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Sample records for advanced exterior sensor

  1. Advanced exterior sensor project : final report, September 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, M. Rodema

    2004-12-01

    This report (1) summarizes the overall design of the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) system to include detailed descriptions of system components, (2) describes the work accomplished throughout FY04 to evaluate the current health of the original prototype and to return it to operation, (3) describes the status of the AES and the AES project as of September 2004, and (4) details activities planned to complete modernization of the system to include development and testing of the second-generation AES prototype.

  2. Advanced Sensor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Concepts project was conducted under the Center Director's Discretionary Fund at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Its objective was to advance the technology originally developed for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology project. The objective of this effort was to develop and test several new motion sensors. To date, the investigators have invented seven new technologies during this endeavor and have conceived several others. The innovative basic sensor technology is an absolute position sensor. It employs only two active components, and it is simple, inexpensive, reliable, repeatable, lightweight, and relatively unobtrusive. Two sensors can be utilized in the same physical space to achieve redundancy. The sensor has micrometer positional accuracy and can be configured as a two- or three-dimensional sensor. The sensor technology has the potential to pioneer a new class of linear and rotary sensors. This sensor is the enabling technology for autonomous assembly of modular structures in space and on extraterrestrial locations.

  3. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  4. Advanced technologies for perimeter intrusion detection sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    The development of integrated circuit fabrication techniques and the resulting devices have contributed more to the advancement of exterior intrusion detectors and alarm assessment devices than any other technology. The availability of this technology has led to the improvements in and further development of smaller more powerful computers, microprocessors, solid state memories, solid state cameras, thermal imagers, low-power lasers, and shorter pulse width and higher frequency electronic circuitry. This paper presents information on planning a perimeter intrusion detection system, identifies the site characteristics that affect its performance, and describes improvements to perimeter intrusion detection sensors and assessment devices that have been achieved by using integrated circuit technology.

  5. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  6. Optical Fiber Sensors for Advanced Civil Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Marten Johannes Cornelius

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop, analyze, and implement optical fiber-based sensors for the nondestructive quantitative evaluation of advanced civil structures. Based on a comparative evaluation of optical fiber sensors that may be used to obtain quantitative information related to physical perturbations in the civil structure, the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) optical fiber sensor is selected as the most attractive sensor. The operation of the EFPI sensor is explained using the Kirchhoff diffraction approach. As is shown in this dissertation, this approach better predicts the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of gap length than methods employed previously. The performance of the optical fiber sensor is demonstrated in three different implementations. In the first implementation, performed with researchers in the Civil Engineering Department at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, optical fiber sensors were used to obtain quantitative strain information from reinforced concrete interior and exterior column-to-beam connections. The second implementation, performed in cooperation with researchers at the United States Bureau of Mines in Spokane, Washington, used optical fiber sensors to monitor the performance of roof bolts used in mines. The last implementation, performed in cooperation with researchers at the Turner-Fairbanks Federal Highway Administration Research Center in McLean, Virginia, used optical fiber sensors, attached to composite prestressing strands used for reinforcing concrete, to obtain absolute strain information. Multiplexing techniques including time, frequency and wavelength division multiplexing are briefly discussed, whereas the principles of operation of spread spectrum and optical time domain reflectometery (OTDR) are discussed in greater detail. Results demonstrating that spread spectrum and OTDR techniques can be used to multiplex optical fiber sensors are presented. Finally, practical

  7. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  8. Advancing Sensor Web Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2005-01-01

    SensorNet is a framework being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to tie together sensor data from all over the country to create a real-time detection and alert system for various threats, whether they are chemical, radiological, biological, nuclear, or explosive.

  9. Advances In Optical Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. H.; Giallorenzi, T. G.; Bucaro, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Over the past several years, a new non-communication optical fiber application has emerged. This application utilizes optical fibers for sensing. Initial interest centered around rate rotation sensing. Since that time, however, acoustic, magnetic, and temperature sensing utilizing optical fibers has evolved into a viable research effort with significant potential payoff. As an example, laboratory fiber optic acoustic sensors now rival the best sensitivity obtained with piezoelectric ceramics. These sensors possess a unique geometric versatility previously unavailable. In conjunction with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Navy has begun a Fiber Optic Sensor System (FOSS) program to develop associated technology necessary to realize these sensors. Substantial effort is ongoing at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and other Navy laboratories with considerable contractual effort from universities and industry. This paper reviews the status of the FOSS program.

  10. Advanced millimeter wave chemical sensor.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.

    1999-03-24

    This paper discusses the development of an advanced millimeter-wave (mm-wave) chemical sensor and its applications for environmental monitoring and arms control treaty verification. The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of fingerprint-type molecular rotational signatures in the mm-wave spectrum to sense airborne chemicals. The mm-wave spectrum to sense airborne chemicals. The mm-wave sensor, operating in the frequency range of 220-300 GHz, can work under all weather conditions and in smoky and dusty environments. The basic configuration of the mm-wave sensor is a monostatic swept-frequency radar consisting of a mm-wave sweeper, a hot-electron-bolometer or Schottky barrier detector, and a trihedral reflector. The chemical plume to be detected is situated between the transmitter/detector and the reflector. Millimeter-wave absorption spectra of chemicals in the plume are determined by measuring the swept-frequency radar return signals with and without the plume in the beam path. The problem of pressure broadening, which hampered open-path spectroscopy in the past, has been mitigated in this work by designing a fast sweeping source over a broad frequency range. The heart of the system is a Russian backward-wave oscillator (BWO) tube that can be tuned over 220-350 GHz. Using the Russian BWO tube, a mm-wave radar system was built and field-tested at the DOE Nevada Test Site at a standoff distance of 60 m. The mm-wave system detected chemical plumes very well; the detection sensitivity for polar molecules like methyl chloride was down to a concentration of 12 ppm.

  11. Advanced high temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W.; Hobart, H. F.; Strange, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    To fully characterize advanced high temperature heat flux sensors, calibration and testing is required at full engine temperature. This required the development of unique high temperature heat flux test facilities. These facilities were developed, are in place, and are being used for advanced heat flux sensor development.

  12. An Advanced Video Sensor for Automated Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Roe, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the current developments in video-based sensors at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor is the latest in a line of video-based sensors designed for use in automated docking systems. The X-33, X-34, X-38, and X-40 are all designed to be unpiloted vehicles; such vehicles will require a sensor system that will provide adequate data for the vehicle to accomplish its mission. One of the primary tasks planned for re-usable launch vehicles is to resupply the space station. In order to approach the space station in a self-guided manner, the vehicle must have a reliable and accurate sensor system to provide relative position and attitude information between the vehicle and the space station. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor is being designed and built to meet this requirement, as well as requirements for other vehicles docking to a variety of target spacecraft. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor is being designed to allow range and bearing information to be measured at ranges up to 2 km. The sensor will measure 6-degree-of-freedom information (relative positions and attitudes) from approximately 40 meters all the way in to final contact (approximately 1 meter range). The sensor will have a data output rate of 20 Hz during tracking mode, and will be able to acquire a target within one half of a second. The prototype of the sensor will be near completion at the time of the conference.

  13. Advanced Sensors for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Ravindra B.; Clinton, R. G.; Frazier, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of advanced sensors needed for NASA's space exploration. The topics include: 1) The vision of the President of the United States of America for Space Exploration; 2) The report of the President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy; 3) Exploration Systems Interim Report; 4) Major areas of sensor needs; 5) Classes of material; and 6) Variety of Sensors for Space Exploration.

  14. Advanced IRFPAs for next-generation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John T.; Fletcher, Christopher L.; Graham, Roger W.; Patten, Elizabeth A.; Pham, Le T.; Pierce, Gregory; Scribner, Dean A.; Skele, Martins; Taylor, Scott M.; Trautfield, Walter C.

    2004-08-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has invented and demonstrated a new class of advanced focal plane arrays. These Advanced FPAs are sometimes called 3rd Generation or "Next Generation" FPAs because they have integrated onto the FPA the ability to sense multiple IR spectrums, have improved resolution and performance, and conduct image processing on the FPA ROIC. These next generation of FPAs are allowing more functionality and the detection of a more diverse set of data than previously possible with 2nd Gen FPAs. Examples and history of advanced next generation FPAs are reviewed including RVS"s Multispectral, Uncooled, Adaptive Sensors and other advanced sensors.

  15. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  16. Advanced monolithic pixel sensors using SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Mari; Fujita, Yowichi; Hamasaki, Ryutaro; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke; Ikegami, Yoichi; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mitsui, Shingo; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Tauchi, Kazuya; Tobita, Naoshi; Tsuboyama, Toru; Yamada, Miho

    2016-07-01

    We are developing advanced pixel sensors using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. A SOI wafer is used; top silicon is used for electric circuit and bottom silicon is used as a sensor. Target applications are high-energy physics, X-ray astronomy, material science, non-destructive inspection, medical application and so on. We have developed two integration-type pixel sensors, FPIXb and INTPIX7. These sensors were processed on single SOI wafers with various substrates in n- or p-type and double SOI wafers. The development status of double SOI sensors and some up-to-date test results of n-type and p-type SOI sensors are shown.

  17. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liana, Devi D.; Raguse, Burkhard; Gooding, J. Justin; Chow, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed. PMID:23112667

  18. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Tom; Johnson, Jimmie; Robertson, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. The United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport. Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). AVGS has a proven pedigree, based on extensive ground testing and flight demonstrations. The AVGS on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART)mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km. The first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS. units, and the next generation sensor must be updated to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor is being redesigned to update parts and add additional. capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next, Generation AVGS (NGAVGS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities might include greater sensor range, auto ranging, and real-time video output. This paper presents an approach to sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It will also discuss approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, parts selection and test plans for the NGAVGS will be addressed to provide a highly reliable flight qualified sensor. Expanded capabilities through innovative use of existing capabilities will also be

  19. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  20. Advanced uncooled sensor product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A.; Masini, P.; Lamb, M.; Hamers, J.; Kocian, T.; Gordon, E.; Parrish, W.; Williams, R.; LeBeau, T.

    2015-06-01

    The partnership between RVS, Seek Thermal and Freescale Semiconductor continues on the path to bring the latest technology and innovation to both military and commercial customers. The partnership has matured the 17μm pixel for volume production on the Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program in efforts to bring advanced production capability to produce a low cost, high performance product. The partnership has developed the 12μm pixel and has demonstrated performance across a family of detector sizes ranging from formats as small as 206 x 156 to full high definition formats. Detector pixel sensitivities have been achieved using the RVS double level advanced pixel structure. Transition of the packaging of microbolometers from a traditional die level package to a wafer level package (WLP) in a high volume commercial environment is complete. Innovations in wafer fabrication techniques have been incorporated into this product line to assist in the high yield required for volume production. The WLP seal yield is currently > 95%. Simulated package vacuum lives >> 20 years have been demonstrated through accelerated life testing where the package has been shown to have no degradation after 2,500 hours at 150°C. Additionally the rugged assembly has shown no degradation after mechanical shock and vibration and thermal shock testing. The transition to production effort was successfully completed in 2014 and the WLP design has been integrated into multiple new production products including the TWS and the innovative Seek Thermal commercial product that interfaces directly to an iPhone or android device.

  1. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor and Next Generation Autonomous Docking Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granade, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.

  2. Advanced sensors, technology lower costs, boost productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Altpeter, L.L.; Kothari, K.

    1997-04-01

    Lower costs and higher productivity for the maintenance and repair of gas distribution systems has become an ever-increasing challenge to local distribution companies throughout the United States. A significant portion of costs for operations such as pipe location, leak pinpointing and leak surveying, arise from the inadequacies of their sensing technologies, some of which have not changed significantly in nearly 30 years. After reviewing the basic costs of pipe location, leak pinpointing, and leak surveying operations, the paper describes several advanced sensors for gas leak detection, and several sensors for pipe location and leak pinpointing.

  3. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  4. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) Development Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was the driving force behind the development of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, an active sensor system that provides near-range sensor data as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system. The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state camera to detect the return from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The AVGS will fly as part of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technologies (DART) in October, 2004. This development effort has required a great deal of testing of various sorts at every phase of development. Some of the test efforts included optical characterization of performance with the intended target, thermal vacuum testing, performance tests in long range vacuum facilities, EMI/EMC tests, and performance testing in dynamic situations. The sensor has been shown to track a target at ranges of up to 300 meters, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, to survive and operate during the thermal vacuum cycling specific to the DART mission, to handle EM1 well, and to perform well in dynamic situations.

  5. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing

  6. Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Vittorio M N; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  7. Recent Advances in Integrated Photonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; de Tullio, Corrado; Troia, Benedetto; La Notte, Mario; Giannoccaro, Giovanni; De Leonardis, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, optical devices and circuits are becoming fundamental components in several application fields such as medicine, biotechnology, automotive, aerospace, food quality control, chemistry, to name a few. In this context, we propose a complete review on integrated photonic sensors, with specific attention to materials, technologies, architectures and optical sensing principles. To this aim, sensing principles commonly used in optical detection are presented, focusing on sensor performance features such as sensitivity, selectivity and rangeability. Since photonic sensors provide substantial benefits regarding compatibility with CMOS technology and integration on chips characterized by micrometric footprints, design and optimization strategies of photonic devices are widely discussed for sensing applications. In addition, several numerical methods employed in photonic circuits and devices, simulations and design are presented, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, recent developments in the field of photonic sensing are reviewed, considering advanced photonic sensor architectures based on linear and non-linear optical effects and to be employed in chemical/biochemical sensing, angular velocity and electric field detection. PMID:23202223

  8. Advanced MEMS spectral sensor for the NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antila, Jarkko E.; Kantojärvi, Uula; Mäkynen, Jussi; Tammi, Matti; Suhonen, Janne

    2015-02-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometers are widely used in many fields to measure material content, such as moisture, fat and protein in grains, foodstuffs and pharmaceutical powders. These fields include applications where only highly miniaturized and robust NIR sensors can be used due to small usable space, weight requirements and/or hostile working environment. Handheld devices for material inspection, online process automation and automotive industry introduce requirements for size, robustness and cost, which is currently difficult to meet. In this paper we present an advanced spectral sensor based on a tunable Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot Interferometer. The sensor is fibercoupled, weighs 125 grams and fits to an envelope of 25x55x55 mm3. Three types of sensors cover the wavelength ranges from 1.35-1.7 μm, 1.55-2.0 μm and 1.7-2.2 μm, utilizing only a single pixel extended InGaAs detector, avoiding the expensive linear array detectors. We describe the design, principle of operation and calibration methods together with the control schemes. Some environmental tests are described and their results and finally application measurement results are presented along with discussion and conclusions.

  9. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Various configurations of high temperature, heat flux sensors were studied to determine their suitability for use in experimental combustor liners of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was determined that embedded thermocouple sensors, laminated sensors, and Gardon gauge sensors, were the most viable candidates. Sensors of all three types were fabricated, calibrated, and endurance tested. All three types of sensors met the fabricability survivability, and accuracy requirements established for their application.

  10. Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

  11. Control Software for Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded software has been developed specifically for controlling an Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). A Video Guidance Sensor is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. Such a system includes pulsed laser diodes and a video camera, the output of which is digitized. From the positions of digitized target images and known geometric relationships, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. The present software consists of two subprograms running in two processors that are parts of the AVGS. The subprogram in the first processor receives commands from an external source, checks the commands for correctness, performs commanded non-image-data-processing control functions, and sends image data processing parts of commands to the second processor. The subprogram in the second processor processes image data as commanded. Upon power-up, the software performs basic tests of functionality, then effects a transition to a standby mode. When a command is received, the software goes into one of several operational modes (e.g. acquisition or tracking). The software then returns, to the external source, the data appropriate to the command.

  12. Orbital Express Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ricky; Heaton, Andy; Pinson, Robin; Carrington, Connie

    2008-01-01

    In May 2007 the first US fully autonomous rendezvous and capture was successfully performed by DARPA's Orbital Express (OE) mission. Since then, the Boeing ASTRO spacecraft and the Ball Aerospace NEXTSat have performed multiple rendezvous and docking maneuvers to demonstrate the technologies needed for satellite servicing. MSFC's Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) is a primary near-field proximity operations sensor integrated into ASTRO's Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture Sensor System (ARCSS), which provides relative state knowledge to the ASTRO GN&C system. This paper provides an overview of the AVGS sensor flying on Orbital Express, and a summary of the ground testing and on-orbit performance of the AVGS for OE. The AVGS is a laser-based system that is capable of providing range and bearing at midrange distances and full six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knowledge at near fields. The sensor fires lasers at two different frequencies to illuminate the Long Range Targets (LRTs) and the Short Range Targets (SRTs) on NEXTSat. Subtraction of one image from the other image removes extraneous light sources and reflections from anything other than the corner cubes on the LRTs and SRTs. This feature has played a significant role for Orbital Express in poor lighting conditions. The very bright spots that remain in the subtracted image are processed by the target recognition algorithms and the inverse-perspective algorithms, to provide 3DOF or 6DOF relative state information. Although Orbital Express has configured the ASTRO ARCSS system to only use AVGS at ranges of 120 m or less, some OE scenarios have provided opportunities for AVGS to acquire and track NEXTSat at greater distances. Orbital Express scenarios to date that have utilized AVGS include a berthing operation performed by the ASTRO robotic arm, sensor checkout maneuvers performed by the ASTRO robotic arm, 10-m unmated operations, 30-m unmated operations, and Scenario 3-1 anomaly recovery. The AVGS performed very

  13. Advances and trends in ionophore-based chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelson, K. N.; Peshkova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The recent advances in the theory and practice of potentiometric, conductometric and optical sensors based on ionophores are critically reviewed. The role of the heterogeneity of the sensor/sample systems is emphasized, and it is shown that due to this heterogeneity such sensors respond to the analyte activities rather than to concentrations. The basics of the origin of the response of all three kinds of ionophore-based sensors are briefly described. The use of novel sensor materials, new preparation and application techniques of the sensors as well as advances in theoretical treatment of the sensor response are analyzed using literature sources published mainly from 2012 to 2014. The basic achievements made in the past are also addressed when necessary for better understanding of the trends in the field of ionophore-based sensors. The bibliography includes 295 references.

  14. Advances in artificial olfaction: sensors and applications.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2014-06-01

    The artificial olfaction, based on electronic systems (electronic noses), includes three basic functions that operate on an odorant: a sample handler, an array of gas sensors, and a signal-processing method. The response of these artificial systems can be the identity of the odorant, an estimate concentration of the odorant, or characteristic properties of the odour as might be perceived by a human. These electronic noses are bio inspired instruments that mimic the sense of smell. The complexity of most odorants makes characterisation difficult with conventional analysis techniques, such as gas chromatography. Sensory analysis by a panel of experts is a costly process since it requires trained people who can work for only relatively short periods of time. The electronic noses are easy to build, provide short analysis times, in real time and on-line, and show high sensitivity and selectivity to the tested odorants. These systems are non-destructive techniques used to characterise odorants in diverse applications linked with the quality of life such as: control of foods, environmental quality, citizen security or clinical diagnostics. However, there is much research still to be done especially with regard to new materials and sensors technology, data processing, interpretation and validation of results. This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses and their most important applications in the environmental, and security fields. The above mentioned main components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, more advanced materials and methods for sensing, and data processing system) are described. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in the different applications are also mentioned. PMID:24767451

  15. Advancing Profiling Sensors with a Wireless Approach

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications. PMID:23443371

  16. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

  17. Advances in sapphire optical fiber sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Anbo; Wang, George Z.; Gollapudi, Sridhar; May, Russell G.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the development and testing of two sapphire fiber sensor designs intended for use in high temperature environments. The first is a birefringence-balanced polarimetric sapphire fiber sensor. In this sensor, two single crystal sapphire rods, acting as the birefringence sensing element, are connected to each other in such a way that the slow axis of the first rod is aligned along with the fast axis of the second rod, and the fast axis of the first rod is along the slow axis of the second rod. This sensor has been demonstrated for measurement of temperature up to 1500 C. The second is a sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic interferometric sensor. In this sensor, a length of uncoated, unclad, structural-graded multimode sapphire fiber is fusion spliced to a singlemode silica fiber to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The reflections from the silica-to-sapphire fiber splice and the free endface of the sapphire fiber give rise to the interfering fringe output. This sensor has been demonstrated for the measurement of temperature above 1510 C, and a resolution of 0.1 C has been obtained.

  18. Advanced Sensors and Applications Study (ASAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chism, S. B.; Hughes, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present EOD requirements for sensors in the space shuttle era are reported with emphasis on those applications which were deemed important enough to warrant separate sections. The application areas developed are: (1) agriculture; (2) atmospheric corrections; (3) cartography; (4) coastal studies; (5) forestry; (6) geology; (7) hydrology; (8) land use; (9) oceanography; and (10) soil moisture. For each application area. The following aspects were covered: (1) specific goals and techniques, (2) individual sensor requirements including types, bands, resolution, etc.; (3) definition of mission requirements, type orbits, coverages, etc.; and (4) discussion of anticipated problem areas and solutions. The remote sensors required for these application areas include; (1) camera systems; (2) multispectral scanners; (3) microwave scatterometers; (4) synthetic aperture radars; (5) microwave radiometers; and (6) vidicons. The emphasis in the remote sensor area was on the evaluation of present technology implications about future systems.

  19. Advancing Sensor Technology for Aerospace Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) participate in the development of technologies for propulsion testing and propulsion applications in air and space transportation. Future transportation systems and the test facilities needed to develop and sustain them are becoming increasingly complex. Sensor technology is a fundamental pillar that makes possible development of complex systems that must operate in automatic mode (closed loop systems), or even in assisted-autonomous mode (highly self-sufficient systems such as planetary exploration spacecraft). Hence, a great deal of effort is dedicated to develop new sensors and related technologies to be used in research facilities, test facilities, and in vehicles and equipment. This paper describes sensor technologies being developed and in use at SSC and GRC, including new technologies in integrated health management involving sensors, components, processes, and vehicles.

  20. Sensor Needs for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Sensors and feedback systems are critical to life support flight systems and life support systems research. New sensor capabilities can allow for new system architectures to be considered, and can facilitate dramatic improvements in system performance. This paper will describe three opportunities for biosensor researchers to develop sensors that will enable life support system improvements. The first opportunity relates to measuring physical, chemical, and biological parameters in the Space Station Water Processing System. Measuring pH, iodine, total organic carbon, microbiological activity, total dissolved solids, or conductivity with a safe, effective, stable, reliable microsensor could benefit the water processing system considerably. Of special interest is a sensor which can monitor biological contamination rapidly. The second opportunity relates to sensing microbiological contamination and water condensation on the surface of large inflatable structures. It is the goal of large inflatable structures used for habitation to take advantage of the large surface area of the structure and reject waste heat passively through the walls of the structure. Too much heat rejection leads to a cold spot with water condensation, and eventually microbiological contamination. A distributed sensor system that can measure temperature, humidity, and microbiological contamination across a large surface would benefit designers of large inflatable habitable structures. The third opportunity relates to sensing microbial bioreactors used for waste water processing and reuse. Microbiological bioreactors offer considerable advantages in weight and power compared to adsorption bed based systems when used for long periods of time. Managing and controlling bioreactors is greatly helped if distributed microsensors measured the biological populations continuously in many locations within the bioreactor. Nitrifying bacteria are of special interest to bioreactor designers, and any sensors that

  1. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  2. Advances in Thin Film Sensor Technologies for Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Martin, Lisa C.; Will, Herbert A.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced thin film sensor techniques that can provide accurate surface strain and temperature measurements are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. These sensors are needed to provide minimally intrusive characterization of advanced materials (such as ceramics and composites) and structures (such as components for Space Shuttle Main Engine, High Speed Civil Transport, Advanced Subsonic Transports and General Aviation Aircraft) in hostile, high-temperature environments and for validation of design codes. This paper presents two advanced thin film sensor technologies: strain gauges and thermocouples. These sensors are sputter deposited directly onto the test articles and are only a few micrometers thick; the surface of the test article is not structurally altered and there is minimal disturbance of the gas flow over the surface. The strain gauges are palladium-13% chromium based and the thermocouples are platinum-13% rhodium vs. platinum. The fabrication techniques of these thin film sensors in a class 1000 cleanroom at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Their demonstration on a variety of engine materials, including superalloys, ceramics and advanced ceramic matrix composites, in several hostile, high-temperature test environments are discussed.

  3. Advances in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: Algorithms and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jiang; Zhuang, Dafang; Huang, Yaohuan; Fu, Jingying

    2009-01-01

    With the development of satellite and remote sensing techniques, more and more image data from airborne/satellite sensors have become available. Multi-sensor image fusion seeks to combine information from different images to obtain more inferences than can be derived from a single sensor. In image-based application fields, image fusion has emerged as a promising research area since the end of the last century. The paper presents an overview of recent advances in multi-sensor satellite image fusion. Firstly, the most popular existing fusion algorithms are introduced, with emphasis on their recent improvements. Advances in main applications fields in remote sensing, including object identification, classification, change detection and maneuvering targets tracking, are described. Both advantages and limitations of those applications are then discussed. Recommendations are addressed, including: (1) Improvements of fusion algorithms; (2) Development of “algorithm fusion” methods; (3) Establishment of an automatic quality assessment scheme. PMID:22408479

  4. Applications of fiber optic sensors in advanced engine controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitka, Edward F., II

    1989-06-01

    Measured parameters, operating ranges, accuracy requirements, environmental constraints, and speed of response of fiber optic sensors are identified for three categories of engines. The three engine categories are: (1) current turbojet, turbofan, and turboprop engines; (2) next generation and turbofan engines to be built in the 1990s; and (3) advanced supersonic/hypersonic engines represented by ramjet, scramjet, and air-turbo-ramjet concepts. The key development and test efforts in engine control applications of fiber optic sensors are discussed.

  5. Advanced technology for space communications, tracking, and robotic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Technological advancements in tracking, communications, and robotic vision sensors are reviewed. The development of communications systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operation is discussed. Consideration is given to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite systems, GPS, and communications and tracking systems for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station. The use of television, laser, and microwave sensors for robotics and technology for autonomous rendezvous and docking operations are examined.

  6. Advanced thermal-sensor-system development via shuttle sortie missions

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Ginsberg, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the Space Shuttle in various sortie mission modes to evaluate advanced thermal sensor system concepts, prior to a design commitment for automated spacecraft application, is described. Selected terrestrial energy sources of civilian and/or military interest are examined with respect to: (1) thermal source location and characterization and (2) temperature and emissivity measurements. Of particular interest is the application of on-orbit sensor testing to demonstrate the location and characterization of potential geothermal energy resources. The role of the payload specialist in thermal source location, sensor operation and real time evaluation of mission performance is discussed.

  7. Advanced Sensors Boost Optical Communication, Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Brooklyn, New York-based Amplification Technologies Inc. (ATI), employed Phase I and II SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to forward the company's solid-state photomultiplier technology. Under the SBIR, ATI developed a small, energy-efficient, extremely high-gain sensor capable of detecting light down to single photons in the near infrared wavelength range. The company has commercialized this technology in the form of its NIRDAPD photomultiplier, ideal for use in free space optical communications, lidar and ladar, night vision goggles, and other light sensing applications.

  8. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  9. Advanced moisture sensor research and development

    SciTech Connect

    De Los Santos, A.

    1992-10-31

    During this period, testing of the system continued at the American Fructose (AF) plant in Dimmitt, Texas. Testing at the first two sites (dryer output and dryer input) was completed. Following the testing at the second site, the sensor was returned to the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) laboratories for modifications and for fitting of the additional components required to allow sampling of the material to be measured at the third site. These modifications were completed during this reporting period, and the system is scheduled to be installed at the third site (Rotary Vacuum Filter output) early in the next period. Laboratory measurements of corn germ (to be measured at the fourth site) and a variety of fruits and vegetables (one of which will be measured at the fifth site) have also continued during this period.

  10. Automated sensor networks to advance ocean science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, O.; Orcutt, J. A.; Arrott, M.; Vernon, F. L.; Peach, C. L.; Meisinger, M.; Krueger, I.; Kleinert, J.; Chao, Y.; Chien, S.; Thompson, D. R.; Chave, A. D.; Balasuriya, A.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation has funded the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), which over the next five years will deploy infrastructure to expand scientist’s ability to remotely study the ocean. The deployed infrastructure will be linked by a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will integrate marine observatories into a coherent system-of-systems. OOI is committed to engaging the ocean sciences community during the construction pahse. For the CI, this is being enabled by using a “spiral design strategy” allowing for input throughout the construction phase. In Fall 2009, the OOI CI development team used an existing ocean observing network in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) to test OOI CI software. The objective of this CI test was to aggregate data from ships, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), shore-based radars, and satellites and make it available to five different data-assimilating ocean forecast models. Scientists used these multi-model forecasts to automate future glider missions in order to demonstrate the feasibility of two-way interactivity between the sensor web and predictive models. The CI software coordinated and prioritized the shared resources that allowed for the semi-automated reconfiguration of assett-tasking, and thus enabled an autonomous execution of observation plans for the fixed and mobile observation platforms. Efforts were coordinated through a web portal that provided an access point for the observational data and model forecasts. Researchers could use the CI software in tandem with the web data portal to assess the performance of individual numerical model results, or multi-model ensembles, through real-time comparisons with satellite, shore-based radar, and in situ robotic measurements. The resulting sensor net will enable a new means to explore and study the world’s oceans by providing scientists a responsive network in the world’s oceans that can be accessed via any wireless network.

  11. Sensors, controls, and man-machine interface for advanced teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Some advances are reviewed which have been made in teleoperator (i.e., mechanical activities performed by mechanical devices at a remote site under remote control) technology through introduction of sensors, computers, automation, and new man-machine interface devices and techniques for remote manipulator control. The state of the art is summarized and some basic problems and challenging developments are examined.

  12. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Development of Sensors for Ceramics Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems' program was divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objectives of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. A summary report of the Phase 2 effort, together with conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated, has been submitted to NASA. Emittance tests were performed on six materials furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center. Measurements were made of various surfaces at high temperature using a Thermogage emissometer. This report describes the emittance test program and presents a summary of the results.

  13. Latest Development in Advanced Sensors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Eckhoff, Anthony J.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Inexpensive space transportation system must be developed in order to make spaceflight more affordable. To achieve this goal, there is a need to develop inexpensive smart sensors to allow autonomous checking of the health of the vehicle and associated ground support equipment, warn technicians or operators of an impending problem and facilitate rapid vehicle pre-launch operations. The Transducers and Data Acquisition group at Kennedy Space Center has initiated an effort to study, research, develop and prototype inexpensive smart sensors to accomplish these goals. Several technological challenges are being investigated and integrated in this project multi-discipline sensors; self-calibration, health self-diagnosis capabilities embedded in sensors; advanced data acquisition systems with failure prediction algorithms and failure correction (self-healing) capabilities.

  14. Advanced haptic sensor for measuring human skin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Okuyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2009-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a sensory receptor of the sensor to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of human skin. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight, and we can examine skin condition quickly using these sense. But, its subjectivity and ambiguity make it difficult to quantify skin conditions. Therefore, development of measurement device which can evaluate skin conditions easily and objectively is demanded by dermatologists, cosmetic industries, and so on. In this paper, an advanced haptic sensor system that can measure multiple information of skin condition in various parts of human body is developed. The applications of the sensor system to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of skin are investigated through two experiments.

  15. Advanced haptic sensor for measuring human skin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Okuyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a sensory receptor of the sensor to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of human skin. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight, and we can examine skin condition quickly using these sense. But, its subjectivity and ambiguity make it difficult to quantify skin conditions. Therefore, development of measurement device which can evaluate skin conditions easily and objectively is demanded by dermatologists, cosmetic industries, and so on. In this paper, an advanced haptic sensor system that can measure multiple information of skin condition in various parts of human body is developed. The applications of the sensor system to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of skin are investigated through two experiments.

  16. Simulation and ground testing with the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS), an active sensor system that provides near-range 6-degree-of-freedom sensor data, has been developed as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system for the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART). The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state imager to detect the light returned from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The development of the sensor, through initial prototypes, final prototypes, and three flight units, has required a great deal of testing at every phase, and the different types of testing, their effectiveness, and their results, are presented in this paper, focusing on the testing of the flight units. Testing has improved the sensor's performance.

  17. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Low Risk Rendezvous and Docking Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Carrington, Connie; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Thomas; Howard, Ricky T.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is being built and tested at MSFC. This paper provides an overview of current work on the NGAVGS, a summary of the video guidance heritage, and the AVGS performance on the Orbital Express mission. This paper also provides a discussion of applications to ISS cargo delivery vehicles, CEV, and future lunar applications.

  18. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  19. Advanced optical position sensors for magnetically suspended wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, S.

    1985-01-01

    A major concern to aerodynamicists has been the corruption of wind tunnel test data by model support structures, such as stings or struts. A technique for magnetically suspending wind tunnel models was considered by Tournier and Laurenceau (1957) in order to overcome this problem. This technique is now implemented with the aid of a Large Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (LMSBS) and advanced position sensors for measuring model attitude and position within the test section. Two different optical position sensors are discussed, taking into account a device based on the use of linear CCD arrays, and a device utilizing area CID cameras. Current techniques in image processing have been employed to develop target tracking algorithms capable of subpixel resolution for the sensors. The algorithms are discussed in detail, and some preliminary test results are reported.

  20. Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

  1. Flight evaluation of advanced third-generation midwave infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chyau N.; Donn, Matthew

    1998-08-01

    In FY-97 the Counter Drug Optical Upgrade (CDOU) demonstration program was initiated by the Program Executive Office for Counter Drug to increase the detection and classification ranges of P-3 counter drug aircraft by using advanced staring infrared sensors. The demonstration hardware is a `pin-for-pin' replacement of the AAS-36 Infrared Detection Set (IRDS) located under the nose radome of a P-3 aircraft. The hardware consists of a 3rd generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor integrated into a three axis-stabilized turret. The sensor, when installed on the P- 3, has a hemispheric field of regard and analysis has shown it will be capable of detecting and classifying Suspected Drug Trafficking Aircraft and Vessels at ranges several factors over the current IRDS. This paper will discuss the CDOU system and it's lab, ground, and flight evaluation results. Test targets included target templates, range targets, dedicated target boats, and targets of opportunity at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division and at operational test sites. The objectives of these tests were to: (1) Validate the integration concept of the CDOU package into the P-3 aircraft. (2) Validate the end-to-end functionality of the system, including sensor/turret controls and recording of imagery during flight. (3) Evaluate the system sensitivity and resolution on a set of verified resolution targets templates. (4) Validate the ability of the 3rd generation MWIR sensor to detect and classify targets at a significantly increased range.

  2. Advances in biologically inspired on/near sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.

    1999-07-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory at Elgin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the are of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of two 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. The Neuroseek program is developing a 256 X 256 2-color dual band IRFPA coupled to an optimized silicon CMOS read-out and processing integrated circuit that provides simultaneous full-frame imaging in MWIR/LWIR wavebands along with built-in biologically inspired sensor image processing functions. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  3. High temperature, harsh environment sensors for advanced power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Credle, S.; Buric, M.; Lewis, R.; Seachman, S.

    2015-05-01

    One mission of the Crosscutting Technology Research program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory is to develop a suite of sensors and controls technologies that will ultimately increase efficiencies of existing fossil-fuel fired power plants and enable a new generation of more efficient and lower emission power generation technologies. The program seeks to accomplish this mission through soliciting, managing, and monitoring a broad range of projects both internal and external to the laboratory which span sensor material and device development, energy harvesting and wireless telemetry methodologies, and advanced controls algorithms and approaches. A particular emphasis is placed upon harsh environment sensing for compatibility with high temperature, erosive, corrosive, and highly reducing or oxidizing environments associated with large-scale centralized power generation. An overview of the full sensors and controls portfolio is presented and a selected set of current and recent research successes and on-going projects are highlighted. A more detailed emphasis will be placed on an overview of the current research thrusts and successes of the in-house sensor material and device research efforts that have been established to support the program.

  4. Advances in materials for room temperature hydrogen sensors.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Krishnan, Subramanian; Silva, Hayde; Jean, Sheila; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2012-06-21

    Hydrogen (H(2)), as a source of energy, continues to be a compelling choice in applications ranging from fuel cells and propulsion systems to feedstock for chemical, metallurgical and other industrial processes. H(2), being a clean, reliable, and affordable source, is finding ever increasing use in distributed electric power generation and H(2) fuelled cars. Although still under 0.1%, the distributed use of H(2) is the fastest growing area. In distributed H(2) storage, distribution, and consumption, safety continues to be a critical aspect. Affordable safety systems for distributed H(2) applications are critical for the H(2) economy to take hold. Advances in H(2) sensors are driven by specificity, reliability, repeatability, stability, cost, size, response time, recovery time, operating temperature, humidity range, and power consumption. Ambient temperature sensors for H(2) detection are increasingly being explored as they offer specificity, stability and robustness of high temperature sensors with lower operational costs and significantly longer operational lifetimes. This review summarizes and highlights recent developments in room temperature H(2) sensors. PMID:22582176

  5. Recent Advances in Skin-Inspired Sensors Enabled by Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Azhari, Faezeh

    2012-07-01

    The highly optimized performance of nature's creations and biological assemblies has inspired the development of their bio-inspired artificial counterparts that can potentially outperform conventional systems. In particular, the skin of humans, animals, and insects exhibits unique functionalities and properties and has subsequently led to active research in developing skin-inspired sensors. This paper presents a summary of selected work related to skin-inspired tactile, distributed strain, and artificial hair cell flow sensors, with a particular focus on technologies enabled by recent advancements in the nanotechnology domain. The purpose is not to present a comprehensive review on this broad subject matter but rather to use selected work to outline the diversity of current research activities.

  6. Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, John J.; Blain, Phil C.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Brislawn, Christopher M.; Brumby, Steven P.; Cafferty, Maureen M.; Dunham, Mark E.; Frigo, Janette R.; Gokhale, Maya; Harvey, Neal R.; Kenyon, Garrett; Kim, Won-Ha; Layne, J.; Lavenier, Dominique D.; McCabe, Kevin P.; Mitchell, Melanie; Moore, Kurt R.; Perkins, Simon J.; Porter, Reid B.; Robinson, S.; Salazar, Alfonso; Theiler, James P.; Young, Aaron C.

    2000-11-01

    Compute performance and algorithm design are key problems of image processing and scientific computing in general. For example, imaging spectrometers are capable of producing data in hundreds of spectral bands with millions of pixels. These data sets show great promise for remote sensing applications, but require new and computationally intensive processing. The goal of the Deployable Adaptive Processing Systems (DAPS) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop advanced processing hardware and algorithms for high-bandwidth sensor applications. The project has produced electronics for processing multi- and hyper-spectral sensor data, as well as LIDAR data, while employing processing elements using a variety of technologies. The project team is currently working on reconfigurable computing technology and advanced feature extraction techniques, with an emphasis on their application to image and RF signal processing. This paper presents reconfigurable computing technology and advanced feature extraction algorithm work and their application to multi- and hyperspectral image processing. Related projects on genetic algorithms as applied to image processing will be introduced, as will the collaboration between the DAPS project and the DARPA Adaptive Computing Systems program. Further details are presented in other talks during this conference and in other conferences taking place during this symposium.

  7. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  8. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  9. Advancing Lidar Sensors Technologies for Next Generation Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Brewster, Paul F.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Missions to solar systems bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "precision landing", and "hazard avoidance" capabilities. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Missions aimed at paving the path for colonization of the Moon and human landing on Mars need to execute onboard hazard detection and precision maneuvering to ensure safe landing near previously deployed assets. Asteroid missions require precision rendezvous, identification of the landing or sampling site location, and navigation to the highly dynamic object that may be tumbling at a fast rate. To meet these needs, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a set of advanced lidar sensors under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. These lidar sensors can provide precision measurement of vehicle relative proximity, velocity, and orientation, and high resolution elevation maps of the surface during the descent to the targeted body. Recent flights onboard Morpheus free-flyer vehicle have demonstrated the viability of ALHAT lidar sensors for future landing missions to solar system bodies.

  10. 28. EXTERIOR CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. EXTERIOR - CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can conveyor which transported cans from the third floor of the main warehouse (right) to the canning area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  12. Solar extreme ultraviolet sensor and advanced langmuir probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    For more than two decades, the staff of the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) has collaborated with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the design and implementation of Langmuir probes (LP). This program of probe development under the direction of Larry Brace of GSFC has evolved methodically with innovations to: improve measurement precision, increase the speed of measurement, and reduce the weight, size, power consumption and data rate of the instrument. Under contract NAG5-419 these improvements were implemented and are what characterize the Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). Using data from the Langmuir Probe on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Brace and Walter Hoegy of GSFC demonstrated a novel method of monitoring the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. This led to the idea of developing a sensor similar to a Langmuir probe specifically designed to measure solar EUV (SEUV) that uses a similar electronics package. Under this contract, a combined instrument package of the ALP and SEUV sensor was to be designed, constructed, and laboratory tested. Finally the instrument was to be flight tested as part of sounding rocket experiment to acquire the necessary data to validate this method for possible use in future earth and planetary aeronomy missions. The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the electronics hardware and software for this instrument, since the actual sensors were suppied by GSFC. Due to budget constraints, only a flight model was constructed. These electronics were tested and calibrated in the laboratory, and then the instrument was integrated into the rocket payload at Wallops Flight Facility where it underwent environmental testing. After instrument recalibration at SPRL, the payload was reintegrated and launched from the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks Alaska. The payload was successfully recovered and after refurbishment underwent further testing and developing to improve its performance for future use.

  13. Recent advances toward a fiber optic sensor for nerve agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshay, Manal; Cordero, Steven R.; Mukamal, Harold; Ruiz, David; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2008-04-01

    We report advances made on the development of a fiber optic nerve agent sensor having its entire length as the sensing element. Upon exposure to sarin gas or its simulant, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, the cladding changes color resulting in an alteration of the light intensity throughput. The optical fiber is multimode and consists of a fused-silica core and a nerve agent sensitive cladding. The absorption characteristics of the cladding affect the fiber's spectral attenuation and limit the length of light guiding fiber that can be deployed continuously. The absorption of the cladding is also dependent on the sensor formulation, which in turn influences the sensitivity of the fiber. In this paper, data related to the trade-off of sensitivity, spectral attenuation, and length of fiber challenged will be reported. The fiber is mass produced using a conventional fiber optic draw tower. This technology could be used to protect human resources and buildings from dangerous chemical attacks, particularly when large areas or perimeters must be covered. It may also be used passively to determine how well such areas have been decontaminated.

  14. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  15. X-Ray Calibration Facility/Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. A. S.; Howard, R. T.; Watson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The advanced video guidance sensor was tested in the X-Ray Calibration facility at Marshall Space Flight Center to establish performance during vacuum. Two sensors were tested and a timeline for each are presented. The sensor and test facility are discussed briefly. A new test stand was also developed. A table establishing sensor bias and spot size growth for several ranges is detailed along with testing anomalies.

  16. AlMn Transition Edge Sensors for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Dale; Austermann, Jason E.; Beall, James A.; Tucker, Daniel T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Hubmayr, Johannes; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeffrey J.; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Pappas, Christine G.; Salatino, Maria; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Van Lanen, Jeff; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (Adv ACT) will use an array of multichroic polarization sensitive AIMn transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out through time-division multiplexing. Aluminum doped with a low concentration of manganese can be deposited to a bulk film thickness for a more reliable superconducting critical temperature uniformity compared to thin bilayers. To build the TES, the AlMn alloy is deposited, over Nb wiring, to a specific thickness to set the TES normal resistance. The doping concentration of manganese coarsely defines the TES critical temperature, while a fine tuning is achieved by heating the deposited film to a specific temperature. The TES island is connected to the thermal bath via four silicon-nitride membranes, where their geometry defines the thermal conductance to the temperature of the bath. Lastly, the TES heat capacity is increased by addition of PdAu electrically connected to the AlMn film. Designs and performance characteristics of these AlMn TESs are presented for use in AdvACT.

  17. AlMn Transition Edge Sensors for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dale; Austermann, Jason E.; Beall, James A.; Becker, Daniel T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Hubmayr, Johannes; Koopman, Brian J.; McMahon, Jeffrey J.; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Pappas, Christine G.; Salatino, Maria; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Van Lanen, Jeff; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) will use an array of multichroic polarization-sensitive AlMn transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out through time-division multiplexing. Aluminum doped with a low concentration of manganese can be deposited to a bulk film thickness for a more reliable superconducting critical temperature uniformity compared to thin bilayers. To build the TES, the AlMn alloy is deposited, over Nb wiring, to a specific thickness to set the TES normal resistance. The doping concentration of manganese coarsely defines the TES critical temperature, while a fine tuning is achieved by heating the deposited film to a specific temperature. The TES island is connected to the thermal bath via four silicon-nitride membranes, where their geometry defines the thermal conductance to the temperature of the bath. Lastly, the TES heat capacity is increased by addition of PdAu electrically connected to the AlMn film. Designs and performance characteristics of these AlMn TESs are presented for use in AdvACT.

  18. Sharpening advanced land imager multispectral data using a sensor model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on NASA's Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite provides for nine spectral bands at 30m ground sample distance (GSD) and a 10m GSD panchromatic band. This report describes an image sharpening technique where the higher spatial resolution information of the panchromatic band is used to increase the spatial resolution of ALI multispectral (MS) data. To preserve the spectral characteristics, this technique combines reported deconvolution deblurring methods for the MS data with highpass filter-based fusion methods for the Pan data. The deblurring process uses the point spread function (PSF) model of the ALI sensor. Information includes calculation of the PSF from pre-launch calibration data. Performance was evaluated using simulated ALI MS data generated by degrading the spatial resolution of high resolution IKONOS satellite MS data. A quantitative measure of performance was the error between sharpened MS data and high resolution reference. This report also compares performance with that of a reported method that includes PSF information. Preliminary results indicate improved sharpening with the method reported here.

  19. Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

  20. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  1. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  2. Advances in fiber optic sensors for in-vivo monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Francesco; Mignani, Anna G.

    1995-09-01

    Biomedical fiber-optic sensors are attractive for the measurement of both physical and chemical parameters as well as for spectral measurements directly performed on the patient. An overview of fiber-optic sensors for in vivo monitoring is given, with particular attention to the advantages that these sensors are able to offer in different fields of application such as cardiovascular and intensive care, angiology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, oncology, neurology, dermatology, and dentistry.

  3. Satellite Advanced Attitude Sensors at UNINA Lab GNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, D.

    This paper presents the most recent activities at the Laboratory of Guidance, Navigation, and Control of the Department of Industrial Engineering dealing with design, development, and test of attitude sensors for space applications, in particular a micro sun sensor and a star tracker, along with laboratory facilities to test them indoors. The paper presents a detailed description of sensors as well as test facilities, and the results of two test campaigns that assessed the performance of the two devices.

  4. Condition monitoring through advanced sensor and computational technology : final report (January 2002 to May 2005).

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung-Taek; Luk, Vincent K.

    2005-05-01

    The overall goal of this joint research project was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensors and computational technology for continuous monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This project included investigating and adapting several advanced sensor technologies from Korean and US national laboratory research communities, some of which were developed and applied in non-nuclear industries. The project team investigated and developed sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms. The researchers installed sensors and conducted condition monitoring tests on two test loops, a check valve (an active component) and a piping elbow (a passive component), to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced sensors and computational technology to achieve the project goal. Acoustic emission (AE) devices, optical fiber sensors, accelerometers, and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) were used to detect mechanical vibratory response of check valve and piping elbow in normal and degraded configurations. Chemical sensors were also installed to monitor the water chemistry in the piping elbow test loop. Analysis results of processed sensor data indicate that it is feasible to differentiate between the normal and degraded (with selected degradation mechanisms) configurations of these two components from the acquired sensor signals, but it is questionable that these methods can reliably identify the level and type of degradation. Additional research and development efforts are needed to refine the differentiation techniques and to reduce the level of uncertainties.

  5. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  6. Sunshade for building exteriors

    DOEpatents

    Braunstein, Richard; McKenna, Gregory B.; Hewitt, David W.; Harper, Randolph S.

    2002-01-01

    A sunshade for shading window exteriors includes at least one connecting bracket for attachment to a window mullion, a blade support strut attached to the connecting bracket at a first joint, and a plurality of louvered blades supported by the blade support strut at a second joint. The pivot angle at the first joint may be varied to extend the louvered blades a desired distance from the window mullion. The louvered blades are positioned at a preselected fixed profile angle on the second joint in order to optimize shading at the latitude where the sunshade is installed. In a preferred embodiment, the louvered blades have top walls supporting photovoltaic cells and the sunshade includes electric cables for connecting the photovoltaic cells to an electric circuit.

  7. System performance advances of 18-mm and 16-mm subminiature image intensifier sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nils I.

    2000-11-01

    Night vision system design has been centered aroudn the An/AVS-6 and AN/PVS-7 night vision goggle systems for the past 20 years. Goggle performance has improved during this time through increased performance of the image intensifier sensor, primarily the Omni IV sensor from ITT Industries Night Vision. Most of this improvement has been at the optimal light level (1E-3 fc scene illumination). Recent advances in image sensor performance from the filmless Generation (Gen) IV sensors has increased the low light level performance of night vision devices from 0.3 cy/mr to 0.7 cy/mr. In addition, sensor packaging design requirements have forced night vision sensor manufactures to design light weight, small volume sensors. ITT recently has designed such a sensor in a 16-mm format. This sensor if 50% lighter, up to 50% shorter, and has design features that simplify the objective lens design. New night vision goggles have been, and are being, designed which reduce the perceived head-supported weight. This paper presents signal-to-noise ratio, halo, and other film-less sensor data and similar 16-mm subminiature sensor data. The resulting system performance data will be described. Finally, the system design improvements and relationships with the subminiature 16-mm subminiature sensor will be given.

  8. Advances on Sensor Web for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Bermudez, L. E.; Huang, C.; Jazayeri, M.; Khalafbeigi, T.

    2013-12-01

    'In much the same way that HTML and HTTP enabled WWW, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), envisioned in 2001 [1] will allow sensor webs to become a reality.'. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not a simple task. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. SWE standardizes web service interfaces, sensor descriptions and data encodings as building blocks for a Sensor Web. SWE standards are now mature specifications (version 2.0) with approved OGC compliance test suites and tens of independent implementations. Many earth and space science organizations and government agencies are using the SWE standards to publish and share their sensors and observations. While SWE has been demonstrated very effective for scientific sensors, its complexity and the computational overhead may not be suitable for resource-constrained tiny sensors. In June 2012, a new OGC Standards Working Group (SWG) was formed called the Sensor Web Interface for Internet of Things (SWE-IoT) SWG. This SWG focuses on developing one or more OGC standards for resource-constrained sensors and actuators (e.g., Internet of Things devices) while leveraging the existing OGC SWE standards. In the near future, billions to trillions of small sensors and actuators will be embedded in real- world objects and connected to the Internet facilitating a concept called the Internet of Things (IoT). By populating our environment with real-world sensor-based devices, the IoT is opening the door to exciting possibilities for a variety of application domains, such as environmental monitoring, transportation and logistics, urban informatics, smart cities, as well as personal and social applications. The current SWE-IoT development aims on modeling the IoT components and defining a standard web service that makes the

  9. Recent advances in TEC-less uncooled FPA sensor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Philip E.; Clarke, John E.; Li, Chuan C.; Yang, John W.; Wong, W. Y.; Bogosyan, Arsen

    2003-09-01

    DRS has previously demonstrated and reported a concept for operating uncooled infrared focal plane arrays (UIRFPA) without the need for UIRFPA temperature regulation. DRS has patented this proprietary technology, which DRS calls TCOMP. TCOMP is a concept that combines an operating algorithm, a sensor architecture and a sensor calibration method, which allow pixel response and offset correction to be performed as a function of the UFPA sensor's operating temperature, thereby eliminating the need for the UIRFPA temperature regulation that would be required otherwise. As a result of the elimination of the temperature regulation requirement, the sensor turn-on time for high performance imaging can be significantly reduced, sensor power is significantly reduced, and the need for stray thermal radiation shields is effectively eliminated. The original TCOMP technique was demonstrated in 1998. Since then DRS has made significant improvements in both the TCOMP algorithm and the calibration process. This paper describes the patented TCOMP concept, presents the results of analysis of the improved TCOMP concept, and provides sensor level data of UIRFPA/sensor performance with the improved TCOMP algorithm.

  10. Advanced Sensor Technologies for Next-Generation Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S H; Chien, H T; Gopalsami, N; Jendrzejczyk, A; Raptis, A C

    2002-01-30

    This report summarizes the development of automobile emissions sensors at Argonne National Laboratory. Three types of sensor technologies, i.e., ultrasound, microwave, and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), were evaluated for engine-out emissions monitoring. Two acoustic sensor technologies, i.e., surface acoustic wave and flexural plate wave, were evaluated for detection of hydrocarbons. The microwave technique involves a cavity design and measures the shifts in resonance frequency that are a result of the presence of trace organic compounds. The IMS technique was chosen for further development into a practical emissions sensor. An IMS sensor with a radioactive {sup 63}Ni ion source was initially developed and applied to measurement of hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} emissions. For practical applications, corona and spark discharge ion sources were later developed and applied to NO{sub x} emission measurement. The concentrations of NO{sub 2} in dry nitrogen and in a typical exhaust gas mixture are presented. The sensor response to moisture was evaluated, and a cooling method to control the moisture content in the gas stream was examined. Results show that the moisture effect can be reduced by using a thermoelectric cold plate. The design and performance of a laboratory prototype sensor are described.

  11. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  12. 5. Exterior detail of connector and boiler room (Constructed after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Exterior detail of connector and boiler room (Constructed after 1953); Connector links east wing (Known as A-130 prior to 1953) & west wing (Known as A-129 prior to 1953) - Advance Base Depot, Davisville, Building A-130, Northeast section of Advance Base Depot, adjacent to Pier No. 1, Davisville, Washington County, RI

  13. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. This paper presents the flight heritage and results of the sensor technology, some hardware trades for the current sensor, and discusses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the various NGAVGS development units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

  14. Super MI sensor: recent advances of amorphous wire and CMOS-IC magneto-impedance sensor.

    PubMed

    Mohri, Kaneo; Honkura, Yoshinobu; Panina, Larissa V; Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2012-09-01

    We indicate that the Magneto-Impedance sensor using amorphous wires has reached a new stage to view "Super MI sensor technology" based on three main advantageous factors of (i) micro sized head and micro power consumption chip, (ii) ultra-high sensitivity micro magnetic sensor with 1 pico-Tesla resolution at the room temperature without any electromagnetic shielding, and (iii) ultra-quick response magnetic sensor with GHz operation. We summarize systematically the magneto-impedance technology with the basic principle and mechanisms of three advantageous features for constitution of various high performance new sensor devices such as the electronic compass chip for mobile phones and smart phones and portable sensors for the magneto-encephalography, the magneto-spinography, and various bio-cell magnetic measurements. Possibility of new application to MI antenna in magnetic telecommunications is also discussed. PMID:23035502

  15. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-03-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998.

  16. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  17. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  18. The AEDC aerospace chamber 7V: An advanced test capability for infrared surveillance and seeker sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced sensor test capability is now operational at the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for calibration and performance characterization of infrared sensors. This facility, known as the 7V, is part of a broad range of test capabilities under development at AEDC to provide complete ground test support to the sensor community for large-aperture surveillance sensors and kinetic kill interceptors. The 7V is a state-of-the-art cryo/vacuum facility providing calibration and mission simulation against space backgrounds. Key features of the facility include high-fidelity scene simulation with precision track accuracy and in-situ target monitoring, diffraction limited optical system, NIST traceable broadband and spectral radiometric calibration, outstanding jitter control, environmental systems for 20 K, high-vacuum, low-background simulation, and an advanced data acquisition system.

  19. Advanced Layered Composite Polylaminate Electroactive Actuator and Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Copeland, Benjamin M., Jr. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the mounting of pre-stressed electroactive material in such a manner that large displacement actuators or sensors result. The invention comprises mounting the pre-stressed electroactive material to a support layer. This combination of a pre-stressed electroactive material and support layer may in turn be attached to a mounting surface. The pre-stressed electroactive material may be a ferroelectric, pyroelectric, piezoelectric, or magnetostrictive material. The size, stiffness, mass, and material of the support layer is selected to result in the electroactive device having dynamic response properties, environmental capability characteristics, and the required resilience optimized for a given application. The capacity to connect the support layer to a surface expands the arenas in which the prestressed electroactive device may be used. Application for which the invention may be used include actuators, sensors, or as a component in a pumps, switches, relays, pressure transducers and acoustic devices.

  20. Development of advanced magnetic resonance sensor for industrial applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    De Los Santos, A.

    1997-06-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and various subcontractors, in a cooperative agreement with the DOE, have developed and tested an advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sensor for several industrial applications and made various market surveys. The original goal of the program was to develop an advanced moisture sensor to allow more precise and rapid control of drying processes so that energy and/or product would not be wasted. Over the course of the program, it was shown that energy savings were achievable but in many processes the return in investment did not justify the cost of a magnetic resonance sensor. However, in many processes, particularly chemical, petrochemical, paper and others, the return in investment can be very high as to easily justify the cost of a magnetic resonance sensor. In these industries, substantial improvements in product yield, quality, and efficiency in production can cause substantial energy savings and reductions in product wastage with substantial environmental effects. The initial applications selected for this program included measurement of corn gluten at three different points and corn germ at one point in an American Maize corn processing plant. During the initial phases (I and II) of this program, SwRI developed a prototype advanced moisture sensor utilizing NMR technology capable of accurately and reliably measuring moisture in industrial applications and tested the sensor in the laboratory under conditions simulating on-line products in the corn wet milling industry. The objective of Phase III was to test the prototype sensor in the plant environment to determine robustness, reliability and long term stability. Meeting these objectives would permit extended field testing to improve the statistical database used to calibrate the sensor and subject the sensor to true variations in operating conditions encountered in the process rather than those which could only be simulated in the laboratory.

  1. Sensor-Only System Identification for Structural Health Monitoring of Advanced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Bernstein, Dennis S.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions, cyclic loading, and aging contribute to structural wear and degradation, and thus potentially catastrophic events. The challenge of health monitoring technology is to determine incipient changes accurately and efficiently. This project addresses this challenge by developing health monitoring techniques that depend only on sensor measurements. Since actively controlled excitation is not needed, sensor-to-sensor identification (S2SID) provides an in-flight diagnostic tool that exploits ambient excitation to provide advance warning of significant changes. S2SID can subsequently be followed up by ground testing to localize and quantify structural changes. The conceptual foundation of S2SID is the notion of a pseudo-transfer function, where one sensor is viewed as the pseudo-input and another is viewed as the pseudo-output, is approach is less restrictive than transmissibility identification and operational modal analysis since no assumption is made about the locations of the sensors relative to the excitation.

  2. Advanced spectral fiber optic sensor systems and their application in energy facility monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Lindner, Eric; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-06-01

    Various spectral-encoded fiber optic sensor concepts and advanced system solutions for application in energy facility monitoring have been investigated. The technological maturity, high performance and reliability of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays and networks for the measurement of temperature, dynamic strain, air flow, and magnetic field distributions in electric power generators increasing their efficiency will be demonstrated by selected examples of field testing under harsh environmental conditions. For high-temperature combustion monitoring in gas turbines, beside silica FBGs with enhanced temperature stability also sapphire FBGs and Fabry-Perot sensors have been tested and evaluated as well as fiber-based black-body thermal radiation sensors. Finally, the potential of FBG sensors for application in cryo-energetic facilities such as super-conductive high-power motors and experimental nuclear fusion reactors will be discussed.

  3. New Sensors for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; Joshua E. Daw; Heng Ban; Brandon Fox; Gordon Kohse

    2009-06-01

    A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the selection strategy of what instrumentation is needed, and the program generated for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF with data from irradiation tests using these sensors. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users advanced methods for detecting temperature, fuel thermal conductivity, and changes in sample geometry.

  4. Noninvasive sensors for in-situ process monitoring and control in advanced microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, Mehrdad M.

    1991-04-01

    The combination of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors single-wafer processing modules vacuum-integrated cluster tools and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) can provide a suitable fabrication environment for flexible and high-yield advanced semiconductor device manufacturing. The use of in-situ sensors for monitoring of equipment process and wafer parameters results in increased equipment/process up-time reduced process and device parameter spread improved cluster tool reliability and functionality and reduced overall device manufacturing cycle time. This paper will present an overview of the main features and impact of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors for semiconductor device manufacturing applications. Specific examples will be presented for the use of critical sensors in conjunction with cluster tools for advanced CMOS device processing. A noninvasive temperature sensor will be presented which can monitor true wafer temperature via infrared (5. 35 jtm) pyrometery and laser-assisted real-time spectral wafer emissivity measurements. This sensor design eliminates any. temperature measurement errors caused by the heating lamp radiation and wafer emissivity variations. 1. SENSORS: MOTIVATIONS AND IMPACT Semiconductor chip manufacturing factories usually employ well-established statistical process control (SPC) techniques to minimize the process parameter deviations and to increase the device fabrication yield. The conventional fabrication environments rely on controlling a limited set of critical equipment and process parameters (e. g. process pressure gas flow rates substrate temperature RF power etc. ) however most of the significant wafer process and equipment parameters of interest are not monitored in real

  5. Composite magnetostrictive materials for advanced automotive magnetomechanical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, R. W.; Dennis, K. W.; Jiles, D. C.; Snyder, J. E.; Chen, Y. H.

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we present the development of a composite magnetostrictive material for automotive applications. The material is based on cobalt ferrite, CoOṡFe2O3, and contains a small fraction of metallic matrix phase that serves both as a liquid-phase sintering aid during processing and enhances the mechanical properties over those of a simple sintered ferrite ceramic. In addition the metal matrix makes it possible to braze the material, making the assembly of a sensor relatively simple. The material exhibits good sensitivity and should have high corrosion resistance, while at the same time it is low in cost.

  6. ADVANCED SOLID STATE SENSORS FOR VISION 21 SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    C.D. Stinespring

    2005-04-28

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a high temperature semiconductor with the potential to meet the gas and temperature sensor needs in both present and future power generation systems. These devices have been and are currently being investigated for a variety of high temperature sensing applications. These include leak detection, fire detection, environmental control, and emissions monitoring. Electronically these sensors can be very simple Schottky diode structures that rely on gas-induced changes in electrical characteristics at the metal-semiconductor interface. In these devices, thermal stability of the interfaces has been shown to be an essential requirement for improving and maintaining sensor sensitivity and lifetime. In this report, we describe device fabrication and characterization studies relevant to the development of SiC based gas and temperature sensors. Specifically, we have investigated the use of periodically stepped surfaces to improve the thermal stability of the metal semiconductor interface for simple Pd-SiC Schottky diodes. These periodically stepped surfaces have atomically flat terraces on the order of 200 nm wide separated by steps of 1.5 nm height. It should be noted that 1.5 nm is the unit cell height for the 6H-SiC (0001) substrates used in these studies. These surfaces contrast markedly with the ''standard'' SiC surfaces normally used in device fabrication. Obvious scratches and pots as well as subsurface defects characterize these standard surfaces. This research involved ultrahigh vacuum deposition and characterization studies to investigate the thermal stability of Pd-SiC Schottky diodes on both the stepped and standard surfaces, high temperature electrical characterization of these device structures, and high temperature electrical characterization of diodes under wet and dry oxidizing conditions. To our knowledge, these studies have yielded the first electrical characterization of actual sensor device structures fabricated under ultrahigh

  7. Advanced monolithic active pixel sensors for tracking, vertexing and calorimetry with full CMOS capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanitzki, M.; SPiDeR Collaboration, www. spider. ac. uk

    2011-09-01

    We present test results from the "TPAC" and "F ORTIS" sensors produced using the 180 nm CMOS INMAPS process. The TPAC sensor has a 50 μm pixel size with advanced in-pixel electronics. Although TPAC was developed for digital electromagnetic calorimetry, the technology can be readily extended to tracking and vertexing applications where highly granular pixels with in-pixel intelligence are required. By way of example, a variant of the TPAC sensor has been proposed for the Super B vertex detector. The F ORTIS sensor is a prototype with several pixel variants to study the performance of a four transistors (4T) architecture and is the first sensor of this type tested for particle physics applications. TPAC and F ORTIS sensors have been fabricated with some of the processing innovations available in INMAPS such as deep p-wells and high-resistivity epitaxial layers. The performance of these sensor variants has been measured both in the laboratory and at test beams and results showing significant improvements due to these innovations are presented. We have recently manufactured the "C HERWELL" sensor, building on the experience with both TPAC and F ORTIS and making use of the 4T approach. C HERWELL is designed for tracking and vertexing and has an integrated ADC and targets very low-noise performance. The principal features of C HERWELL are described.

  8. Two-terminal longitudinal hotwire sensor for monitoring the position and speed of advancing liquid fronts in microfluidic channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Kee Suk; Shaikh, Kashan; Goluch, Edgar; Liu Chang

    2006-03-06

    We report a simple and practical sensor for monitoring both the absolute position and advancing speed of liquid front in a microfluidic channel. The sensor consists of a longitudinal hot wire element - a two-terminal electrical device, with its length spanning the entire channel. The design, materials, fabrication method, and use of this sensor are extremely simple. Characterization results are presented.

  9. Advanced sensors for spaceborne measurements of the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts involved in remote sensing from space are reviewed, together with performance requirements of proposed and planned equipment. Attention is focused on measurements of the troposphere, particularly meteorological variables and chemical species. The principles of absorption, using either passive or active sensors, emission detection, fluorescence measurements, and EM radiation scattering are outlined. The proposed NASA Windsat, using a CO2 laser from the Orbiter or from an 800 km orbit spacecraft to measure low-level wind speeds is described, as are the uses of the AMTS atmospheric sounder instrument for IR atmospheric temperature sensing and a 20-channel microwave radiometer to detect moisture profiles in the water vapor bands. Additionally, a microwave pressure sounder to detect backscattered signals at 60 GHz is outlined, along with lidar pressure and wind speed measurement methods.

  10. Recent Advances in Nanoplasmonic Sensors for Environmental Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The great attention in environmental pollution urges the development of innovative monitoring system enabling rapid, sensitive, specific detection and easy operation. Recent progress in nanoplasmonic sensors allowing real-time, highly-sensitive, label-free and multiplex detection provides a promising alternative to conventional environmental analyzing techniques. This review summarizes novel nanoplasmonic approaches categorized by optical detection technologies, which include surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, dark-field nanospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and even naked eyes. The focus of this review will be on how plasmonic nanostructures can be utilized to detect environmental pollutants, and remarkable accomplishments to enhance the detection performances. In addition, we discuss current challenge and future direction for ubiquitous environmental sensing and monitoring. PMID:27483747

  11. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Followill, Fred E.; Wolford, James K.; Candy, James V.

    1997-07-01

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beamform, and time- frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16- element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on a floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window). (Source 11). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the `turn-on time' and a few seconds after the generator reaches `steady-state conditions'. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 163-component, high- frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  12. Advanced array techniques for unattended ground sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Followill, F.E.; Wolford, J.K.; Candy, J.V.

    1997-05-06

    Sensor arrays offer opportunities to beam form, and time-frequency analyses offer additional insights to the wavefield data. Data collected while monitoring three different sources with unattended ground sensors in a 16-element, small-aperture (approximately 5 meters) geophone array are used as examples of model-based seismic signal processing on actual geophone array data. The three sources monitored were: (Source 01). A frequency-modulated chirp of an electromechanical shaker mounted on the floor of an underground bunker. Three 60-second time-windows corresponding to (a) 50 Hz to 55 Hz sweep, (b) 60 Hz to 70 Hz sweep, and (c) 80 Hz to 90 Hz sweep. (Source 02). A single transient impact of a hammer striking the floor of the bunker. Twenty seconds of data (with the transient event approximately mid-point in the time window.(Source 11)). The transient event of a diesel generator turning on, including a few seconds before the turn-on time and a few seconds after the generator reaches steady-state conditions. The high-frequency seismic array was positioned at the surface of the ground at a distance of 150 meters (North) of the underground bunker. Four Y-shaped subarrays (each with 2-meter apertures) in a Y-shaped pattern (with a 6-meter aperture) using a total of 16 3-component, high-frequency geophones were deployed. These 48 channels of seismic data were recorded at 6000 and 12000 samples per second on 16-bit data loggers. Representative examples of the data and analyses illustrate the results of this experiment.

  13. 6. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW (EXTERIOR) OF TANK, CABLE CHASE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW (EXTERIOR) OF TANK, CABLE CHASE, AND MOUNDED BUNKER. CONSTRUCTION WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. CAMERA IS FACING WEST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5435, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE TO BUNKER. CAMERA FACING EAST. TANK COVER AND FRAME TO THE REAR OF VIEW. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6170, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MAN EXAMINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MAN EXAMINING CONTENTS OF SHIELDING TANK AS FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY IS RAISED AND LOWERED. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6172, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ARVFS TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ARVFS TEST FACILITY SHOWING BUNKER, CABLE CHASE, FRAME, AND SHIELDING TANK. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6171, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLYCOMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLY-COMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER OVER SHIELDING TANK, FRAMEWORK ASSEMBLY WITH GUY WIRES, FENCE AROUND TANK AREA, DANGER SIGNS, AND MOUNDED BUNKER IN BACKGROUND. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5442, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  19. Performance of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Based on Heat Flux Sensor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dcott D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower, Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center. The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot-end and cold-end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given heat input. It is difficult to measure heat input to Stirling convertors due to the complex geometries of the hot components, temperature limits of sensor materials, and invasive integration of sensors. A thin-film heat flux sensor was used to directly measure heat input to an ASC. The effort succeeded in designing and fabricating unique sensors, which were integrated into a Stirling convertor ground test and exposed to test temperatures exceeding 700 C in air for 10,000 hr. Sensor measurements were used to calculate thermal efficiency for ASC-E (Engineering Unit) #1 and #4. The post-disassembly condition of the sensors is also discussed.

  20. Performance of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Based on Heat Flux Sensor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower, Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center. The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot-end and cold-end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given heat input. It is difficult to measure heat input to Stirling convertors due to the complex geometries of the hot components, temperature limits of sensor materials, and invasive integration of sensors. A thin-film heat flux sensor was used to directly measure heat input to an ASC. The effort succeeded in designing and fabricating unique sensors, which were integrated into a Stirling convertor ground test and exposed to test temperatures exceeding 700 C in air for 10,000 hr. Sensor measurements were used to calculate thermal efficiency for ASC-E (Engineering Unit) #1 and #4. The post-disassembly condition of the sensors is also discussed.

  1. Estimating crop production in Iowa from Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indian National Remote Sensing Agency ResourceSat-1 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data for the USA is being provided online by the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and Arctic Slope Regional Corporation – Management Services (ASRC-MS). Because of the frequent revisit time and pixel sizes...

  2. NASA Programs in Advanced Sensors and Measurement Technology for Aeronautical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many challenges facing designers and operators of our next-generation aircraft in meeting the demands for efficiency, safety, and reliability which are will be imposed. This paper discusses aeronautical sensor requirements for a number of research and applications areas pertinent to the demands listed above. A brief overview will be given of aeronautical research measurements, along with a discussion of requirements for advanced technology. Also included will be descriptions of emerging sensors and instrumentation technology which may be exploited for enhanced research and operational capabilities. Finally, renewed emphasis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in advanced sensor and instrumentation technology development will be discussed, including project of technology advances over the next 5 years. Emphasis on NASA efforts to more actively advance the state-of-the-art in sensors and measurement techniques is timely in light of exciting new opportunities in airspace development and operation. An up-to-date summary of the measurement technology programs being established to respond to these opportunities is provided.

  3. Advanced turbine systems sensors and controls needs assessment study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.L.; Fry, D.N.; McEvers, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Instrumentation and Controls Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed an assessment of the sensors and controls needs for land-based advanced gas turbines being designed as a part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program for both utility and industrial applications. The assessment included visits to five turbine manufacturers. During these visits, in-depth discussions were held with design and manufacturing staff to obtain their views regarding the need for new sensors and controls for their advanced turbine designs. The Unsteady Combustion Facilities at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was visited to assess the need for new sensors for gas turbine combustion research. Finally, a workshop was conducted at the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center which provided a forum for industry, laboratory, and university engineers to discuss and prioritize sensor and control needs. The assessment identified more than 50 different measurement, control, and monitoring needs for advanced turbines that cannot currently be met from commercial sources. While all the identified needs are important, some are absolutely critical to the success of the ATS Program.

  4. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  5. Diagnosis of Thermal Efficiency of Advanced Combined Cycle Power Plants Using Optical Torque Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi

    A new optical torque measurement method was applied to diagnosis of thermal efficiency of advanced combined cycle, i.e. ACC, plants. Since the ACC power plant comprises a steam turbine and a gas turbine and both of them are connected to the same generator, it is difficult to identify which turbine in the plant deteriorates the performance when the plant efficiency is reduced. The sensor measures axial distortion caused by power transmission by use of He-Ne laser beams, small stainless steel reflectors having bar-code patterns, and a technique of signal processing featuring high frequency. The sensor was applied to the ACC plants of TOKYO ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, TEPCO, following the success in the application to the early combined cycle plants of TEPCO. The sensor performance was inspected over a year. After an improvement related to the signal process, it is considered that the sensor performance has reached a practical use level.

  6. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  7. Smart image sensors: an emerging key technology for advanced optical measurement and microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Peter

    1996-08-01

    Optical microsystems typically include photosensitive devices, analog preprocessing circuitry and digital signal processing electronics. The advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible today to integrate all photosensitive and electronical devices on one 'smart image sensor' or photo-ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits containing photosensitive elements). It is even possible to provide each 'smart pixel' with additional photoelectronic functionality, without compromising the fill factor substantially. This technological capability is the basis for advanced cameras and optical microsystems showing novel on-chip functionality: Single-chip cameras with on- chip analog-to-digital converters for less than $10 are advertised; image sensors have been developed including novel functionality such as real-time selectable pixel size and shape, the capability of performing arbitrary convolutions simultaneously with the exposure, as well as variable, programmable offset and sensitivity of the pixels leading to image sensors with a dynamic range exceeding 150 dB. Smart image sensors have been demonstrated offering synchronous detection and demodulation capabilities in each pixel (lock-in CCD), and conventional image sensors are combined with an on-chip digital processor for complete, single-chip image acquisition and processing systems. Technological problems of the monolithic integration of smart image sensors include offset non-uniformities, temperature variations of electronic properties, imperfect matching of circuit parameters, etc. These problems can often be overcome either by designing additional compensation circuitry or by providing digital correction routines. Where necessary for technological or economic reasons, smart image sensors can also be combined with or realized as hybrids, making use of commercially available electronic components. It is concluded that the possibilities offered by custom smart image sensors will influence the design

  8. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Orbital Express and the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Pinson, Robin M.; Carrington, Connie L.; Lee, James E.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Robertson, Bryan A.; Spencer, Susan H.; Johnson, Jimmie E.

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express (OE) mission performed the first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the United States on May 5-6, 2007 with the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) acting as one of the primary docking sensors. Since that event, the OE spacecraft performed four more rendezvous and docking maneuvers, each time using the AVGS as one of the docking sensors. The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) AVGS is a nearfield proximity operations sensor that was integrated into the Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture Sensor System (ARCSS) on OE. The ARCSS provided the relative state knowledge to allow the OE spacecraft to rendezvous and dock. The AVGS is a mature sensor technology designed to support Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) operations. It is a video-based laser-illuminated sensor that can determine the relative position and attitude between itself and its target. Due to parts obsolescence, the AVGS that was flown on OE can no longer be manufactured. MSFC has been working on the next generation of AVGS for application to future Constellation missions. This paper provides an overview of the performance of the AVGS on Orbital Express and discusses the work on the Next Generation AVGS (NGAVGS).

  9. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  10. Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Soil Sensing and Ecosystem Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Remmler, Paul; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For an adequate characterization of ecosystems it is necessary to detect individual processes with suitable monitoring strategies and methods. Due to the natural complexity of all environmental compartments, single point or temporally and spatially fixed measurements are mostly insufficient for an adequate representation. The application of mobile wireless sensor networks for soil and atmosphere sensing offers significant benefits, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate (e.g. by using optimization approaches or event triggering modes) to the local test conditions. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous and dynamic environmental systems and processes. One significant advantage in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior. Thus, the network autonomously initializes and optimizes itself. Due to the localization via satellite a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time is generated. In addition, single point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several optimized points continuously. Since performing analog and digital signal processing and computation in the sensor nodes close to the sensors a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of nodes. Furthermore, the miniaturization of the nodes and energy harvesting are current topics under investigation. First results of field measurements are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science. In particular, collected in-situ data with numerous specific soil and atmosphere parameters per sensor node (more than 25) recorded over several days illustrates the high performance of this system for advanced soil sensing and soil-atmosphere interaction monitoring. Moreover, investigations of biotic and abiotic process interactions and optimization

  11. Advanced detection, isolation and accommodation of sensor failures: Real-time evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Delaat, John C.; Bruton, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation (ADIA) Program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines by using analytical redundacy to detect sensor failures. The results of a real time hybrid computer evaluation of the ADIA algorithm are presented. Minimum detectable levels of sensor failures for an F100 engine control system are determined. Also included are details about the microprocessor implementation of the algorithm as well as a description of the algorithm itself.

  12. Advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation of sensor failures - Real-time evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Delaat, John C.; Bruton, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation (ADIA) program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines by using analytical redundancy to detect sensor failures. The results of a real-time hybrid computer evaluation of the ADIA algorithm are presented. Minimum detectable levels of sensor failures for an F100 engine control system are determined. Also included are details about the microprocessor implementation of the algorithm as well as a description of the algorithm itself.

  13. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  14. Presentation of silicon platforms for wireless advanced networks of sensors for aeronautics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Ruby, C.; Rolet, S.; Petitjean, B.; Rouet, V.

    2007-05-01

    The MEDEA+ SWANS (Silicon Platform for Wireless Advanced Networks of Sensors) project aims at defining a generic silicon platform, integrating analogue and digital Intellectual Property (IP) blocks for wireless sensor nodes technology. This generic platform will be used in various applications, such as transportation (aeronautics, automotive), homeland security, environmental and health/fitness. In the aeronautical application, the platform monitors, continuously, aircraft structures to detect whether a crack exists or not and process the data in real time, inside the platform. Measurements are provided by an inductive sensor glued on a structure and are acquired during flights. The sensor impedance (real and imaginary parts) varies depending on the state of the part area on which it is stuck. For example, this sensor aims at monitoring the further evolution of the crack too. The data are transmitted from the sensor to an ARM microcontroller through an electronic conditioner. Then, they are analysed and stored in a non volatile memory. Data measurements are collected by a RF transmission, every 2 or 4 months. A 3D stack platform demonstrator that allows the use of different technologies, will be realised, fully tested and characterised.

  15. Networked sensors for the future force (NSFF) advanced technology demonstration (ATD) communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeroff, Jay; DiPierro, Stefano

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Army"s Future Combat Systems (FCS) and Future Force Warrior (FFW) will rely on the use of unattended, tactical sensors to detect and identify enemy targets in order to avoid enemy fires and enable precise networked fire to survive on the future battlefield with less armor protection. Successful implementation of these critical sensor fields requires the development of a specialized communications network infrastructure needed to disseminate sensor data to provide relevant, timely and accurate situational awareness information to the tactical common operating picture. The sensor network communications must support both static deployed and mobile ground and air robotic sensor arrays with robust, secure, stealthy, and jam resistant links. It is envisioned that tactical sensor networks can be deployed in a two tiered communications architecture that includes a lower sensor sub-layer consisting of acoustic, magnetic, Chemical/Biological and seismic detectors and an upper sub-layer consisting of infrared or visual imaging cameras. The upper sub-layer can be cued by the lower sub-layer and provides a seamless gateway link to higher echelon backbone tactical networks. The NSFF Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) communications effort focuses on providing Future Force systems such as the FCS and the Future Force Warrior with critical situational awareness data needed for survivability. The communications systems supporting this functionality must be designed such that unattended ground sensor data can flow seamlessly from the lowest unattended tactical sensor echelons into the Army"s tactical backbone networks while also allowing the "fusing" of the data with other intelligence information for correlation within a tactical command and control node. NSFF is realizing this capability by using advanced communications technologies developed under the Soldier Level Integrated Communications Environment (SLICE) Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW) project. These technologies

  16. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  17. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  18. Orbital Express Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Ground Testing, Flight Results and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital Express (OE) was a successful mission demonstrating automated rendezvous and docking. The 2007 mission consisted of two spacecraft, the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) and the Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NEXTSat) that were designed to work together and test a variety of service operations in orbit. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, AVGS, was included as one of the primary proximity navigation sensors on board the ASTRO. The AVGS was one of four sensors that provided relative position and attitude between the two vehicles. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for the AVGS software and testing (especially the extensive ground testing), flight operations support, and analyzing the flight data. This paper briefly describes the historical mission, the data taken on-orbit, the ground testing that occurred, and finally comparisons between flight data and ground test data for two different flight regimes.

  19. An Advanced Compiler Designed for a VLIW DSP for Sensors-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu; He, Hu

    2012-01-01

    The VLIW architecture can be exploited to greatly enhance instruction level parallelism, thus it can provide computation power and energy efficiency advantages, which satisfies the requirements of future sensor-based systems. However, as VLIW codes are mainly compiled statically, the performance of a VLIW processor is dominated by the behavior of its compiler. In this paper, we present an advanced compiler designed for a VLIW DSP named Magnolia, which will be used in sensor-based systems. This compiler is based on the Open64 compiler. We have implemented several advanced optimization techniques in the compiler, and fulfilled the O3 level optimization. Benchmarks from the DSPstone test suite are used to verify the compiler. Results show that the code generated by our compiler can make the performance of Magnolia match that of the current state-of-the-art DSP processors. PMID:22666040

  20. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  1. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  2. Advanced computational sensors technology: testing and evaluation in visible, SWIR, and LWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, Charbel G.; Wilson, John P.; Pouliquen, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Computational Sensors Team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering has been developing advanced readout integrated circuit (ROIC) technology for more than 10 years with a particular focus on the key challenges of dynamic range, sampling rate, system interface and bandwidth, and detector materials or band dependencies. Because the pixel array offers parallel sampling by default, the team successfully demonstrated that adding smarts in the pixel and the chip can increase performance significantly. Each pixel becomes a smart sensor and can operate independently in collecting, processing, and sharing data. In addition, building on the digital circuit revolution, the effective well size can be increased by orders of magnitude within the same pixel pitch over analog designs. This research has yielded an innovative class of a system-on-chip concept: the Flexible Readout and Integration Sensor (FRIS) architecture. All key parameters are programmable and/or can be adjusted dynamically, and this architecture can potentially be sensor and application agnostic. This paper reports on the testing and evaluation of one prototype that can support either detector polarity and includes sample results with visible, short-wavelength infrared (SWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging.

  3. High-speed limnology: using advanced sensors to investigate spatial variability in biogeochemistry and hydrology.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John T; Loken, Luke C; Casson, Nora J; Smith, Colin; Stone, Amanda G; Winslow, Luke A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced sensor technology is widely used in aquatic monitoring and research. Most applications focus on temporal variability, whereas spatial variability has been challenging to document. We assess the capability of water chemistry sensors embedded in a high-speed water intake system to document spatial variability. This new sensor platform continuously samples surface water at a range of speeds (0 to >45 km h(-1)) resulting in high-density, mesoscale spatial data. These novel observations reveal previously unknown variability in physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams, rivers, and lakes. By combining multiple sensors into one platform, we were able to detect terrestrial-aquatic hydrologic connections in a small dystrophic lake, to infer the role of main-channel vs backwater nutrient processing in a large river and to detect sharp chemical changes across aquatic ecosystem boundaries in a stream/lake complex. Spatial sensor data were verified in our examples by comparing with standard lab-based measurements of selected variables. Spatial fDOM data showed strong correlation with wet chemistry measurements of DOC, and optical NO3 concentrations were highly correlated with lab-based measurements. High-frequency spatial data similar to our examples could be used to further understand aquatic biogeochemical fluxes, ecological patterns, and ecosystem processes, and will both inform and benefit from fixed-site data. PMID:25406073

  4. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-02-04

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5x1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2x103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125{mu}m in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-02-01

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5×1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2×103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125μm in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  6. Recent advances on distributed filtering for stochastic systems over sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Derui; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Sensor networks comprising of tiny, power-constrained nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities are gaining popularity due to their potential application in a wide variety of environments like monitoring of environmental attributes and various military and civilian applications. Considering the limited power and communication resources of the sensor nodes, the strategy of the distributed information processing is widely exploited. Therefore, it would be interesting to examine how the topology, network-induced phenomena, and power constraints influence the distributed filtering performance and to obtain some suitable schemes in order to solve the addressed distributed filter design problem. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the distributed filtering and distributed state estimation problems over the sensor networks with various performance requirements and/or randomly occurring network-induced phenomena. First, some practical filter structures are addressed in detail. Then, the developments of the distributed Kalman filtering, distributed state estimation based on the stability or mean-square error analysis, and distributed ? filtering are systematically reviewed. In addition, latest results on the distributed filtering or state estimation over sensor networks are discussed in great detail and some challenges are highlighted. Finally, some concluding remarks are given and some possible future research directions are pointed out.

  7. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achieve high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.

  8. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achievemore » high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.« less

  9. Advances in Remote Sensing for Oil Spill Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology for Oil Spill Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Maya Nand; Levy, Jason; Gao, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the risk of oil spill disasters is essential for protecting the environment and reducing economic losses. Oil spill surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management. Advances in remote sensing technologies can help to identify parties potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. Due to the large number of sensors currently available for oil spill surveillance, there is a need for a comprehensive overview and comparison of existing sensors. Specifically, this paper examines the characteristics and applications of different sensors. A better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of oil spill surveillance sensors will improve the operational use of these sensors for oil spill response and contingency planning. Laser fluorosensors were found to be the best available sensor for oil spill detection since they not only detect and classify oil on all surfaces but also operate in either the day or night. For example, the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) sensor was identified to be a valuable tool for oil spill surveillance. However, no single sensor was able to provide all information required for oil spill contingency planning. Hence, combinations of sensors are currently used for oil spill surveillance. Specifically, satellite sensors are used for preliminary oil spill assessment while airborne sensors are used for detailed oil spill analysis. While satellite remote sensing is not suitable for tactical oil spill planning it can provide a synoptic coverage of the affected area.

  10. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Sensors for DNA Detection at the Point of Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Kuangwen

    In the post-genomic era, ever-advancing capabilities in DNA detection and analysis have become vital to the detection of infectious diseases and the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities and inheritable diseases. The benefit of such capabilities, however, has yet to reach patients outside of centralized facilities. There thus exists an increasing need to decentralize DNA detection methods and to administer such diagnostics at the "point of care." Electrochemical-based DNA sensors present a compelling approach, but have yet to deliver satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, miniaturization, and real-time monitoring capability to meet the demand of point-of-care diagnostics. Motivated by their potential and their current limitations, in this dissertation, we present a series of strategies that we have undertaken in order to address the key shortcomings of electrochemical DNA sensors and advance them toward point-of-care applications. First, we report a single-step, single reagent, label-free, isothermal electrochemical DNA sensor based on the phenomenon of enzyme catalyzed target recycling amplification. Using this technique, we achieve improved detection limit in comparison to hybridization-based sensors without amplification. We also demonstrate greater than 16-fold amplification of signal at low target concentrations. Next, we present a novel electrochemical DNA sensor that detects single-nucleotide mismatched targets with unprecedented "polarity-switching" responses. This "bipolar" sensor employs a surface-bound and redox-modified (methylene blue) DNA probe architecture, and outputs a decreased Faradaic current when hybridized to a perfectly matched (PM) target, but conversely reports an increased Faradaic current when hybridized to a single-base mismatched (SM) target. Third, we describe the microfluidic electrochemical dynamic allele specific hybridization (microE-DASH) platform for versatile and rapid detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Implementing

  11. Analyses of the lunar surface with advanced remote sensors: Expectations for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's advanced sensor capabilities provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration that mesh well with the science requirements for a sophisticated integration of several types of remotely acquired information. Science priorities for the 1990's include an evaluation of the global composition and structure of the primordial lunar crust in order to model its origin and evolution, using the Moon as a natural laboratory to study the impact process and time-cumulative events at 1 AU, and, ultimately, constraining the origin of the Moon and its relation to Earth.

  12. Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks: advances and future trends in physical, MAC and routing layers.

    PubMed

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  13. Geospace Science from Ground-based Magnetometer Arrays: Advances in Sensors, Data Collection, and Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Networks of ground-based magnetometers now provide the basis for the diagnosis of magnetic disturbances associated with solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling on a truly global scale. Advances in sensor and digitisation technologies offer increases in sensitivity in fluxgate, induction coil, and new micro-sensor technologies - including the promise of hybrid sensors. Similarly, advances in remote connectivity provide the capacity for truly real-time monitoring of global dynamics at cadences sufficient for monitoring and in many cases resolving system level spatio-temporal ambiguities especially in combination with conjugate satellite measurements. A wide variety of the plasmaphysical processes active in driving geospace dynamics can be monitored based on the response of the electrical current system, including those associated with changes in global convection, magnetospheric substorms and nightside tail flows, as well as due to solar wind changes in both dynamic pressure and in response to rotations of the direction of the IMF. Significantly, any changes to the dynamical system must be communicated by the propagation of long-period Alfven and/or compressional waves. These wave populations hence provide diagnostics for not only the energy transport by the wave fields themselves, but also provide a mechanism for diagnosing the structure of the background plasma medium through which the waves propagate. Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves are especially significant in offering a monitor for mass density profiles, often invisible to particle detectors because of their very low energy, through the application of a variety of magneto-seismology and cross-phase techniques. Renewed scientific interest in the plasma waves associated with near-Earth substorm dynamics, including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at substorm onset and their relation to magnetotail flows, as well the importance of global scale ultra-low frequency waves for the energisation, transport

  14. Advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation of sensor failures in turbofan engines: Real-time microcomputer implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation Program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines. For this purpose, an algorithm was developed which detects, isolates, and accommodates sensor failures by using analytical redundancy. The performance of this algorithm was evaluated on a real time engine simulation and was demonstrated on a full scale F100 turbofan engine. The real time implementation of the algorithm is described. The implementation used state-of-the-art microprocessor hardware and software, including parallel processing and high order language programming.

  15. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  16. Autonomous navigation for structured exterior environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J B

    1993-12-01

    The Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS) was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the role of mobile robotics in exterior perimeter security systems. A major feature of the system is its capability to perform autonomous patrols of the security site`s network of roads. Perimeter security sites are well known, structured environments; the locations of the roads, buildings, and fences are relatively static. A security robot has the advantage of being able to learn its new environment prior to autonomous travel. The TMSS robot combines information from a microwave beacon system and on-board dead reckoning sensors to determine its location within the site. The operator is required to teleoperate the robot in a teach mode over all desired paths before autonomous operations can commence. During this teach phase, TMSS stores points from its position location system at two meter intervals. This map data base is used for planning paths and for reference during path following. Details of the position location and path following systems will be described along with system performance and recommendations for future enhancements.

  17. Buried explosive hazard characterization using advanced magnetic and electromagnetic induction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Schultz, Gregory; Shah, Vishal

    2013-06-01

    Advanced electromagnetic induction arrays that feature high sensitivity wideband magnetic field and electromagnetic induction receivers provide significant capability enhancement to landmine, unexploded ordnance, and buried explosives detection applications. Specifically, arrays that are easily and quickly configured for integration with a variety of ground vehicles and mobile platforms offer improved safety and efficiency to personnel conducting detection operations including route clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, and humanitarian demining missions. We present experimental results for explosives detection sensor concepts that incorporate both magnetic and electromagnetic modalities. Key technology components include a multi-frequency continuous wave EMI transmitter, multi-axis induction coil receivers, and a high sensitivity chip scale atomic magnetometer. The use of multi-frequency transmitters provides excitation of metal encased threats as well as low conductivity non-metallic explosive constituents. The integration of a radio frequency tunable atomic magnetometer receiver adds increased sensitivity to lower frequency components of the electromagnetic response. This added sensitivity provides greater capability for detecting deeply buried targets. We evaluate the requirements for incorporating these sensor modalities in forward mounted ground vehicle operations. Specifically, the ability to detect target features in near real-time is critical to non-overpass modes. We consider the requirements for incorporating these sensor technologies in a system that enables detection of a broad range of explosive threats that include both metallic and non-metallic components.

  18. Advancements of data anomaly detection research in wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    PubMed

    Rassam, Murad A; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept "Internet of Things" has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

  19. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Rassam, Murad A.; Zainal, Anazida; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed. PMID:23966182

  20. Advancement and results in hostile fire indication using potassium line missile warning sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Joel; Montgomery, Marjorie; Hardie, Russell

    2014-06-01

    M&M Aviation has been developing and conducting Hostile Fire Indication (HFI) tests using potassium line emission sensors for the Air Force Visible Missile Warning System (VMWS) to advance both algorithm and sensor technologies for UAV and other airborne systems for self protection and intelligence purposes. Work began in 2008 as an outgrowth of detecting and classifying false alarm sources for the VMWS using the same K-line spectral discrimination region but soon became a focus of research due to the high interest in both machine-gun fire and sniper geo-location via airborne systems. Several initial tests were accomplished in 2009 using small and medium caliber weapons including rifles. Based on these results, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) funded the Falcon Sentinel program in 2010 to provide for additional development of both the sensor concept, algorithm suite changes and verification of basic phenomenology including variance based on ammunition type for given weapons platform. Results from testing over the past 3 years have showed that the system would be able to detect and declare a sniper rifle at upwards of 3km, medium machine gun at 5km, and explosive events like hand-grenades at greater than 5km. This paper will outline the development of the sensor systems, algorithms used for detection and classification, and test results from VMWS prototypes as well as outline algorithms used for the VMWS. The Falcon Sentinel Program will be outlined and results shown. Finally, the paper will show the future work for ATD and transition efforts after the Falcon Sentinel program completed.

  1. Advanced THz sensor array for precise position and material properties recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sešek, Aleksander; Trontelj, Janez; Å vigelj, Andrej

    2014-06-01

    The precise position of objects in the industrial process, assembly lines, conveyers, or processing bins is essential for fast and high quality production. In many robotized setups the material type and its properties are crucial. When several types of materials or parts are used, material recognition is required. Advanced robotics systems depend on various sensors to recognize material properties, and high resolution cameras with expensive laser measuring systems are used to determine the precise object position. The purpose of this paper is to present how the THz sensor and THz waves can be applicable for such precise object position sensing and its material properties in real time. One of the additional features of such a THz sensor array is also the ability to see behind barriers that are transparent for THz waves. This allows the system to obtain precise dimensions, position, and material properties of the object, which are invisible for visible light or anyhow obscured to other vision systems. Furthermore, a 3D THz image of the object can also be obtained and, in cases when a visual picture is available, its fusion with a THz image is possible. In the paper a THz sensor array, operating at a 300GHz central frequency and at room conditions is presented, together with the proposed vision system description. The target is illuminated with a frequency modulated, solid state THz source, and provides output power around 1mW. By mixing of the illuminating and reflected signals, the resulting difference frequency signal is obtained. Its amplitude and phase carry all relevant information of the target. Some measurement results are also shown and discussed.

  2. Advanced staring Si PIN visible sensor chip assembly for Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R. E.; Drab, J. J.; Gin, A.

    2009-08-01

    The planet Mercury, by its near proximity to the sun, has always posed a formidable challenge to spacecraft. The Bepi-Colombo mission, coordinated by the European Space Agency, will be a pioneering effort in the investigation of this planet. Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has been given the opportunity to develop the radiation hardened, high operability, high SNR, advanced staring focal plane array (FPA) for the spacecraft destined (Fig. 1) to explore the planet Mercury. This mission will launch in 2013 on a journey lasting approximately 6 years. When it arrives at Mercury in August 2019, it will endure temperatures as high as 350°C as well as relatively high radiation environments during its 1 year data collection period from September 2019 until September 2020. To support this challenging goal, RVS has designed and produced a custom visible sensor based on a 2048 x 2048 (2k2) format with a 10 μm unit cell. This sensor will support both the High Resolution Imaging Camera (HRIC) and the Stereo Camera (STC) instruments. This dual purpose sensor was designed to achieve high sensitivity as well as low input noise (<100 e-) for space-based, low light conditions. It also must maintain performance parameters in a total ionizing dose environment up to 70 kRad (Si) as well as immunity to latch-up and singe event upset. This paper will show full sensor chip assembly data highlighting the performance parameters prior to irradiation. Radiation testing performance will be reported by an independent source in a subsequent paper.

  3. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  4. Acquisition and processing of advanced sensor data for ERW and UXO detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory M.; Keranen, Joe; Miller, Jonathan S.; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2014-06-01

    The remediation of explosive remnants of war (ERW) and associated unexploded ordnance (UXO) has seen improvements through the injection of modern technological advances and streamlined standard operating procedures. However, reliable and cost-effective detection and geophysical mapping of sites contaminated with UXO such as cluster munitions, abandoned ordnance, and improvised explosive devices rely on the ability to discriminate hazardous items from metallic clutter. In addition to anthropogenic clutter, handheld and vehicle-based metal detector systems are plagued by natural geologic and environmental noise in many post conflict areas. We present new and advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) technologies including man-portable and towed EMI arrays and associated data processing software. While these systems feature vastly different form factors and transmit-receive configurations, they all exhibit several fundamental traits that enable successful classification of EMI anomalies. Specifically, multidirectional sampling of scattered magnetic fields from targets and corresponding high volume of unique data provide rich information for extracting useful classification features for clutter rejection analysis. The quality of classification features depends largely on the extent to which the data resolve unique physics-based parameters. To date, most of the advanced sensors enable high quality inversion by producing data that are extremely rich in spatial content through multi-angle illumination and multi-point reception.

  5. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): A New Operational Sensor Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-H Joseph; Leslie, R. Vince; Baker, Neal; Mo, Tsan; Sun, Ninghai; Bi, Li; Anderson, Mike; Landrum, Mike; DeAmici, Giovanni; Gu, Degui; Foo, Alex; Ibrahim, Wael; Robinson, Kris; Chidester, Lynn; Shiue, James

    2012-01-01

    ATMS is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. ATMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; and ATMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet NWP sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface

  6. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  7. Analysis of distributed thermopiezoelectric sensors and actuators in advanced intelligent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. S.; Sunar, M.

    1993-07-01

    The quasistatic equations of piezoelectricity and thermopiezoelectricity are used to develop a finite element formulation of distributed piezoelectric and thermopiezoelectric media. The formulation is then integrated with the distributed sensing and control of advanced intelligent structure design. The procedure is illustrated with the help of two example problems. The purpose of the first example, which consists of two piezoelectric layers used as a bimorph robotic finger, is to check the accuracy of the finite element solution with the analytical one. As a second example, an aluminum beam is utilized along with two polyvinylidene fluoride layers acting as distributed actuator and sensor to study the distributed control of the beam when thermal effects are present. It is concluded that the thermal effects are important in the precision distributed control of intelligent structures.

  8. Advancements in Transmitters and Sensors for Biological Tissue Imaging in Magnetic Induction Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zulkarnay; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Mansor, Muhammad Saiful Badri; Yaacob, Sazali; Ayub, Nor Muzakkir Nor; Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul; Aman, Syed Mustafa Kamal Syed

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT), which is also known as Electromagnetic Tomography (EMT) or Mutual Inductance Tomography, is among the imaging modalities of interest to many researchers around the world. This noninvasive modality applies an electromagnetic field and is sensitive to all three passive electromagnetic properties of a material that are conductivity, permittivity and permeability. MIT is categorized under the passive imaging family with an electrodeless technique through the use of excitation coils to induce an electromagnetic field in the material, which is then measured at the receiving side by sensors. The aim of this review is to discuss the challenges of the MIT technique and summarize the recent advancements in the transmitters and sensors, with a focus on applications in biological tissue imaging. It is hoped that this review will provide some valuable information on the MIT for those who have interest in this modality. The need of this knowledge may speed up the process of adopted of MIT as a medical imaging technology. PMID:22969341

  9. Feasibilty of exterior vascular laser irradiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Xie, Shusen; Li, Hui; Li, Buhong; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Huifang; Xia, Xiangnan; Lin, Aizhen

    1998-08-01

    In order to study the exterior vascular laser irradiation therapy for replacing the intravascular laser irradiation therapy, we measure the distribution of radiant fluence rate in exterior vascular laser irradiation in vivo and imitative intravascular laser irradiation. The result shows that the average radiant fluence rate of exterior vascular and intravascular is 1.11 and 10.81 respectively, which is ten times between them. In order to get the radiant fluence rate corresponding to the intravascular laser irradiation, we suggest that about 20 mW HeNe laser could be used in exterior vascular laser irradiation therapy, and the laser must irradiate on the vascular perpendicularly. The suitable patient with exposed vascular must be chosen, and the diameter of the irradiated vascular is about 6 mm. Our experiment result, especially the data measured in vivo, will be useful for the research of light transport in human tissue.

  10. 7 CFR 1980.315 - Escrow accounts for exterior development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Escrow accounts for exterior development. 1980.315... Escrow accounts for exterior development. When proposed exterior development work cannot be completed... escrow account for exterior development only may be established by the originating lender if...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.315 - Escrow accounts for exterior development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Escrow accounts for exterior development. 1980.315... Escrow accounts for exterior development. When proposed exterior development work cannot be completed... escrow account for exterior development only may be established by the originating lender if...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.105 - Exit facilities; exterior doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exit facilities; exterior doors... § 3280.105 Exit facilities; exterior doors. (a) Number and location of exterior doors. Manufactured homes shall have a minimum of two exterior doors located remote from each other. (1) Required egress...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.105 - Exit facilities; exterior doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exit facilities; exterior doors... § 3280.105 Exit facilities; exterior doors. (a) Number and location of exterior doors. Manufactured homes shall have a minimum of two exterior doors located remote from each other. (1) Required egress...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.105 - Exit facilities; exterior doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exit facilities; exterior doors... § 3280.105 Exit facilities; exterior doors. (a) Number and location of exterior doors. Manufactured homes shall have a minimum of two exterior doors located remote from each other. (1) Required egress...

  15. Design and Performance Evaluation of Sensors and Actuators for Advanced Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial sensors and actuators do not meet many of NASA s next generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy the DoD needs for satellite missions, especially micro/nano satellite missions. In an effort to develop advanced optical devices and instruments that meet mission requirements, NASA Langley recently completed construction of a new cleanroom housing equipment capable of fabricating high performance active optic and adaptive optic technologies including deformable mirrors, reconfigurable lenses (both refractive and diffractive), spectrometers, spectro-polarimeters, tunable filters and many other active optic devices. In addition to performance, these advanced optic technologies offer advantages in speed, size, weight, power consumption, and radiation tolerance. The active optic devices described in this paper rely on birefringent liquid crystal materials to alter either the phase or the polarization of the incoming light. Design considerations and performance evaluation results for various NASA applications are presented. Applications presented will include large space telescopes, optical communications, spacecraft windows, coronagraphs, and star trackers. Keywords: Photonics, Adaptive Optics, Tunable Filters, MEMs., MOEMs, Coronagraph, Star Tracker

  16. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  17. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, South Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21356). The... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic...

  18. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  19. Full-scale engine demonstration of an advanced sensor failure detection, isolation and accommodation algorithm: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Delaat, John C.; Kroszkewicz, Steven M.; Abdelwahab, Mahmood

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation (ADIA) program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines. For this purpose, algorithms were developed which detect, isolate, and accommodate sensor failures using analytical redundancy. Preliminary results of a full scale engine demonstration of the ADIA algorithm are presented. Minimum detectable levels of sensor failures for an F100 turbofan engine control system are determined and compared to those obtained during a previous evaluation of this algorithm using a real-time hybrid computer simulation of the engine.

  20. Full-scale engine demonstration of an advanced sensor failure detection, isolation and accommodation algorithm: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Delaat, John C.; Kroszkewicz, Steven M.; Abdelwahab, Mahmood

    The objective of the advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation (ADIA) program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines. For this purpose, algorithms were developed which detect, isolate, and accommodate sensor failures using analytical redundancy. Preliminary results of a full scale engine demonstration of the ADIA algorithm are presented. Minimum detectable levels of sensor failures for an F100 turbofan engine control system are determined and compared to those obtained during a previous evaluation of this algorithm using a real-time hybrid computer simulation of the engine.

  1. Full-scale engine demonstration of an advanced sensor failure detection isolation, and accommodation algorithm - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Delaat, John C.; Kroszkewicz, Steven M.; Abdelwahab, Mahmood

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation (ADIA) program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines. For this purpose, algorithms were developed which detect, isolate, and accommodate sensor failures using analytical redundancy. Preliminary results of a full scale engine demonstration of the ADIA algorithm are presented. Minimum detectable levels of sensor failures for an F100 turbofan engine control system are determined and compared to those obtained during a previous evaluation of this algorithm using a real-time hybrid computer simulation of the engine.

  2. Advanced unattended sensors and systems: state of the art and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuiddy, John H.

    2010-04-01

    The unattended ground sensors (UGS) have come a long way over the more than 40 years they have been used to detect adversarial activities. From large, single phenomenology sensors with little signal processing and point to point communications the technology has now changed to small, intelligent sensors using network communications. This technology change has resulted in far more capable sensors but challenges remain for UGS to be effective in providing information to users.

  3. Sensors 2000! Program: Advanced Biosensor and Measurement Systems Technologies for Spaceflight Research and Concurrent, Earth-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, integrated projects team organized to provide focused, directed, advanced biosensor and bioinstrumentation systems technology support to NASA's spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. Specific technology thrusts include telemetry-based sensor systems, chemical/ biological sensors, medical and physiological sensors, miniaturized instrumentation architectures, and data and signal processing systems. A concurrent objective is to promote the mutual use, application, and transition of developed technology by collaborating in academic-commercial-govemment leveraging, joint research, technology utilization and commercialization, and strategic partnering alliances. Sensors 2000! is organized around three primary program elements: Technology and Product Development, Technology infusion and Applications, and Collaborative Activities. Technology and Product Development involves development and demonstration of biosensor and biotelemetry systems for application to NASA Space Life Sciences Programs; production of fully certified spaceflight hardware and payload elements; and sensor/measurement systems development for NASA research and development activities. Technology Infusion and Applications provides technology and program agent support to identify available and applicable technologies from multiple sources for insertion into NASA's strategic enterprises and initiatives. Collaborative Activities involve leveraging of NASA technologies with those of other government agencies, academia, and industry to concurrently provide technology solutions and products of mutual benefit to participating members.

  4. 77 FR 39561 - Advanced Braking Technologies That Rely on Forward-Looking Sensors; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Sensors; Request for Comments AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department... technologies that rely on forward-looking sensors to supplement driver braking or to actuate automatic braking... information from forward-looking sensors, usually a camera or radar, to determine whether or not a crash...

  5. Preparation of novel HTS films and tunnel junctions for advanced C3I sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Benjamin J.; Emery, Teresa H.; Berggren, Susan A. E.; Leese de Escobar, Anna M.; Jeon, Inho; Maple, M. B.

    2015-05-01

    Research into the development of advanced RF electronics and devices having high-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) circuitry is being carried out in the Cryogenic Exploitation of RF (CERF) laboratory at SPAWAR Systems Center (SSC) - Pacific. Recently, we have developed a novel annealing process wherein a film of YBa2Cu3Ox is produced having a gradient of oxygen composition along a given direction which we refer to as YBa2Cu3O∇x. Such samples are intended for rapid experimental investigation of the evolution of electronic properties within the compound and in combination with structurally compatible functional oxide materials as integrated sensor devices. We present here an investigation as to the extent to which local oxygen content affects the ion milling process in the formation of Josephson junctions in the HTS compound YBa2Cu3O∇x. We find an abrupt transition in the profile and depth of ion milled trenches at oxygen concentrations at and below the well ordered oxygen level, O6.72. The method described here shows good potential for use in the fabrication of large numbers of uniform Josephson junctions in films of YBa2Cu3Ox, as either a complementary processing tool for grain boundary, step edge, or ion damaged formed JJs, or as a stand alone method for producing nano-bridge JJ's.

  6. In-situ sensor monitoring of resin film infusion of advanced fiber architecture preforms

    SciTech Connect

    Kranbuehl, D.E.; Hood, D.; Rogozinski, J.

    1995-12-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) of advanced fiber architecture stitched preforms is being developed as a smart cost-effective manufacturing technique for fabricating damage tolerant composite structures with geometrically complex reinforcements. Dry textile preforms are infiltrated with resin and cured in a single step process, thus eliminating separate prepreg manufacture and ply-by-ply lay-up. The number of parameters that must be controlled during infiltration and cure make trial-and-error methods of process cycle optimization extremely inefficient. In situ cure monitoring sensors and an analytical processing model are a superior alternative for the determination of optimum processing cycles, quality assurance, and automated process control. Resin transfer molding experiments have been conducted in a manufacturing plant with a reactive epoxy resin and carbon fabric preforms. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin position, viscosity and degree of cure in situ in the mold during the Resin Transfer Molding infiltration and cure process. A science based multi-dimensional model of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was used to predict the infiltration behavior, as well as viscosity and degree of cure as the resin flows and cures in the dry textile preform.

  7. Evaluation drought response of tropical dry forests using advanced wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the effects of persistent drought in tropical dry forests has not been fully studied until today. In this presentation we will discuss one of the first results on the response of tropical dry forests to drought using advanced wireless sensor networks and canopy phenology towers, that provide hyper-temporal information on micro-meteorological variables such Temperature, relative humidity, and Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD). In addition, we will evaluate drought response to as function of the Fraction of the Photosynthetic Active Radiation (FPAR), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our work is conducted at the Santa Rosa Environmental Monitoring Super Site (NR-EMSS) located at the Guancaste Province, Costa Rica, Central America. Our results indicate significant changes in terms of FPAR, VPD manifested via strong changes on NDVI. Our results pose questions about the resilience of these understudied tropical ecosystems and their long-term survival under severe and persistent drought conditions. This results provide a reference framework for the need of more integrated research on the Central American Dry Forest corridor where just between Costa Rica and Nicaragua over 100,000 families are facing strong drought conditions.

  8. Design and Experimental Evaluation on an Advanced Multisource Energy Harvesting System for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Gaofei; Ma, Rui; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    An effective multisource energy harvesting system is presented as power supply for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). The advanced system contains not only an expandable power management module including control of the charging and discharging process of the lithium polymer battery but also an energy harvesting system using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit with analog driving scheme for the collection of both solar and vibration energy sources. Since the MPPT and the power management module are utilized, the system is able to effectively achieve a low power consumption. Furthermore, a super capacitor is integrated in the system so that current fluctuations of the lithium polymer battery during the charging and discharging processes can be properly reduced. In addition, through a simple analog switch circuit with low power consumption, the proposed system can successfully switch the power supply path according to the ambient energy sources and load power automatically. A practical WSNs platform shows that efficiency of the energy harvesting system can reach about 75–85% through the 24-hour environmental test, which confirms that the proposed system can be used as a long-term continuous power supply for WSNs. PMID:25032233

  9. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  10. Piecewise lexsegment ideals in exterior algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakin, D. A.

    2005-02-01

    The problem of describing the Hilbert functions of homogeneous ideals of an exterior algebra over a field containing a fixed monomial ideal I is considered. For this purpose the notion of a piecewise lexsegment ideal in an exterior algebra is introduced generalizing the notion of a lexsegment ideal. It is proved that if I is a piecewise lexsegment ideal, then it is possible to describe the Hilbert functions of the homogeneous ideals containing I in a way similar to that suggested by Kruskal and Katona for the situation I=0. Moreover, a generalization of the extremal properties of lexsegment ideals is obtained (the inequality for the Betti numbers).

  11. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors. Phase 2: Verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A two-phase program is conducted to develop heat flux sensors capable of making heat flux measurements throughout the hot section of gas turbine engines. In Phase 1, three types of heat flux sensors are selected; embedded thermocouple, laminated, and Gardon gauge sensors. A demonstration of the ability of these sensors to operate in an actual engine environment is reported. A segmented liner of each of two combustors being used in the Broad Specification Fuels Combustor program is instrumented with the three types of heat flux sensors then tested in a high pressure combustor rig. Radiometer probes are also used to measure the radiant heat loads to more fully characterize the combustor environment. Test results show the heat flux sensors to be in good agreement with radiometer probes and the predicted data trends. In general, heat flux sensors have strong potential for use in combustor development programs.

  12. Sensor-model prediction, monitoring and in-situ control of liquid RTM advanced fiber architecture composite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Kingsley, P.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Hasko, G.; Dexter, B.

    In-situ frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) and the Loos resin transfer model have been used to select and control the processing properties of an epoxy resin during liquid pressure RTM impregnation and cure. Once correlated with viscosity and degree of cure the FDEMS sensor monitors and the RTM processing model predicts the reaction advancement of the resin, viscosity and the impregnation of the fabric. This provides a direct means for predicting, monitoring, and controlling the liquid RTM process in-situ in the mold throughout the fabrication process and the effects of time, temperature, vacuum and pressure. Most importantly, the FDEMS-sensor model system has been developed to make intelligent decisions, thereby automating the liquid RTM process and removing the need for operator direction.

  13. Sensor-model prediction, monitoring and in-situ control of liquid RTM advanced fiber architecture composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Kingsley, P.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Hasko, G.; Dexter, B.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) and the Loos resin transfer model have been used to select and control the processing properties of an epoxy resin during liquid pressure RTM impregnation and cure. Once correlated with viscosity and degree of cure the FDEMS sensor monitors and the RTM processing model predicts the reaction advancement of the resin, viscosity and the impregnation of the fabric. This provides a direct means for predicting, monitoring, and controlling the liquid RTM process in-situ in the mold throughout the fabrication process and the effects of time, temperature, vacuum and pressure. Most importantly, the FDEMS-sensor model system has been developed to make intelligent decisions, thereby automating the liquid RTM process and removing the need for operator direction.

  14. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Travis; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Kang, Byoung Sam; Wang, Hung-Ta; Chang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Jenshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application. PMID:22408548

  15. New Sensors for In-Pile Temperature Detection at the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw; K. G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. As a user facility, the ATR is supporting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, as they conduct basic and applied nuclear research and development to advance the nation’s energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to develop and evaluate new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing measurements of key parameters during irradiation. This paper describes the strategy for determining what instrumentation is needed and the program for developing new or enhanced sensors that can address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing new sensors now available and under development for in-pile detection of temperature at various irradiation locations in the ATR.

  16. A real-time simulation evaluation of an advanced detection, isolation and accommodation algorithm for sensor failures in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.; Delaat, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An advanced sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation (ADIA) algorithm has been developed for use with an aircraft turbofan engine control system. In a previous paper the authors described the ADIA algorithm and its real-time implementation. Subsequent improvements made to the algorithm and implementation are discussed, and the results of an evaluation presented. The evaluation used a real-time, hybrid computer simulation of an F100 turbofan engine.

  17. A real-time simulation evaluation of an advanced detection. Isolation and accommodation algorithm for sensor failures in turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.; Delaat, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An advanced sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation (ADIA) algorithm has been developed for use with an aircraft turbofan engine control system. In a previous paper the authors described the ADIA algorithm and its real-time implementation. Subsequent improvements made to the algorithm and implementation are discussed, and the results of an evaluation presented. The evaluation used a real-time, hybrid computer simulation of an F100 turbofan engine.

  18. EDITORIAL: Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation Systems for the Food and Beverage Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong

    2006-02-01

    Advanced sensors and instrumentation systems are becoming increasingly important in the classification, characterization, authentication, quality control and safety management of food products and beverages. To bring together industrialists and academic researchers to discuss the latest developments and trends in this particular area, the ISAT (Instrument Science and Technology) Group of the Institute of Physics organized a highly focused one-day technical meeting, which was held at the Rutherford Conference Centre at the Institute of Physics in London on 15 December 2004. The event was co-sponsored by the Measurement, Sensors, Instrumentation and NDT Professional Network of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Measurement Science and Technology Panel of the Institute of Measurement and Control. The special feature in this issue (on pages 229 287) brings together a collection of some of the papers that were presented at the event. Also included in the special feature are two relevant papers that were submitted through the usual route. Technical topics covered, though wide ranging as reflected in part by the diversity of the papers, demonstrate recent developments and possible approaches that may offer solutions to a broad range of sensing and measurement problems in the food and beverage industries. The first paper, reported by Sheridan et al, is concerned with the quality monitoring of chicken, sausages and pastry products during their cooking processes using an optical fibre-based sensing system. Carter et al describe how digital imaging and image processing techniques have been applied to achieve the classification and authentication of rice grains. The challenges in the measurement and control of final moisture content in baked food products such as bread and biscuits are addressed and discussed by McFarlane. Juodeikiene et al report their progress in the development of acoustic echolocation-based techniques for the evaluation of porosity and

  19. Advanced activity reporting in a multi-layered unattended ground sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslin, Todd W.

    2007-04-01

    Sensor networks are emplaced throughout the world to remotely track activity. Typically, these sensors report data such as target direction or target classification. This information is reported to a personnel-based monitor or a command and control center. The ideal sensor system will have a long mission life capability and will report information-rich actionable intelligence with high data integrity at near real-time latency. This paper discusses a multi-layered approach that includes data fusion at the Sensor Node, Sensor Field, and Command and Control Center Layer to create cohesive reports that mitigate false alarms and multiple reports of the same target while providing accurate tracking data on a situational awareness level. This approach is influenced by low-power architecture, and designed to maximize information density and reduce flooding of sensor networks.

  20. Evaluation of commercially available exterior digital VMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, C.E.; Hoover, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of thirteen commercially available exterior digital video motion detection (VMD) systems. The systems were evaluated for use in a specific outdoor application. The report focuses primarily on the testing parameters, each system`s advertised features, and the nuisance alarm and detection test results.

  1. Development of fiber optic sensors for advanced aircraft testing and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Scott A.; Jones, Mark E.; Wavering, Thomas A.; Kozikowski, Carrie L.; Murphy, Kent A.

    1999-02-01

    Optical fiber sensors, because of the small size, low weight, extremely high information carrying capability, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and large operational temperature range, provide numerous advantages over conventional electrically based sensors. This paper presents preliminary results from optical fiber sensor design for monitoring acceleration on aircraft. Flight testing of the final accelerometer design will be conducted on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, CA.

  2. Generation of large scale urban environments to support advanced sensor and seeker simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Joseph; Hershey, Daniel; McKeown, David, Jr.; Willis, Carla; Van, Tan

    2009-05-01

    One of the key aspects for the design of a next generation weapon system is the need to operate in cluttered and complex urban environments. Simulation systems rely on accurate representation of these environments and require automated software tools to construct the underlying 3D geometry and associated spectral and material properties that are then formatted for various objective seeker simulation systems. Under an Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract, we have developed an automated process to generate 3D urban environments with user defined properties. These environments can be composed from a wide variety of source materials, including vector source data, pre-existing 3D models, and digital elevation models, and rapidly organized into a geo-specific visual simulation database. This intermediate representation can be easily inspected in the visible spectrum for content and organization and interactively queried for accuracy. Once the database contains the required contents, it can then be exported into specific synthetic scene generation runtime formats, preserving the relationship between geometry and material properties. To date an exporter for the Irma simulation system developed and maintained by AFRL/Eglin has been created and a second exporter to Real Time Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume (CHAMP) simulation system for real-time use is currently being developed. This process supports significantly more complex target environments than previous approaches to database generation. In this paper we describe the capabilities for content creation for advanced seeker processing algorithms simulation and sensor stimulation, including the overall database compilation process and sample databases produced and exported for the Irma runtime system. We also discuss the addition of object dynamics and viewer dynamics within the visual simulation into the Irma runtime environment.

  3. On-chip polarizer on image sensor using advanced CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Wakama, Norimitsu; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi; Ohta, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The structures in advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology are in the range of deep-submicron. It allows designing and integrating nano-photonic structures for the visible to near infrared region on a chip. In this work, we designed and fabricated an image sensor with on-pixel metal wire grid polarizers by using a 65-nm standard CMOS technology. It is known that the extinction ratio of a metal wire grid polarizer is increased with decrease in the grid pitch. With the metal wire layers of the 65-nm technology, the grid pitch sufficiently smaller than the wavelengths of visible light can be realized. The extinction ratio of approximately 20 dB has been successfully achieved at a wavelength of 750 nm. In the CMOS technologies, it is usual to include multiple metal layers. This feature is also useful to increase the extinction ratio of polarizers. We designed dual layer polarizers. Each layer partially reflects incident light. Thus, the layers form a cavity and its transmission spectrum depends on the layer position. The extinction ratio of 19.2 dB at 780 nm was achieved with the grid pitch greater than the single layer polarizer. The high extinction ratio is obtained only red to near infrared region because the fine metal layers of deepsubmicron standard CMOS process is usually composed of Cu. Thus, it should be applied for measurement or observation where wide spectrum is not required such as optical rotation measurement of optically active materials or electro-optic imaging of RF/THz wave.

  4. Sensor probes and phantoms for advanced transcranial magnetic stimulation system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Patel, Prashil; Trivedi, Sudhir; Du, Xiaoming; Hong, Elliot; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become one of the most widely used noninvasive method for brain tissue stimulation and has been used as a treatment tool for various neurological and psychiatric disorders including migraine, stroke, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tinnitus and depression. In the process of developing advanced TMS deep brain stimulation tools, we need first to develop field measurement devices like sensory probes and brain phantoms, which can be used to calibrate the TMS systems. Currently there are commercially available DC magnetic or electric filed measurement sensors, but there is no instrument to measure transient fields. In our study, we used a commercial figure-8 shaped TMS coil to generate transient magnetic field and followed induced field and current. The coil was driven by power amplified signal from a pulse generator with tunable pulse rate, amplitude, and duration. In order to obtain a 3D plot of induced vector electric field, many types of probes were designed to detect single component of electric-field vectors along x, y and z axis in the space around TMS coil. We found that resistor probes has an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) near 3k ohm but it signal output is too weak compared with other techniques. We also found that inductor probes can have very high output for Curl E measurement, but it is not the E-field distribution we are interested in. Probes with electrical wire wrapped around iron coil can directly measure induced E-field with high sensitivity, which matched computer simulation results.

  5. EXTERIOR, A view looking east at the west elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking east at the west elevation of the building, including an exterior staircase that leads to the roof - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  6. EXTERIOR, A view looking south toward the northwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking south toward the northwest corner of the building including an exterior staircase that leads to the roof - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  7. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  8. Exterior view of north and east exterior walls of LongTerm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of north and east exterior walls of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B), looking south. Silo was designed to assess long-term environmental impacts on storage of the Titan II's oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide). The shorter Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) is located behind and to the immediate left of T-28B - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Altogether, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.

  10. Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission tomore » replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Altogether, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.« less

  11. 46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas vessel and each liquefied toxic gas vessel must have an exterior water spray system that meets §§...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.315 - Escrow accounts for exterior development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Escrow accounts for exterior development. When proposed exterior development work cannot be completed... development work. (b) The contract for development work must provide for completion within 120 days. (c) The... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow accounts for exterior development....

  13. 7 CFR 1980.315 - Escrow accounts for exterior development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Escrow accounts for exterior development. When proposed exterior development work cannot be completed... development work. (b) The contract for development work must provide for completion within 120 days. (c) The... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow accounts for exterior development....

  14. 7 CFR 1980.315 - Escrow accounts for exterior development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Escrow accounts for exterior development. When proposed exterior development work cannot be completed... development work. (b) The contract for development work must provide for completion within 120 days. (c) The... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow accounts for exterior development....

  15. 24 CFR 3280.105 - Exit facilities; exterior doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exit facilities; exterior doors... § 3280.105 Exit facilities; exterior doors. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73981, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Number and location of exterior doors. Manufactured homes shall have a minimum of two...

  16. Advances towards the qualification of an aircraft fuel tank inert environment fiber optic oxygen sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian; Susko, Kenneth; Goglia, John

    2011-06-01

    An all optical pressure and temperature compensated fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSenseTM) system is under qualification for use in the in-situ closed-loop-control of the inert atmosphere environment inside fuel tanks of military and commercial aircraft. The all-optical oxygen environment control sensor is a passive, intrinsically safe, fiber-optic sensor device with no electrical connections leading to the sensors installed within the fuel tanks of an aircraft. To control the fuel tank environment, an array of multiple sensors is deployed throughout the fuel tanks of an aircraft, and a remote multi-channel optoelectronic system is used to monitor the status of all the sensors in real time to provide feedback oxygen environment information to the on-board inert gas generating system (OBIGS). Qualification testing of the all optical sensor have demonstrated the ability to monitor the oxygen environment inside a simulated fuel tank environment in the oxygen range from 0% to 21% oxygen concentrations, temperatures from (-) 40°C to (+) 60°C, and altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet. Fiber optic oxygen sensors with built-in temperature compensation as well as the conduit fiber optic cables have passed DO-160E including acoustic noise and burn test.

  17. A real-time implementation of an advanced sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, J. C.; Merrill, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    A sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithm was developed which incorporates analytic sensor redundancy through software. This algorithm was implemented in a high level language on a microprocessor based controls computer. Parallel processing and state-of-the-art 16-bit microprocessors are used along with efficient programming practices to achieve real-time operation.

  18. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  19. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  20. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  1. Recent Advances of Portable Multi-Sensor Technique of Volcanic Plume Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, H.

    2005-12-01

    A technique has been developed to estimate chemical composition volcanic gases based on the measurement of volcanic plumes at distance from a source vent by the use of a portable multi-sensor system consisting a humidity sensor, an SO2 electrochemical sensor and a CO2 IR analyzer (Shinohara, 2005). Since volcanic plume is a mixture of the atmosphere and volcanic gases, the volcanic gas composition can be estimated by subtracting the atmospheric background from the plume data. This technique enabled us to estimate concentration ratios of major volcanic gas species (i.e., H2O, CO2 and SO2) without any complicated chemical analyses even for gases emitted from an inaccessible open vent. Since the portable multi-sensor system was light (~ 5 kg) and small enough to carry in a medium size backpack, we could apply this technique to measure volcanic plumes at summit of various volcanoes including those which require us a tough climbing, such as Villarrica volcano, Chile. We further improved the sensor system and the measurements techniques, including application of LI-840 IR H2O and CO2 analyzer, H2S electrochemical sensor and H2 semi-conductor sensor. Application of the new LI-840 analyzer enabled us to measure H2O concentration in the plume with similar response time with CO2 concentration. The H2S electrochemical sensor of Komyo Co. has a chemical filter to removed SO2 to achieve a low sensitivity (0.1%) to SO2, and we can measure a high SO2/H2S ratio up to 1000. The semi-conductor sensor can measure H2 concentration in the range from the background level in the atmosphere (~0.5 ppm) to ~50 ppm. Response of the H2 sensor is slower (90% response time = ~90 sec) than other sensors in particular in low concentration range, and the measurement is still semi-quantitative with errors up to ±50%. The H2/H2O ratios are quite variable in volcanic gases ranging from less than 10-5 up to 10-1, and the ratio is largely controlled by temperature and pressure condition of the

  2. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  3. Performance Diagnosis using Optical Torque Sensor for Selection of a Steam Supply Plant among Advanced Combined Cycle Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi

    A newly developed optical torque sensor was applied to select a steam supply plant among advanced combined cycle, i.e. ACC, power plants of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The sensor uses laser beams focused on small stainless steel reflectors having bar-code patterns attached on the surface of the rotating shaft, and a technique of signal processing using a correlation function featuring high frequency. The plant that supplied steam was selected on the basis of diagnosis of each steam turbine performance of the plants. Heat balance program was developed to analyze steam turbine performance using data of turbine output measured by the torque sensor and data measured by existing instruments of the power station. The steam turbine that supplied steam was determined by the present method using the optical torque sensor. The accuracy of the method to determine the steam supply plant was analyzed. It was then confirmed that the accuracy was greatly improved as compared with that of existing method.

  4. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    We report in this paper decisive advance on the detector development for the astronomical applications that require very fast operation. Since the CCD220 and OCAM2 major success, new detector developments started in Europe either for visible and IR wavelengths. Funded by ESO and the FP7 Opticon European network, the NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with strong ESO involvement. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate and providing digital outputs. A camera development, based on this CMOS device and also funded by the Opticon European network, is ongoing. Another major AO wavefront sensing detector development concerns IR detectors based on Avalanche Photodiode (e- APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter offers a 320x255 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3 microns, with less than 2 e readout noise at 1600 fps. A rectangular window can also be programmed to speed up even more the frame rate when the full frame readout is not required. The high QE response, in the range of 70%, is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using pulse tube cryocoolers was developed in the frame of this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. The characterization results of this device are presented here. Readout noise as low as 1.7 e at 1600 fps has been measured with a 3 microns wavelength cut-off chip and a multiplication gain of 14 obtained with a limited photodiode polarization of 8V. This device also exhibits excellent linearity, lower than 1%. The pulse tube cooling allows smart and easy cooling down to 55 K. Vibrations investigations using centroiding and FFT measurements were performed proving that the miniature pulse tube does not induce measurable vibrations to the optical bench, allowing use of this

  5. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  6. CATSI EDM: recent advances in the development and validation of a ruggedized passive standoff CWA sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Lacasse, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier is currently developing a ruggedized passive standoff sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometry. This system is referred to as the Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) Engineering Development Model (EDM). The CATSI EDM sensor is based on the use of a double-beam FTIR spectrometer that is optimized for optical subtraction. A description of the customized sensor is given along with a discussion on the detection and identification approaches that have been developed. Preliminary results of validation from a number of laboratory measurements and open-air trials are analyzed to establish the capability of detection and identification of various toxic and non-toxic chemical vapor plumes. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the passive differential radiometric approach for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors at distances up to a few kilometers from the sensor.

  7. Recent Advances in the Design of Electro-Optic Sensors for Minimally Destructive Microwave Field Probing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Kang, No-Weon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kim, Junyeon; Whitaker, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review recent design methodologies for fully dielectric electro-optic sensors that have applications in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of devices and materials that radiate, guide, or otherwise may be impacted by microwave fields. In many practical NDE situations, fiber-coupled-sensor configurations are preferred due to their advantages over free-space bulk sensors in terms of optical alignment, spatial resolution, and especially, a low degree of field invasiveness. We propose and review five distinct types of fiber-coupled electro-optic sensor probes. The design guidelines for each probe type and their performances in absolute electric-field measurements are compared and summarized. PMID:22346604

  8. Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masato; Hiep, Ha Minh; Nagatani, Naoki; Tamiya, Eiichi

    With recent advances in nanotechnology, development of nanomaterial bioconjugates is growing exponentially towards eventual translation into biomolecular recognition layers on surfaces. Label-free monitoring of biorecognition events is also key-technology and provides a promising platform, which is simple, cost-effective, and requires no external modification to biomolecules. In this review, we describe the application of nanomaterials, mainly metal nanoparticles, and specific applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based label-free approaches.

  9. A real-time implementation of an advanced sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, J. C.; Merrill, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A sensor failure detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithm was developed which incorporates analytic sensor redundancy through software. This algorithm was implemented in a high level language on a microprocessor based controls computer. Parallel processing and state-of-the-art 16-bit microprocessors are used along with efficient programming practices to achieve real-time operation. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13140

  10. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  11. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  12. Advances in using MRI probes and sensors for in vivo cell tracking as applied to regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Kadayakkara, Deepak K.; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Gilad, Assaf A.; McMahon, Michael T.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of molecular and cellular imaging allows molecules and cells to be visualized in vivo non-invasively. It has uses not only as a research tool but in clinical settings as well, for example in monitoring cell-based regenerative therapies, in which cells are transplanted to replace degenerating or damaged tissues, or to restore a physiological function. The success of such cell-based therapies depends on several critical issues, including the route and accuracy of cell transplantation, the fate of cells after transplantation, and the interaction of engrafted cells with the host microenvironment. To assess these issues, it is necessary to monitor transplanted cells non-invasively in real-time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tool uniquely suited to this task, given its ability to image deep inside tissue with high temporal resolution and sensitivity. Extraordinary efforts have recently been made to improve cellular MRI as applied to regenerative medicine, by developing more advanced contrast agents for use as probes and sensors. These advances enable the non-invasive monitoring of cell fate and, more recently, that of the different cellular functions of living cells, such as their enzymatic activity and gene expression, as well as their time point of cell death. We present here a review of recent advancements in the development of these probes and sensors, and of their functioning, applications and limitations. PMID:26035841

  13. Advances in using MRI probes and sensors for in vivo cell tracking as applied to regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amit K; Kadayakkara, Deepak K; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Gilad, Assaf A; McMahon, Michael T; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2015-04-01

    The field of molecular and cellular imaging allows molecules and cells to be visualized in vivo non-invasively. It has uses not only as a research tool but in clinical settings as well, for example in monitoring cell-based regenerative therapies, in which cells are transplanted to replace degenerating or damaged tissues, or to restore a physiological function. The success of such cell-based therapies depends on several critical issues, including the route and accuracy of cell transplantation, the fate of cells after transplantation, and the interaction of engrafted cells with the host microenvironment. To assess these issues, it is necessary to monitor transplanted cells non-invasively in real-time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tool uniquely suited to this task, given its ability to image deep inside tissue with high temporal resolution and sensitivity. Extraordinary efforts have recently been made to improve cellular MRI as applied to regenerative medicine, by developing more advanced contrast agents for use as probes and sensors. These advances enable the non-invasive monitoring of cell fate and, more recently, that of the different cellular functions of living cells, such as their enzymatic activity and gene expression, as well as their time point of cell death. We present here a review of recent advancements in the development of these probes and sensors, and of their functioning, applications and limitations. PMID:26035841

  14. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosimann, Garrett; Wagner, Rachel; Schirber, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  15. Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  17. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  18. Inverse scattering for an exterior Dirichlet program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.

    1981-01-01

    Scattering due to a metallic cylinder which is in the field of a wire carrying a periodic current is considered. The location and shape of the cylinder is obtained with a far field measurement in between the wire and the cylinder. The same analysis is applicable in acoustics in the situation that the cylinder is a soft wall body and the wire is a line source. The associated direct problem in this situation is an exterior Dirichlet problem for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. An improved low frequency estimate for the solution of this problem using integral equation methods is presented. The far field measurements are related to the solutions of boundary integral equations in the low frequency situation. These solutions are expressed in terms of mapping function which maps the exterior of the unknown curve onto the exterior of a unit disk. The coefficients of the Laurent expansion of the conformal transformations are related to the far field coefficients. The first far field coefficient leads to the calculation of the distance between the source and the cylinder.

  19. Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the world and the United States. However, Hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydro turbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make these hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon in the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Grant County Public Utility District (Grant PUD) requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that are designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy provided co-funding to Grant PUD for aspects of performance testing that supported the application. As an additional measure to the primary evaluation measure of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions or physical stresses that the fish experienced or the specific causes of the biological response. We found that the new blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by balloon tag-recapture tests. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of change environment for fish passage. Overall, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydro turbine design met the desired fish passage goals for Wanapum Dam.

  20. Ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors for electronic canopy characterization in vineyards: advances to improve pesticide application methods.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (C(VU)) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R(2) = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R(2) = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (C(HL)) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  1. Advances in SXFA-Coated SAW Chemical Sensors for Organophosphorous Compound Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; He, Shitang; Li, Shunzhou; Liu, Minghua; Pan, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based chemical sensor for organophosphorous compound sensing at extremely low concentrations was developed, in which a dual-delay-line oscillator coated with fluoroalcoholpolysiloxane (SXFA) acted as the sensor element. Response mechanism analysis was performed on the SXFA-coated chemical sensor, resulting in the optimal design parameters. The shear modulus of the SXFA, which is the key parameter for theoretical simulation, was extracted experimentally. New designs were done on the SAW devices to decrease the insertion loss. Referring to the new phase modulation approach, superior short-term frequency stability (±2 Hz in seconds) was achieved from the SAW oscillator using the fabricated 300 MHz delay line as the feedback element. In the sensor experiment on dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) detection, the fabricated SXFA-coated chemical sensor exhibited an excellent threshold detection limit up to 0.004 mg/m3 (0.7 ppb) and good sensitivity (∼485 Hz/mg/m3 for a DMMP concentration of 2∼14 mg/m3). PMID:22319366

  2. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  3. Tailored magnetoelastic sensor geometry for advanced functionality in wireless biliary stent monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Scott R.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents three types of wireless magnetoelastic resonant sensors with specific functionalities for monitoring sludge accumulation within biliary stents. The first design uses a geometry with a repeated cell shape that provides two well-separated resonant mode shapes and associated frequencies to permit spatial localization of mass loading. The second design implements a pattern with specific variation in feature densities to improve sensitivity to mass loading. The third design uses narrow ribbons joined by flexible couplers; this design adopts the advantages in flexibility and expandability of the other designs while maintaining the robust longitudinal mode shapes of a ribbon-shaped sensor. The sensors are batch patterned using photochemical machining from 25 µm thick 2605SA1 Metglas™, an amorphous Fe-Si alloy. Accumulation of biliary sludge is simulated with paraffin or gelatin, and the effects of viscous bile are simulated with a range of silicone fluids. Results from the first design show that the location of mass loads can be resolved within ~5 mm along the length of the sensor. The second design offers twice the sensitivity to mass loads (3000-36 000 ppm mg-1) of other designs. The third design provides a wide range of loading (sensitive to at least 10× the mass of the sensor) and survives compression into a 2 mm diameter tube as would be required for catheter-based delivery.

  4. Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (CVU) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R2 = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R2 = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (CHL) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  5. Advances in SAW Gas Sensors Based on the Condensate-Adsorption Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiuling; Wang, Wen; Li, Shunzhou; Liu, Minghua; He, Shitang

    2011-01-01

    A surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) gas sensor with a low detection limit and fast response for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on the condensate-adsorption effect detection is developed. In this sensor a gas chromatography (GC) column acts as the separator element and a dual-resonator oscillator acts as the detector element. Regarding the surface effective permittivity method, the response mechanism analysis, which relates the condensate-adsorption effect, is performed, leading to the sensor performance prediction prior to fabrication. New designs of SAW resonators, which act as feedback of the oscillator, are devised in order to decrease the insertion loss and to achieve single-mode control, resulting in superior frequency stability of the oscillator. Based on the new phase modulation approach, excellent short-term frequency stability (±3 Hz/s) is achieved with the SAW oscillator by using the 500 MHz dual-port resonator as feedback element. In a sensor experiment investigating formaldehyde detection, the implemented SAW gas sensor exhibits an excellent threshold detection limit as low as 0.38 pg. PMID:22247697

  6. Recent Advances in Gas and Chemical Detection by Vernier Effect-Based Photonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    La Notte, Mario; Troia, Benedetto; Muciaccia, Tommaso; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10−8 RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator. PMID:24618728

  7. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1992-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES, AVHRR, and SSM/I sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  8. Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    La Notte, Mario; Troia, Benedetto; Muciaccia, Tommaso; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Vernier effect has been proved to be very efficient for significantly improving the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of chemical, biochemical and gas photonic sensors. In this paper a review of compact and efficient photonic sensors based on the Vernier effect is presented. The most relevant results of several theoretical and experimental works are reported, and the theoretical model of the typical Vernier effect-based sensor is discussed as well. In particular, sensitivity up to 460 μm/RIU has been experimentally reported, while ultra-high sensitivity of 2,500 μm/RIU and ultra-low LOD of 8.79 × 10(-8) RIU have been theoretically demonstrated, employing a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) as sensing device instead of an add drop ring resonator. PMID:24618728

  9. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.

  10. Recent CESAR (Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research) research activities in sensor based reasoning for autonomous machines

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) in the area of sensor based reasoning, with emphasis being given to their application and implementation on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous mobile vehicle. These activities, including navigation and exploration in a-priori unknown and dynamic environments, goal recognition, vision-guided manipulation and sensor-driven machine learning, are discussed within the framework of a scenario in which an autonomous robot is asked to navigate through an unknown dynamic environment, explore, find and dock at the panel, read and understand the status of the panel's meters and dials, learn the functioning of a process control panel, and successfully manipulate the control devices of the panel to solve a maintenance emergency problems. A demonstration of the successful implementation of the algorithms on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous robot for resolution of this scenario is presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the methodologies to more general classes of problems and implications for future work on sensor-driven reasoning for autonomous robots are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Soil water sensors:Problems, advances and potential for irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands, while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and so...

  12. Initial assessments of life support technology evolution and advanced sensor requirements, volume 2, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary issues studied were how the transition from a physical/chemical (P/C) to hybrid to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) could be achieved, what sensors and monitors are needed for a P/C -CELSS hybrid system, and how a CELSS could be automated and what controls would be needed to do so.

  13. Ultra sensitive magnetic sensors integrating the giant magnetoelectric effect with advanced microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhao

    This dissertation investigates approaches to enhance the performance, especially the sensitivity and signal to noise ratio of magnetoelectric sensors, which exploits the magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composites. A magnetic sensor is a system or device that can measure the magnitude of a magnetic field or each of its vector components. Usually the techniques encompass many aspects of physics and electronics. The common technologies used for magnetic field sensing include induction coil sensors, fluxgate, SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), Hall effect, giant magnetoresistance, magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites, and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems)-based magnetic sensors. Magnetic sensors have found a broad range of applications for many decades. For example, ultra sensitive magnetic sensors are able to detect tiny magnetic fields produced outside the brain by the neuronal currents which can be used for diagnostic application. Measuring the brain's magnetic field is extremely challenging because they are so weak, have strengths of 0.1--1 pT and thus requiring magnetic sensors with sub-picotesla sensitivity. In fact, to date, these measurements can only performed with the most sensitive magnetic sensors, i.e., SQUID. However, such detectors need expensive and cumbersome cryogenics to operate. Additionally, the thermal insulation of the sensors prevents them from being placed very closed to the tissues under study, thereby preventing high-resolution measurement capability. All of these severely limit their broad usage and proliferation for biomedical imaging, diagnosis, and research. A novel ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor capable of operating at room temperature is investigated in this thesis. Magnetoelectric effect is a material phenomenon featuring the interchange between the magnetic and electric energies or signals. The large ME effect observed in ME composites, especially the ME laminates

  14. Advanced multispectral sensor requirements for remote sensing of agriculture and land cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern agricultural and land cover monitoring programs require frequent data acquisitions and increased spectral resolution to acquire a greater number of parameters in a more accurate manner. Whereas hyperspectral sensors could provide the required information, agriculture's biggest need is for fr...

  15. On-line sensor monitoring for chemical contaminant attenuation during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Anumol, Tarun; Park, Minkyu; Pepper, Ian; Scheideler, Jens; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-15

    A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254 nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters. PMID:26074188

  16. Design of an autonomous exterior security robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

  17. Automated visual inspection of an airplane exterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovančević, Igor; Orteu, Jean-José; Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the inspection of an airplane using a Pan-Tilt-Zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot moving around the airplane. We present image processing methods for detection and inspection of four different types of items on the airplane exterior. Our detection approach is focused on the regular shapes such as rounded corner rectangles and ellipses, while inspection relies on clues such as uniformity of isolated image regions, convexity of segmented shapes and periodicity of the image intensity signal. The initial results are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of the envisioned robotic system.

  18. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order to reach a

  19. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories and Scientific Instruments and Sensors Capability Roadmaps: General Background and Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Dan; Bankston, Perry

    2005-01-01

    Agency objective are: Strategic Planning Transformation. Advanced Planning Organizational Roles. Public Involvement in Strategic Planning. Strategic Roadmaps and Schedule. Capability Roadmaps and Schedule. Purpose of NRC Review. Capability Roadmap Development (Progress to Date).

  20. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  1. View of exterior circumferential path at northeast side of building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of exterior circumferential path at northeast side of building beneath trellis, looking southeast - National Zoological Park, Bird House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  4. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  5. 1. EXTERIOR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST. Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  6. 2. EXTERIOR EAST ELEVATION VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR EAST ELEVATION VIEW OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CENTER SPAN EXTENDING ACROSS WARRIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CENTER SPAN EXTENDING ACROSS WARRIOR RIVER. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING TOWARDS TUSCALOOSA, WITH CONCRETE PIERS AND CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING TOWARDS TUSCALOOSA, WITH CONCRETE PIERS AND CENTER SPAN. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  9. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING TOWARDS TUSCALOOSA, WITH APPROACH, CONCRETE PIERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING TOWARDS TUSCALOOSA, WITH APPROACH, CONCRETE PIERS AND CENTER SPAN. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. 1. EXTERIOR OF BUILDING 402, CIVIL ENGINEERING STORAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF BUILDING 402, CIVIL ENGINEERING STORAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Storage, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  11. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  12. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EAST FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EAST FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT DOWNSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY. VIEW TAKEN FROM WASHINGTON SHORELINE. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE - Silverton Historic District, East Thirteenth & Green Streets (Commercial Building), East Thirteenh & Green Streets, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  17. 10. Southeast view interior, typical exterior office, room 27 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Southeast view interior, typical exterior office, room 27 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  18. Advanced selective non-invasive ketone body detection sensors based on new ionophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyapalan, A.; Sarswat, P. K.; Zhu, Y.; Free, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    New molecules and methods were examined that can be used to detect trace level ketone bodies. Diseases such as type 1 diabetes, childhood hypo-glycaemia-growth hormone deficiency, toxic inhalation, and body metabolism changes are linked with ketone bodies concentration. Here we introduce, selective ketone body detection sensors based on small, environmentally friendly organic molecules with Lewis acid additives. Density functional theory (DFT) simulation of the sensor molecules (Bromo-acetonaphthone tungstate (BANT) and acetonaphthophenyl ether propiono hydroxyl tungstate (APPHT)), indicated a fully relaxed geometry without symmetry attributes and specific coordination which enhances ketone bodies sensitivity. A portable sensing unit was made in which detection media containing ketone bodies at low concentration and new molecules show color change in visible light as well as unique irradiance during UV illumination. RGB analysis, electrochemical tests, SEM characterization, FTIR, absorbance and emission spectroscopy were also performed in order to validate the ketone sensitivity of these new molecules.

  19. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987

  20. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  1. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987

  2. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  3. A review of recent advances in optical fibre sensors for in vivo dosimetry during radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, S; McCarthy, D; Woulfe, P; Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R; Sporea, D; Mihai, L; Vata, I; Leen, G

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the recent developments and requirements in radiotherapy dosimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of optical fibre dosemeters for radiotherapy applications, focusing particularly on in vivo applications. Optical fibres offer considerable advantages over conventional techniques for radiotherapy dosimetry, owing to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences, and suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based dosemeters, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive and thus particularly suited to in vivo dosimetry. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, for example, for brachytherapy treatments, the optical fibres could be placed in the tumour itself or into nearby critical tissues requiring monitoring, via the same applicators or needles used for the treatment delivery thereby providing real-time dosimetric information. The article outlines the principal sensor design systems along with some of the main strengths and weaknesses associated with the development of these techniques. The successful demonstration of these sensors in a range of different clinical environments is also presented. PMID:25761212

  4. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  5. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  6. Understanding Zinc Quantification with Existing and Advanced Ditopic Fluorescent Zinpyr Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Buccella, Daniela; Horowitz, Joshua A.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of aqueous zinc solutions with incremental additions of a ditopic fluorescent sensor of the Zinpyr family, based on pyridine/pyrazine-containing metal recognition units, affords a fluorescence titration curve with a sharp maximum at a sensor:Zn2+ ratio of 0.5 (Zhang, X-a.; Hayes, D.; Smith, S. J.; Friedle, S.; Lippard, S. J. J. Am. Chem Soc. 2008, 130, 15788–15789). This fluorescence response enables the quantification of readily chelatable zinc in biological samples by a simple titration protocol. In the present work a new set of ditopic fluorescence zinc sensors functionalized with pyridine/pyrazine-containing metal chelating units is described, and through detailed studies the principles governing the characteristic “OFF-ON-OFF” fluorescence behavior and quantification capabilities of the family are delineated. Incorporation of carboxylate/ester groups in the 6 position of the fluorescein allows for control of the spatial distribution of the sensor for selective extra- or intracellular imaging of mobile zinc, without introducing significant changes in zinc-binding properties. A combination of spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements provided a complete description of the H+ and Zn2+ binding properties of the compounds and their correlation with the observed fluorescence profile. The first zinc-binding event has an apparent affinity, K1′, of 1.9–3.1×109 M−1, whereas for coordination of the second Zn2+ ion, responsible for fluorescence turn on, the apparent formation constant K2′ is 5.5–6.9×107 M−1. A detailed chemical and mathematical analysis of the system demonstrated that the difference in emission efficiencies of the dimetalated (LZn2) vs. monometalated (LZn) and metal free (L) forms, a consequence of the combined quenching effects of the two metal-chelating units, significantly influences the shape of the titration curve. The scope of the titration method was investigated mathematically, and a lower boundary for the

  7. Understanding zinc quantification with existing and advanced ditopic fluorescent Zinpyr sensors.

    PubMed

    Buccella, Daniela; Horowitz, Joshua A; Lippard, Stephen J

    2011-03-23

    Treatment of aqueous zinc solutions with incremental additions of a ditopic fluorescent sensor of the Zinpyr family, based on pyridine/pyrazine-containing metal recognition units, affords a fluorescence titration curve with a sharp maximum at a sensor:Zn(2+) ratio of 0.5 (Zhang, X-a.; Hayes, D.; Smith, S. J.; Friedle, S.; Lippard, S. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2008, 130, 15788-15789). This fluorescence response enables the quantification of readily chelatable zinc in biological samples by a simple titration protocol. In the present work a new set of ditopic fluorescence zinc sensors functionalized with pyridine/pyrazine-containing metal chelating units is described, and through detailed studies the principles governing the characteristic OFF-ON-OFF fluorescence behavior and quantification capabilities of the family are delineated. Incorporation of carboxylate/ester groups in the 6 position of the fluorescein allows for control of the spatial distribution of the sensor for selective extra- or intracellular imaging of mobile zinc, without introducing significant changes in zinc-binding properties. A combination of spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements provided a complete description of the H(+)- and Zn(2+)-binding properties of the compounds and their correlation with the observed fluorescence profile. The first zinc-binding event has an apparent affinity, K(1)', of 1.9 × 10(9)-3.1 × 10(9) M(-1), whereas for coordination of the second Zn(2+) ion, responsible for fluorescence turn-on, the apparent formation constant, K(2)', is 5.5 × 10(7)-6.9 × 10(7) M(-1). A detailed chemical and mathematical analysis of the system demonstrated that the difference in emission efficiencies of the dimetalated (LZn(2)) vs monometalated (LZn) and metal-free (L) forms, a consequence of the combined quenching effects of the two metal-chelating units, significantly influences the shape of the titration curve. The scope of the titration method was investigated mathematically, and a

  8. Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, Daniel W.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Bedoya, Carlos A.; Mattes, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for application to advanced aircraft flight and propulsion control. This development included the design and production of 10 passive optical sensors and associated multiplexed EOA hardware based on wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology. A variety of sensor types (rotary position, linear position, temperature, and pressure) incorporating a broad range of sensor technologies (WDM analog, WDM digital, analog microbend, and fluorescent time rate of decay) were obtained from different manufacturers and functionally integrated with an independently designed EOA. The sensors were built for installation in a variety of aircraft locations, placing the sensors in a variety of harsh environments. The sensors and EOA were designed and built to have the resulting devices be as close as practical to a production system. The integrated system was delivered to NASA for flight testing on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. Development and integration testing of the system provided valuable information as to which sensor types were simplest to design and build for a military aircraft environment and which types were simplest to operate with a multiplexed EOA. Not all sensor types met the full range of performance and environmental requirements. EOA development problems provided information on directions to pursue in future fly-by-light flight control development programs. Lessons learned in the development of the EOA and sensor hardware are summarized.

  9. Uncertainty Analysis And Synergy Of Aerosol Products From Multiple Satellite Sensors For Advanced Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Petrenko, M.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air, and can be made up of wind-blown dust, smoke from fires, and particulate emissions from automobiles, industries, and other natural and man-made sources. Aerosols can have significant impacts on the air quality, and can interact with clouds and solar radiation in such a way as to affect the water cycle and climate. However, the extent and scale of these impacts are still poorly understood, and this represents one of the greatest uncertainties in climate research to date. To fill this gap in our knowledge, the global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols are being extensively observed and measured, especially during the last decade, using both satellite and ground-based instruments, including such spaceborne sensors as MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites, MISR on Terra, OMI on Aura, POLDER on PARASOL, CALIOP on CALIPSO, SeaWiFS on SeaStar, and the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of sunphotometers. The aerosol measurements collected by these instruments over the last decade contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. Still, to be able to utilize these measurements synergistically, they have to be carefully and uniformly analyzed and inter-compared, in order to understand the uncertainties and limitations of the products - a process that is greatly complicated by the diversity of differences that exist among them. In this presentation, we will show results of a coherent comparative uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from the above-named satellite sensors relative to AERONET. We use these results to demonstrate how these sensors perform in different parts of the world over different landcover types as well as their performance relative to one another, thereby facilitating product selection and integration for specific research and applications needs.

  10. Advancing Unmanned Aircraft Sensor Collection and Communication Capabilities with Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaczyk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are now being used for monitoring climate change over both land and seas. Their uses include monitoring of cloud conditions and atmospheric composition of chemicals and aerosols due to pollution, dust storms, fires, volcanic activity and air-sea fluxes. Additional studies of carbon flux are important for various ecosystem studies of both marine and terrestrial environments specifically, and can be related to climate change dynamics. Many measurements are becoming more complex as additional sensors become small enough to operate on more widely available small UAS. These include interferometric radars as well as scanning and fan-beam lidar systems which produce data streams even greater than those of high resolution video. These can be used to precisely map surfaces of the earth, ocean or ice features that are important for a variety of earth system studies. As these additional sensor capabilities are added to UAS the ability to transmit data back to ground or ship monitoring sites is limited by traditional wireless communication protocols. We describe results of tests of optical communication systems that provide significantly greater communication bandwidths for UAS, and discuss both the bandwidth and effective range of these systems, as well as their power and weight requirements both for systems on UAS, as well as those of ground-based receiver stations. We justify our additional use of Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) communication protocols with optical communication methods to ensure security and continuity of command and control operations. Finally, we discuss the implications for receiving, geo-referencing, archiving and displaying data streams from sensors communicated via optical communication to better enable real-time anomaly detection and adaptive sampling capabilities using multiple UAS or other unmanned or manned systems.

  11. An advanced AFM sensor for high-aspect ratio pattern profile in-line measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Baba, Shuichi; Nakata, Toshihiko; Kurenuma, Toru; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Hiroki, Takenori

    2006-03-01

    Design rule shrinkage and the wider adoption of new device structures such as STI, copper damascene interconnects, and deep trench structures have increased the necessity of in-line process monitoring of step heights and profiles of device structures. For monitoring active device patterns, not test patterns as in OCD, AFM is the only non-destructive 3D monitoring tool. The barriers to using AFM in-line monitoring are its slow throughput and the accuracy degradation associated with probe tip wear and spike noise caused by unwanted oscillation on the steep slopes of high-aspect-ratio patterns. Our proprietary AFM scanning method, Step in mode®, is the method best suited to measuring high-aspect-ratio pattern profiles. Because the probe is not dragged on the sample surface as in conventional AFM, the profile trace fidelity across steep slopes is excellent. Because the probe does not oscillate and hit the sample at a high frequency as in AC scanning mode, this mode is free from unwanted spurious noises on steep sample slopes and incurs extremely little probe tip wear. To fully take advantage of the above properties, we have developed an AFM sensor optimized for in-line use, which produces accurate profile data at high speeds. The control scheme we have developed for the AFM sensor, which we call "Smart Step-in", elaborately analyses the contact force signal, enabling efficient probe tip scanning and a low and stable contact force. The mechanism of the AFM sensor has been optimized for the higher scanning rate and has improved the accuracy, such as the scanning planarity, position and height accuracy, and slope angle accuracy. Our prototype AFM sensor can scan high-aspect-ratio patterns while stabilizing the contact force at 3 nN. The step height measurement repeatability was 0.8 nm (3σ). A STI-like test pattern was scanned, and the steep sidewalls with angles of 84° were measured with high fidelity and without spurious noises.

  12. Study of QCL Laser Sources for the Realization of Advanced Sensors

    PubMed Central

    de Risi, Giuseppe; Columbo, Lorenzo Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) with a strong reinjection provided by the feedback from two external targets in a double cavity configuration. The nonlinear coupling of interferometric signals from the two targets allows us to propose a displacement sensor with nanometric resolution. The system exploits the ultra-stability of QCLs in self-mixing configuration to access the intrinsic nonlinearity of the laser, described by the Lang–Kobayashi model, and it relies on a stroboscopic-like effect in the voltage signal registered at the QCL terminals that relates the “slow” target motion to the “fast” target one. PMID:26251907

  13. Load-cell based characterization system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre's holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated. PMID:27475586

  14. Load-cell based characterization system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre's holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  15. The golden age of bio-logging: how animal-borne sensors are advancing the frontiers of ecology.

    PubMed

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Nickel, Barry; Bryce, Caleb M; Smith, Justine A; Wheat, Rachel E; Yovovich, Veronica

    2015-07-01

    Great leaps forward in scientific understanding are often spurred by innovations in technology. The explosion of miniature sensors that are driving the boom in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming platforms, and wearable fitness devices, are now becoming available to ecologists for remotely monitoring the activities of wild animals. While half a century ago researchers were attaching balloons to the backs of seals to measure their movement, today ecologists have access to an arsenal of sensors that can continuously measure most aspects of an animal's state (e.g., location, behavior, caloric expenditure, interactions with other animals) and external environment (e.g., temperature, salinity, depth). This technology is advancing our ability to study animal ecology by allowing researchers to (1) answer questions about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of wild animals in situ that would have previously been limited to tests on model organisms in highly controlled settings, (2) study cryptic or wide-ranging animals that have previously evaded investigation, and (3) develop and test entirely new theories. Here we explore how ecologists are using these tools to answer new questions about the physiological performance, energetics, foraging, migration, habitat selection, and sociality of wild animals, as well as collect data on the environments in which they live. PMID:26378296

  16. Recent advances in the development of a self-powered wireless sensor network for structural health prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Inman, Daniel J.; Ziehl, Paul H.; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Nanni, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the most recent advances in the development of a self powered wireless sensor network for steel and concrete bridges monitoring and prognosis. This five-year cross-disciplinary project includes development and deployment of a 4-channel acoustic emission wireless node powered by structural vibration and wind energy harvesting modules. In order to accomplish this ambitious goal, the project includes a series of tasks that encompassed a variety of developments such as ultra low power AE systems, energy harvester hardware and especial sensors for passive and active acoustic wave detection. Key studies on acoustic emission produced by corrosion on reinforced concrete and by crack propagation on steel components to develop diagnosis tools and models for bridge prognosis are also a part of the project activities. It is important to mention that the impact of this project extends beyond the area of bridge health monitoring. Several wireless prototype nodes have been already requested for applications on offshore oil platforms, composite ships, combat deployable bridges and wind turbines. This project was awarded to a joint venture formed by Mistras Group Inc, Virginia Tech, University of South Carolina and University of Miami and is sponsored through the NIST-TIP Grant #70NANB9H007.

  17. Design and implementation of a new autonomous sensor fish to support advanced hydropower development.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Lu, J; Myjak, M J; Martinez, J J; Tian, C; Morris, S J; Carlson, T J; Zhou, D; Hou, H

    2014-11-01

    Acceleration in development of additional conventional hydropower requires tools and methods to perform laboratory and in-field validation of turbine performance and fish passage claims. The new-generation Sensor Fish has been developed with more capabilities to accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. It provides in situ measurements of three-dimensional (3D) linear accelerations, 3D rotational velocities, 3D orientation, pressure, and temperature at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. It also has an automatic floatation system and built-in radio-frequency transmitter for recovery. The relative errors of the pressure, acceleration, and rotational velocity were within ±2%, ±5%, and ±5%, respectively. The accuracy of orientation was within ±4° and accuracy of temperature was ±2 °C. The new-generation Sensor Fish is becoming a major technology and being deployed for evaluating the conditions for fish passage of turbines or other hydraulic structures in both the United States and several other countries. PMID:25430138

  18. An uncooled thermal-array-based detector as an advanced security sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A 16x16 un-cooled thermal array based detector (ABD) offers the prospect of a new generation of security sensors, with high false alarm rejection and the ability to detect, track and count the number of intruders. The IRISYS array provides the ability not simply to detect an intruder, but by tracking them as a true moving target discriminate between real and false alarm sources. Target processing is carried out within the sensor allowing the position and size of each target within the field of view to be generated. The location and size for each target is output as a low bandwidth data message suitable for transmission over alarm signalling networks. A central security management system or alarm receiving centre display would provide an operator with an intruder count per room, a pseudo 'visual' display of targets and locations, show target vectors on a graphical display and track targets from room to room, allowing an appropriate response to be initiated. Taking the same concepts into external detection, should allow discrimination of humans versus animals or vermin and afford a high level of reasoning to reject environmentally generated false alarms. In external detection applications using the ABD as a trigger for CCTV, intruder location data would be used to steer and zoom a PTZ camera to achieve an identification view. As auto tracking features are added to the latest dome cameras the ABD's ability to track and output simultaneous data from multiple targets will steer a camera between several intruders.

  19. Design and implementation of a new autonomous sensor fish to support advanced hydropower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Lu, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Martinez, J. J.; Tian, C.; Morris, S. J.; Carlson, T. J.; Zhou, D.; Hou, H.

    2014-11-01

    Acceleration in development of additional conventional hydropower requires tools and methods to perform laboratory and in-field validation of turbine performance and fish passage claims. The new-generation Sensor Fish has been developed with more capabilities to accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. It provides in situ measurements of three-dimensional (3D) linear accelerations, 3D rotational velocities, 3D orientation, pressure, and temperature at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. It also has an automatic floatation system and built-in radio-frequency transmitter for recovery. The relative errors of the pressure, acceleration, and rotational velocity were within ±2%, ±5%, and ±5%, respectively. The accuracy of orientation was within ±4° and accuracy of temperature was ±2 °C. The new-generation Sensor Fish is becoming a major technology and being deployed for evaluating the conditions for fish passage of turbines or other hydraulic structures in both the United States and several other countries.

  20. 17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST CORNER, THIRD BAY Showing insulated exterior wall at right; asphalt felt on interior separation wall at left; sill beam, stud, and concrete foundation detailing of interior wall. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  1. 18. DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD EAST, THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION, VIEW TOWARD EAST, THIRD BAY Showing furring strips, kraft faced cellulose fiber insulation, and asphalt felt applied to interior of exterior wall studs. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  2. 5. EXTERIOR OF WEST (REAR) SIDE OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF WEST (REAR) SIDE OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, AND CONCRETE STEPS TO SIDE ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT. CHANGE IN EXTERIOR WALL DELINEATING 1946 BEDROOM ADDITION AND REMODELED WINDOW TO BATHROOM ARE VISIBLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  3. 46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section 154.1105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1105 - Exterior water spray system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exterior water spray system: General. 154.1105 Section 154.1105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Firefighting § 154.1105 Exterior water spray system: General. Each liquefied flammable gas...

  5. Exterior differentiation in the Regge calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Brewin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Regge manifolds are piecewise continuous manifolds constructed from a finite number of basic building blocks. On such manifolds piecewise continuous forms can be defined in a way similar to differential forms on a differentiable manifold. Regge manifolds are used extensively in the construction of space-times in numerical general relativity. In this paper a definition of exterior differentiation suitable for use on piecewise continuous forms on a Regge manifold is presented. It is shown that this definition leads to a version of Stokes' theorem and also to the usual result that d/sup 2/ = 0. This is preceded by a discussion of certain geometrical properties of the Regge manifolds. It is shown that the version of Stokes' theorem presented here coincides with the usual definition when the Regge manifold is refined, by increasing the number of cells while keeping the total volume constant, to a smooth manifold.

  6. Visualizing interior and exterior jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moondra, Manmohan S.

    In today's competitive aerospace industry, the quest for quiet has drawn significant attention to both the interior and exterior design of an airplane. Understanding the noise generation mechanisms of a jet aircraft is a crucial first step toward developing the most cost-effective noise and vibrations abatement methods. In this investigation, the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) based nearfield acoustic holography will be used to understand noise transmission caused by jet engine and turbulence into the fuselage of a jet aircraft cruising at 30,000 ft. Modern propulsive jet engines produce exterior noise sources with a high amplitude noise field and complicated characteristics, which makes them very difficult to characterize. In particular, there are turbulent eddies that are moving through the jet at high speeds along the jet boundary. These turbulent eddies in the shear layer produce a directional and frequency dependent noise. The original HELS approach assumes a spherical source at the origin and computes the acoustic field based on spherical emission from this source. This assumption of one source at the origin is not sufficient to characterize a complex source like a jet. As such, a modified HELS approach is introduced that will help improve the source characterization as it is not dependent on a single source at the origin but a number of virtual sources throughout the space. Custom microphones are created to take acoustic pressure measurements around the jet engine. These measured acoustic pressures are then taken as input to the modified HELS algorithm to visualize the noise pattern of a subsonic jet engine.

  7. [Clinical significance and functional outcomes of ligation of exterior carotid artery in surgical treatment of oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Klochikhin, A L; Trofimov, E I; Gamilovskaia, Iu V; Chistiakov, A L

    2010-01-01

    This work was designed to analyse outcomes of the treatment of 65 patients with advanced oropharyngeal cancer who had received combined treatment including radical resection of the tumour. Thirty three patients underwent surgery without ligation of exterior carotid artery while the remaining 32 (control group) were operated after preceding ligation of this vessel. The influence of ligation of exterior carotid artery on cerebral circulation was evaluated by the following methods: estimation of the intraoperative blood loss from A.T. Staroverov's formula, ultrasound dopplerography of extracranial carotid segments, electroencephalography, measurement of the fields of vision using statistical quantitative perimetry, evaluation of the patients' neurologic status. It was shown that ligation of exterior carotid artery has no apparent effect on the intraoperative blood loss during radical surgery for the management of oropharyngeal cancer nor does it influence healing of the postoperative wound and oncological outcome of this treatment. PMID:20436415

  8. Advanced moisture sensor research and development. Quarterly progress report, August 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    De Los Santos, A.

    1992-10-31

    During this period, testing of the system continued at the American Fructose (AF) plant in Dimmitt, Texas. Testing at the first two sites (dryer output and dryer input) was completed. Following the testing at the second site, the sensor was returned to the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) laboratories for modifications and for fitting of the additional components required to allow sampling of the material to be measured at the third site. These modifications were completed during this reporting period, and the system is scheduled to be installed at the third site (Rotary Vacuum Filter output) early in the next period. Laboratory measurements of corn germ (to be measured at the fourth site) and a variety of fruits and vegetables (one of which will be measured at the fifth site) have also continued during this period.

  9. Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) Flight Testing of the Lidar Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soreide, David C.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Bowdle, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the ACLAIM program is ultimately to establish the viability of light detection and ranging (lidar) as a forward-looking sensor for turbulence. The goals of this flight test are to: 1) demonstrate that the ACLAIM lidar system operates reliably in a flight test environment, 2) measure the performance of the lidar as a function of the aerosol backscatter coefficient (beta), 3) use the lidar system to measure atmospheric turbulence and compare these measurements to onboard gust measurements, and 4) make measurements of the aerosol backscatter coefficient, its probability distribution and spatial distribution. The scope of this paper is to briefly describe the ACLAIM system and present examples of ACLAIM operation in flight, including comparisons with independent measurements of wind gusts, gust-induced normal acceleration, and the derived eddy dissipation rate.

  10. Design and Implementation of a new Autonomous Sensor Fish to Support Advanced Hydropower Development

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Tian, Chuan; Morris, Scott J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Zhou, Da; Hou, Hongfei

    2014-11-04

    Acceleration in development of additional conventional hydropower requires tools and methods to perform laboratory and in-field validation of turbine performance and fish passage claims. The new-generation Sensor Fish has been developed with more capabilities to accommodate a wider range of users over a wider range of turbine designs and operating environments. It provides in situ measurements of three dimensional (3D) accelerations, 3D rotational velocities, 3D orientation, pressure, and temperature at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. It also has an automatic floatation system and built-in radio frequency transmitter for recovery. The relative errors of the pressure, acceleration and rotational velocity were within ±2%, ±5%, and ±5%, respectively. The accuracy of orientation was within ±4° and accuracy of temperature was ±2°C. It is being deployed to evaluate the biological effects of turbines or other hydraulic structures in several countries.

  11. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Elena; Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1−x] O3 (PZT), are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb). Due to its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided. PMID:22294907

  12. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  13. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Survey and evaluation of measurement techniques for temperature, strain and heat flux for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the final results of Tasks 1 and 2, Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems (NASA program NAS3-25141). During Task 1, an extensive survey was conducted of sensor concepts which have the potential for measuring surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. Each sensor concept was analyzed and evaluated under Task 2; sensor concepts were then recommended for further development. For temperature measurement, both pyrometry and thermographic phosphors are recommended for measurements up to and beyond the melting point of ceramic materials. For lower temperature test programs, the thin-film techniques offer advantages in the installation of temperature sensors. Optical strain measurement techniques are recommended because they offer the possibility of being useful at very high temperature levels. Techniques for the measurement of heat flux are recommended for development based on both a surface mounted sensor and the measurement of the temperature differential across a portion of a ceramic component or metallic substrate.

  14. Advances in utilization of structurally integrated sensor networks for health monitoring in commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mark; Kumar, Amrita; Qing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn J.

    2002-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is a new technology that has been increasingly evaluated by the industry as a potential approach to improve the cost and ease of structural inspection. By improving structural inspection, structures can be made safer and more reliable, thus reducing the cost of structure ownership. Acellent Technologies is developing tools for structural health monitoring. The tools Acellent is offering are the SMART Layer and the SMART Suitcase. The SMART Layer is a flexible layer with a distributed array of piezoelectric transducers made using the printed circuit process that allows easy installation onto structures for in-situ sensing. The SMART Suitcase is an instrument that can interact with the SMART Layer and process the information collected from the structures. Acellent has been providing the system to researchers and companies to try out this new technique. Currently, this system is being evaluated by aircraft manufacturers for monitoring fatigue cracks from rivet holes, by an automotive company for inspecting flaws in composite/foam components, and by aerospace companies for detecting damages in composite/honeycomb sandwich structures. Other recent developments include the addition of fiber-optic sensors onto the SMART Layer and proving the SMART Layer for composite RTM process.

  15. Field Effect Sensors for Nucleic Acid Detection: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Veigas, Bruno; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade the use of field-effect-based devices has become a basic structural element in a new generation of biosensors that allow label-free DNA analysis. In particular, ion sensitive field effect transistors (FET) are the basis for the development of radical new approaches for the specific detection and characterization of DNA due to FETs’ greater signal-to-noise ratio, fast measurement capabilities, and possibility to be included in portable instrumentation. Reliable molecular characterization of DNA and/or RNA is vital for disease diagnostics and to follow up alterations in gene expression profiles. FET biosensors may become a relevant tool for molecular diagnostics and at point-of-care. The development of these devices and strategies should be carefully designed, as biomolecular recognition and detection events must occur within the Debye length. This limitation is sometimes considered to be fundamental for FET devices and considerable efforts have been made to develop better architectures. Herein we review the use of field effect sensors for nucleic acid detection strategies—from production and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics lab. PMID:25946631

  16. Ionomer-coated electrodes and nanoelectrode ensembles as electrochemical environmental sensors: recent advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ugo, Paolo; Moretto, Ligia Maria; Vezzà, Francesca

    2002-11-15

    This Minireview focuses on recent advances in the use of ionomer-coated electrodes and nanoelectrode ensembles for the determination of redox ions at trace concentration level with special stress on applications for environmental monitoring. After an overview on the most recent developments of ionomer-coated electrodes, attention is directed towards their use for speciation analysis in environmental samples. In particular, some examples such as the selective determination of inorganic and metallorganic species of different toxicity and the redox state speciation of multiply charged ions are discussed. The second part of the Minireview deals with the development and electroanalytical use of a new kind of nanostructured electrode, named nanoelectrode ensembles, which are prepared by template synthesis within the pores of microporous guest membranes. Advantages, peculiarities, and limits of such devices are discussed together with perspectives for their use in electroanalytical sensing at trace and ultratrace concentration levels in environmental samples. PMID:12503131

  17. Advanced fire observation by the Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, D.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V.; Lanzl, F.; Zhukov, B.; Jahn, H.; Briess, K.; Lorenz, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Ginati, A.; Tobehn, C.; Schulte in den Bäumen, J.; Christmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    Current and planned operational space-borne Earth observation systems provide spatially, radiometrically or temporally crude data for the detection and monitoring of high temperature phenomena on the surface of our planet. High Temperature Events (HTE) very often cause environmental disasters. Such HTE are forest and savannah fires, fires of open coal mines, volcanic activities and others (e.g. fires of oil wells, pipelines etc.). A simultaneous co-registration of a combination of infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) channels is the key for a reliable autonomous on-board detection of High Temperature Events (HTE) on Earth surface, such as vegetation fires and volcano eruptions. This is the main feature of the FOCUS experiment. Furthermore there are ecology-oriented objectives of the FOCUS experiment mainly related to spectrometric/imaging remote inspection and parameter extraction of selected HTEs, and to the assessment of some ecological consequences of HTEs, such as aerosol and gas emission. Based on own experimental work and supported by Co-Investigators from Italy, Greece, France, Spain, Russia and Germany, DLR proposed in 1997 to use the International Space Station (ISS) in its early utilization phase as a platform and test-bed for an Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS of a future Environmental Disaster Recognition Satellite System. FOCUS is considered by ESA as an important mission combining a number of proven technologies and observation techniques to provide the scientific and operational user community with key data for the classification and monitoring of forest fires. FOCUS was selected as one of five European ``Groupings'' to be flown as an externally mounted payload during the early utilisation phase of the ISS. The FOCUS Phase A Study will be performed by OHB-System, DLR and Zeiss from September 1998 until May 1999.

  18. An advanced AFM sensor: its profile accuracy and low probe wear property for high aspect ratio patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Baba, Shuichi; Nakata, Toshihiko; Kurenuma, Toru; Kunitomo, Yuichi; Edamura, Manabu

    2007-03-01

    Design rule shrinkage and wider adoption of new device structures such as STI, copper damascene interconnects, and deep trench structures have made the need for in-line process monitoring of step heights and profiles of device structures more urgent. To monitor active device patterns, as opposed to test patterns as in OCD, AFM is the only non-destructive 3D monitoring tool. The barriers to using AFM in-line monitoring are its slow throughput and the accuracy degradation associated with probe tip wear and spike noise caused by unwanted oscillation on the steep slopes of high-aspect-ratio patterns. Our proprietary AFM scanning method, StepIn TM mode, is the method best suited to measuring high-aspect-ratio pattern profiles. Because the probe is not dragged on the sample surface as in conventional AFM, the profile trace fidelity across steep slopes is excellent. Because the probe does not oscillate and hit the sample at a high frequency, as in AC scanning mode, this mode is free from unwanted spurious noises on steep sample slopes and incurs extremely little probe tip wear. To take full advantage of the above properties, we have developed an AFM sensor that is optimized for in-line use and produces accurate profile data at high speeds and incurs little probe tip wear. The control scheme we have developed for the AFM sensor, which we call "Advanced StepIn TM", elaborately analyses the contact force signal, enabling efficient probe tip scanning and a low and stable contact force. With a developed AFM sensor that realizes this concept, we conducted an intensive evaluation on the effect of low and stable contact force scan. Probes with HDC (high density carbon) tips were used for the evaluation. The experiment proves that low contact force enhances the measured profile fidelity by preventing probe tip slip on steep slopes. Dynamics simulation of these phenomena was also conducted, and its results agreed well with the experimental results. The low contact force scan also

  19. Online analysis of H2S and SO2 via advanced mid-infrared gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Petruci, João Flavio da Silveira; Wilk, Andreas; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-10-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are among the most prevalent emitted pollutants in urban and rural atmospheres. Mainly because of the versatility of sulfur regarding its oxidation state (2- to 6+), VSCs are present in a wide variety of redox-environments, concentration levels, and molar ratios. Among the VSCs, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are considered most relevant and have simultaneously been detected within naturally and anthropogenically caused emission events (e.g., volcano emissions, food production and industries, coal pyrolysis, and various biological activities). Next to their presence as pollutants, changes within their molar ratio may also indicate natural anomalies. Prior to analysis, H2S- and SO2-containing samples are usually preconcentrated via solid sorbents and are then detected by gas chromatographic techniques. However, such analytical strategies may be of limited selectivity, and the dimensions and operation modalities of the involved instruments prevent routine field usage. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous H2S and SO2 via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG) serving as a highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell with a custom-made preconcentration tube and an in-line UV-converter device. Both species were collected onto a solid sorbent within the preconcentrator and then released by thermal desorption into the UV-device. Hydrogen sulfide is detected by UV-assisted quantitative conversion of the rather weak IR-absorber H2S into SO2, which provides a significantly more pronounced and distinctively detectable rovibrational signature. Modulation of the UV-device system (i.e., UV-lamp on/off) enables discriminating between SO2 generated from H2S conversion and abundant SO2 signals. After optimization of the operational parameters, calibrations in the range of 0.75-10 ppmv with a limit

  20. Applying Advanced and Existing Sensors in Dealing with Potential Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning, security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the loss of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone s needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  1. Towards advanced biological detection using surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS)-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankus, Mikella E.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2010-08-01

    The Army has a need for an accurate, fast, reliable and robust means to identify and quantify defense related materials. Raman spectroscopy is a form of vibrational spectroscopy that is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for homeland defense applications, as it is well suited for the molecular identification of a variety of compounds, including explosives and chemical and biological hazards. To measure trace levels of these types of materials, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), a specialized form of Raman scattering, can be employed. The SERS enhancements are produced on, or in close proximity to, a nanoscale roughened metal surface and are typically associated with increased local electromagnetic field strengths. However, before application of SERS in the field and in particular to biological and other hazard sensing applications, significant improvements in substrate performance are needed. In this work, we will report the use of several SERS substrate architectures (colloids, film-over-nanospheres (FONs) and commercially available substrates) for detecting and differentiating numerous endospore samples. The variance in spectra as obtained using different sensing architectures will also be discussed. Additionally, the feasibility of using a modified substrate architecture that is tailored with molecular recognition probe system for detecting biological samples will be explored. We will discuss the progress towards an advanced, hybrid molecular recognition with a SERS/Fluorescence nanoprobe system including the optimization, fabrication, and spectroscopic analysis of samples on a commercially available substrate. Additionally, the feasibility of using this single-step switching architecture for hazard material detection will also be explored.

  2. Advances in Bio-Tactile Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgery Using the Fibre Bragg Grating Force Sensor Technique:A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abushagur, Abdulfatah A.G.; Arsad, Norhana; Ibne Reaz, Mamun; Ashrif, A.; Bakar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The large interest in utilising fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) applications to replace conventional electrical tactile sensors has grown in the past few years. FBG strain sensors offer the advantages of optical fibre sensors, such as high sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic noise, electrical passivity and chemical inertness, but are not limited by phase discontinuity or intensity fluctuations. FBG sensors feature a wavelength-encoding sensing signal that enables distributed sensing that utilises fewer connections. In addition, their flexibility and lightness allow easy insertion into needles and catheters, thus enabling localised measurements inside tissues and blood. Two types of FBG tactile sensors have been emphasised in the literature: single-point and array FBG tactile sensors. This paper describes the current design, development and research of the optical fibre tactile techniques that are based on FBGs to enhance the performance of MIS procedures in general. Providing MIS or microsurgery surgeons with accurate and precise measurements and control of the contact forces during tissues manipulation will benefit both surgeons and patients. PMID:24721774

  3. 13. CO'S STATEROOM (CABIN'S QUARTERS), PORT EXTERIOR. NOTE PORTHOLE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CO'S STATEROOM (CABIN'S QUARTERS), PORT EXTERIOR. NOTE PORTHOLE AND WOODEN FRAME WINDOWS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 122. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY TEAM MEASURING EXTERIOR OF INDEPENDENCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY TEAM MEASURING EXTERIOR OF INDEPENDENCE HALL (LEE NELSON ON CORNER LEANING OVER) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 10. Historic exterior view of Building 100. August 22, 1957. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic exterior view of Building 100. August 22, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45766. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 16. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION TOWERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION TOWERS ON WEST END OF BRADFORD ISLAND; BRADFORD SLOUGH DOWNSTREAM FROM POWERHOUSE #1 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 7. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST OF THE NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST OF THE NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. 6. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF THE NORTH ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE SOUTH OF THE NORTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE SOUTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF THE SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  11. 8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Aurand, John F.

    1999-01-01

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  15. 1. EXTERIOR, NORTH & WEST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Hans Muesig ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, NORTH & WEST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Hans Muesig & Robert Ryan, Photographers, March 1979) - Methodist Episcopal Church of Montour, East side of South Walnut Street, Montour, Gem County, ID

  16. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, FRONT FACADE AND ENTRANCE TO COMPANY SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN OF BLACK TCI-US STEEL RED ORE MINE WORKERS - Company School for Blacks, 413 Morgan Road, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 175, exterior oblique view of northeast and northwest sides, corner of Facility No. 176 is in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 52. DETAIL VIEW OF FRONT DOOR (EXTERIOR), FLUTED BUTTRESSES, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. DETAIL VIEW OF FRONT DOOR (EXTERIOR), FLUTED BUTTRESSES, AND PARAPETED GABLE, NORTHWEST SIDE OF CAPTAIN'S GALLEY, LOOKING EAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  20. 2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 746 FROM EAST K ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 746 FROM EAST K STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. EXTERIOR, A close up view, looking southeast at the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A close up view, looking southeast at the dock and overhead piping - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  3. EXTERIOR, A view looking southeast toward the north elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking southeast toward the north elevation of the building including the dock and overhead piping and stacks - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  4. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south elevation and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south elevation and stacks of HH Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  5. EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the Mounds complex and the HH Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  6. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast at the south and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast at the south and west facades of the building and staircase - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  7. EXTERIOR, A view looking west that captures the east elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking west that captures the east elevation of the building with parking lot to the right - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW INTO PART OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW INTO PART OF OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 WITH RAILROAD TRESTLE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS FOR OPEN HEARTH NO. 5 (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS HALL. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  13. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Detail; Street Car Waiting House, support for exterior light fixture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House, support for exterior light fixture - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Exterior doorway detail south side of building (first floor) east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior doorway detail south side of building (first floor) east inset porch; interior staircase visible in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. View of exterior circumferential path at northwest side of building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of exterior circumferential path at northwest side of building, looking east toward building entrance - National Zoological Park, Bird House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING CHANNEL DOWNSTREAM FROM NAVIGATION LOCK #1; MOVABLE BRIDGE IS VISIBLE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 9. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES FOR NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Exterior detail view of roof structure at eave, showing exposed rafter tails, skip sheathing and gutter - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  1. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOEpatents

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  2. EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. Pratt Coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Coke Ovens & Railroad, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 2. EXTERIOR SITE VIEW OF STRUCTURE 408 AND RADOME 409 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR SITE VIEW OF STRUCTURE 408 AND RADOME 409 ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Radar Domes, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  4. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ELECTRIC FURNACE OFFICE & CHEMICAL LABORATORY BUILDING. INGOT MOLDS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Exterior oblique view of the east end and the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of the east end and the south side. Showing the Dust Collector on the right. View facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Sawmill, Seventh Street near Avenue E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  9. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior roof structure detail, looking northwest. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  10. 1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the outside of mill building center of picture. Looking northeast from below bridge. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  11. General exterior view to northeast (Building 203 in background right) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General exterior view to northeast (Building 203 in background right) - Charlestown Navy Yard, Oxygen Plant, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Fourth Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 22. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BRIDGE, 1932 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BRIDGE, 1932 SECTION, SOUTH BANK, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST - Rowdy Creek Bridge, Spanning Rowdy Creek at Fred Haight Drive, Smith River, Del Norte County, CA

  13. EXTERIOR VIEW, POWELL AVENUE (SOUTH) ELEVATION, PEDESTRIAN PASSAGEWAY AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, POWELL AVENUE (SOUTH) ELEVATION, PEDESTRIAN PASSAGEWAY AT LEFT SIDE OF UNDERPASS - Twentieth Street Underpass, At Railroad Reservation, Twentieth Street at the Tracks between Morris & Powell Avenues, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance to second story of la casa, view towards the west - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  15. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  16. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 447 FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Between Northampton Avenue & Wharf K3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 477 FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Astoria Avenue & Gaffney Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 477 FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Astoria Avenue & Gaffney Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 447 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Between Northampton Avenue & Wharf K3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  3. 2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. Sept. 12, 1940. Photo by Stanly P. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  4. 3. Exterior, detail view of north elevation, from northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Exterior, detail view of north elevation, from northeast, showing joint of addition. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  5. Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west elevation. Building camouflaged during World War II. - Grand Central Air Terminal, 1310 Air Way, Glendale, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  7. Exterior oblique view of southeast and northeast side. View facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of southeast and northeast side. View facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 32. Credit JTL. Exterior transformer bank; note lightning arrestors removed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Credit JTL. Exterior transformer bank; note lightning arrestors removed from pad and smaller arrestors installed on transformers and in area near air switches. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  9. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SIDE AND FRONT ELEVATIONS OF THE CHURCH AND THE GAZEBO BAND STAND (LEFT) - St. Mark's Catholic Church, 1040 Tenth Avenue West, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST & SOUTHEAST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE SOUTHWEST & SOUTHEAST SIDES OF THE AUDITORIUM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1056, Southwest of intersection of South Tenth Avenue & South "X" Street, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  11. 2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 218 WITH DOMES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUILDING 218 WITH DOMES TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Consolidated Open Mess, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  12. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 6. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF SOUTH END OF EAST FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF SOUTH END OF EAST FACADE OF STEAM PLANT, BUILDING 740, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Steam Plant, Sixth Street south of East K Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF NORTH END OF EAST FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF NORTH END OF EAST FACADE OF STEAM PLANT, BUILDING 740, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Steam Plant, Sixth Street south of East K Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE SHOWING DOOR TO ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH ON PHOTO RIGHT AND DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. 1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  17. 9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY CANAL BED IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  18. 7. EXTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DETAIL OF TRASH RACK IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  19. EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HEART OF DIXIE MUSEUM'S HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW WITH HEART OF DIXIE MUSEUM'S HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVE IN MUSEUM'S POWELL AVENUE YARD (BOTTOM) AND SOUTHERN RAILWAY BOXCAR ON ACTIVE TRACKAGE (ABOVE). - Heart of Dixie Railroad, Rolling Stock, 1800 Block Powell Avenue, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE EXPLOSIVE STORAGE SHED, BUILDING 306, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Explosive Storage, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF HALL. SHOWING THE THREELIGHT EXTERIOR DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HALL. SHOWING THE THREE-LIGHT EXTERIOR DOOR TO THE COVERED PATIO AREA AND THE TELEPHONE NICHE. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type G, 205 Seventh Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  3. 46. Exterior view at the corner of Seventh Avenue and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Exterior view at the corner of Seventh Avenue and Olive Way, looking NE. Opening night film, 'The Broadway Melody,' displayed on the canopy marquee. - Fox Theater, Seventh Avenue & Olive Way, Seattle, King County, WA

  4. 5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 21. Southeast corner of switch house addition, including exterior transformers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southeast corner of switch house addition, including exterior transformers and start of power transmission line. Employee House No. 1 is in the background. - Rock Creek Hydroelectric Project, Rock Creek, Baker County, OR

  6. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST OF ANCILLARY STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH AND SURROUNDING BUILDING 3210. - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, Elevated Water Tower, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  7. 8. Interior view of administrator's office, showing exterior windows; near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of administrator's office, showing exterior windows; near northwest corner of west wing; view to south. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Administration Office, 2704 George Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  8. 2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN AND DENSE LANDSCAPE - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  9. 1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BUILDING 883 EXTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VENTILATION EQUIPMENT IS VISIBLE. (11/27/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 3. Readiness Crew Building exterior, south and east sides, overall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Readiness Crew Building exterior, south and east sides, overall view, looking northwest. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  11. 4. Readiness Crew Building exterior, three tunnels on the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Readiness Crew Building exterior, three tunnels on the south side, looking west-northwest. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  12. 4. EXTERIOR CONTEXT OF BUILDING 220 WITH FOUNDATION OF 224 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR CONTEXT OF BUILDING 220 WITH FOUNDATION OF 224 IN THE FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Mess Hall, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  13. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH ENTRANCES AND SIDE ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, WITH ENTRANCES AND SIDE ELEVATIONS ALONG THE OLD BANKHEAD HIGHWAY (NOW 20TH STREET) AND ELLIOTT BOULEVARD - G. W. Posey Store, Twentieth Street & Elliot Boulevard, Jasper, Walker County, AL

  14. 29. EXTERIOR CAN CONVEYOR One of three external can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. EXTERIOR - CAN CONVEYOR One of three external can conveyor systems which criss-crossed the multi-leveled confusion of roof structures of the cannery complex. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  15. 1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  16. 2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  17. 5. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, EXTERIOR VIEW OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, EXTERIOR VIEW OF PORTION OF EAGLE CREEK OVERLOOK. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  18. Electrical cable connector-clamp has smooth exterior surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Electrical cable connector-clamp fitted with a collet has a smooth exterior surface that can be easily gripped. The collet clamps a portion of the cable and provides for connecting it to a standard electrical connector.

  19. 19. INTERIOR, VIEW THROUGH TRIANGULARARCHED DOORWAY TO EXTERIOR Moravian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR, VIEW THROUGH TRIANGULAR-ARCHED DOORWAY TO EXTERIOR - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  20. Detail, exterior side of doubleplanked north end, Burton Park Club ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, exterior side of double-planked north end, Burton Park Club House, view to south-southwest (135mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  1. 55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug Sam on the ways seen from Port Bow. This was first railway built by BBW on site (Ca.1936). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  2. 40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly building. Note BBW Tug Sam on railway and BBW-Built Stardust (#1) at end of dock. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  3. 57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun Sam on the ways seen from Starboard Bow. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  4. 4. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  5. 3. EXTERIOR SOUTH ELEVATION VIEW OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR SOUTH ELEVATION VIEW OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  6. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey EXTERIOR SUMMERGARDEN, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey EXTERIOR SUMMERGARDEN, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION OF 1893-94 PORTION OF BUILDING, PHOTOCOPY c. 1898 - Das Deutsche Haus, 401 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  7. 8. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRY PORCH SHOWING ORIGINAL ARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRY PORCH SHOWING ORIGINAL ARTS AND CRAFTS STYLE ELECTRICAL LANTERN. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. EXTERIOR NORTH VIEW, WITH BUILDING 91 (ORIGINALLY THE WRIGHT FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR NORTH VIEW, WITH BUILDING 91 (ORIGINALLY THE WRIGHT FIELD LAUNDRY) IN THE FOREGROUND - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 67, Emergency Power Plant, North side of Third Street between D & E Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. EXTERIOR CLOSEUP VIEW OF SINGLE BAY ON WEST FACADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR CLOSEUP VIEW OF SINGLE BAY ON WEST FACADE - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 56, Wright Field Warehouse, block bounded by E & F, Third & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  10. Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  11. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 5. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF CUPOLA AND WEATHER VANE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF CUPOLA AND WEATHER VANE ON TOP OF THE FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SLAB YARD. AT RIGHT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SLAB YARD. AT RIGHT IS HOT STRIP MILL BUILDING AND FURNACE. VIEW AT LEFT IS TOWARD CUT TO LENGTH BUILDING. - Central Iron Foundry Site, 1700 Holt Road, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. 2. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF INTERIOR SHOWING EXTERIOR DOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF INTERIOR SHOWING EXTERIOR DOOR, WINDOWS AND CONTROL PANELS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Exterior overall oblique view of the northeast and southeast sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior overall oblique view of the northeast and southeast sides - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Scrap Metal Packaging Facility, Seventh Street between Facility Nos. 6 & 247, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Exterior view of the southwest side, taken from Facility No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of the southwest side, taken from Facility No. 247 with Facility No. 6 beyond - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Scrap Metal Packaging Facility, Seventh Street between Facility Nos. 6 & 247, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CENTER SPAN EXTENDING ACROSS WARRIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CENTER SPAN EXTENDING ACROSS WARRIOR RIVER AND COAL BARGES (LEFT). - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  18. DETAIL ELEVATION VIEW OF EXTERIOR STAIRS ON THE EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL ELEVATION VIEW OF EXTERIOR STAIRS ON THE EAST END OF BUILDING 63, FACING SOUTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Exterior view of boiler house looking southwest with steam exhaust ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of boiler house looking southwest with steam exhaust vents in foreground. Engine house is on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. Exterior view looking northwest with construction facilities of "new" pumping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view looking northwest with construction facilities of "new" pumping station in foreground. Doug Hine is man in picture. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine house is shown in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. Detail exterior view looking northwest showing field gas cleaner in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking northwest showing field gas cleaner in the center. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  4. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE HOT ROLL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE HOT ROLL MILL, ALSO KNOWN AS THE NO. 31 HOT ROLL MILL; LOOKING SOUTHWEST - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  5. 1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. 5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall next to the inner wall with its alternating courses of channel tile and hollow tile. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  7. View of exterior detail; bay on north side of front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of exterior detail; bay on north side of front gable element. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. 1. EXTERIORS OF PAINT LOCKER, BUILDING 101, ON RIGHT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIORS OF PAINT LOCKER, BUILDING 101, ON RIGHT, AND CIVIL ENGINEERING STORAGE, BUILDING 105 ON LEFT, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Building Types, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. Exterior, looking west Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Civil Engineering Storage Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. 1. EXTERIOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE SHOP, BUILDING 103, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE SHOP, BUILDING 103, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Maintenance Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  11. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN CAN BE DIVERTED AT THE WASTE WEIR TO BE DISCHARGED INTO THE CULVERT IN FOREGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Northern Waste Weir, Snowden Avenue & Van Wick Street, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  12. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH IN PROGRESS, WILPUTTE BATTERY, COAL PRE-HEATING UNIT, INCLINE CONVEYOR AND BATHHOUSE. - Alabama By-Products Company, Coke Plant, Highway 79 (Pinson Valley Parkway), Tarrant City, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 10. Exterior view of NE corner showing crenellated parapet. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Exterior view of NE corner showing crenellated parapet. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Engine Boiler & Pattern Building, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF A BROCK HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF A BROCK HOUSE USED FOR THE WATER FILTERING SYSTEM. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Water Filtering System Brock House, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  15. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF WATER FILTERING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF WATER FILTERING EQUIPMENT AND BROCK HOUSES ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPOUND. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  16. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WATER TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WATER TOWER AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF THE COMPOUND. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF A RAILROAD CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF A RAILROAD CAR ON THE TRACKS AND THE PARTS OF AN ENGINE STAND. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 3. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CENTER GABLE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CENTER GABLE SECTION OF THE FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; WATER FLOWING THROUGH FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE AT BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING LOOKING NORTH; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING LOOKING NORTH; REINFORCED CONCRETE FISH PONDS IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 6. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOW SHUTTERS ON OUTSIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOW SHUTTERS ON OUTSIDE OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FACADE OF FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FACADE OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 9. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING FORMER FISH HATCHERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING FORMER FISH HATCHERY OFFICE BUILDING (PRESENTLY USED AS GARDENER'S OFFICE). - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 4. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING'S CENTRAL GABLE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING'S CENTRAL GABLE; MASONRY WALL AND FLOWERBED IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGHSURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW. NOTE THE ROUGH-SURFACED EXTERIOR OF THE CONCRETE WALLS. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 17. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON BRADFORD ISLAND; VIEW IS TAKEN FROM ROOF OF POWERHOUSE #1; THE DAM/SPILLWAY IS IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 25. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER DOWNSTREAM FROM THE DAM/SPILLWAY ON THE WASHINGTON SHORE. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY; PARKING LOT/WORK AREA ON WASHINGTON SHORE IS VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 6. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY; FOLIAGE IN FOREGROUND IS ON WASHINGTON SHORELINE. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 3. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REAR FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING'S WEST WING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 8. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY; THE VIEW HIGHLIGHTS THE UPSTREAM APPEARANCE OF THE PIERS SUPPORTING THE MOVABLE STONEY GATES. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 10. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY; ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED GATE MECHANISMS ARE ON RIGHT; GANTRY CRANES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTER/LEFT. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 13. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING CONTROL TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING CONTROL TOWER AT UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY ON BRADFORD ISLAND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF AUDITORIUM; ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT IS IN FOREGROUND; FLAGPOLE IS IN CENTER. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING LANDSCAPING AROUND ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING LANDSCAPING AROUND ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT; THE AUDITORIUM IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FRONT AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FRONT AND WEST FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CONTROL TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CONTROL TOWER AT SOUTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; ENTRANCE TO BRADFORD ISLAND FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 18. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER ON BRADFORD ISLAND; DAM/SPILLWAY IS VISIBLE IN CENTER BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ENTRANCE ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 4. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PIERS AND MOVABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PIERS AND MOVABLE STONEY GATES ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM/SPILLWAY. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. EXTERIOR OF LOCKER ROOM PROJECTION, FACING SOUTHEAST Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR OF LOCKER ROOM PROJECTION, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. EXTERIOR DOOR DETAIL, CORRIDOR 137, FACING EAST Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR DOOR DETAIL, CORRIDOR 137, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FORTYTHIRD STREET STREETSCAPE WITH BUNGALOWS, SIDEWALKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF FORTY-THIRD STREET STREETSCAPE WITH BUNGALOWS, SIDEWALKS AND STREET TREES ORIGINAL TO THE JEMISON AND COMPANY DEVELOPMENT OF THE 'MODEL' INDUSTRIAL TOWN. - City of Fairfield, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 6. Neg. No. F52, Apr 13, 1930, EXTERIOR EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Neg. No. F-52, Apr 13, 1930, EXTERIOR - EAST SIDE OF WAREHOUSE AND LOADING DOCK, SHOWING CRANE, LOOKING NORTH - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Crane, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. WINTER SNOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. WINTER SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  9. EXTERIOR, A view looking west between the south side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking west between the south side of the building and a stack which is located in the courtyard - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  10. EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northeast toward the south side of the building including the diesel fuel tank and bottom portion of a stack - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  11. EXTERIOR, A view looking east that captures the southwest corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking east that captures the southwest corner of the building with surveyor's rod to indicate scale - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  12. EXTERIOR, A view from above looking southwest toward the roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view from above looking southwest toward the roof and stacks of B Building with I Building in the background - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  13. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, 22' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, 22' BAR MILL BUILDING, AND 22 BAR MILL MOTOR ROOM. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (EAST) FACADE WITH FIVE POINTS FOUNTAIN (CENTER), DULION APARTMENTS AND ELEVENTH AVENUE SOUTH (RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN JUST AFTER BIRMINGHAM BLIZZARD OF 1993. - Highlands United Methodist Church, 1045 Twentieth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. 5. VIEW OF EXTERIOR FACINGS, SOUTH ELEVATION, ILLUSTRATING RANDOM COURSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF EXTERIOR FACINGS, SOUTH ELEVATION, ILLUSTRATING RANDOM COURSING THAT USES UNSQUARED, IRREGULAR BASALT STONE WITH SMALLER FRAGMENTS SNECKED INTO THE JOINTING, LOOKING NORTH - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  17. 41. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, CONCRETE ENCLOSURE CHAMBER AIR LOCK (EXTERIOR), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, CONCRETE ENCLOSURE CHAMBER AIR LOCK (EXTERIOR), LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER (LOCATION AAA) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  18. 4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. 1 IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, AND ONE OF THE BENDING SHOPS AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  19. 3. EXTERIOR NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW, FACING SOUTHWEST. BUILDING NO 42 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW, FACING SOUTHWEST. BUILDING NO 42 GARAGE & TRANSPORTATION MAINTENANCE FACILITY - NASA Industrial Plant, Garage & Transportation Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 4. EXTERIOR NORTHWEST CORNER VIEW, FACING SOUTHEAST. BUILDING NO 42 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR NORTHWEST CORNER VIEW, FACING SOUTHEAST. BUILDING NO 42 GARAGE & TRANSPORTATION MAINTENANCE FACILITY - NASA Industrial Plant, Garage & Transportation Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA