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  20. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  1. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  2. Ask-an-Expert Services Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janes, Joseph; Hill, Chrystie; Rolfe, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the history and emergence of non-library commercial and non-commercial information services on the World Wide Web, often referred to as expert services. Describes the methodology used for a study of expert services and considers implications for further research and the development of digital reference services by libraries. (Author/LRW)

  3. Student Revision with Peer and Expert Reviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Kwangsu; MacArthur, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study we found that students receiving feedback from multiple peers improve their writing quality more than students receiving feedback from a single expert. The present study attempted to explain that finding by analyzing the feedback types provided by experts and peers, how that feedback was related to revisions, and how revisions…

  4. Graphic Novels in Libraries: An Expert's Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Katy

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Gordon a librarian and computer expert from Gotham city is a genius level intellect and photographic memory expert at research and analysis. According to her, graphic novels and comics are wildly appealing to readers of all ages and intensely popular with adolescents.

  5. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  6. An Expert System for Shipboard Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    manuals are often difficult to find, maintain, and store, and guides are not easily followed. An expert system for troubleshooting could improve current...integrity of the expert system program. A prototype system for troubleshooting the NAXI 100-2 Low Pressure Air Compressor was developed to illustrate the

  7. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.; Oppenlander, J.E.; Brudnoy, D.M.; Englund, J.M.; Loomis, K.C.

    1994-08-16

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner. 21 figs.

  8. Expert systems relations in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The problem of expert systems relations as they pertain to space applications is discussed. First, these systems are categorized and the relationships between them are analyzed. Then, the expert systems cooperation paradigm is proposed. This paradigm addresses various types of communication and coordination issues in an attempt to create a general model applicable in a number of situations.

  9. Expert system applications in spacecraft subsystem controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    As NASA progresses into the development phase of the space station, it recognizes the importance and potential payback of high autonomous spacecraft subsystems. Priorities are presented for embedded expert system enhancements to the automatic control systems of the space station thermal, EVA, and life support systems. The primary emphasis is on top level application areas and development concerns for expert systems.

  10. Computerized Adaptive Mastery Tests as Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems and computerized adaptive tests describes two versions of EXSPRT, a new approach that combines uncertain inference in expert systems with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) stopping rules. Results of two studies comparing EXSPRT to adaptive mastery testing based on item response theory and SPRT approaches are…

  11. Expertness, Similarity, and Perceived Counselor Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron

    1976-01-01

    The effects of two levels of counselor similarity and expertness and two types of clients' problems on perceptions of the counselor's competence were tested in this analogue study. Results indicated that suggestions of expertness led to higher evaluations of counselors for both problems. (Author)

  12. Counseling, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems in counseling. Limitations are explored; candidates for counseling versus those for expert systems are discussed; programming considerations are reviewed; and techniques for dealing with rational, nonrational, and irrational thoughts and feelings are described. (Contains 46…

  13. Subject Matter Expert's Training Module Template.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart P.; Quick, Don

    This template was designed to assist subject matter experts in developing presentations. The template is for a training session plan (lesson plan, presentation plan, evaluation suggestions) that can be used to determine the sequence of what the presenter will say and do. Subject matter experts can easily copy the pages for use during the design…

  14. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert or opinion witnesses from DOJ or other attorneys representing the United States will be referred to Litigation Division unless the request involves a matter that has been delegated by Litigation Division to an...

  15. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert or opinion witnesses from DOJ or other attorneys representing the United States will be referred to Litigation Division unless the request involves a matter that has been delegated by Litigation Division to an...

  16. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  17. Scientific Problem Solving by Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ron

    1984-01-01

    Human expert problem-solving in science is defined and used to account for scientific discovery. These ideas are used to describe BACON.5, a machine expert problem solver that discovers scientific laws using data-driver heuristics and "expectations" such as symmetry. Implications of BACON.5 type research for traditional science education…

  18. Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieker, B.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

  19. Real time AI expert system for robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follin, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A computer controlled multi-robot process cell to demonstrate advanced technologies for the demilitarization of obsolete chemical munitions was developed. The methods through which the vision system and other sensory inputs were used by the artificial intelligence to provide the information required to direct the robots to complete the desired task are discussed. The mechanisms that the expert system uses to solve problems (goals), the different rule data base, and the methods for adapting this control system to any device that can be controlled or programmed through a high level computer interface are discussed.

  20. An Expert System For Tuning Particle-Beam Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lager, Darrel L.; Brand, Hal R.; Maurer, William J.; Searfus, Robert M.; Hernandez, Jose E.

    1989-03-01

    We have developed a proof-of-concept prototype of an expert system for tuning particle beam accelerators. It is designed to function as an intelligent assistant for an operator. In its present form it implements the strategies and reasoning followed by the operator for steering through the beam transport section of the Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300. The system is implemented in the language LISP using the Artificial Intelligence concepts of frames, daemons, and a representation we developed called a Monitored Decision Script.

  1. Real time AI expert system for robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follin, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A computer controlled multi-robot process cell to demonstrate advanced technologies for the demilitarization of obsolete chemical munitions was developed. The methods through which the vision system and other sensory inputs were used by the artificial intelligence to provide the information required to direct the robots to complete the desired task are discussed. The mechanisms that the expert system uses to solve problems (goals), the different rule data base, and the methods for adapting this control system to any device that can be controlled or programmed through a high level computer interface are discussed.

  2. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-05-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  3. Multiple strategies of reasoning for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yuchuan; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    In expert systems the heuristics used for combining the weight of evidence can be based on probabilistic, fuzzy set, or subjective confidence factors. Although the underlying assumptions for each of the methods differ, it can be shown that there are correspondences between them and that it is possible to develop a model of expert reasoning for medical consultation using any one of the methods. The authors have developed a system for representing expert knowledge, called ESMES, which is an outgrowth of the expert scheme developed earlier at Rutgers. ESMES allows the use of alternative strategies in the solution of a consultation problem. The authors report on the performance of ESMES for a prototype glaucoma consultation model, using reasoning mechanisms similar to those of the expert, MYCIN, Internist I, and Prospector systems. 9 references.

  4. Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana.

  5. Expert systems not only for the Japanese

    SciTech Connect

    Leiffer, J.

    1983-06-01

    The fifth generation of computers is under development in Japan. This generation will incorporate an expert system, which is supposed to provide expert information to non-experts, hereby acting like a human brain. The present technological standard and the functioning of such equipment is described. Particular attention is given to the research and development studies for the design, storage and updating of the information centre. Apparently, expert systems are suitable for all specific fields, provided that certain, properly adjusted, rules can be established. In case, the Japanese are successful with their project of the fifth computer generation technology development, the extent and the effect of expert system application will increase radically in future. This development has to be watched by the Europeans most carefully.

  6. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  7. CLIPS: An expert system building tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 3,300 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as a basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  8. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  9. Quantifying expert vs. novice skill in vivo for development of a laryngoscopy simulator.

    PubMed

    Delson, Nathan J; Koussa, Nada; Hastings, Randolph H; Weinger, Matthew B

    2003-01-01

    Many medical procedures require fine motor skills, and these skills are developed over years of practice and through performing hundreds to thousands of procedures. However medical training that is based upon gaining this expertise by performing procedures on patients results in unnecessary risk to the patient. In this project expert medical skill is quantified, so that advanced medical simulators can be created to provide a realistic training environment. This approach is applied to airway intubation with a rigid laryngoscope; a procedure that is performed prior to general anesthesia and during emergency situations. A laryngoscope has been instrumented with a 3 dimensional force/torque sensor, and magnetic position sensors have been placed on the laryngoscope and the patient. Measurements are made in the operating room of both experts and novices as they perform laryngoscopy on consenting patients undergoing general anesthesia. The skill of the laryngoscopist is represented by the motion and force trajectories applied to the laryngoscope during the procedure. Preliminary results show that novices often err in the placement of the tip of the laryngoscope blade. However, when two experts perform laryngoscopy on the same patient, both experts perform key elements of the task consistently. The measured consistency among experts indicates that it will be possible to apply algorithms developed for Human Skill Acquisition, and thereby define regions of expert motion relative to patient anatomy. This is the first step in developing advanced training simulators that will simulate the procedure accurately, provide guidance to the trainee, and can be used for assessment of medical skill.

  10. Aerothermodynamics of expert ballistic vehicle at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Mazhul, I. I.; Shpak, S. I.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The European EXPErimental Re-entry Test bed (EXPERT) vehicle is intended for studying various basic phenomena, such as the boundary-layer transition on blunted bodies, real gas effects during shock wave/boundary layer interaction, and effect of surface catalycity. Another task is to develop methods for recalculating the results of windtunnel experiments to flight conditions. The EXPERT program implies large-scale preflight research, in particular, various calculations with the use of advanced numerical methods, experimental studies of the models in various wind tunnels, and comparative analysis of data obtained for possible extrapolation of data to in-flight conditions. The experimental studies are performed in various aerodynamic centers of Europe and Russia under contracts with ESA-ESTEC. In particular, extensive experiments are performed at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI, Belgium) and also at the DLR aerospace center in Germany. At ITAM SB RAS, the experimental studies of the EXPERT model characteristic were performed under ISTC Projects 2109, 3151, and 3550, in the T-313 supersonic wind tunnel and AT-303 hypersonic wind tunnel.

  11. Object-oriented expert system estimates line ampacity

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    In a competitive power supply business environment, line ampacity predictions are required by electric power utilities for economic generation planning, system dispatching, contingency planning, security analysis, and for normal and emergency operation of electric power systems. The line ampacity system featured in this article calculates ampacity from general purpose National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts and does not require additional hardware on power lines. By designing the ampacity expert system with objects and rules, it can be easily implemented in small and large electric companies. The Line ampacity System (LINEAMPS) is a PC/Windows-based, power-line ampacity, expert-system program for the estimation of line ampacity during steady-state, dynamic-state, and transient conditions. It was developed by the application of artificial intelligence using object-oriented, knowledge-base design of the power line environment. The expert system provides hourly values of line ampacity up to 7 days in advance and is used for the operation, planning, and design of transmission and distribution lines at all voltages. The program is an economical line ampacity system that does not require the installation of additional transmission line hardware, conductor temperature sensors, meteorological sensors or telecommunication systems, and is easily implemented in all geographic regions.

  12. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    PubMed

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  13. An expert system for miscible gasflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K. )

    1993-02-01

    The input data sets for compositional simulators include a large number of parameters that must be assigned carefully to represent the petroleum reservoir with an appropriate model and to make accurate and efficient simulations. With emerging expert-system technology, The University of Texas Input Parameter Selection Expert System (UTINPUT) has been developed on a workstation using NEXPERT OBJECT, an expert-system shell. C and a hybrid approach combining rules and objects were used. A customized user interface was developed and integrated with the expert system by use of NEXPERT's delivery system, NEXPERT FORMS. The resulting expert system is interactive, user-friendly, and efficient and provides the necessary expertise to create input data sets for UTCOMP. A major part of this research was accumulating expertise through literature, simulation experts, and, to a much greater extent, detailed simulation studies with emphasis on reservoir fluid characterization, selection of timestep size, and design of miscible gasfloods. The authors research shows that expert system technology can be used effectively in conjunction with reservoir simulators to simulate such complex processes as miscible gas flooding and to preserve and transfer such expertise.

  14. Expert witness testimony in ophthalmology malpractice litigation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Friedman, Remy; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants in ophthalmology malpractice litigation. Correlational and descriptive study; analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database was searched for ophthalmologist expert witness testimony from January 2006 to June 2014. Physician demographic data were used as the main outcome measures, including length of experience, scholarly impact (as measured by the h-index), practice setting, and fellowship training status and were obtained from state medical licensing board sites and online medical facility and practice sites. H-indices were obtained from the Scopus database. Defendant and plaintiff expert witnesses had comparable mean years of experience (32.9 and 35.7, respectively) (P = .12) and scholarly impact (h-index = 8.6 and 8.3, respectively) (P = .42). Cases tended to resolve on the side of the expert witness with the higher h-index (P = .04). Significantly higher proportions of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (P < .05) and underwent fellowship training (P < .001). Ophthalmologist expert witnesses testifying for both plaintiffs and defendants had over 30 years of experience and high scholarly impact. Practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs were statistically less likely to work in an academic setting and have subspecialty training. Scholarly impact of expert witnesses appeared to affect trial outcomes. Surgical societies should stringently police for appropriate expert witness testimony given by both plaintiff and defense experts in malpractice litigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ocean acidification and its impacts: an expert survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, J.; Mach, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The number of scientists investigating ocean acidification as well as the number of papers published on this issue have increased considerably in the past few years. On the one hand, the advances are welcome for the assessment of ocean acidification and its impacts. On the other hand, the volume and rapidity of the scientific developments as well as some contradictory results have created challenges for assessing the current state of knowledge and informing policy makers. Two tools are being used to synthesize the current information: meta-analysis and expert survey. In January this year, Working Groups I and II of the IPCC organized an expert meeting on ocean acidification in Okinawa. Following this meeting, we built a set of 22 statements, in consultation with several of the meeting participants. An expert survey was then conducted. It involved 52 experts who provided a considerable amount of information. The statements covered a broad array of research fields and were grouped in 3 categories: chemical aspects, biological and biogeochemical responses, and policy and socio-economic aspects. The survey results indicate a relatively strong consensus for most statements related to the past, present and future chemical aspects. Examples of consensual issues are: non-anthropogenic ocean acidification events have occurred in the geological past, anthropogenic CO2 emissions is the main (but not the only) mechanism generating the current ocean acidification event, and ocean acidification will be felt for centuries. The experts generally agreed that there will be impacts on biological and ecological processes and biogeochemical feedbacks, but for such statements, the levels of agreement were lower overall, with more variability across responses. Levels of agreements among experts surveyed were comparatively higher for statements regarding calcification, primary production and nitrogen fixation, as compared to impacts on food-webs. The levels of agreement for statements

  16. Development of a knowledge acquisition tool for an expert system flight status monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    Two of the main issues in artificial intelligence today are knowledge acquisition dion and knowledge representation. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is presently involved in the design and implementation of an expert system flight status monitor that will provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer in monitoring today's advanced high-performance aircraft. The flight status monitor can be divided into two sections: the expert system itself and the knowledge acquisition tool. The knowledge acquisition tool, the means it uses to extract knowledge from the domain expert, and how that knowledge is represented for computer use is discussed. An actual aircraft system has been codified by this tool with great success. Future real-time use of the expert system has been facilitated by using the knowledge acquisition tool to easily generate a logically consistent and complete knowledge base.

  17. Development of a knowledge acquisition tool for an expert system flight status monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    Two of the main issues in artificial intelligence today are knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation. The Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center is presently involved in the design and implementation of an expert system flight status monitor that will provide expertise and knowledge to aid the flight systems engineer in monitoring today's advanced high-performance aircraft. The flight status monitor can be divided into two sections: the expert system itself and the knowledge acquisition tool. This paper discusses the knowledge acquisition tool, the means it uses to extract knowledge from the domain expert, and how that knowledge is represented for computer use. An actual aircraft system has been codified by this tool with great success. Future real-time use of the expert system has been facilitated by using the knowledge acquisition tool to easily generate a logically consistent and complete knowledge base.

  18. DISPO Advisor: Expert System for Psychiatric Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Patrick; Barta, Wendy

    1988-01-01

    An expert system was designed to assist psychiatric residents at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This microcomputer based decision support system helps residents find the proper disposition for patients who come to the emergency room. The system uses an inexpensive, commercially available expert system shell, VP-EXPERT by Paperback Software, to match patients with inpatient and outpatient resources appropriate to their needs. The inference engine uses both forward and backward chaining, and interfaces with data stored in DBase III files. The system is currently in daily use by residents.

  19. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  20. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  1. Prototype expert system for infusion pump maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mataban, B A

    1994-01-01

    With today's object-oriented software, knowledge-base building becomes simple. Using ServiceSoft's Service Power tools, an IMED PC-1 infusion pump prototype expert system was built. Approximately three man-weeks of work was expended to build the prototype expert system providing advice on repair to the board level. The prototype was demonstrated to the Department of Defense, and they are considering the inclusion of expert systems technology in medical equipment maintenance as one facet of their consolidation of logistic and administrative functions of the four military services' health care delivery.

  2. An expert system for dispersion model interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Skyllingstad, E.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-10-01

    A prototype expert system designed to diagnose dispersion model uncertainty is described in this paper with application to a puff transport model. The system obtains qualitative information from the model user and through an expert-derived knowledge base, performs a rating of the current simulation. These results can then be used in combination with dispersion model output for deciding appropriate evacuation measures. Ultimately, the goal of this work is to develop an expert system that may be operated accurately by an individual uneducated in meteorology or dispersion modeling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Expert systems-enhancement of productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeier, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The design of expert systems has become an active area of research for information analysts and computer scientists. Their partial success (e.g. Mycin, Mdx, Prospector, Macsyma, Dendral) has led to cautious optimism. The following issues figure predominantly in the ongoing discussion and are investigated in this presentation: (1) the implementation issue addresses the epistemological and technological question of how expert knowledge should be organized and represented; (2) the evaluation issue assesses criteria for determining the performance of a given system; (3) the integration issue deals with the sociological and ethical questions of how expert systems should be integrated in the production process. 23 references.

  4. Adaptive control with an expert system based supervisory level. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerald A.

    1991-01-01

    to the use of expert systems for more advanced supervision capabilities.

  5. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  6. Validation and verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey

    1991-01-01

    Validation and verification (V&V) are procedures used to evaluate system structure or behavior with respect to a set of requirements. Although expert systems are often developed as a series of prototypes without requirements, it is not possible to perform V&V on any system for which requirements have not been prepared. In addition, there are special problems associated with the evaluation of expert systems that do not arise in the evaluation of conventional systems, such as verification of the completeness and accuracy of the knowledge base. The criticality of most NASA missions make it important to be able to certify the performance of the expert systems used to support these mission. Recommendations for the most appropriate method for integrating V&V into the Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) and suggestions for the most suitable approaches for each stage of ESDM development are presented.

  7. How to Become an Instant Computer Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Audrey J.

    1986-01-01

    Offers five easy ways to help teachers become a computer expert: (1) meet a computer; (2) meet people experienced in using computers; (3) learn the lingo; (4) read about computers; and (5) find out what computers can do. (EL)

  8. National Research Council Experts – October 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Today, EPA announced that the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program’s Bimonthly Public Science meetings will be supplemented with independent scientific experts identified by the National Academies’ National Research Council (NRC).

  9. Expert Witness from the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, William J.

    1975-01-01

    Increasingly, therapists are asked to testify in court cases as expert witnesses. Many of these cases involve testimony about homosexuality. The best policy on the stand is explained and suggestions for preparation and presentation in the court are made. (Author)

  10. School Construction Management: Expert Administrators Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents expert opinion on school construction management communication concerning educational needs, obtaining consensus among diverse groups, and envisioning what schools must offer in the future. Why furniture issues are also important is highlighted. (GR)

  11. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  12. Integrating Methodologists into Teams of Substantive Experts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    ausi, and a Meehl, � clinical Versus Actoai ial Judgment ,� Scie,,c,, Vol. 243. i989, pp~ i668-i674; W Grove and i�, Mcclii, !Comparanve Efficiency of...informal I Stibiec live, impressionistic) and Formal (Mechani cal, Algorithmic) Piediction Procedures� The clinical -Statistical Coniro~�ersy,� Psicholog ...La�~�rence Erlbaum Associates, 1983). ii C, Camerer and E Johnson, �The Process- Performance Paradox in Expert Judgment Ho� Can Experts Know so Much

  13. Expert System for Automated Design Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1987-01-01

    Expert-system computer program EXADS developed to aid users of Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general-purpose optimization program. EXADS aids engineer in determining best combination based on knowledge of specific problem and expert knowledge stored in knowledge base. Available in two interactive machine versions. IBM PC version (LAR-13687) written in IQ-LISP. DEC VAX version (LAR-13688) written in Franz-LISP.

  14. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  15. A Combat Battle Damage Assessor Expert System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Next, the requirements should receive just enough repair to allow for the battle damage assessor software it to be flown to a rear area for complete are...R’ D-Ai48 898 A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM(U) AIR 1/i FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABS WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB ON D E NELSON MAY 84 SBI...8217.c.sw-x -: "--..... . .. .-. :;.-...... .............. .. . .. . . .. . .. . . r74 IV A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM DAL E. NELSON

  16. Space stations: Living in zero gravity, developmental task for psychologists and space environmental experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, E.

    1984-01-01

    The recent advances in the psychological aspects of space station design are discussed, including the impact of the increase in awareness of both the public in general as well as space environmental experts of the importance of psychological factors when designing space stations and training astronauts.

  17. Physical Activity and Older Adults: Expert Consensus for a New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Marquez, David X.; Moni, Gwen; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Desai, Pankaja; Jones, Dina L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to advance the state of knowledge regarding physical activity and aging by identifying areas of agreement among experts regarding topics that are well understood versus those that are in urgent need of continued research efforts. Design and methods: We used a web-based survey with snowball sampling to identify 348…

  18. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  19. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-10-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when the levels of modeling skills were measured, for most skills there was a gradual increase across the spectrum from the novices to the advanced novices to the intermediates to the experts. The study found the experts used model-based reasoning, the intermediates and advanced novices used relation-based reasoning, and the novices used phenomena-based reasoning to anticipate conclusions. The experts and intermediates used more bi-variable relationships in experimental design and anticipated conclusions, but used more multiple-variable relationships in identifying relationships. By contrast, the advanced novices and novices mostly used bi-variable relationships in all modeling skills. Based on these findings, we suggest design principles for model-based teaching and learning such as designing learning activities to encourage model-based reasoning, scaffolding one's modeling with multiple representations, testing models in authentic situations, and nurturing domain-specific knowledge during modeling.

  20. Comparing Students' and Experts' Understanding of the Content of a Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    In spite of advances in physics pedagogy, the lecture is by far the most widely used format of instruction. We investigated students' understanding and perceptions of the content delivered during a physics lecture. A group of experts (physics instructors) also participated in the study as a reference for the comparison. During the study, all…

  1. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Expert System for Diagnosing Pest Damage of Red Pine

    Treesearch

    Daniel L Schmoldt; George L. Martin

    1989-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosing pest damage of red pine stands in Wisconsin, PREDICT, runs on IBM or compatible microcomputers and is designed to be useful for field foresters with no advanced training in forest pathology or entomology. PREDICT recognizes 28 damaging agents including species of mammals, insects, and pathogens, as well as two types of abiotic damage....

  3. Predicting Forest Regeneration in the Central Appalachians Using the REGEN Expert System

    Treesearch

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani

    2011-01-01

    REGEN is an expert system designed by David Loftis to predict the future species composition of dominant and codominant stems in forest stands at the onset of stem exclusion following a proposed harvest. REGEN predictions are generated using competitive rankings for advance reproduction along with other existing stand conditions. These parameters are contained within...

  4. Optimizing Instructional Designer--Subject Matter Expert Communication in the Design and Development of Multimedia Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a study which explored the development, trial, and implementation of the Content Production Process (CPP) which was designed to assist instructional designers in eliciting and conceptualizing unfamiliar content from subject matter experts. Highlights include advance organizers, schema theory, consultation practices, knowledge…

  5. Expert Models and Modeling Processes Associated with a Computer-Modeling Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, BaoHui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using "think aloud" technique…

  6. Comparing Students' and Experts' Understanding of the Content of a Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    In spite of advances in physics pedagogy, the lecture is by far the most widely used format of instruction. We investigated students' understanding and perceptions of the content delivered during a physics lecture. A group of experts (physics instructors) also participated in the study as a reference for the comparison. During the study, all…

  7. Improving Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Expert Convening Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    On December 5, 2014, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's DC office hosted an invitation-only gathering of fifteen federal, state, and local education policy experts in both the public and nonprofit sectors. The goal of the meeting was to explore strategies to improve Title II, Part A of the federal Elementary and Secondary…

  8. Expert Models and Modeling Processes Associated with a Computer-Modeling Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, BaoHui; Liu, Xiufeng; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    Holding the premise that the development of expertise is a continuous process, this study concerns expert models and modeling processes associated with a modeling tool called Model-It. Five advanced Ph.D. students in environmental engineering and public health used Model-It to create and test models of water quality. Using "think aloud" technique…

  9. The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) and Our NSF Funded CCLI Phase III Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program: Updates to Our New Community-Based Model for Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Impey, C.; Prather, E. E.; Lee, K. M.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to improving teaching & learning in Astro 101 by creating research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments for use in Astro 101 & by providing Astro 101 instructors professional development opportunities to increase their pedagogical content knowledge & instructional skills at implementing these curricula & assessment materials. To create sustainability and further expand this work, CAE, in collaboration with other national leaders in astronomy education & research, developed the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program. The primary goals of CATS are to: 1) increase the number of Astro 101 instructors conducting fundamental research in astronomy education 2) increase the amount of research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments available for use in Astro 101 3) increase the number of people prepared to develop & conduct their own CAE Teaching Excellence Workshops In our second year we have concluded a national study assessing the contribution students’ personal characteristics make to student learning gains and the effectiveness of interactive learning strategies. We have results from our classroom research validation study on the use of the "ClassAction” electronic learning system. We have begun creation of an assessment instrument designed specifically for Astro 101 to evaluate the effectiveness of our instruction in improving students’ attitudes & beliefs about science, and which is being informed by several of our studies and community input. We have also begun field-testing of our Solar System Concept Inventory. Additionally research into students’ beliefs and reasoning difficulties on topics in Cosmology is underway. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  10. The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) Ushers in a New Community-Based Model for Astronomy Education Research with the NSF Funded CCLI Phase III Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Impey, C.; Prather, E.; Lee, K.; Duncan, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) has been devoted to improving teaching & learning in Astro 101 by creating research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments for use in Astro 101 & by providing Astro 101 instructors professional development opportunities to increase their pedagogical content knowledge & instructional skills at implementing these curricula & assessment materials. To create sustainability and further expand this work, CAE, in collaboration with other national leaders in astronomy education & research, developed the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program. The primary goals of CATS are to: 1) increase the number of Astro 101 instructors conducting fundamental research in astronomy education 2) increase the amount of research-validated curriculum & assessment instruments available for use in Astro 101 3) increase the number of people prepared to develop & conduct their own CAE Teaching Excellence Workshops In our first year we have concluded a national study assessing the teaching & learning of Astro 101 & the effect of interactive instruction. We have begun the initial analysis of the demographics data of this study. We have begun a classroom research validation study on the use of the "ClassAction” electronic learning system. We have begun to analyze data from two different studies on students’ attitudes & understanding of science to inform the creation of an assessment instrument designed specifically for Astro 101 to evaluate the effectiveness of our instruction in improving students’ attitudes & beliefs about science. We have also begun the development of a Solar System Concept Inventory. Additionally the development of the Solar System Concept Inventory and research into students’ beliefs and reasoning difficulties on topics in Cosmology are well underway. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  11. Battery test expert systems. [spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of NIHBES (nickel-hydrogen battery expert system) are described, with attention also given to NICBES-2 (nickel-cadmium battery expert system-2). The nickel-hydrogen battery testbed is set up almost identically to the nickel-cadmium battery testbed, with the exceptions of no battery protection and reconditioning circuits (BPRCs) and the frequency of transmission of data. The Ni-H2 testbed has no BPRCs and the data are transmitted every 30 s instead of every minute. An expert system shell was chosen to develop this particular expert system. The GoldWorks expert system shell from Gold Hill Computers was chosen for the task. NIHBES will extract the desired data and return fault diagnosis, status and advice, and decision support. Expert systems have been proven to be viable tools in the control and monitoring of space power systems. Presently, the DDAS (digital data acquisition system) monitors and controls the orbit time, and is responsible for limit checking, data acquisition, and data summaries. It is concluded that in the future control of the Hubble Space Telescope breadboard will be passed to NIHBES. NIHBES will be more beneficial to the testbed than the DDAS alone due to the limitations of the DDAS. The DDAS cannot provide long-term trend analysis, plotting capability, fault diagnosis, or advice.

  12. Fuzzy expert system: applications to geology

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Expert systems are potentially valuable tools for scientists who are in so-called inexact sciences, such as geology. This is because expert-system technology deemphasizes the number-crunching aspect of computers; instead, symbol manipulation is the kernel of the expert-system software. Most geologic data are imprecise and often incomplete; yet, geologists must make decisions under uncertainty based on approximate reasoning. To deal with those situations, Aristotelian logic of true/false employed in most expert-system shells is inadequate; fuzzy logic must be incorporated in the inference engine as well as knowledge base of the expert system. Furthermore, many geological problems cannot be solved by a deductive chain of reasoning, but the solutions have to rely on a collection of related facts in an inductive fashion. An expert system shell which can accomplish all these is FLOPS - Fuzzy Logic Production System. The system employs fuzzy concepts throughout: production rules use fuzzy logic; data types include fuzzy numbers; and fuzzy predicates are provided for fuzzy comparison of numbers. It handles inductive reasoning by a production system which fires rules in parallel rather than sequentially, using weakly monotonic logic to solve memory conflicts. This paper is illustrated by examples from qualitative x-ray phase analysis and determination of clastic depositional environments.

  13. Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Bertch, W.J.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running on a mainframe. Concluding remarks will identify potential areas of expert system application with specific areas that are being considered in a current research program. The difficulty of interaction between an analysis code and an expert system is due to the incompatibility between the FORTRAN environment used for the analysis code and the AI environment used for the expert system. Three methods, excluding file transfer techniques, are discussed to help overcome this incompatibility. The first method is linking the FORTRAN routines to the LISP environment on the same computer. Various LISP dialects available on mainframes and their interlanguage communication capabilities are discussed. The second method involves network interaction between a LISP machine and a mainframe computer. Comparisons between the linking method and networking are noted. The third method involves the use of an expert system tool that is campatible with a FORTRAN environment. Several available tools are discussed. With the interaction methods identified, several potential application areas are considered. Selection of the specific areas that will be developed for the pilot project and applied to a thermal-hydraulic energy analysis code are noted.

  14. Learning medical diagnosis models from multiple experts.

    PubMed

    Valizadegan, Hamed; Nguyen, Quang; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2012-01-01

    Building classification models from clinical data often requires labeling examples by human experts. However, it is difficult to obtain a perfect set of labels everyone agrees on because medical data are typically very complicated and it is quite common that different experts have different opinions on the same patient data. A solution that has been recently explored by the research community is learning from multiple experts/annotators. The objective of learning from multiple experts is to model different characteristics of the human experts and combine them to obtain a consensus model. In this work, we study and develop a new probabilistic approach for learning classification models from labels provided by multiple experts. Our method explicitly models and incorporates three characteristics of annotators into the learning process: their specific prediction model, consistency and bias. We show that in addition to building a superior classification model, our method also helps to model behavior of annotators. We applied the proposed method to learn different characteristics of Physicians labeling clinical records for Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and combine them in order to obtain a final classifier.

  15. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  16. Structuring Knowledge for Expert System Solutions. Part 1: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinger, R. Scott

    1988-01-01

    This introductory article defines and delimits expert systems. The discussion covers the concepts of artificial intelligence, the components of an expert system, and the significance of expert systems when compared to more traditional decision making tools. (CLB)

  17. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis in Reading: An Expert Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts on which expert systems are based. Considers how expert systems might be productively applied in education. Describes an experimental expert system with applications in reading diagnosis and teacher training. (SR)

  18. Quiet eye gaze behavior of expert, and near-expert, baseball plate umpires.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane G; Hines, Bridget B; Smith, Melissa S

    2013-02-01

    The quiet eye gaze behavior of 4 near-expert and 4 expert baseball umpires who called balls and strikes in simulated pitch-hit situations was assessed with a mobile eye cornea tracker system. Statistical analyses of the umpires' gaze behavior (fixation/pursuit tracking, saccades, and blinks)--onset, duration, offset, and frequency--were performed between and within 4 stages (pitcher's preparation, pitcher's delivery, ball in flight, and umpire call) by umpire's skill level. The results indicated that the quiet eye of expert umpires at onset of the pitcher's release point occurred earlier and was longer in duration than near-expert umpires. Expert expert umpires. The area outside the pitcher's ball release point may be the key environment cue for the behind-the-plate umpire.

  19. Configuration Management For Expert System Development: Application to the MK 92 Prototype Maintenance Advisor Expert System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    The high turnover rate of student developers and the frequency with which changes are made to the expert system have highlighted a need for controlling...thesis develops a configuration management plan for the MK92 Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MK92 MAES) to assist object members in the management of...suitability for application in an expert system development environment. Finally, specific recommendations are presented for establishing a configuration management process for MK92 MAES project.

  20. EMMA (Expert Missile Maintenance Aid): The Expert System for Munition Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    CONCLUDED) Electonic Systems Division 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL (CONCLUDED) ESD/XRS 8c. ADDRESS (CONCLUDED) Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-5003 19. ABSTRACT (CONCLUDED...325th Equipment Maintenance Squadron formed by the knowledge engineer . Since (EMS) at Tyndall AFB, Florida for an eval- expert system development is...development. The knowl- edge engineer and the expert verify the The argument could be made that EMMA expert system and identify potential cor- should accurately

  1. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  2. Expert air monitoring system (EXAMS): An expert system to use FT-IR for air monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    D`Arcy, J.B. |; Levine, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of developing an MS-Windows based expert system for monitoring organic compounds in workplace air by FF-IR spectrometry. The blackboard expert system includes both expert, algorithmic and rule-based components, and a well-developed user interface. The expert system enables the non-spectroscopist to correctly utilize this powerful analytical technique. In a complementary fashion, the expert system also allows the non-environmental specialist who has skills in spectroscopy to correctly interpret the environmental significance of results obtained using FI-IR. This expert system currently operates in occupational environments with known atmospheric contaminants, but with the ability to flag the presence of unanticipated compounds. Decision tracing allows the experienced user to evaluate the expert system`s decisions. As part of the validation of the expert system it was evaluated against previously published data for the analysis of pure compounds and found to perform as well or better than the expert spectroscopists in most cases.

  3. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice: an expert consultation.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik

    2015-01-21

    The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against a background of uncertainty. Several theories exist about different roles that experts may take when they provide advice on complex issues such as EMF. To provide empirical evidence for these theories, we conducted an expert consultation with as main research question: What are the different roles of EMF experts when they provide policy advice? Q methodology was used to empirically test theoretical notions on the existence and determinants of different expert roles and to analyze which roles actually play out in the domain of EMF. Experts were selected based on a structured nominee process. In total 32 international EMF experts participated. Responses were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and for the open questions we used Atlas.ti. Four expert roles were found. Most striking differences between the four roles are whether experts consider current EMF policies adequate or not, whether additional -precautionary- measures are needed, and how experts view their position vis-à-vis policymakers and/or other stakeholders. This empirical study provides support for the so far mainly theoretical debate about the existence of different roles of experts when they give policy advice. The experts' assessment of the degree of uncertainty of the issue turned out to be highly associated with their role. We argue that part of the controversy that exists in the debate regarding scientific policy advice on EMF is about different values and roles.

  4. Eliciting principles of hazard identification from experts.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, F R; Mattison, D R; Young, J F

    1990-11-01

    National experts in the field of developmental toxicology were interviewed in order to elicit the principles, or rules-of-thumb, they use in determining if a compound or agent is likely to be a developmental hazard during pregnancy. Several levels of individual and cumulative consensus activity were carried out that resulted in consensus in 71 rules and partial consensus in an additional 24 rules of 145 rules initially elicited. Rules could be divided generically into those affecting the expert's confidence in a piece of scientific evidence and those determining the weight of importance of that evidence in deciding about hazard identification. Topically, the rules also divided into those about the general nature or characteristics of a compound, animal studies testing for an effect of the compound, and human reports about the presence of absence of developmental effects associated with the compound. Several conclusions about the methodology include the following: 1) expert systems must be based on the knowledge of more than one expert; 2) considerable human effort is expended in evaluating the certainty of scientific evidence before combining the evidence for problem solving; 3) how experts use evidence of different degrees of uncertainty in their decisions is a major area that is yet to be determined and that may greatly affect subsequent efforts in artificial intelligence; and 4) knowledge elicitation by interview has limitations but is a workable methodology for medical decision making.

  5. Optical Design Using an Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S A

    2003-08-01

    We present, as a different perspective on optimization, an expert system for optimization of optical systems that can be used in conjunction with damped least squared methods to find minima for specific design forms. Expert system optimization differs from global optimization in that it preserves the basic structure of the optical system and limits its search for a minima to a relatively small portion of the design space. In general, the high density of local minima obscures the general trend of the merit function in the region of interest for systems with a large number of variables and constraints. Surprisingly, there may be a potential decrease of an order a magnitude in the merit function for a region of solution space. While global optimization is well-suited to identifying design forms of interest, expert system optimization can be used for in-depth optimization of such forms. An expert system based upon such techniques was used to obtain the winning entry for the 2002 IODC lens design problem. The expert system used is discussed along with other design examples.

  6. Expert assessments of future photovoltaic technologies.

    PubMed

    Curtright, Aimee E; Morgan, M Granger; Keith, David W

    2008-12-15

    Subjective probabilistic judgments about future module prices of 26 current and emerging photovoltaic (PV) technologies were obtained from 18 PV technology experts. Fourteen experts provided detailed assessments, including likely future efficiencies and prices under four policy scenarios. While there is considerable dispersion among the judgments, the results suggest a high likelihood that some PV technology will achieve a price of $1.20/Wp by 2030. Only 7 of 18 experts assess a better-than-even chance that any PV technology will achieve $0.30/Wp by 2030; 10 of 18 experts give this assessment by 2050. Given these odds, and the wide dispersion in results, we conclude that PV may have difficulty becoming economically competitive with other options for large-scale, low-carbon bulk electricity in the next 40 years. If $0.30/Wp is not reached, then PV will likely continue to expand in markets other than bulk power. In assessing different policy mechanisms, a majority of experts judged that R&D would most increase efficiency, while deployment incentives would most decrease price. This implies a possible disconnect between research and policy goals. Governments should be cautious about large subsidies for deployment of present PV technology while continuing to invest in R&D to lower cost and reduce uncertainty.

  7. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  8. Feasibility of physician-developed expert systems.

    PubMed

    Tuhrim, S; Reggia, J A

    1986-01-01

    The authors developed an experimental domain-independent "expert system generator" intended for direct use by physicians. They then undertook a four-year study to determine whether physicians could use such a system effectively. During this period they taught the use of the expert system generator to 70 medical students, who utilized it to build two small medical expert systems. At the conclusion of the course, students were examined on decision-making concepts and completed anonymous questionnaires. Performance scores, a composite of test and project grades, were calculated for each student. There was no significant association between previous computer experience and performance score. Thirty-two of 47 students responding felt the expert system generator was easy to use; 15 felt it was of moderate difficulty. Forty-three of 47 thought it a useful teaching aid. These data support the conclusion that physicians can learn to use domain-independent software to implement medical expert systems directly, without a knowledge engineer as an intermediary.

  9. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  10. Knowledge Acquisition for Probabilistic Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Harold P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent interest in probability-based expert systems has focused on the potential these systems have for being coherent with the beliefs of the modeled expert or of the user and consistent given any set of evidence. We have used the probabilistic formalism in creating the REFEREE system, a belief-network-based expert system designed to aid readers in determining the credibility of a randomized clinical trial. In this paper, we explore the effect the formalism had on the process of knowledge acquisition based on this experience. Although the system is still in development, we can report several of those effects. Specifically, the need to make operational definitions of concepts deemed important to the expert forced us to organize a domain that was formulated initially for a rule-based system. Categorizing probability distributions as being logical, probabilitic, or prototypical helped us to decrease the number of probability assessments. On the other hand, the lack of an intermediate prototype may have prolonged development, and computational limitations forced occasional compromises. The reality of building expert systems in a probabilistic paradigm may not be as hard as some critics have predicted.

  11. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing.

  12. Adding an Expert to the Team: The Expert Flight Plan Critic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew; Waki, Randy; Fairweather, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a practical tool that provides expert feedback to students following an extended simulation exercise in cross-country flight planning. In contrast to development for laboratory settings, the development of an expert instructional product for everyday use posed some interesting challenges, including dealing…

  13. Adding an Expert to the Team: The Expert Flight Plan Critic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew; Waki, Randy; Fairweather, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a practical tool that provides expert feedback to students following an extended simulation exercise in cross-country flight planning. In contrast to development for laboratory settings, the development of an expert instructional product for everyday use posed some interesting challenges, including dealing…

  14. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  15. When experts are oceans apart: comparing expert performance values for proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator training.

    PubMed

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Rovers, Maroeska M; Alken, Alexander; Kengen, Bas; van Goor, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Surgical training is moving away from the operating room toward simulation-based skills training facilities. This has led to the development of proficiency-based training courses in which expert performance data are used for feedback and assessment. However, few expert value data sets have been published, and no standard method for generating expert values has been adopted by the field. To investigate the effect of different proficiency value data sets on simulator training courses, we (1) compared 2 published expert performance data sets for the LapSim laparoscopic virtual-reality simulator (by van Dongen et al. and Heinrichs et al.) and (2) assessed the effect of using either set on LapSim training data obtained from 16 local residents in surgery and gynecology. Across all simulator tasks, the experts consulted by van Dongen et al. performed better on motion efficiency, but not on duration or damage control. Applying both proficiency sets to training data collected during a basic skills laparoscopic simulator course, residents would have graduated on an average in 1.5 fewer sessions using the Heinrichs expert values compared with the van Dongen expert values. The selection of proficiency values for proficiency-based simulator training courses affects training length, skills level assessment, and training costs. Standardized, well-controlled methods are necessary to create valid and reliable expert values for use in training and research. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  17. Expert Recommender: Designing for a Network Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichling, Tim; Veith, Michael; Wulf, Volker

    Recent knowledge management initiatives focus on expertise sharing within formal organizational units and informal communities of practice. Expert recommender systems seem to be a promising tool in support of these initiatives. This paper presents experiences in designing an expert recommender system for a knowledge- intensive organization, namely the National Industry Association (NIA). Field study results provide a set of specific design requirements. Based on these requirements, we have designed an expert recommender system which is integrated into the specific software infrastructure of the organizational setting. The organizational setting is, as we will show, specific for historical, political, and economic reasons. These particularities influence the employees’ organizational and (inter-)personal needs within this setting. The paper connects empirical findings of a long-term case study with design experiences of an expertise recommender system.

  18. Overproduction timing errors in expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Minvielle-Moncla, Joëlle; Audiffren, Michel; Macar, Françoise; Vallet, Cécile

    2008-07-01

    The authors investigated how expert dancers achieve accurate timing under various conditions. They designed the conditions to interfere with the dancers' attention to time and to test the explanation of the interference effect provided in the attentional model of time processing. Participants were 17 expert contemporary dancers who performed a freely chosen duration while walking and executing a bilateral cyclic arm movement over a given distance. The dancers reproduced that duration in different situations of interference. The process yielded temporal overproductions, validating the attentional model and extending its application to expert populations engaged in complex motor situations. The finding that the greatest overproduction occurred in the transfer-with-improvisation condition suggests that improvisation within a time deadline requires specific training.

  19. Hybrid Expert Systems In Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark J.; Gregory, Paul J.

    1987-04-01

    Vision systems capable of inspecting industrial components and assemblies have a large potential market if they can be easily programmed and produced quickly. Currently, vision application software written in conventional high-level languages such as C or Pascal are produced by experts in program design, image analysis, and process control. Applications written this way are difficult to maintain and modify. Unless other similar inspection problems can be found, the final program is essentially one-off redundant code. A general-purpose vision system targeted for the Visual Machines Ltd. C-VAS 3000 image processing workstation, is described which will make writing image analysis software accessible to the non-expert both in programming computers and image analysis. A significant reduction in the effort required to produce vision systems, will be gained through a graphically-driven interactive application generator. Finally, an Expert System will be layered on top to guide the naive user through the process of generating an application.

  20. Experts' Views Regarding the Conceptualization of Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Robert A; Hands, Aaron J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J; Witt, Edward A

    2016-06-20

    There is debate over the definition of narcissism across social/personality and clinical psychology. The current article aims to quantify the level of disagreement by measuring experts' opinions concerning the attributes most central to narcissism. Accordingly, we developed a comprehensive list of attributes associated with narcissism and had 49 self-identified experts (among them 17 women, 23 psychologists from clinical psychology and 22 from social/personality psychology) rate these characteristics and provide their opinions on several issues related to the conceptualization of narcissism. Experts generally believe that the grandiose features of narcissism are more central than the vulnerable features. However, differences between clinical and social/personality psychologists were evident, especially regarding the relevance of self-esteem. Given the results, we suggest that researchers specify the kind of narcissism being assessed in a given study and consider using assessments of the full range of narcissistic features in future research to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the construct.