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Sample records for advanced extravehicular activity

  1. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  2. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  3. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  4. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  5. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  6. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  7. Advanced extravehicular mobility unit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.

    1982-01-01

    Components of the advanced extravehicular mobility unit (suit) are described. Design considerations for radiation protection, extravehicular operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effector, anthropometric definition, lighting, and equipment turnaround are addressed.

  8. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  9. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  10. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  11. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  12. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  13. Metabolic cost of extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The data on metabolic rates during Skylab extravehicular activities are presented and compared with prior experience during Gemini and Apollo. Difficulties experienced with Gemini extravehicular activities are reviewed. The effect of a pressure suit on metabolic rate is discussed and the life support equipment capabilities of each life support system are reviewed. The methods used to measure metabolic rate, utilizing bioinstrumentation and operational data on the life support system, are described. Metabolic rates are correlated with different activities. Metabolic rates in Skylab were found to be within the capacities of the life support systems and to be similar to the metabolic rates experienced during Apollo lunar 1/6-g extravehicular activities. They were found to range from 100 kcal/h to 500 kcal/h, during both 1/6-g and zero-g extravehicular activities. The average metabolic rates measured during long extravehicular activities were remarkably consistent and appeared to be a function of crew pacing of activity rather than to the effort involved in individual tasks.

  14. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  15. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; McBarron, James W.; Severin, Guy I.

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronautics initialed in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mothercraft of different combinations arc discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  16. Continued Advancement of Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has historically performed very well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Therefore, the size and weight of the unit would have to be increased to extend EVA times. Consequently, new CO2 control technologies must be developed in order to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA; however, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A much simpler approach is to employ a membrane that vents CO2 to space and retains oxygen (O2). A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no limit on capacity, it requires no consumables, and it does not need any hardware to switch beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have the needed selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over O2. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. achieved the required CO2 permeance and selectivity with an SLM in a flat sheet configuration. This paper describes work to convert the SLM into a more compact form and to scale it up to handle more representative process flow rates.

  17. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application. 1 President

  18. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application.

  19. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  20. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  1. Continued Development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) System for Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Jeng, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Development activities related to the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Humidity control system have progressed to the point of integrating the RCA into an advanced Primary Life Support System (PLSS 2.0) to evaluate the interaction of the RCA among other PLSS components in a ground test environment. The RCA 2.0 assembly (integrated into PLSS 2.0) consists of a valve assembly with commercial actuator motor, a sorbent canister, and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based process node controller. Continued design and development activities for RCA 3.0 have been aimed at optimizing the canister size and incorporating greater fidelity in the valve actuator motor and valve position feedback design. Further, the RCA process node controller is envisioned to incorporate a higher degree of functionality to support a distributed PLSS control architecture. This paper will describe the progression of technology readiness levels of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 along with a review of the design and manufacturing successes and challenges for 2.0 and 3.0 units. The anticipated interfaces and interactions with the PLSS 2.0/2.5/3.0 assemblies will also be discussed.

  2. Advanced Extravehicular Protective System (AEPS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of Advanced Extravehicular Protective Systems (AEPS) for the future missions beyond Skylab in earth orbit, on the lunar surface, and on the Martian surface. The study concentrated on the origination of regenerable life support concepts for use in portable extravehicular protective systems, and included evaluation and comparison with expendable systems, and selection of life support subsystems. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, subsystem concepts for performing life support functions in AEPS which are regenerable or partially regenerable were originated, and in addition, expendable subsystems were considered. Parametric data for each subsystem concept were evolved including subsystem weight and volume, power requirement, thermal control requirement; base regeneration equipment weight and volume, requirement. The second phase involved an evaluation of the impact of safety considerations involving redundant and/or backup systems on the selection of the regenerable life support subsystems. In addition, the impact of the space shuttle program on regenerable life support subsystem development was investigated.

  3. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  4. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  5. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  6. Antenna Design Considerations for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakula, Casey J.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios

    2015-01-01

    NASA is designing an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU)to support future manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A key component of the AEMU is the communications assembly that allows for the wireless transfer of voice, video, and suit telemetry. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) currently used on the International Space Station (ISS) contains a radio system with a single omni-directional resonant cavity antenna operating slightly above 400 MHz capable of transmitting and receiving data at a rate of about 125 kbps. Recent wireless communications architectures are calling for the inclusion of commercial wireless standards such as 802.11 that operate in higher frequency bands at much higher data rates. The current AEMU radio design supports a 400 MHz band for low-rate mission-critical data and a high-rate band based on commercial wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to support video, communication with non-extravehicular activity (EVA) assets such as wireless sensors and robotic assistants, and a redundant path for mission-critical EVA data. This paper recommends the replacement of the existing EMU antenna with a new antenna that maintains the performance characteristics of the current antenna but with lower weight and volume footprints. NASA has funded several firms to develop such an antenna over the past few years, and the most promising designs are variations on the basic patch antenna. This antenna technology at UHF is considered by the authors to be mature and ready for infusion into NASA AEMU technology development programs.

  7. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  8. Metabolic responses to simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Rendon, Lisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic control of the liquid cooling garment (LCG) worn by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) would more efficiently regulate astronaut thermal comfort and improve astronaut productivity. An experiment was conducted in which subjects performed exercise profiles on a unique, supine upper body ergometer to elicit physiological and thermal responses similar to those achieved during zero-g EVAs. Results were analyzed to quantify metabolic rate, various body temperatures, and other heat balance parameters. Such data may lead to development of a microprocessor-based system to automatically maintain astronaut heat balance during extended EVAs.

  9. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  10. Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  11. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  12. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  13. A Communication Architecture for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobile Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the communication architecture for the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). The following systems are described in detail: Caution Warning and Control System, Informatics, Storage, Video, Audio, Communication, and Monitoring Test and Validation. This document also provides some background as well as the purpose and goals of the PAS subsystem being developed at Glenn Research Center (GRC).

  14. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  15. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  16. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  17. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Osipov YuYu; Spichkov, A N; Filipenkov, S N

    1998-01-01

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha' (ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  18. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  19. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  20. Apollo experience report: Assessment of metabolic expenditures. [extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Hawkins, W. R.; Humbert, G. F.; Nelson, L. J.; Vogel, S. J.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A significant effort was made to assess the metabolic expenditure for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. After evaluation of the real-time data available to the flight controller during extravehicular activity, three independent methods of metabolic assessment were chosen based on the relationship between heart rate and metabolic production, between oxygen consumption and metabolic production, and between the thermodynamics of the liquid-cooled garment and metabolic production. The metabolic assessment procedure is analyzed and discussed. Real-time use of this information by the Apollo flight surgeon is discussed. Results and analyses of the Apollo missions and comments concerning future applications are included.

  1. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  2. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  3. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  4. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  5. Power Subsystem for Extravehicular Activities for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has the responsibility to develop the next generation space suit power subsystem to support the Vision for Space Exploration. Various technology challenges exist in achieving extended duration missions as envisioned for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. This paper presents an overview of ongoing development efforts undertaken at the Glenn Research Center in support of power subsystem development for future extravehicular activity systems.

  6. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  7. Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

  8. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  9. Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document describes the method and results of the LDA EVA Neutral Buoyancy Development Test to ensure that the LDA hardware support the deployment of the cargo items from the pallet. This document includes the test objectives, flight and mockup hardware description, descriptions of procedures and data collection used in the testing, and the results of the development test at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).

  10. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  11. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  12. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  13. Physiological and technological considerations for Mars mission extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, James M.; Sedej, Melaine M.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of the suit is a function of the needs of human physiology, the ambient environment outside the suit, and the type of activity to be accomplished while in the suit. The physiological requirements that must be provided for in the Martian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit will be reviewed. The influence of the Martian environment on the EVA suit and EVA capabilities is elaborated, and the Martian environment is compared with the lunar environment. The differences that may influence the EVA design are noted. The type, nature, and duration of activities to be done in transit to Mars and on the Martian surface will be evaluated and the impact of these activities on the requirements for EVA systems will be discussed. Furthermore, the interaction between Martian surface transportation systems and EVA systems will be covered. Finally, options other than EVA will be considered such as robotics, nonanthropometric suits, and vehicles with anthropometric extremities or robotic end effectors.

  14. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  15. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  16. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  17. STS-114 Astronauts Participate in Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. In this photograph, astronaut Soichi Noguchi, STS-114 mission specialist representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), participates in the mission's first scheduled session of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Noguchi and crew mate Stephen K. Robinson (out of frame) completed a demonstration of Shuttle thermal protection repair techniques and enhancements to the ISS's attitude control system during the successful 6 hour, 50 minute space walk.

  18. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  19. Study of CO2 sorbents for extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Portable life support equipment was studied for meeting the requirements of extravehicular activities. Previous studies indicate that the most promising method for performing the CO2 removal function removal function were metallic oxides and/or metallic hydroxides. Mgo, Ag2, and Zno metallic oxides and Mg(OH)2 and Zn(OH)2 metallic hydroxides were studied, by measuring sorption and regeneration properties of each material. The hydroxides of Mg and Zn were not regenerable and the zinc oxide compounds showed no stable form. A silver oxide formulation was developed which rapidly absorbs approximately 95% of its 0.19 Kg CO2 Kg oxide and has shown no sorption or structural degeneration through 22 regenerations. It is recommended that the basic formula be further developed and tested in large-scale beds under simulated conditions.

  20. A simulation system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose A.; Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    America's next major step into space will be the construction of a permanently manned Space Station which is currently under development and scheduled for full operation in the mid-1990's. Most of the construction of the Space Station will be performed over several flights by suited crew members during an extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle. Once fully operational, EVA's will be performed from the Space Station on a routine basis to provide, among other services, maintenance and repair operations of satellites currently in Earth orbit. Both voice recognition and helmet-mounted display technologies can improve the productivity of workers in space by potentially reducing the time, risk, and cost involved in performing EVA. NASA has recognized this potential and is currently developing a voice-controlled information system for Space Station EVA. Two bench-model helmet-mounted displays and an EVA simulation program have been developed to demonstrate the functionality and practicality of the system.

  1. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  2. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  3. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  4. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  5. A human factors evaluation of Extravehicular Activity gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1989-01-01

    One of the major problems faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human-hand capabilities. NASA has sponsored a program to develop a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six performance domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each performance domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand, an EVA glove without pressure, an EVA glove at operation pressure. Thus, the differential effect on performance of the glove with and without pressure was tested. Bare hand performance was used to 'calibrate' the effects. Ten subjects participated in the test setup as a repeated-measures experimental design. The paper will report the results of the test program.

  6. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Reports for The Risk of Decompression Sickness (from here on referred to as the 2014 DCS Evidence Report) and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (from here on referred to as the 2014 EVA Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plans for these Risks. The SRP appreciated the time and effort that the DCS and EVA disciplines put into their review documents and presentations. The SRP felt that the 2014 DCS Evidence Report and the 2014 EVA Evidence Reports were very thorough and addressed the majority of the known DCS and EVA issues. The researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have the knowledge base to deal with the DCS and EVA issues. Overall, the SRP thinks the DCS and EVA research teams have compiled excellent reports which address the majority of the literature and background information.

  7. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  8. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  9. Advanced extravehicular protective systems for shuttle, space station, lunar base and Mars missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimlich, P. F.; Sutton, J. G.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Advances in extravehicular life support system technology will directly influence future space mission reliability and maintainability considerations. To identify required new technology areas, an appraisal of advanced portable life support system and subsystem concepts was conducted. Emphasis was placed on thermal control and combined CO2 control/O2 supply subsystems for both primary and emergency systems. A description of study methodology, concept evaluation techniques, specification requirements, and selected subsystems and systems are presented. New technology recommendations encompassing thermal control, CO2 control and O2 supply subsystems are also contained herein.

  10. Biomedical Support of U.S. Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Dervay, J. P.; Gillis, D.; McMann, H. J.; Thomas, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    The world's first extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed by A. A. Leonov on March 18, 1965 during the Russian Voskhod-2 mission. The first US EVA was executed by Gemini IV astronaut Ed White on June 3, 1965, with an umbilical tether that included communications and an oxygen supply. A hand-held maneuvering unit (HHMU) also was used to test maneuverability during the brief EVA; however the somewhat stiff umbilical limited controlled movement. That constraint, plus difficulty returning through the vehicle hatch, highlighted the need for increased thermal control and improved EVA ergonomics. Clearly, requirements for a useful EVA were interrelated with the vehicle design. The early Gemini EVAs generated requirements for suits providing micro-meteor protection, adequate visual field and eye protection from solar visual and infrared radiation, gloves optimized for dexterity while pressurized, and thermal systems capable of protecting the astronaut while rejecting metabolic heat during high workloads. Subsequent Gemini EVAs built upon this early experience and included development of a portable environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and an astronaut maneuvering unit. The ECLSS provided a pressure vessel and controller with functional control over suit pressure, oxygen flow, carbon dioxide removal, humidity, and temperature control. Gemini EVA experience also identified the usefulness of underwater neutral buoyancy and altitude chamber task training, and the importance of developing reliable task timelines. Improved thermal management and carbon dioxide control also were required for high workload tasks. With the Apollo project, EVA activity was primarily on the lunar surface; and suit durability, integrated liquid cooling garments, and low suit operating pressures (3.75 pounds per square inch absolute [psia] or 25.8 kilopascal [kPa],) were required to facilitate longer EVAs with ambulation and significant physical workloads with average metabolic

  11. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  12. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  13. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Mahon, Richard; Klaus, David; Neuman, Tom; Pilmanis, Andrew; Regis, David

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the Research Plans for The Risk of Decompression Sickness and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations, as well as the Evidence Reports for both of these Risks. The SRP found that the NASA DCS/EVA team did an excellent job of presenting their research plans. The SRP considers it critical that NASA proceeds with the high priority tasks identified in this report (DCS1, DCS3, DCS5). The highest priority is to determine the acceptable DCS and hypoxia risk associated with the planned human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The risk of DCS is highly dependent upon the pressure within the exploration vehicle. If slightly more hypoxia is permitted then (even with the same percentage of oxygen) the pressure within the exploration vehicle can be lowered thus further mitigating the risk of DCS. The second highest priority is to test and validate the recommended 8.2psi/34% O2 atmosphere. Development of procedures and equipment for human exploration missions are very limited until the results of this testing are completed. The SRP also suggests that DCS7 be separated into two Gaps. Gap DCS7 should deal with DCS treatment while a new Gap should be created to deal with the long-term effects of DCS. The SRP also encourages NASA to increase collaboration with other organizations and pool resources where possible. The current NASA DCS/EVA team has the extensive expertise and a wealth of knowledge in this area. The SRP suggests that increased manpower for this team would be highly productive.

  14. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  15. A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity

  16. Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

  17. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  18. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  19. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irimies, David

    2011-01-01

    EVA systems consist of a spacesuit or garment, a PLSS, a PAS system, and spacesuit interface hardware. The PAS system is responsible for providing power for the suit, communication of several types of data between the suit and other mission assets, avionics hardware to perform numerous data display and processing functions, and information systems that provide crewmembers data to perform their tasks with more autonomy and efficiency. Irimies discussed how technology development efforts have advanced the state-of-the-art in these areas and shared technology development challenges.

  20. Materials considerations in the design of a metal-hydride heat pump for an advanced extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    A metal-hydride heat pump (HHP) has been proposed to provide an advanced regenerable nonventing thermal sink for the liquid-cooled garment worn during an extravehicular activity (EVA). The conceptual design indicates that there is a potential for significant advantages over the one presently being used by shuttle crew personnel as well as those that have been proposed for future use with the space station. Compared to other heat pump designs, a HHP offers the potential for extended use with no electrical power requirements during the EVA. In addition, a reliable, compact design is possible due to the absence of moving parts other than high-reliability check valves. Because there are many subtleties in the properties of metal hydrides for heat pump applications, it is essential that a prototype hydride heat pump be constructed with the selected materials before a committment is made for the final design. Particular care must be given to the evaporator heat exchanger worn by the astronaut since the performance of hydride heat pumps is generally heat transfer limited.

  1. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  2. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  3. Prebreathe Protocol for Extravehicular Activity Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerry; Duncan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the performance of EVA by that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts, there exists a risk of DCS as the suit pressure is reduced to 4.3 pounds per square inch, absolute (psia) from the International Space Station (ISS) pressure of 14.7 psia. Several DCS-preventive procedures have been developed and implemented. Each of these procedures involve the use of oxygen (O2) prebreathe to effectively washout tissue nitrogen (N2).The management of the ISS Programs convened an expert independent peer review Team to conduct a review of the Decompression Sickness (DCS) risks associated with the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Campout Prebreathe (PB) protocol for its consideration for use on future missions. The major findings and recommendations of the expert panel are: There is no direct experimental data to confirm the potential DCS risks of the Campout PB protocol. However, based on model data, statistical probability, physiology, and information derived from similar PB protocols, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that the Campout PB protocol is less safe than the other NASA approved PB protocols.

  4. Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

  5. Integrated model of G189A and Aspen-plus for the transient modeling of extravehicular activity atmospheric control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matthew; Conger, Bruce C.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized modeling tool, under development for the transient modeling of an extravehicular activity atmospheric control subsystem is described. This subsystem includes the astronaut, temperature control, moisture control, CO2 removal, and oxygen make-up components. Trade studies evaluating competing components and subsystems to guide the selection and development of hardware for lunar and Martian missions will use this modeling tool. The integrated modeling tool uses the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) to accomplish pseudosteady-state simulations, and the general environmental thermal control and life support program (G189A) to manage overall control of the run and transient input output, as well as transient modeling computations and database functions. Flow charts and flow diagrams are included.

  6. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  7. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  8. The use of decompression to simulate the effect of extravehicular activity on human lymphocyte transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R. T.; Duncan, U.; Neale, L.; Waligora, J.; Taylor, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 35 subjects participating in a chamber study simulating extravehicular activity (EVA) conditions were studied. No significant differences in H3 thymidine uptake between pre chamber and post chamber response to any mitogens autologous plasma, or among circulating mononuclear cells by flow cytometry are observed. The studies could not identify the subjects who developed venous bubbles. Data from eight subjects suggests that acute stress associated with participating in the study augments in vitro lymphocyte proliferation. Results indicate EVA exposure does not greatly influence space-flight induced alterations in immune effector cell function.

  9. Design, development, and fabrication of extravehicular activity tools for support of the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albritton, L. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Tyler, T. R.

    1993-01-01

    Seven extravehicular activity (EVA) tools and a tool carrier have been designed and developed by MSFC in order to provide a two fault tolerant system for the transfer orbit stage (TOS) shuttle mission. The TOS is an upper stage booster for delivering payloads to orbits higher than the shuttle can achieve. Payloads are required not to endanger the shuttle even after two failures have occurred. The Airborne Support Equipment (ASE), used in restraining and deploying TOS, does not meet this criteria. The seven EVA tools designed will provide the required redundancy with no impact to the TOS hardware.

  10. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  11. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  12. Investigation of humidity control via membrane separation for advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbold, D. D.; Ray, R. J.; Pledger, W. A.; Mccray, S. B.; Brown, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a membrane-based process for dehumidifying the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The membrane process promises to be smaller, lighter, and more energy efficient than the other technologies for dehumidification. The dehydration membranes were tested for 90 days at conditions expected to be present in the EMU. The results of these tests indicate that membrane-based technology can effectively control humidity in the EMU.

  13. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  14. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  15. Design and Certification of the Extravehicular Activity Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Processing Jumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Neumeyer, Derek J.; Lewis, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure due to cooling water contamination from biomass and corrosion byproducts forming solids around the EMU pump rotor. The coolant had no biocide and a low pH which induced biofilm growth and corrosion precipitates, respectively. NASA JSC was tasked with building hardware to clean the ionic, organic, and particulate load from the EMU coolant loop before and after Extravehicular Activity (EVAs). Based on a return sample of the EMU coolant loop, the chemical load was well understood, but there was not sufficient volume of the returned sample to analyze particulates. Through work with EMU specialists, chemists, (EVA) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) representation, safety and mission assurance, astronaut crew, and team engineers, requirements were developed for the EMU Water Processing hardware (sometimes referred to as the Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery [A/L CLR] system). Those requirements ranged from the operable level of ionic, organic, and particulate load, interfaces to the EMU, maximum cycle time, operating pressure drop, flow rate, and temperature, leakage rates, and biocide levels for storage. Design work began in February 2005 and certification was completed in April 2005 to support a return to flight launch date of May 12, 2005. This paper will discuss the details of the design and certification of the EMU Water Processing hardware and its components

  16. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  17. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  18. Design of high pressure oxygen filter for extravehicular activity life support system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with extravehicular activity life support emergency oxygen supply subsystems has shown a large number of problems associated with particulate contamination. These problems have resulted in failures of high pressure oxygen component sealing surfaces. A high pressure oxygen filter was designed which would (a) control the particulate contamination level in the oxygen system to a five-micron glass bead rating, ten-micron absolute condition (b) withstand the dynamic shock condition resulting from the sudden opening of 8000 psi oxygen system shutoff valve. Results of the following program tasks are reported: (1) contaminant source identification tests, (2) dynamic system tests, (3) high pressure oxygen filter concept evaluation, (4) design, (5) fabrication, (6) test, and (7) application demonstration.

  19. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  20. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  1. Extravehicular activity compatibility evaluation of developmental hardware for assembly and repair of precision reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Phelps, James E.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results of tests performed in neutral buoyancy by two pressure-suited test subjects to simulate Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tasks associated with the on-orbit construction and repair of a precision reflector spacecraft. Two complete neutral buoyancy assemblies of the test article (tetrahedral truss with three attached reflector panels) were performed. Truss joint hardware, two different panel attachment hardware concepts, and a panel replacement tool were evaluated. The test subjects found the operation and size of the truss joint hardware to be acceptable. Both panel attachment concepts were found to be EVA compatible, although one concept was judged by the test subjects to be considerably easier to operate. The average time to install a panel from a position within arm's reach of the test subjects was 1 min 14 sec. The panel replacement tool was used successfully to demonstrate the removal and replacement of a damaged reflector panel in 10 min 25 sec.

  2. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  3. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  4. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  5. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  6. 802.16e System Profile for NASA Extra-Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Chelmins, David T.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Downey, Joseph A.; Finn, Gregory G.; Cagley, Richard E.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies an 802.16e system profile that is applicable to a lunar surface wireless network, and specifically for meeting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) data flow requirements. EVA suit communication needs are addressed. Design-driving operational scenarios are considered. These scenarios are then used to identify a configuration of the 802.16e system (system profile) that meets EVA requirements, but also aim to make the radio realizable within EVA constraints. Limitations of this system configuration are highlighted. An overview and development status is presented by Toyon Research Corporation concerning the development of an 802.16e compatible modem under NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. This modem is based on the recommended system profile developed as part of this report. Last, a path forward is outlined that presents an evolvable solution for the EVA radio system and lunar surface radio networks. This solution is based on a custom link layer, and 802.16e compliant physical layer compliant to the identified system profile, and a later progression to a fully interoperable 802.16e system.

  7. [Analysis of decompression safety during extravehicular activity of astronauts in the light of probability theory].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P; Katuntsev, V P

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of the study were comparative assessment of the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects during shirt-sleeve simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) following Russian and U.S. protocols, and analysis of causes of the difference between real and simulated EVA decompression safety. To this end, DCS risk during exposure to a sing-step decompression was estimated with an original method. According to the method, DCS incidence is determined by distribution of nucleation efficacy index (z) in the worst body tissues and its critical values (zm) as a function of initial nitrogen tension in these tissues and final ambient pressure post decompression. Gaussian distribution of z values was calculated basing on results of the DCS risk evaluation on the U.S. EVA protocol in an unsuited chamber test with various pre-breath procedures (Conkin et al., 1987). Half-time of nitrogen washout from the worst tissues was presumed to be 480 min. Calculated DCS risk during short-sleeve EVA simulation by the Russian and U.S. protocols with identical physical loading made up 19.2% and 23.4%, respectively. Effects of the working spacesuit pressure, spacesuit rigidity, metabolic rates during operations in EVA space suit, transcutaneous nitrogen exchange in the oxygen atmosphere of space suit, microgravity, analgesics, short compression due to spacesuit leak tests on the eye of EVA are discussed. Data of the study illustrate and advocate for high decompression safety of current Russian and U.S. EVA protocols.

  8. Surface extra-vehicular activity emergency scenario management: Tools, procedures, and geologically related implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zea, Luis; Diaz, Alejandro R.; Shepherd, Charles K.; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2010-07-01

    Extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) are an essential part of human space exploration, but involve inherently dangerous procedures which can put crew safety at risk during a space mission. To help mitigate this risk, astronauts' training programs spend substantial attention on preparing for surface EVA emergency scenarios. With the help of two Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) crews (61 and 65), wearing simulated spacesuits, the most important of these emergency scenarios were examined at three different types of locations that geologically and environmentally resemble lunar and Martian landscapes. These three platforms were analyzed geologically as well as topographically (utilizing a laser range finder with slope estimation capabilities and a slope determination software). Emergency scenarios were separated into four main groups: (1) suit issues, (2) general physiological, (3) attacks and (4) others. Specific tools and procedures were developed to address each scenario. The tools and processes were tested in the field under Mars-analog conditions with the suited subjects for feasibility and speed of execution.

  9. Design and control of a hand exoskeleton for use in extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, B.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    To counter problems inherent in extravehicular activities (EVA) and complex space operations, an exoskeleton, a unique adaptive structure, has been designed. The exoskeleton fits on the hand and powers the proximal and middle phalanges of the index finger, the middle finger, and the combined ring and little finger. A kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton joints was performed using the loop-closure method. This analysis determined the angular displacement and velocity relationships of the exoskeleton joints. This information was used to determine the output power of the exoskeleton. Three small DC motors (one for each finger) are used to power the exoskeleton. The motors are mounted on the forearm. Power is transferred to the exoskeleton using lead screws. The control system for the exoskeleton measures the contact force between the operator and the exoskeleton. This information is used as the input to drive the actuation system. The control system allows the motor to rotate in both directions so that the operator may close or open the exoskeleton.

  10. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  11. Stress, Workload and Physiology Demand During Extravehicular Activity: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extravehicular activity (EVA), such as exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is essential for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration like long Mars mission. Aim: The study was planned stress, workload, and physiological demands of simulated Mars exploration. Materials and Methods: In this study, the six-person crew lived (24 hours) for 14 days during a short-term stay at the Mars Desert Research Station. The heart rates, salivary cortisol, workload, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity of the crew are measured before, during and after an EVA. Results: Data for heart rate showed the same trend as peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity, with a maximal increase to 85% of peak. The rating of subscale showed a significant increase in EVA as compared to run. Salivary cortisol levels and heart rates were increased in both groups, although significant increased of cortisol levels and heart rates more in EVA as compared to hill running crew members. Conclusion: Further study is required on large scale taken into account of limitations of this study and including other physiological and psychological parameters in Mars analog environment. PMID:22754877

  12. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  13. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  14. Computational simulation of extravehicular activity dynamics during a satellite capture attempt.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, G; Newman, D J; Robinson, S K

    2000-01-01

    A more quantitative approach to the analysis of astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks is needed because of their increasing complexity, particularly in preparation for the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station. Existing useful EVA computer analyses produce either high-resolution three-dimensional computer images based on anthropometric representations or empirically derived predictions of astronaut strength based on lean body mass and the position and velocity of body joints but do not provide multibody dynamic analysis of EVA tasks. Our physics-based methodology helps fill the current gap in quantitative analysis of astronaut EVA by providing a multisegment human model and solving the equations of motion in a high-fidelity simulation of the system dynamics. The simulation work described here improves on the realism of previous efforts by including three-dimensional astronaut motion, incorporating joint stops to account for the physiological limits of range of motion, and incorporating use of constraint forces to model interaction with objects. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the simulation is modeled on an actual EVA task, namely, the attempted capture of a spinning Intelsat VI satellite during STS-49 in May 1992. Repeated capture attempts by an EVA crewmember were unsuccessful because the capture bar could not be held in contact with the satellite long enough for the capture latches to fire and successfully retrieve the satellite.

  15. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  16. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  17. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  18. A vision system planner for increasing the autonomy of the Extravehicular Activity Helper/Retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) is a robotic device currently being developed by the Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to support activities in the neighborhood of the Space Shuttle or Space Station Freedom. As the name implies, the Retriever's primary function will be to provide the capability to retrieve tools and equipment or other objects which have become detached from the spacecraft, but it will also be able to rescue a crew member who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. Later goals will include cooperative operations between a crew member and the Retriever such as fetching a tool that is required for servicing or maintenance operations. This paper documents a preliminary design for a Vision System Planner (VSP) for the EVAR that is capable of achieving visual objectives provided to it by a high level task planner. Typical commands which the task planner might issue to the VSP relate to object recognition, object location determination, and obstacle detection. Upon receiving a command from the task planner, the VSP then plans a sequence of actions to achieve the specified objective using a model-based reasoning approach. This sequence may involve choosing an appropriate sensor, selecting an algorithm to process the data, reorienting the sensor, adjusting the effective resolution of the image using lens zooming capability, and/or requesting the task planner to reposition the EVAR to obtain a different view of the object. An initial version of the Vision System Planner which realizes the above capabilities using simulated images has been implemented and tested. The remaining sections describe the architecture and capabilities of the VSP and its relationship to the high level task planner. In addition, typical plans that are generated to achieve visual goals for various scenarios are discussed. Specific topics to be addressed will include object search strategies, repositioning of the EVAR to improve the

  19. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  20. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  1. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  2. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  3. An evaluation of three-dimensional sensors for the extravehicular activity helper/retreiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever/Helper (EVAHR) is a robotic device currently under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center that is designed to fetch objects or to assist in retrieving an astronaut who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. The EVAHR will be required to exhibit a high degree of intelligent autonomous operation and will base much of its reasoning upon information obtained from one or more three-dimensional sensors that it will carry and control. At the highest level of visual cognition and reasoning, the EVAHR will be required to detect objects, recognize them, and estimate their spatial orientation and location. The recognition phase and estimation of spatial pose will depend on the ability of the vision system to reliably extract geometric features of the objects such as whether the surface topologies observed are planar or curved and the spatial relationships between the component surfaces. In order to achieve these tasks, accurate sensing of the operational environment and objects in the environment will therefore be critical. The qualitative and quantitative results of empirical studies of three sensors that are capable of providing three-dimensional information to the EVAHR, but using completely different hardware approaches are documented. The first of these devices is a phase shift laser with an effective operating range (ambiguity interval) of approximately 15 meters. The second sensor is a laser triangulation system designed to operate at much closer range and to provide higher resolution images. The third sensor is a dual camera stereo imaging system from which range images can also be obtained. The remainder of the report characterizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of these systems relative to quality of data extracted and how different object characteristics affect sensor operation.

  4. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  5. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  6. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture to where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publicatoin5, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra- Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the

  7. Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

    2008-01-01

    Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation

  8. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  9. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  10. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  11. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  12. Li-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid Design for Long Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    With the need for long periods of extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the Moon or Mars or a near-asteroid, the need for long-performance batteries has increased significantly. The energy requirements for the EVA suit, as well as surface systems such as rovers, have increased significantly due to the number of applications they need to power at the same time. However, even with the best state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, it is not possible to power the suit or the rovers for the extended period of performance. Carrying a charging system along with the batteries makes it cumbersome and requires a self-contained power source for the charging system that is usually not possible. An innovative method to charge and use the Li-ion batteries for long periods seems to be necessary and hence, with the advent of the Li-ion supercapacitors, a method has been developed to extend the performance period of the Li-ion power system for future exploration applications. The Li-ion supercapacitors have a working voltage range of 3.8 to 2.5 V, and are different from a traditional supercapacitor that typically has a working voltage of 1 V. The innovation is to use this Li-ion supercapacitor to charge Liion battery systems on an as-needed basis. The supercapacitors are charged using solar arrays and have battery systems of low capacity in parallel to be able to charge any one battery system while they provide power to the application. Supercapacitors can safely take up fast charge since the electrochemical process involved is still based on charge separation rather than the intercalation process seen in Li-ion batteries, thus preventing lithium metal deposition on the anodes. The lack of intercalation and eliminating wear of the supercapacitors allows for them to be charged and discharged safely for a few tens of thousands of cycles. The Li-ion supercapacitors can be charged from the solar cells during the day during an extended EVA. The Liion battery used can be half the capacity

  13. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  14. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2012-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  15. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2011-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  16. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  17. Task network models in the prediction of workload imposed by extravehicular activities during the Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Takamoto, Neal; Woolford, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    In a joint effort with Brooks AFB, Texas, the Flight Crew Support Division at JSC has begun a computer simulation and performance modeling program directed at establishing the predictive validity of software tools for modeling human performance during spaceflight. This paper addresses the utility of task network modeling for predicting the workload that astronauts are likely to encounter in extravehicular activities (EVA) during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) repair mission. The intent of the study was to determine whether two EVA crewmembers and one intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmember could reasonably be expected to complete HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) replacement in the allotted time. Ultimately, examination of the points during HST servicing that may result in excessive workload will lead to recommendations to the HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project concerning (1) expectation of degraded performance, (2) the need to change task allocation across crewmembers, (3) the need to expand the timeline, and (4) the need to increase the number of EVA's.

  18. Tests of an alternate mobile transporter and extravehicular activity assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Watson, Judith J.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Wallsom, Richard E.; Phelps, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a ground test program of an alternate mobile transporter (MT) concept and extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) truss keel. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss beam consisting of 44 2-in-diameter struts and 16 nodes was assembled repeatedly in neutral buoyancy by pairs of pressure-suited test subjects working from astronaut positioning devices (APD's) on the MT. The truss bays were cubic with edges 15 ft long. All the truss joint hardware was found to be EVA compatible. The average unit assembly time for a single pair of experienced test subjects was 27.6 sec/strut, which is about half the time derived from other SSF truss assembly tests. A concept for integration of utility trays during truss assembly is introduced and demonstrated in the assembly tests. The concept, which requires minimal EVA handling of the trays, is shown to have little impact on overall assembly time. The results of these tests indicate that by using an MT equipped with APD's, rapid EVA assembly of a space station-size truss structure can be expected.

  19. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  20. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  1. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  2. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

  3. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; RochlisZumbado, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  4. Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program.

    PubMed

    Severin, G; Abramov, I; Svertshek, V; Stoklitsky, A

    1996-09-01

    Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

  5. Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, G.; Abramov, I.; Svertshek, V.; Stoklitsky, A.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

  6. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  7. Development of a prototype movement assistance system for extravehicular activity gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Tyler N.

    Spacesuits utilized a rubberized layer of material to contain a pressurized atmosphere to facilitate respiration and maintain the physiologic functions of the astronaut residing within. However, the elasticity of the material makes it resistant to deformation increasing the amount of work required during movement. This becomes particularly fatiguing for the muscle groups controlling the motion of the hands and fingers. To mitigate this a robotic system was proposed and developed. The system built upon previous concepts and prototypes discovered through research efforts. It utilized electric motors to pull the index, ring, and middle fingers of the right hand closed, ideally overcoming the resistive force posed by the pressurized elastic material. The effect of the system was determined by comparing qualitative and quantitative data obtained during activities conducted with and without it within a glove box. It was found that the system was able to offload some of this elastic force though several characteristics of the design limited the full potential this device offered. None the less, the project was met with success and provides a solid platform for continued research and development.

  8. Comparison of V-4 and V-5 Exercise/Oxygen Prebreathe Protocols to Support Extravehicular Activity in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Vann, R. D.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    The Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) used exercise during oxygen prebreathe to reduce necessary prebreathe time prior to depressurizing to work in a 4.3 psi suit during extravehicular activity (EVA). Initial testing produced a two-hour protocol incorporating ergometry exercise and a 30 min cycle of depress/repress to 10.2 psi where subjects breathed 26.5% oxygen/balance nitrogen (Phase II - 10 min at 75% peak oxygen consumption [VO2 peak] followed by 40 min intermittent light exercise [ILE] [approx. 5.8 mL-per kilogram- per minute], then 50 min of rest). The Phase II protocol (0/45 DCS) was approved for operations and has been used on 40 EVAs, providing significant time savings compared to the standard 4 h resting oxygen prebreathe. The Phase V effort focused on performing all light in-suit exercise. Two oxygen prebreathe protocols were tested sequentially: V-4) 160 min prebreathe with 150 min of continuous ILE. The entire protocol was completed at 14.7 psi. All exercise involved upper body effort. Exercise continued until decompression. V-5) 160 min prebreathe with 140 min of ILE - first 40 min at 14.7 psi, then 30 min at 10.2 psi (breathing 26.5% oxygen) after a 20 min depress, simulating a suit donning period. Subjects were then repressed to 14.7 psi and performed another 50 min of lower body ILE, followed by 50 min rest before decompression. The V-4 protocol was rejected with 3 DCS/6 person-exposures. Initial V-5 testing has produced 0 DCS/11 person-exposures (ongoing trials). The difference in DCS rate was significant (Fisher Exact p=0.029). The observations of DCS were significantly lower in early V-5 trials than in V-4 trials. Additional studies are required to evaluate the relative contribution of the variables in exercise distribution, the 10.2 psi depress/repress component, pre-decompression rest, or possible variation in total oxygen consumption.

  9. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Chappell, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project is performing tests in different analog environments to understand human performance during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with the aim of developing more safe and efficient systems for lunar exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The project is characterizing human EVA performance in studies using several test beds, including the underwater NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) facilities, JSC fs Partial Gravity Simulator (POGO), and the NASA Reduced Gravity Office (RGO) parabolic flight aircraft. Using these varied testing environments, NASA can gain a more complete understanding of human performance issues related to EVA and the limitations of each testing environment. Tests are focused on identifying and understanding the EVA system factors that affect human performance such as center of gravity (CG), inertial mass, ground reaction forces (GRF), suit weight, and suit pressure. The test results will lead to the development of lunar EVA systems operations concepts and design requirements that optimize human performance and exploration capabilities. METHODS: Tests were conducted in the NBL and during NEEMO missions in the NOAA Aquarius Habitat. A reconfigurable back pack with repositionable mass was used to simulate Perfect, Low, Forward, High, Aft and NASA Baseline CG locations. Subjects performed simulated exploration tasks that included ambulation, kneel and recovery, rock pick-up, and shoveling. Testing using POGO, that simulates partial gravity via pneumatic weight offload system and a similar reconfigurable rig, is underway for a subset of the same tasks. Additionally, test trials are being performed on the RGO parabolic flight aircraft. Subject performance was assessed using a modified Cooper-Harper scale to assess operator compensation required to achieve desired performance. All CG locations are based on the assumption of a

  10. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  11. Labeled cutaway line drawing of Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Labeled cutaway line drawing of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) identifies its various components and equipment. The portable life support system (PLSS) and protective layers of fabric (thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG)) incorporated in this extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit are shown.

  12. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  13. Extravehicular mobility unit thermal simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.; Phillips, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical methods, thermal model, and user's instructions for the SIM bay extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) routine are presented. This digital computer program was developed for detailed thermal performance predictions of the crewman performing a command module extravehicular activity during transearth coast. It accounts for conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer as well as fluid flow and associated flow control components. The program is a derivative of the Apollo lunar surface EMU digital simulator. It has the operational flexibility to accept card or magnetic tape for both the input data and program logic. Output can be tabular and/or plotted and the mission simulation can be stopped and restarted at the discretion of the user. The program was developed for the NASA-JSC Univac 1108 computer system and several of the capabilities represent utilization of unique features of that system. Analytical methods used in the computer routine are based on finite difference approximations to differential heat and mass balance equations which account for temperature or time dependent thermo-physical properties.

  14. Neutral buoyancy test evaluation of hardware and extravehicular activity procedures for on-orbit assembly of a 14 meter precision reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.

    1993-02-01

    A procedure that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform efficient on-orbit assembly of large paraboloidal precision reflectors is presented. The procedure and associated hardware are verified in simulated Og (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14 m diameter precision reflector mockup. The test article represents a precision reflector having a reflective surface which is segmented into 37 individual panels. The panels are supported on a doubly curved tetrahedral truss consisting of 315 struts. The entire truss and seven reflector panels were assembled in three hours and seven minutes by two pressure-suited test subjects. The average time to attach a panel was two minutes and three seconds. These efficient assembly times were achieved because all hardware and assembly procedures were designed to be compatible with EVA assembly capabilities.

  15. Neutral buoyancy test evaluation of hardware and extravehicular activity procedures for on-orbit assembly of a 14 meter precision reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform efficient on-orbit assembly of large paraboloidal precision reflectors is presented. The procedure and associated hardware are verified in simulated Og (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14 m diameter precision reflector mockup. The test article represents a precision reflector having a reflective surface which is segmented into 37 individual panels. The panels are supported on a doubly curved tetrahedral truss consisting of 315 struts. The entire truss and seven reflector panels were assembled in three hours and seven minutes by two pressure-suited test subjects. The average time to attach a panel was two minutes and three seconds. These efficient assembly times were achieved because all hardware and assembly procedures were designed to be compatible with EVA assembly capabilities.

  16. The Evolution of Extravehicular Activity Operations to Lunar Exploration Based on Operational Lessons Learned During 2009 NASA Desert RATS Field Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ernest R., Jr.; Welsh, Daren; Coan, Dave; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; McDaniel, Randall; Looper, Chris; Guirgis, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present options to evolutionary changes in several philosophical areas of extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. These areas will include single person verses team EVAs; various loss of communications scenarios (with Mission Control, between suited crew, suited crew to rover crew, and rover crew A to rover crew B); EVA termination and abort time requirements; incapacitated crew ingress time requirements; autonomous crew operations during loss of signal periods including crew decisions on EVA execution (including decision for single verses team EVA). Additionally, suggestions as to the evolution of the make-up of the EVA flight control team from the current standard will be presented. With respect to the flight control team, the major areas of EVA flight control, EVA Systems and EVA Tasks, will be reviewed, and suggested evolutions of each will be presented. Currently both areas receive real-time information, and provide immediate feedback during EVAs as well as spacesuit (extravehicular mobility unit - EMU) maintenance and servicing periods. With respect to the tasks being performed, either EMU servicing and maintenance, or the specific EVA tasks, daily revising of plans will need to be able to be smoothly implemented to account for unforeseen situations and findings. Many of the presented ideas are a result of lessons learned by the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate operations team support during the 2009 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS). It is important that the philosophy of both EVA crew operations and flight control be examined now, so that, where required, adjustments can be made to a next generation EMU and EVA equipment that will complement the anticipated needs of both the EVA flight control team and the crews.

  17. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T. (Inventor); Gleason, Kevin J. (Inventor); Cowley, Scott W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    There is disclosed a portable life support system with a component for removal of at least one selected gas. In an embodiment, the system includes a supported liquid membrane having a first side and a second side in opposition to one another, the first side configured for disposition toward an astronaut and the second side configured for disposition toward a vacuum atmosphere. The system further includes an ionic liquid disposed between the first side and the second side of the supported liquid membrane, the ionic liquid configured for removal of at least one selected gas from a region housing the astronaut adjacent the first side of the supported liquid membrane to the vacuum atmosphere adjacent the second side of the supported liquid membrane. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

  18. [Space radiation doses in the anthropomorphous phantom in space experiment "Matryeshka-R" and spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Petrov, V M; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Akatov, Iu A; Shurshakov, V A

    2010-01-01

    Russian space experiment "Matryeshka-R" was conducted in 2004-2005 to study dose distribution in the body of anthropomorphous phantom inserted in a spacesuit imitating container mounted on outer surface of the ISS Service module (experiment "Matryeshka"). The objective was to compare doses inside the phantom in the container to human body donned in spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity (EVA). The shielding function was calculated using the geometric model, specification of the phantom shielded by the container, "Orlan-M" description, and results of ground-based estimation of shielding effectiveness by gamma-raying. Doses were calculated from the dose attenuation curves obtained for galactic cosmic rays, and the AE-8/AP-8 models of electron and proton flows in Earth's radiation belt. Calculated ratios of equivalent doses in representative points of the body critical organs to analogous doses in phantom "Matryeshka" H(ORLAN-M)/H(Matryeshka) for identical radiation conditions vary with organs and solar activity in the range from 0.1 to 1.8 with organs and solar activity. These observations should be taken into account when applying Matryeshka data to the EVA conditions.

  19. Challenges in the development of the shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmann, H. J.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) has required significant technology advances in the design of the astronaut life support system and space-suit assembly. The life support system and space-suit assemblies are integrated into a single system and optimized for the primary function of supporting astronaut extravehicular operations. Rather than accommodating a limited, male-only astronaut population, the EMU must satisfy size requirements for both males and females with a minimum of sized parts. In addition, the Shuttle EMU has been designed to implement Space Shuttle Program philosophy of long operating life and mission reuse capability to minimize program lifetime cost. The advancement in life support system and space-suit technology achieved by the development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) is illustrated by comparison with the requirements for and the design features of the Apollo EMU.

  20. Study to evaluate the effect of EVA on payload systems. Volume 1: Executive summary. [project planning of space missions employing extravehicular activity as a means of cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Programmatic benefits to payloads are examined which can result from the routine use of extravehicular activity (EVA) during space missions. Design and operations costs were compared for 13 representative baseline payloads to the costs of those payloads adapted for EVA operations. The EVA-oriented concepts developed in the study were derived from these baseline concepts and maintained mission and program objectives as well as basic configurations. This permitted isolation of cost saving factors associated specifically with incorporation of EVA in a variety of payload designs and operations. The study results were extrapolated to a total of 74 payload programs. Using appropriate complexity and learning factors, net EVA savings were extrapolated to over $551M for NASA and U.S. civil payloads for routine operations. Adding DOD and ESRO payloads increases the net estimated savings of $776M. Planned maintenance by EVA indicated an estimated $168M savings due to elimination of automated service equipment. Contingency problems of payloads were also analyzed to establish expected failure rates for shuttle payloads. The failure information resulted in an estimated potential for EVA savings of $1.9 B.

  1. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  2. Extravehicular Space Suit Bearing Technology Development Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yan; Liu, Xiangyang; Guanghui, Xie

    2017-03-01

    Pressure bearing has been acting an important role in the EVA (extravehicular activity) suit as a main mobility component. EVA suit bearing has its unique traits on the material, dustproof design, seal, interface, lubrication, load and performance. This paper states the peculiarity and development of the pressure bearing on the construction design element, load and failure mode, and performance and test from the point view of structure design. The status and effect of EVA suit pressure bearing is introduced in the paper. This analysis method can provide reference value for our country’s EVA suit pressure bearing design and development.

  3. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  4. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  5. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  6. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  7. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the subsystem studies are presented. Initial identification and evaluation of candidate subsystem concepts in the area of thermal control, humidity control, CO2 control/O2 supply, contaminant control and power supply are discussed. The candidate concepts that were judged to be obviously noncompetitive were deleted from further consideration and the remaining candidate concepts were carried into the go/no go evaluation. A detailed parametric analysis of each of the thermal/humidity control and CO2 control/O2 supply subsystem concepts which passed the go/no go evaluation is described. Based upon the results of the parametric analyses, primary and secondary evaluations of the remaining candidate concepts were conducted. These results and the subsystem recommendations emanating from these results are discussed. In addition, the parametric analyses of the recommended subsystem concepts were updated to reflect the final AEPS specification requirements. A detailed discussion regarding the selection of the AEPS operating pressure level is presented.

  8. Composite materials for the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V.; Tello, Hector M.

    1992-01-01

    The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), commonly known as the astronaut space suit assembly (SSA) and primary life support system (PLSS), has evolved through the years to incorporate new and innovative materials in order to meet the demands of the space environment. The space shuttle program which is seeing an increasing level of extravehicular activity (EVA), also called space walks, along with interest in an EMU for Lunar-Mars missions means even more demanding conditions are being placed on the suit and PLSS. The project for this NASA-ASEE Summer Program was to investigate new materials for these applications. The focus was to emphasize the use of composite materials for every component of the EMU to enhance the properties while reducing the total weight of the EMU. To accomplish this, development of new materials called fullerene reinforced materials (FRM's) was initiated. Fullerenes are carbon molecules which when added to a material significantly reduce the weight of that material. The Faculty Fellow worked directly on the development of the fullerene reinforced materials. A chamber for fullerene production was designed and assembled and first generation samples were processed. He also supervised with the JSC Colleague, a study of composite materials for the EMU conducted by the student participant in the NASA-ASEE Program, Hector Tello a Rice University graduate student, and by a NASA Aerospace Technologist (Materials Engineer) Evelyne Orndoff, in the Systems Engineering Analysis Office (EC7), also a Rice University graduate student. Hector Tello conducted a study on beryllium and Be alloys and initiated a study of carbon and glass reinforced composites for space applications. Evelyne Orndoff compiled an inventory of the materials on the SSA. Ms. Orndoff also reviewed SSA material requirements and cited aspects of the SSA design where composite materials might be further considered. Hector Tello spent part of his time investigating the solar radiation

  9. Emergency medical support system for extravehicular activity training held at weightless environment test building (WETS) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) : future prospects and a look back over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Isao; Tachibana, Masakazu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Asari, Yasushi; Matsuyama, Shigenori

    2011-12-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides extravehicular activity (EVA) training to astronauts in a weightless environment test building (WETS) located in Tsukuba City. For EVA training, Tsukuba Medial Center Hospital (TMCH) has established an emergency medical support system, serving as operations coordinator. Taking the perspective of emergency physicians, this paper provides an overview of the medical support system and examines its activities over the past decade as well as future issues. Fortunately, no major accident has occurred during the past 10 years of NBS. Minor complaints (external otitis, acute otitis media, transient dizziness, conjunctival inflammation, upper respiratory inflammation, dermatitis, abraded wounds, etc.) among the support divers have been addressed onsite by attending emergency physicians. Operations related to the medical support system at the WETS have proceeded smoothly for the former NASDA and continue to proceed without event for JAXA, providing safe, high-quality emergency medical services. If an accident occurs at the WETS, transporting the patient by helicopter following initial treatment by emergency physicians can actually exacerbate symptoms, since the procedure exposes a patient who was recently within a hyperbaric environment to the low-pressure environment involved in air transportation. If a helicopter is used, the flight altitude should be kept as low as possible by taking routes over the river.

  10. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) / International Space Station (ISS) Coolant Loop Failure and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Cole, Harold; Cronin, Gary; Gazda, Daniel B.; Steele, John

    2006-01-01

    Following the Colombia accident, the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) onboard ISS were unused for several months. Upon startup, the units experienced a failure in the coolant system. This failure resulted in the loss of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the US segment of ISS. With limited on-orbit evidence, a team of chemists, engineers, metallurgists, and microbiologists were able to identify the cause of the failure and develop recovery hardware and procedures. As a result of this work, the ISS crew regained the capability to perform EVAs from the US segment of the ISS.

  11. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  12. Space Life Sciences Directorate's Position on the Physiological Effects of Exposing the Crewmemeber to Low-Voltage Electrical Hazards During Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Kramer, Leonard; Mikatarian, Ron; Polk, James; Duncan, Michael; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The models predict that, for low voltage exposures in the space suit, physiologically active current could be conducted across the crew member causing catastrophic hazards. Future work with Naval Health Research Center Detachment Directed Energy Bio-effects Laboratory is being proposed to analyze additional current paths across the human torso and upper limbs. These models may need to be verified with human studies.

  13. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. The EMU is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for the Shuttle crewmember to perform Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in Earth orbit. Two EMUs are included on each baseline Orbiter mission, and consumables are provided for three two-man EVAs. The EMU consists of the Life Support System (LSS), Caution and Warning System (CWS), and the Space Suit Assembly (SSA). Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. The majority of these PCIs are resultant from failures which cause loss of one or more primary functions: pressurization, oxygen delivery, environmental maintenance, and thermal maintenance. It should also be noted that the quantity of PCIs would significantly increase if the SOP were to be treated as an emergency system rather than as an unlike redundant element.

  14. Extravehicular Mobility Unit Training Suit Symptom Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the symptoms and injuries experienced by NASA astronauts during extravehicular activity (space walk) spacesuit training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. We identified the frequency and incidence rates of symptoms by each general body location and characterized mechanisms of injury and effective countermeasures. Based on these findings a comprehensive list of recommendations was made to improve training, test preparation, and current spacesuit components, and to design the next -generation spacesuit. At completion of each test event a comprehensive questionnaire was produced that documented suit symptom comments, identified mechanisms of injury, and recommended countermeasures. As we completed our study we found that most extravehicular mobility unit suit symptoms were mild, self-limited, and controlled by available countermeasures. Some symptoms represented the potential for significant injury with short- and long-term consequences regarding astronaut health and interference with mission objectives. The location of symptoms and injuries that were most clinically significant was in the hands, shoulders, and feet. Correction of suit symptoms issues will require a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, early medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  15. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  16. Extravehicular Activity training and hardware design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuot, Pierre J.; Harbaugh, Gregory J.

    1993-01-01

    Designing hardware that can be successfully operated by EVA astronauts for EVA tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station Freedom requires a thorough understanding of human factors and of the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut, as well as of the effect of microgravity environment on the crew member's capabilities and on the overhead associated with EVA. This paper describes various training methods and facilities that are being designed for training EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance, taking into account the above discussed factors. Particular attention is given to the user-friendly hardware design for EVA and to recent EVA flight experience.

  17. Extravehicular Activity Systems: 1994-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies for the space suit of the future, specifically for productive work on planetary surfaces. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  18. STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  19. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Microbial Swab Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements--and to protect our science from human contamination--we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and surfaces for analysis, but there was no US EVA tool for that job. NASA engineers developed an EVA-compatible swab tool that can be used to collect data on current hardware, which will influence eventual Mars life support and EVA hardware designs.

  20. Extravehicular activities guidelines and design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Dashner, T. R.; Hayes, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    A listing of astronaut EVA support systems and equipment, and the physical, operational, and performance characteristics of each major system are presented. An overview of the major ground based support operations necessary in the development and verification of orbital EVA systems is included. The performance and biomedical characteristics of man in the orbital EV environment are discussed. Major factors affecting astronaut EV work performance are identified and delineated as they relate to EV support systems design. Data concerning the medical and physiological aspects of spaceflight on man are included. The document concludes with an extensive bibliography, and a series of appendices which expand on some of the information presented in the main body.

  1. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  2. Skylab extravehicular mobility unit thermal simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.; Phillips, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The analytical methods, thermal model, and user's instructions for the Skylab Extravehicular Mobility Unit (SEMU) routine are presented. This digital computer program was developed for detailed thermal performance predictions of the SEMU on the NASA-JSC Univac 1108 computer system. It accounts for conductive, convective, and radiant heat transfer as well as fluid flow and special component characterization. The program provides thermal performance predictions for a 967 node thermal model in one thirty-sixth (1/36) of mission time when operated at a calculating interval of three minutes (mission time). The program has the operational flexibility to: (1) accept card or magnetic tape data input for the thermal model describing the SEMU structure, fluid systems, crewman and component performance, (2) accept card and/or magnetic tape input of internally generated heat and heat influx from the space environment, and (3) output tabular or plotted histories of temperature, flow rates, and other parameters describing system operating modes.

  3. Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) study program. Volume 2: Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The construction portion of the Extravehicular Crewman Work System Study defines the requirements and selects the concepts for the crewman work system required to support the construction of large structures in space.

  4. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-04-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  5. Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Elms, Theresa; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2016-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to scrub the failed EMU cooling water loop on-orbit during routine scrubbing operations. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation is being investigation. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples have been designed. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin are undergoing evaluation. These efforts are undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit.

  6. Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Elms, Theresa; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to scrub the failed EMU cooling water loop on-orbit during routine scrubbing operations. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation is being investigated. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples has been designed. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin are undergoing evaluation. These efforts are undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit.

  7. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  8. Advanced Placement Economics. Macroeconomics: Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book is designed to help advanced placement students better understand macroeconomic concepts through various activities. The book contains 6 units with 64 activities, sample multiple-choice questions, sample short essay questions, and sample long essay questions. The units are entitled: (1) "Basic Economic Concepts"; (2) "Measuring Economic…

  9. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 1: Physiological limitations to extravehicular activity in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furr, Paul A.; Monson, Conrad B.; Santoro, Robert L.; Sears, William J.; Peterson, Donald H.; Smith, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a comprehensive literature search on physiological aspects of EVA. Specifically, the topics covered are: (1) Oxygen levels; (2) Optimum EVA work; (3) Food and Water; (4) Carbon dioxide levels; (5) Repetitive decompressions; (6) Thermal, and (7) Urine collection. The literature was assessed on each of these topics, followed by statements on conclusions and recommended future research needs.

  10. Miniaturized Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a low-volume, low-mass free-flying camera system . AERCam project team personnel recently initiated development of a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam. The Mini AERCam target design is a spherical "nanosatellite" free-flyer 7.5 inches in diameter and weighing 1 0 pounds. Mini AERCam is building on the success of the AERCam Sprint STS-87 flight experiment by adding new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving enhanced capability in a smaller package depends on applying miniaturization technology across virtually all subsystems. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion system , rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides beneficial on-orbit views unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by EVA crewmembers.

  11. Materials Assessment of Components of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, John D.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    1996-01-01

    Current research interests for Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) design and development are directed toward enhancements of the Shuttle EMU, implementation of the Mark 3 technology for Shuttle applications, and development of a next generation suit (the X suit) which has applications for prolonged space flight, longer extravehicular activity (EVA), and Moon and Mars missions. In this research project two principal components of the EMU were studied from the vantage point of the materials and their design criteria. An investigation of the flexible materials which make up the lay-up of materials for abrasion and tear protection, thermal insulation, pressure restrain, etc. was initiated. A central focus was on the thermal insulation. A vacuum apparatus for measuring the flexibility of the materials was built to access their durability in vacuum. Plans are to include a Residual Gas Analyzer on the vacuum chamber to measure volatiles during the durability testing. These tests will more accurately simulate space conditions and provide information which has not been available on the materials currently used on the EMU. Durability testing of the aluminized mylar with a nylon scrim showed that the material strength varied in the machine and transverse directions. Study of components of the EMU also included a study of the EMU Bearing Assemblies as to materials selection, engineered materials, use of coatings and flammability issues. A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the current design, which is a stainless steel assembly, was conducted and use of titanium alloys or engineered alloy systems and coatings was investigated. The friction and wear properties are of interest as are the general manufacturing costs. Recognizing that the bearing assembly is subject to an oxygen environment, all currently used materials as well as titanium and engineered alloys were evaluated as to their flammability. An aim of the project is to provide weight reduction since bearing

  12. Exploiting orbital effects for short-range extravehicular transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1993-01-01

    The problem studied in this paper is that of using Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) to carry out efficient short-range transfers from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the vicinity of the underside of the vehicle, for instance for inspection and repair of thermal tiles or umbilical doors. Trajectories are shown to exist, for the shuttle flying noise forward and belly down, that take the astronaut to the vicinity of the underside with no thrusting after the initial push-off. However, these trajectories are too slow to be of practical interest, as they take roughly an hour to execute. Additionally, they are quite sensitive to errors in the initial push-off rates. To overcome both of these difficulties, trajectories are then studied which include a single in-flight impulse of small magnitude ( in the range 0.1 - 0.4 fps). For operational simplicity, this impulse is applied towards the Orbiter at the moment when the line-of -sight of the EVA crewmember is tangential to the underside of the vehicle. These trajectories are considerably faster than the non-impulsive ones: transit times of less than 10 minutes are achievable. Furthermore, the man-in-the-loop feedback scheme used for impulse timing greatly reduces the sensitivity to initial velocity errors. Finally, similar one-impulse trajectories are also shown to exist for the Orbiter in a gravity-gradient attitiude.

  13. Status of the Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Arnold, Dane; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to perform on-orbit routine scrubbing operations for the EMU cooling water loop which led to the failure. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation have been investigated and are being incorporated. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples has been designed as well. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin have been selected. These efforts are being undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit. The intent of this paper is to provide an update of the effort to re-design the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) hardware. Last year, this effort was in the early stages of concept development and test which was reported in ICES Paper ICES-2016-221. Those phases are now complete and the final outcomes, as well as plans to build and field the hardware, are being reported on.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  15. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  16. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice. PMID:26909112

  17. Apollo experience report: Development of the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, C. C.; Stutesman, H. L.; Carson, M. A.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1975-01-01

    The development and performance history of the Apollo extravehicular mobility unit and its major subsystems is described. The three major subsystems, the pressure garment assembly, the portable life-support system, and the oxygen purge system, are defined and described in detail as is the evolutionary process that culminated in each major subsystem component. Descriptions of ground-support equipment and the qualification testing process for component hardware are also presented.

  18. Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) study program. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) requirements for manned support of space construction and satellite service are defined. Characteristics of structures and satellites are described. Requirements for extravehicular tasks and support equipment are defined. Equipment concepts are presented and evaluated for extravehicular life support, spacesuit, and work aids. Preliminary design of recommended ECWS equipment concepts and new technology developments required for their implementation are discussed.

  19. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Duque, Theresa; Greiner, Annette; Moxon, Elizabeth; Robinson, Arthur; Tamura, Lori

    2003-06-12

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information.

  20. "Bridging Activities," New Media Literacies, and Advanced Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Steven L.; Reinhardt, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    In this article we propose the pedagogical model "bridging activities" to address advanced foreign language proficiency in the context of existing and emerging internet communication and information tools and communities. The article begins by establishing the need for language and genre-focused activities at the advanced level that attend to the…

  1. Shuttle extravehicular activity signal processor pulse amplitude modulation decommutator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, D. E.; Conrad, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    To provide data with long-term stability and accuracy, the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) decommutator was synchronized to the PAM-return to zero wavetrain, and each channel was sampled with a common sample and hold circuit and digitized sequentially. The digital value of each channel was then scaled by the digital value of the calibration channels. The corrected digital value of each channel was stored for one complete frame and then transferred to the multiplexer-demultiplexer at a high rate in one block of serial digital data. A test model was built to demonstrate this design approach taken for the PAM decom and performance data was provided. The accuracies obtained with various signal to noise ratios are shown.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  3. Development and Test of Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two years, the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project under NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) funded an effort to develop an electromechanically-assisted space suit glove. The project was a collaboration between the Johnson Space Center's Software, Robotics, and Simulation Division and the Crew and Thermal Systems division. The project sought to combine finger actuator technology developed for Robonaut 2 with the softgoods from the ILC Phase VI EVA glove. The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) uses a system of three linear actuators to pull synthetic tendons attached to the glove's fingers to augment flexion of the user's fingers. To detect the user's inputs, the system utilizes a combination of string potentiometers along the back of the fingers and force sensitive resistors integrated into the fingertips of the glove cover layer. This paper discusses the development process from initial concepts through two major phases of prototypes, and the results of initial human testing. Initial work on the project focused on creating a functioning proof of concept, designing the softgoods integration, and demonstrating augmented grip strength with the actuators. The second year of the project focused on upgrading the actuators, sensors, and software with the overall goal of creating a system that moves with the user's fingers in order to reduce fatigue associated with the operation of a pressurized glove system. This paper also discusses considerations for a flight system based on this prototype development and address where further work is required to mature the technology.

  4. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  5. Using Optimization to Improve NASA Extravehicular Activity Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    9  Figure 3.  Truss ORU Map (from NASA, 2010c) ............................................................12  Figure 4.  Basic travelling...salesman problem network ....................................................23  Figure 5.  EVA planning problem as an asymmetric TSP network ...24  Figure 6.  EVA planning problem as a shortest path network with stages .......................26  Figure 7

  6. Visual perception and grasping for the extravehicular activity robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    The development of an approach to the visual perception of object surface information using laser range data in support of robotic grasping is discussed. This is a very important problem area in that a robot such as the EVAR must be able to formulate a grasping strategy on the basis of its knowledge of the surface structure of the object. A description of the problem domain is given as well as a formulation of an algorithm which derives an object surface description adequate to support robotic grasping. The algorithm is based upon concepts of differential geometry namely, Gaussian and mean curvature.

  7. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  8. Advanced Technology Development for Active Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Nishida, Toshikazu; Kurdila, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives include: (1) Develop electro-mechanical/acoustic models of a Helmholtz resonator possessing a compliant diaphragm coupled to a piezoelectric device; (2) Design and fabricate the energy reclamation module and active Helmholtz resonator; (3) Develop and build appropriate energy reclamation/storage circuit; (4) Develop and fabricate appropriate piezoelectric shunt circuit to tune the compliance of the active Helmholtz resonator via a variable capacitor; (5) Quantify energy reclamation module efficiency in a grazing-flow plane wave tube possessing known acoustic energy input; and (6) Quantify actively tuned Helmholtz resonator performance in grazing-flow plane wave tube for a white-noise input

  9. Advances in chalcones with anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Moorthy, Narayana S H Narayana; Ramasamy, Sakthivel; Vanam, Uma; Manivannan, Elangovan; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Trivedi, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Chalcones are naturally occurring compounds exhibiting broad spectrum biological activities including anticancer activity through multiple mechanisms. Literature on anticancer chalcones highlights the employment of three pronged strategies, namely; structural manipulation of both aryl rings, replacement of aryl rings with heteroaryl scaffolds, molecular hybridization through conjugation with other pharmacologically interesting scaffolds for enhancement of anticancer properties. Methoxy substitutions on both the aryl rings (A and B) of the chalcones, depending upon their positions in the aryl rings appear to influence anticancer and other activities. Similarly, heterocyclic rings either as ring A or B in chalcones, also influence the anticancer activity shown by this class of compounds. Hybrid chalcones formulated by chemically linking chalcones to other prominent anticancer scaffolds such as pyrrol[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines, benzothiazoles, imidazolones have demonstrated synergistic or additive pharmacological activities. The successful application of these three pronged strategies for discovering novel anticancer agents based on chalcone scaffold has resulted in many novel and chemically diverse chalcones with potential therapeutic application for many types of cancer. This review summarizes the concerted efforts expended on the design and development of anticancer chalcones recorded in recent literature and also provides an overview of the patents published in this area between 2007 and 2014 (WO2013022951, WO201201745 & US2012029489).

  10. Advanced Light Source: Activity report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces the world`s brightest light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The first low-energy third-generation synchrotron source in the world, the ALS provides unprecedented opportunities for research in science and technology not possible anywhere else. This year marked the beginning of operations and the start of the user research program at the ALS, which has already produced numerous high quality results. A national user facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, the ALS is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. This report contains the following: (1) director`s message; (2) operations overview; (3) user program; (4) users` executive committee; (5) industrial outreach; (6) accelerator operations; (7) beamline control system; (8) insertion devices; (9) experimental systems; (10) beamline engineering; (11) first results from user beamlines; (12) beamlines for 1994--1995; (13) special events; (14) publications; (15) advisory panels; and (16) ALS staff.

  11. Activity and Language in Advanced Graduate Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowy, William; Thormann, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Recent work integrating Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) with Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) forms a basis for systematizing action research in higher education. This basis strengthens what are often otherwise its methodological weaknesses, namely, the disconnection between analysis and subsequent plans for action and the…

  12. Extravehicular mobility unit subcritical liquid oxygen storage and supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John; Martin, Timothy; Hodgson, ED

    1992-01-01

    The storage of life support oxygen in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit in the liquid state offers some advantages over the current method of storing the oxygen as a high pressure gas. Storage volume is reduced because of the increased density associated with liquid. The lower storage and operating pressures also reduce the potential for leakage or bursting of the storage tank. The potential for combustion resulting from adiabatic combustion of the gas within lines and components is substantially reduced. Design constraints on components are also relaxed due to the lower system pressures. A design study was performed to determine the requirements for a liquid storage system and prepare a conceptual design. The study involved four tasks. The first was to identify system operating requirements that influence or direct the design of the system. The second was to define candidate storage system concepts that could possibly satisfy the requirements. An evaluation and comparison of the candidate concepts was conducted in the third task. The fourth task was devoted to preparing a conceptual design of the recommended storage system and to evaluate concerns with integration of the concept into the EMU. The results are presented.

  13. Advanced light source. Activity report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the breadth, variety, and interest of the scientific program and ongoing R&D efforts in a form that is accessible to a broad audience. Recent research results are presented in six sections, each representing an important theme in ALS science. These results are designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the ALS, rather than to give a comprehensive review of 1995 experiments. Although the scientific program and facilities report are separate sections, in practice the achievements and accomplishments of users and ALS staff are interdependent. This user-staff collaboration is essential to help us direct our efforts toward meeting the needs of the user community, and to ensure the continued success of the ALS as a premier facility.

  14. Micro-Fabricated Solid-State Radiation Detectors for Active Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Active radiation dosimetry is important to human health and equipment functionality for space applications outside the protective environment of a space station or vehicle. This is especially true for long duration missions to the moon, where the lack of a magnetic field offers no protection from space radiation to those on extravehicular activities. In order to improve functionality, durability and reliability of radiation dosimeters for future NASA lunar missions, single crystal silicon carbide devices and scintillating fiber detectors are currently being investigated for applications in advanced extravehicular systems. For many years, NASA Glenn Research Center has led significant efforts in silicon carbide semiconductor technology research and instrumentation research for sensor applications under extreme conditions. This report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments toward characterization of radiation-sensing components for the recommendation of their fitness for advanced dosimetry development.

  15. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    Water entered the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) helmet during extravehicular activity (EVA) no. 23 aboard the International Space Station on July 16, 2013, resulting in the termination of the EVA approximately 1 hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5 liters of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronaut's hearing, vision, and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based test, tear-down, and evaluation of the affected EMU hardware components determined that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator degassing function, which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, migrating around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing shortcomings of the Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery (ALCLR) Ion Filter Beds, which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware, and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  16. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  17. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 1997/1998

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Annette

    1999-03-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source (ALS) activity report for 1997/98 discusses the following topics: Introduction and Overview; Science Highlights; Facility Report; Special Events; ALS Advisory Panels 1997/98; ALS Staff 1997/98 and Facts and Figures for the year.

  18. Results of On-Orbit Testing of an Extra-Vehicular Infrared Camera Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss an infrared camera inspection system that has been developed to allow astronauts to demonstrate the ability to inspect reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) components on the space shuttle as part of extra-vehicular activities (EVA) while in orbit. Presented will be the performance of the EVA camera system coupled with solar heating for inspection of damaged RCC specimens and NDE standards. The data presented was acquired during space shuttle flights STS-121 and STS-115 as well during a staged EVA from the ISS. The EVA camera system was able to detect flatbottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 25% material loss. Results obtained are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory using the same camera and simulated solar heating. Data on both the time history of the specimen temperature and the ability of the inspection system to image defects due to impact will likewise be presented.

  19. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  20. Advanced Performance Modeling with Combined Passive and Active Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dovrolis, Constantine; Sim, Alex

    2015-04-15

    To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.

  1. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  2. The Extravehicular Suit Impact Load Attenuation Study for Use in Astronaut Bone Fracture Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Gilkey, Kelly M.; Sulkowski, Christina M.; Samorezov, Sergey; Myers, Jerry G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fracture of the proximal femur is a traumatic injury that would likely result in loss of mission if it were to happen during spaceflight. The low gravity exposure causes decreases in bone mineral density which heightens the concern. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have quantified bone fracture probability during spaceflight with a probabilistic model. It was assumed that a pressurized extravehicular activity (EVA) suit would attenuate load during a fall, but no supporting data was available. The suit impact load attenuation study was performed to collect analogous data. METHODS: A pressurized EVA suit analog test bed was used to study how the offset, defined as the gap between the suit and the astronaut s body, impact load magnitude and suit operating pressure affects the attenuation of impact load. The attenuation data was incorporated into the probabilistic model of bone fracture as a function of these factors, replacing a load attenuation value based on commercial hip protectors. RESULTS: Load attenuation was more dependent on offset than on pressurization or load magnitude, especially at small offsets. Load attenuation factors for offsets between 0.1 - 1.5 cm were 0.69 +/- 0.15, 0.49 +/- 0.22 and 0.35 +/- 0.18 for mean impact forces of 4827, 6400 and 8467 N, respectively. Load attenuation factors for offsets of 2.8 - 5.3 cm were 0.93 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.1 and 0.84 +/- 0.5, for the same mean impact forces. Reductions were observed in the 95th percentile confidence interval of the bone fracture probability predictions. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in uncertainty and improved confidence in bone fracture predictions increased the fidelity and credibility of the fracture risk model and its benefit to mission design and operational decisions.

  3. Aerodynamic Design Study of an Advanced Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An Advanced Active Twist Rotor (AATR) is currently being developed by the U.S. Army Vehicle Technology Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center. As a part of this effort, an analytical study was conducted to determine the impact of blade geometry on active-twist performance and, based on those findings, propose a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR. The process began by creating a baseline design which combined the dynamic design of the original Active Twist Rotor and the aerodynamic design of a high lift rotor concept. The baseline model was used to conduct a series of parametric studies to examine the effect of linear blade twist and blade tip sweep, droop, and taper on active-twist performance. Rotor power requirements and hub vibration were also examined at flight conditions ranging from hover to advance ratio = 0.40. A total of 108 candidate designs were analyzed using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) code. The study concluded that the vibration reduction capabilities of a rotor utilizing controlled, strain-induced twisting are enhanced through the incorporation of blade tip sweep, droop, and taper into the blade design, while they are degraded by increasing the nose-down linear blade twist. Based on the analysis of rotor power, hub vibration, and active-twist response, a candidate aerodynamic design for the AATR consisting of a blade with approximately 10 degrees of linear blade twist and a blade tip design with 30 degree sweep, 10 degree droop, and 2.5:1 taper ratio over the outer five percent of the blade is proposed.

  4. Recent advances in active control of aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Gopal; Fuller, Christopher

    2002-11-01

    Active noise control techniques can provide significant reductions in aircraft interior noise levels without the structural modifications or weight penalties usually associated with passive techniques, particularly for low frequency noise. Our main objective in this presentation is to give a review of active control methods and their applications to aircraft cabin noise reduction with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges facing the noise control engineer in the practical application of these techniques. The active noise control method using secondary acoustic sources, e.g., loudspeakers, as control sources for tonal noise reduction is first discussed with results from an active noise control flight test demonstration. An innovative approach of applying control forces directly to the fuselage structure using piezoelectric actuators, known as active structural acoustic control (ASAC), to control cabin noise is then presented. Experimental results from laboratory ASAC tests conducted on a full-scale fuselage and from flight tests on a helicopter will be discussed. Finally, a hybrid active/passive noise control approach for achieving significant broadband noise reduction will be discussed. Experimental results of control of broadband noise transmission through an aircraft structure will be presented.

  5. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  6. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  7. Stepwise advancement versus maximum jumping with headgear activator.

    PubMed

    Wey, Mang Chek; Bendeus, Margareta; Peng, Li; Hägg, Urban; Rabie, A Bakr M; Robinson, Wayne

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of stepwise mandibular advancement versus maximum jumping and extended treatment versus early retention. The material was obtained prospectively and consisted of lateral cephalograms taken at the start (T0), after initial (T1), and at the end (T2) of treatment, from two groups of consecutively treated skeletal Class II patients who had undergone therapy with headgear activators. The first headgear activator group, HGA-S (n=24; mean age 11.9 +/- 1.2 years), was treated for 13 months and had 4-mm mandibular advancement every 3 months. The second headgear activator group, HGA-M (n=31; mean age 11.2 +/- 1.5 years), had maximum jumping, 6-8 mm interincisal opening, for a total of 15.4 months, and with reduced wear for the last 6.9 months. The dropout over 12 months was 41 and 46 per cent, respectively. Pre-treatment growth changes were obtained as a reference. An independent t-test was used to determine differences in baseline dentofacial morphology between the groups, a paired t-test for intra-group comparisons, and an independent t-test to evaluate differences between the groups. The results, in both groups, showed enhanced mandibular prognathism during the initial phase (T0-T1), followed by normal growth (T1-T2), and lower face height enhancement throughout treatment (T0-T2). For both groups, the mandibular plane and occlusal angle increased, possibly enhanced by 'extrusion' of the lower molars. For both groups, maxillary forward growth was restrained only during the initial phase, but the effect remained significant at T2 for the HGA-S group. In the HGA-M group, the lower incisors were protruded, while in the HGA-S group, they were unaffected. The findings indicate that both modes of mandibular jumping resulted in skeletal and dental effects. The length of active treatment seemed to be decisive in maintaining the treatment effects; stepwise advancement had less dental effects.

  8. Active Vibration Reduction of the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Metscher, Jonathan F.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint compared to the current state of the art. The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project is funded by the RPS Program to developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controller maturation efforts that have resulted in high fidelity hardware like the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and ASC Controller Unit (ACU). The SCTD Project also performs research to develop less mature technologies with a wide variety of objectives, including increasing temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Active vibration reduction systems (AVRS), or "balancers", have historically been developed and characterized to provide fault tolerance for generator designs that incorporate dual-opposed Stirling convertors or enable single convertor, or small RPS, missions. Balancers reduce the dynamic disturbance forces created by the power piston and displacer internal moving components of a single operating convertor to meet spacecraft requirements for induced disturbance force. To improve fault tolerance for dual-opposed configurations and enable single convertor configurations, a breadboard AVRS was implemented on the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The AVRS included a linear motor, a motor mount, and a closed-loop controller able to balance out the transmitted peak dynamic disturbance using acceleration feedback. Test objectives included quantifying power and mass penalty and reduction in transmitted force over a range of ASC

  9. Active Vibration Reduction of the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Metscher, Jonathan F.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint compared to the current state of the art. The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project is funded by the RPS Program to developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controller maturation efforts that have resulted in high fidelity hardware like the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and ASC Controller Unit (ACU). The SCTD Project also performs research to develop less mature technologies with a wide variety of objectives, including increasing temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Active vibration reduction systems (AVRS), or "balancers", have historically been developed and characterized to provide fault tolerance for generator designs that incorporate dual-opposed Stirling convertors or enable single convertor, or small RPS, missions. Balancers reduce the dynamic disturbance forces created by the power piston and displacer internal moving components of a single operating convertor to meet spacecraft requirements for induced disturbance force. To improve fault tolerance for dual-opposed configurations and enable single convertor configurations, a breadboard AVRS was implemented on the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The AVRS included a linear motor, a motor mount, and a closed-loop controller able to balance out the transmitted peak dynamic disturbance using acceleration feedback. Test objectives included quantifying power and mass penalty and reduction in transmitted force over a range of ASC

  10. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  11. Environmental Monitoring Networks Optimization Using Advanced Active Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Volpi, Michele; Copa, Loris

    2010-05-01

    The problem of environmental monitoring networks optimization (MNO) belongs to one of the basic and fundamental tasks in spatio-temporal data collection, analysis, and modeling. There are several approaches to this problem, which can be considered as a design or redesign of monitoring network by applying some optimization criteria. The most developed and widespread methods are based on geostatistics (family of kriging models, conditional stochastic simulations). In geostatistics the variance is mainly used as an optimization criterion which has some advantages and drawbacks. In the present research we study an application of advanced techniques following from the statistical learning theory (SLT) - support vector machines (SVM) and the optimization of monitoring networks when dealing with a classification problem (data are discrete values/classes: hydrogeological units, soil types, pollution decision levels, etc.) is considered. SVM is a universal nonlinear modeling tool for classification problems in high dimensional spaces. The SVM solution is maximizing the decision boundary between classes and has a good generalization property for noisy data. The sparse solution of SVM is based on support vectors - data which contribute to the solution with nonzero weights. Fundamentally the MNO for classification problems can be considered as a task of selecting new measurement points which increase the quality of spatial classification and reduce the testing error (error on new independent measurements). In SLT this is a typical problem of active learning - a selection of the new unlabelled points which efficiently reduce the testing error. A classical approach (margin sampling) to active learning is to sample the points closest to the classification boundary. This solution is suboptimal when points (or generally the dataset) are redundant for the same class. In the present research we propose and study two new advanced methods of active learning adapted to the solution of

  12. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  13. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  14. Regenerable thermal control and carbon dioxide control techniques for use in advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Copeland, R. J.; Nebbon, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    The most promising closed CO2 control concept identified by this study is the solid pellet, Mg(OH2)2 system. Two promising approaches to closed thermal control were identified. The AHS system uses modular fusible heat sinks, with a contingency evaporative mode, to allow maximum EVA mobility. The AHS/refrigerator top-off subsystem requires an umbilical to minimize expendables, but less EVA time is used to operate the system, since there is no requirement to change modules. Both of these subsystems are thought to be practical solutions to the problem of providing closed heat rejection for an EVA system.

  15. Design of a Borescope for Extravehicular Non-Destructive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, Rafic

    2003-01-01

    Anomalies such as corrosion, structural damage, misalignment, cracking, stress fiactures, pitting, or wear can be detected and monitored by the aid of a borescope. A borescope requires a source of light for proper operation. Today s current lighting technology market consists of incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and other types of electric arc and electric discharge vapor lamp. Recent advances in LED technology have made LEDs viable for a number of applications, including vehicle stoplights, traffic lights, machine-vision-inspection, illumination, and street signs. LEDs promise significant reduction in power consumption compared to other sources of light. This project focused on comparing images taken by the Olympus IPLEX, using two different light sources. One of the sources is the 50-W internal metal halide lamp and the other is a 1 W LED placed at the tip of the insertion tube. Images acquired using these two light sources were quantitatively compared using their histogram, intensity profile along a line segment, and edge detection. Also, images were qualitatively compared using image registration and transformation [l]. The gray-level histogram, edge detection, image profile and image registration do not offer conclusive results. The LED light source, however, produces good images for visual inspection by an operator. Analysis using pattern recognition using Eigenfaces and Gaussian Pyramid in face recognition may be more useful.

  16. Advanced Light Source activity report 1996/97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Ten years ago, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) existed as a set of drawings, calculations, and ideas. Four years ago, it stored an electron beam for the first time. Today, the ALS has moved from those ideas and beginnings to a robust, third-generation synchrotron user facility, with eighteen beam lines in use, many more in planning or construction phases, and hundreds of users from around the world. Progress from concepts to realities is continuous as the scientific program, already strong in many diverse areas, moves in new directions to meet the needs of researchers into the next century. ALS staff members who develop and maintain the infrastructure for this research are similarly unwilling to rest on their laurels. As a result, the quality of the photon beams the authors deliver, as well as the support they provide to users, continues to improve. The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the results of these efforts in an accessible form for a broad audience. The Scientific Program section, while not comprehensive, shares the breadth, variety, and interest of recent research at the ALS. (The Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports provides a more comprehensive and more technical view.) The Facility Report highlights progress in operations, ongoing accelerator research and development, and beamline instrumentation efforts. Although these Activity Report sections are separate, in practice the achievements of staff and users at the ALS are inseparable. User-staff collaboration is essential as they strive to meet the needs of the user community and to continue the ALS's success as a premier research facility.

  17. Advanced Technological Education Program: 1995 Awards and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program promotes exemplary improvement in advanced technological education at the national and regional level through support of curriculum development and program improvement at the undergraduate and secondary school levels, especially for technicians being educated for the high performance workplace of…

  18. Design, Development and Testing of the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) Guidance, Navigation and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, J.; Fredrickson, S.; Manning, T.; Jones, B.

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA Johnson Space Center have designed, developed, and tested a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spaceflight activities. The technology demonstration system, known as the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam), has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The primary focus has been to develop a system capable of providing external views of the International Space Station. The Mini AERCam system is spherical-shaped and less than eight inches in diameter. It has a full suite of guidance, navigation, and control hardware and software, and is equipped with two digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations. Tests have been performed in both a six degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation and on an air-bearing table. The Mini AERCam system can also be used as a test platform for evaluating algorithms and relative navigation for autonomous proximity operations and docking around the Space Shuttle Orbiter or the ISS.

  19. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-03-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  20. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  1. Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) study program. Volume 3: Satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The satellite service portion of the Extravehicular Crewman Work System Study defines requirements and service equipment concepts for performing satellite service from the space shuttle orbiter. Both normal and contingency orbital satellite service is required. Service oriented satellite design practices are required to provide on orbit satellite service capability for the wide variety of satellites at the subsystem level. Development of additional satellite service equipment is required. The existing space transportation system provides a limited capability for performing satellite service tasks in the shuttle payload bay area.

  2. Proposed neutron activation analysis facilities in the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, L.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of analytical chemistry experimental facilities are being proposed for the Advanced Neutron Source. Experimental capabilities will include gamma-ray analysis and neutron depth profiling. This paper describes the various systems proposed and some of their important characteristics.

  3. Adding structure to the transition process to advanced mathematical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-03-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical deductive reasoning, required in advanced mathematics. It is necessary to assist students in this transition process, in moving from general to mathematical thinking. In this article some structure is suggested for this transition period. This essay is an argumentative exposition supported by personal experience and international literature. This makes this study theoretical rather than empirical.

  4. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  5. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  6. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  7. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  8. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  9. An Ergonomic Evaluation of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit Hard Upper Torso (HUT) Size Effect on Metabolic, Mobility, and Strength Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Harvill, Lauren; England, Scott; Young, Karen; Norcross, Jason; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance differences between a nominally sized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit and a nominal +1 (plus) sized EMU. Method: This study evaluated suit size conditions by using metabolic cost, arm mobility, and arm strength as performance metrics. Results: Differences between the suit sizes were found only in shoulder extension strength being 15.8% greater for the plus size. Discussion: While this study was able to identify motions and activities that were considered to be practically or statistically different, it does not signify that use of a plus sized suit should be prohibited. Further testing would be required that either pertained to a particular mission critical task or better simulates a microgravity environment that the EMU suit was designed to work in.

  10. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  11. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the extravehicular mobility unit, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort performed an independent analysis of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware and system, generating draft failure modes criticalities and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were than compared to the most recent proposed Post 51-L NASA FMEA/CIL baseline. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison was provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter EMU hardware.

  13. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the extravehicular mobility unit, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort performed an independent analysis of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware and system, generating draft failure modes criticalities and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the most recent proposed Post 51-L NASA FMEA/CIL baseline. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison was provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter EMU hardware. Volume 2 continues the presentation of IOA analysis worksheets and contains the potential critical items list and NASA FMEA to IOA worksheet cross references and recommendations.

  14. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  15. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  16. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  17. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  18. Advanced Embedded Active Assemblies for Extreme Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of advanced technologies for the integration of electronic die within membrane polymers. Specifically, investigators thinned silicon die, electrically connecting them with circuits on flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP), using gold thermo-compression flip chip bonding, and embedding them within the material. Daisy chain LCP assemblies were thermal cycled from -135 to +85degC (Mars surface conditions for motor control electronics). The LCP assembly method was further utilized to embed an operational amplifier designed for operation within the Mars surface ambient. The embedded op-amp assembly was evaluated with respect to the influence of temperature on the operational characteristics of the device. Applications for this technology range from multifunctional, large area, flexible membrane structures to small-scale, flexible circuits that can be fit into tight spaces for flex to fit applications.

  19. Advances in neuromagnetic instrumentation and studies of spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Williamson, S J; Kaufman, L

    1989-01-01

    Rapid progress in neuromagnetic technology has been achieved during the past two years with the introduction of a method for accurately indicating magnetic sensor locations with respect to a head-based coordinate system and the advent of refrigerator-cooled sensors and larger arrays of sensors. These make possible the real-time monitoring of evoked activity at several widely separated locations over the scalp, thus revealing sequential activity in, e.g., sensory-motor tasks. Arrays of magnetic sensors also provide sufficient information to locate the sources of spontaneous activity, such as alpha rhythm. The locations of discrete generators (alphons) of individual alpha spindles is now possible with an array of 14 sensors. Mapping techniques with a 5-sensor system have revealed preferential suppression of alpha activity within certain regions of the occipital lobe to tasks involving mental comparisons of abstract figures. These studies provide evidence that the machinery of visual cortex is involved in mental imagery.

  20. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Drabu, Sushma; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Summary Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded. PMID:21804864

  1. An overview of the Space Station Technology/Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, R. F.; Ambrus, J. H.; Hall, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Plan of the Fiscal Year (FY) 1986 is designed to focus on the most promising technology options applicable to the Space Station (SS), selected from the list of tasks identified by the FY 1984 Technology Program as the most critical technologies to be developed for the initial SS Initial Operating Capability. Most of the current activities are in the stages of manufacture and life tests of specific SS subsystems. Special attention is given to major technologies, which include power systems (PSs) (with emphasis on a Solar Dynamic PS concept); the thermal control system (with the focus on the 'thermal bus' concept); the environmental control and life support system; and the data management system; all are illustrated schematically. Other tasks, including dynamics, communications, extravehicular activities, mechanics, propulsion, and fluid, as well as the tasks of cost, maintainability, automation and robotics, and productivity are discussed.

  2. Advanced Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.117.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers design and operation…

  3. Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.

  4. Recent advances in researches on physiologically active substances in holothurians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashi, Hirata; Nobuhiro, Zaima; Kyoko, Yamashita; Ryoko, Noguchi; Xue, Changhu; Tatsuya, Sugawara

    2005-07-01

    In this report, we reviewed recent literature on physiologically active substances from sea cucumbers (SCs) and their activities together with results obtained from our study. Preventive properties against lipid metabolism were reported in rats using a whole SC preparation with no particular constituent specified. Administration of the preparation lowered serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and improved the HDL/LDL ratio. These functions may be attributed to the stimulatory effect of the extract on the secretion of cholesterol in feces. Novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCSs) from Ludwigothurea grisea significantly induced fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs). The proangiogenetic activity seemed attributable to the action of the sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide. SCs contain mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that are capable of absorbing UV. A biogenetic precursor of MAAs was first reported in SCs. The anti-proliferative effects of a branched chain fatty acid from a sea cucumber on prostate cancer cells was reported with the activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Glycosphingolipid constituents in SCs have been systematically analyzed over the past ten years. The results showed that the gangliosides in several SCs differed from those of mammals in that a sialic acid of SC gangliosides directly binded to glucose of cerebroside. Neuritogenic activity of the glycosphingolipids was demonstrated in vitro experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutic products for neurological disorders. Our study also showed that sphingoid bases, the hydrolyzed products of glycosphingolipids from SCs, induced significant apoptosis in several tumor cell lines.

  5. Mechanisms of inflammasome activation: recent advances and novel insights.

    PubMed

    Vanaja, Sivapriya K; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein platforms assembled in response to invading pathogens and other danger signals. Typically inflammasome complexes contain a sensor protein, an adaptor protein, and a zymogen - procaspase-1. Formation of inflammasome assembly results in processing of inactive procaspase-1 into an active cysteine-protease enzyme, caspase-1, which subsequently activates the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis, a highly-pyrogenic inflammatory form of cell death. Studies over the past year have unveiled exciting new players and regulatory pathways that are involved in traditional inflammasome signaling, some of them even challenging the existing dogma. This review outlines these new insights in inflammasome research and discusses areas that warrant further exploration.

  6. Thrombin activation and liver inflammation in advanced hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Martín-González, Candelaria; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; Romero-Acevedo, Lucía; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Several mechanisms are involved including direct endothelial damage by the HCV virus, with activation of tissue factor, altered fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation and activation. In advanced stages, chronic HCV infection may evolve to liver cirrhosis, a condition in which alterations in the portal microcirculation may also ultimately lead to thrombin activation, platelet aggregation, and clot formation. Therefore in advanced HCV liver disease there is an increased prevalence of thrombotic phenomena in portal vein radicles. Increased thrombin formation may activate hepatic stellate cells and promote liver fibrosis. In addition, ischemic changes derived from vascular occlusion by microthrombi favor the so called parenchymal extinction, a process that promotes collapse of hepatocytes and the formation of gross fibrous tracts. These reasons may explain why advanced HCV infection may evolve more rapidly to end-stage liver disease than other forms of cirrhosis. PMID:27182154

  7. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  8. Application of Active Learning Techniques to an Advanced Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knop, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    The New Faculty Workshop provided a wealth of techniques as well as an overriding philosophy for the teaching of undergraduate Physics and Astronomy courses. The focus of the workshop was active learning, summarized in ``Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching" by Slater & Adams: it's not what you do in class that matters, it's what the students do. Much of the specific focus of the New Faculty Workshop is on teaching the large, introductory Physics classes that many of the faculty present are sure to teach, both algebra-based and calculus-based. Many of these techniques apply directly and with little modification to introductory Astronomy courses. However, little direct attention is given to upper-division undergraduate, or even graduate, courses. In this presentation, I will share my experience in attempting to apply some of the techniques discussed at the New Faculty Workshop to an upper-division course in Galactic Astrophysics at Vanderbilt University during the Spring semester of 2004.

  9. Recent advances in organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Xie, Zongliang; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P

    2017-02-06

    Organic materials that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are an attractive class of functional materials that have witnessed a booming development in recent years. Since Adachi et al. reported high-performance TADF-OLED devices in 2012, there have been many reports regarding the design and synthesis of new TADF luminogens, which have various molecular structures and are used for different applications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress concerning this rapidly developing research field, in which the majority of the reported TADF systems are discussed, along with their derived structure-property relationships, TADF mechanisms and applications. We hope that such a review provides a clear outlook of these novel functional materials for a broad range of scientists within different disciplinary areas and attracts more researchers to devote themselves to this interesting research field.

  10. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  11. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  12. Advances in multifocal methods for imaging human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Thom; Ales, Justin; Klein, Stanley A.

    2006-02-01

    The typical multifocal stimulus used in visual evoked potential (VEP) studies consists of about 60 checkerboard stimulus patches each independently contrast reversed according to an m-sequence. Cross correlation of the response (EEG, MEG, ERG, or fMRI) with the m-sequence results in a series of response kernels for each response channel and each stimulus patch. In the past the number and complexity of stimulus patches has been constrained by graphics hardware, namely the use of look-up-table (LUT) animation methods. To avoid such limitations we replaced the LUTs with true color graphic sprites to present arbitrary spatial patterns. To demonstrate the utility of the method we have recorded simultaneously from 192 cortically scaled stimulus patches each of which activate about 12mm2 of cortex in area V1. Because of the sparseness of cortical folding, very small stimulus patches and robust estimation of dipole source orientation, the method opens a new window on precise spatio-temporal mapping of early visual areas. The use of sprites also enables multiplexing stimuli such that at each patch location multiple stimuli can be presented. We have presented patterns with different orientations (or spatial frequencies) at the same patch locations but independently temporally modulated, effectively doubling the number of stimulus patches, to explore cell population interactions at the same cortical locus. We have also measured nonlinear responses to adjacent pairs of patches, thereby getting an edge response that doubles the spatial sampling density to about 1.8 mm on cortex.

  13. Active osmotic exchanger for advanced filtration at the nano scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    One of the main functions of the kidney is to remove the waste products of an organism, mostly by excreting concentrated urea while reabsorbing water and other molecules. The human kidney is capable of recycling about 200 liters of water per day, at the relatively low cost of 0.5 kJ/L (standard dialysis requiring at least 150 kJ/L). Kidneys are constituted of millions of parallel filtration networks called nephrons. The nephrons of all mammalian kidneys present a specific loop geometry, the Loop of Henle, that is believed to play a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. One limb of the loop is permeable to water and the other contains sodium pumps that exchange with a common interstitium. In this work, we take inspiration from this osmotic exchanger design to propose new nanofiltration principles. We first establish simple analytical results to derive general operating principles, based on coupled water permeable pores and osmotic pumps. The best filtration geometry, in terms of power required for a given water recycling ratio, is comparable in many ways to the mammalian nephron. It is not only more efficient than traditional reverse osmosis systems, but can also work at much smaller pressures (of the order of the blood pressure, 0.13 bar, as compared to more than 30 bars for pressure-retarded osmosis systems). We anticipate that our proof of principle will be a starting point for the development of new filtration systems relying on the active osmotic exchanger principle.

  14. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  15. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  16. Comparison of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suited and unsuited isolated joint strength measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Demel, Kenneth J.; Morgan, David A.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Pandya, Abhilash K.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the strength of subjects suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMU's) - or Space Shuttle suits - was compared to the strength of unsuited subjects. The authors devised a systematic and complete data set that characterizes isolated joint torques for all major joints of EMU-suited subjects. Six joint motions were included in the data set. The joint conditions of six subjects were compared to increase our understanding of the strength capabilities of suited subjects. Data were gathered on suited and unsuited subjects. Suited subjects wore Class 3 or Class 1 suits, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG's). Suited and unsuited conditions for each joint motion were compared. From this the authors found, for example, that shoulder abduction suited conditions differ from each other and from the unsuited condition. A second-order polynomial regression model was also provided. This model, which allows the prediction of suited strength when given unsuited strength information, relates the torques of unsuited conditions to the torques of all suited conditions. Data obtained will enable computer modeling of EMU strength, conversion from unsuited to suited data, and isolated joint strength comparisons between suited and unsuited conditions at any measured angle. From these data mission planners and human factors engineers may gain a better understanding of crew posture, and mobility and strength capabilities. This study also may help suit designers optimize suit strength, and provide a foundation for EMU strength modeling systems.

  17. Is gardening a stimulating activity for people with advanced Huntington's disease?

    PubMed

    Spring, Josephine A; Viera, Marc; Bowen, Ceri; Marsh, Nicola

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated adapted gardening as an activity for people with advanced Huntington's disease (HD) and explored its therapeutic aspects. Visitors and staff completed a questionnaire and participated in structured interviews to capture further information, whereas a pictorial questionnaire was designed for residents with communication difficulties. Staff reported that gardening was a constructive, outdoor activity that promoted social interaction, physical activity including functional movement and posed cognitive challenges. Half the staff thought the activity was problem free and a third used the garden for therapy. Visitors used the garden to meet with residents socially. Despite their disabilities, HD clients enjoyed growing flourishing flowers and vegetables, labelling plants, being outside in the sun and the quiet of the garden. The garden is valued by all three groups. The study demonstrates the adapted method of gardening is a stimulating and enjoyable activity for people with advanced HD.

  18. Development of an air-bearing fan for space extravehicular activity (EVA) suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumoto, Paul; Allen, Norman; Stonesifer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed/variable flow fan has been developed for EVA suit ventilation which combines air bearings with a two-pole, toothless permanent-magnet motor. The fan has demonstrated quiet and vibration-free operation and a 2:1 range in flow rate variation. System weight is 0.9 kg, and input powers range from 12.4 to 42 W.

  19. Metabolic Expenditures During Extravehicular Activity: Spaceflight versus Ground-based Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Jill; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael; Srinivasan, Ramachandra

    2008-01-01

    In general metabolic rates tend to be higher in NBL than in flight: a) Restraint method dependent; b) Significant differences between the NBL and flight for BRT and APFR (buoyancy effects); and c) No significant difference between NBL and flight for free float and SRMS/SSRMS operations. The total metabolic energy expenditure for a given task and for the EVA as a whole are similar between NBL and flight: a) NBL metabolic rates are higher, but training EVAs are constrained to 5 hours; and b) Flight metabolic rates are lower, but the EVAs are typically an hour or more longer in duration. NBL metabolic rates provide a useful operational tool for flight planning. Quantifying differences and similarities between training and flight improves knowledge for preparation of safe and efficient EVAs.

  20. Metabolic rate control during extravehicular activity simulations and measurement techniques during actual EVAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the methods used to control and measure metabolic rate during ground simulations is given. Work levels attained at the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory are presented. The techniques and data acquired during ground simulations are described and compared with inflight procedures. Data from both the Skylab and Apollo Program were utilized and emphasis is given to the methodology, both in simulation and during flight. The basic techniques of work rate assessment are described. They include oxygen consumption, which was useful for averages over long time periods, heart rate correlations based on laboratory calibrations, and liquid cooling garment temperature changes. The relative accuracy of these methods as well as the methods of real-time monitoring at the Mission Control Center are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the metabolic measurement techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the problem of utilizing oxygen decrement for short time periods and heart rate at low work levels. A summary is given of the effectiveness of work rate control and measurements; and current plans for future EVA monitoring are discussed.

  1. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, Edward A.; Kelly, Brian J.; Radigan, Jeffery P.; Cranmer, Curtis W.

    2016-01-01

    Initial "Big 14" work was put to the test for the first time in 2010. Deficiencies were found in some of the planning and approaches to that work; Failure Response Assessment Team created in 2010 to address deficiencies -Identify and perform engineering analysis in operations products prior to failure; incorporate results into operations products -Identify actions for protecting ISS against a Next Worse Failure after the first failure occurs -Better document not only EVA products but also planning products, assumptions, and open actions; Pre-failure investments against critical failures best postures ISS for swift response and recovery -A type of insurance policy -Has proven effective in a number of contingency EVA cases since 2010. Planning for MBSU R&R in 2012, Second PM R&R in 2013, EXT MDM R&R in 2014; Current FRAT schedule projects completion of all analysis in 2018

  2. Design, development and evaluation of Stanford/Ames Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) prehensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Larry J.; Jameson, J.; Leblanc, M.; Wilson, D.; Sabelman, E.; Schwandt, D.

    1987-01-01

    A summary is given of progress to date on work proposed in 1983 and continued in 1985, including design iterations on three different types of manually powered prehensors, construction of functional mockups of each and culminating in detailed drawings and specifications for suit-compatible sealed units for testing under realistic conditions.

  3. Effect of In-Flight Exercise and Extravehicular Activity on Postflight Stand Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice; Greenisen, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise performed by Space Shuttle crewmembers during short-duration spaceflights (9-16 days) affects the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to standing within 2-4 hr of landing. Thirty crewmembers performed self-selected in-flight exercise and maintained exercise logs to monitor their exercise intensity and duration. A 10min stand test, preceded by at least 6 min of quiet supine rest, was completed 10- 15 d before launch (PRE) and within four hours of landing (POST). Based upon their in-flight exercise records, subjects were grouped as either high (HIex: = 3x/week, HR = 70% ,HRMax, = 20 min/session, n = 11), medium (MEDex: = 3x/week, HR = 70% HRmax, = 20 min/session, n = 10), or low (LOex: = 3x/week, HR and duration variable, n = 11) exercisers. HR and BP responses to standing were compared between groups (ANOVA, or analysis of variance, P < 0.05). There were no PRE differences between the groups in supine or standing HR and BP. Although POST supine HR was similar to PRE, all groups had an increased standing HR compared to PRE. The increase in HR upon standing was significantly greater after flight in the LOex group (36+/-5 bpm) compared to HIex or MEDex groups (25+/-1bpm; 22+/-2 bpm). Similarly, the decrease in pulse pressure (PP) from supine to standing was unchanged after spaceflight in the MEDex and HIex groups, but was significantly less in the LOex group (PRE: -9+/- 3, POST: -19+/- 4 mmHg). Thus, moderate to high levels of in-flight exercise attenuated HR and PP responses to standing after spaceflight compared.

  4. The Effects of Terrain and Navigation on Human Extravehicular Activity Walkback Performance on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Stroud, Leah C.; Schaffner, Grant; Glass, Brian J.; Lee, Pascal C.; Jones, Jeff A.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the EVA Walkback Test showed that 6 male astronauts were able to ambulate 10 km on a level treadmill while wearing a prototype EVA suit in simulated lunar gravity. However, the effects of lunar terrain, topography, and real-time navigation on ambulation performance are unknown. Primary objective: To characterize the effect of lunar-like terrain and navigation on VO2 and distance traveled during an unsuited 10 km (straight-line distance) ambulatory return in earth gravity.

  5. Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

  6. Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is addressed. Finally, this paper looks to the management challenges presented by interoperability in general. With budgets being reduced among all space-faring nations, the need to expand cooperation in the highly expensive field of human space operations is only going to intensify. The question facing management is not if the trend toward interoperation will continue, but how to best facilitate its doing so. Real-world EVA interoperability experience throughout the ShuttlelMir and ISS Programs is discussed to illustrate the challenges and

  7. Advanced Marketing 8130. Instructional Areas. Duties and Tasks. Learning Activities. Referenced Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This resource handbook, which is designed for use by instructors of courses in advanced marketing, consists of a duty/task list with referenced resources, a duty/task list with learning activities, and a list of resources. Included in each list are materials dealing with the following topics: communication in marketing, economics in marketing,…

  8. The Transformation of Learning: Advances in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert, Ed.; Wardekker, Wim, Ed.; Elbers, Ed, Ed.; van der Veer, Rene, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Learning is a changing phenomenon, depending on the advances in theory and research. This book presents a relatively new approach to learning, based on meaningful human activities in cultural practices and in collaboration with others. It draws extensively from the ideas of Lev Vygotsky and his recent followers. The book presents ideas that…

  9. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tara A; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives.

  10. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  11. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Kim, D. S.; Vienna, J. D.; Piepel, G. F.; Schweiger, M. J.

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  12. Understanding the impact of deep brain stimulation on ambulatory activity in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rochester, Lynn; Chastin, Sebastien Francois Martin; Lord, Sue; Baker, Katherine; Burn, David John

    2012-06-01

    Whilst deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-STN) improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), its effect on daily activity is unknown. We aimed to quantify changes in ambulatory activity following DBS-STN in advanced PD using novel accelerometry based measures that describe changes to the volume and pattern of walking. Seventeen participants with advanced PD were measured over a 7-day period using an activPAL (™) activity monitor. Data were collected 6 weeks before and 6 months after surgery and included measures that describe the volume and pattern of ambulatory activity (number of steps per day, accumulation, diversity and variability of walking time), alongside standard measures for disease severity, freezing of gait, gait speed, and extended activities of daily living. Activity outcomes were compared pre- and 6 months post-surgery using linear mixed models and correlated with standard outcomes. The results of this study are despite significant improvements in motor symptoms after surgery, the volume of ambulatory activity (total number of steps per day) did not change (P = 0.468). However, significant increases in length and variability of walking bouts emerged, suggesting improvements in diversity and flexibility of walking patterns. Motor severity and extended activities of daily living scores were significantly correlated with walking bout variability but not with volume of walking. Thus, the conclusions are reduction in motor symptom severity after DBS-STN translated into selective improvements in daily activity. Novel measures derived from accelerometry provide a discrete measure of performance and allow closer interpretation of the impact of DBS-STN on real-world activity.

  13. Systemic activation of NF-κB driven luciferase activity in transgenic mice fed advanced glycation end products modified albumin.

    PubMed

    Nass, Norbert; Bayreuther, Kristina; Simm, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable end products of the Maillard reaction and accumulate with progressing ageing and degenerative diseases. Significant amounts of AGE-modified peptides are also consumed with processed food. AGEs bind to specific receptors, especially the receptor of AGEs (RAGE). Activation of RAGE then evokes intracellular signalling, finally resulting in the activation of the NF-κB transcription factor and therefore a proinflammatory state. We here analysed, whether NF-κB is activated in short term upon feeding an AGE-modified protein in-vivo. Transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase under the control of an NF-κB responsive promoter were intraperitoneally injected or fed with AGE-modified- or control albumin and luciferase expression was analysed by in-vivo imaging and by in-vitro by determination of luciferase enzyme activity in heart, lung, gut, spleen, liver and kidney. In all organs, an activation of the luciferase reporter gene was observed in response to AGE-BSA feeding, however with different intensity and timing. The gut exhibited highest luciferase activity and this activity peaked 6-8 h post AGE-feeding. In heart and kidney, luciferase activity increased for up to 12 h post feeding. All other organs tested, exhibited highest activity at 10 h after AGE-consumption. Altogether, these data demonstrate that feeding AGE-modified protein resulted in a transient and systemic activation of the NF-κB reporter.

  14. Freeze Tolerant Radiator for an Advanced EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Elliott, Jeannine; Weislogel, Mark

    2004-01-01

    During an Extravehicular Activity (EVA), the astronaut s metabolic heat and the heat produced by the Portable Life Support Unit (PLSS) must be rejected. This heat load is currently rejected by a sublimator, which vents up to eight pounds of water each EVA. However, for advanced space missions of the future, water venting to space needs to be minimized because resupply impacts from earth will be prohibitive. If this heat load could be radiated to space from the PLSS, which has enough surface area to radiate most of the heat, the amount of water now vented could be greatly reduced. Unfortunately, a radiator rejects heat at a relatively constant rate, but the astronauts generate a variable heat load depending on how hard they are working. Without a way to vary the heat removal rate, the astronaut would experience cold discomfort or even frostbite. A proven method allowing a radiator to be turned-down is to sequentially allow tubes that carry the heat transfer fluid to the radiator to freeze. A drawback of current freezable radiators using this method is that they are far to heavy for use on a PLSS, because they use heavy construction to prevent the tubes from bursting as they freeze and thaw. This creates the need for a large radiator to reject most of the heat but with a lightweight tube that doesn t burst as it freezes and thaws. The new freezable radiator for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has features to accommodate the expansion of the radiator fluid when it freezes, and still have the high tube to fin conductance needed to minimize the number and weight of the tubes. Radiator fluid candidates are water and a propylene glycol-water mixture. This design maintains all materials within their elastic limits so that large volume changes can be achieved without breaking the tube. This concept couples this elastic expansion with an extremely lightweight, extremely high conductivity carbon fiber fin that can carry the heat needed to thaw a frozen tube. By using

  15. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  16. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  17. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  18. Regeneration of siloxane-exhausted activated carbon by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Codony, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Martín, Maria J

    2015-03-21

    In the context of the biogas upgrading, siloxane exhausted activated carbons need to be regenerated in order to avoid them becoming a residue. In this work, two commercial activate carbons which were proved to be efficient in the removal of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) from biogas, have been regenerated through advanced oxidation processes using both O3 and H2O2. After the treatment with O3, the activated carbon recovered up to 40% of the original adsorption capacity while by the oxidation with H2O2 the regeneration efficiency achieved was up to 45%. In order to enhance the H2O2 oxidation, activated carbon was amended with iron. In this case, the regeneration efficiency increased up to 92%.

  19. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  20. Activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility, July-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Research activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) at Argonne National Laboratory are discussed for the period from July 1986 through October 1986. The facility is currently supported by the Department of Energy, and is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne. Over the past four-month period, a new commercial multiprocessor, the Intel iPSC-VX/d4 hypercube was installed. In addition, four other commercial multiprocessors continue to be available for research - an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Balance 21000, an Alliant FX/8, and an Intel iPSC/d5 - as well as a locally designed multiprocessor, the Lemur. These machines are being actively used by scientists at Argonne and throughout the nation in a wide variety of projects concerning computer systems with parallel and vector architectures. A variety of classes, workshops, and seminars have been sponsored to train researchers on computing techniques for the advanced computer systems at the Advanced Computing Research Facility. For example, courses were offered on writing programs for parallel computer systems and hosted the first annual Alliant users group meeting. A Sequent users group meeting and a two-day workshop on performance evaluation of parallel computers and programs are being organized.

  1. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  2. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  3. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  4. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  5. Recent Advances in Free-Living Physical Activity Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Andre, David; Wolf, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    It has become clear recently that the epidemic of type 2 diabetes sweeping the globe is associated with decreased levels of physical activity and an increase in obesity. Incorporating appropriate and sufficient physical activity into one's life is an essential component of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and overall health, especially for those with type II diabetes mellitus. Regular physical activity can have a positive impact by lowering blood glucose, helping the body to be more efficient at using insulin. There are other substantial benefits for patients with diabetes, including prevention of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several complications of utilizing a self-care treatment methodology involving exercise include (1) patients may not know how much activity that they engage in and (2) health-care providers do not have objective measurements of how much activity their patients perform. However, several technological advances have brought a variety of activity monitoring devices to the market that can address these concerns. Ranging from simple pedometers to multisensor devices, the different technologies offer varying levels of accuracy, comfort, and reliability. The key notion is that by providing feedback to the patient, motivation can be increased and targets can be set and aimed toward. Although these devices are not specific to the treatment of diabetes, the importance of physical activity in treating the disease makes an understanding of these devices important. This article reviews these physical activity monitors and describes the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:19885145

  6. Advances in structural modifications and biological activities of berberine: an active compound in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z-J; Zeng, Y; Lan, P; Sun, P-H; Chen, W-M

    2011-11-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chinese herbs such as Coptidis Rhizome. This paper is a systematic review of the structural modifications of berberine for different biological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer's disease, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antimalaria. The current review would provide some useful information for further studies on structural modification of berberine for discovering new drug leads.

  7. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  8. Operation of the power information center: Performance of secretariat functions and information exchange activities in the advanced power field of the interagency advanced power group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of activities conducted during the reporting period to facilitate the exchange of technical information among scientists and engineers both within the federal government and within industry are cited. Interagency Advanced Power Group meetings and special efforts, project briefs, and organization development are considered.

  9. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  10. Advanced Spacesuit Informatics Software Design for Power, Avionics and Software Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    A description of the software design for the 2016 edition of the Informatics computer assembly of the NASAs Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU), also called the Advanced Spacesuit. The Informatics system is an optional part of the spacesuit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and warning information. It also provides an interface to the suit mounted camera for recording still images, video, and audio field notes.

  11. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  12. Remote Bridge Deflection Measurement Using an Advanced Video Deflectometer and Actively Illuminated LED Targets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Long; Pan, Bing

    2016-08-23

    An advanced video deflectometer using actively illuminated LED targets is proposed for remote, real-time measurement of bridge deflection. The system configuration, fundamental principles, and measuring procedures of the video deflectometer are first described. To address the challenge of remote and accurate deflection measurement of large engineering structures without being affected by ambient light, the novel idea of active imaging, which combines high-brightness monochromatic LED targets with coupled bandpass filter imaging, is introduced. Then, to examine the measurement accuracy of the proposed advanced video deflectometer in outdoor environments, vertical motions of an LED target with precisely-controlled translations were measured and compared with prescribed values. Finally, by tracking six LED targets mounted on the bridge, the developed video deflectometer was applied for field, remote, and multipoint deflection measurement of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, one of the most prestigious and most publicized constructions in China, during its routine safety evaluation tests. Since the proposed video deflectometer using actively illuminated LED targets offers prominent merits of remote, contactless, real-time, and multipoint deflection measurement with strong robustness against ambient light changes, it has great potential in the routine safety evaluation of various bridges and other large-scale engineering structures.

  13. Remote Bridge Deflection Measurement Using an Advanced Video Deflectometer and Actively Illuminated LED Targets

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Long; Pan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    An advanced video deflectometer using actively illuminated LED targets is proposed for remote, real-time measurement of bridge deflection. The system configuration, fundamental principles, and measuring procedures of the video deflectometer are first described. To address the challenge of remote and accurate deflection measurement of large engineering structures without being affected by ambient light, the novel idea of active imaging, which combines high-brightness monochromatic LED targets with coupled bandpass filter imaging, is introduced. Then, to examine the measurement accuracy of the proposed advanced video deflectometer in outdoor environments, vertical motions of an LED target with precisely-controlled translations were measured and compared with prescribed values. Finally, by tracking six LED targets mounted on the bridge, the developed video deflectometer was applied for field, remote, and multipoint deflection measurement of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, one of the most prestigious and most publicized constructions in China, during its routine safety evaluation tests. Since the proposed video deflectometer using actively illuminated LED targets offers prominent merits of remote, contactless, real-time, and multipoint deflection measurement with strong robustness against ambient light changes, it has great potential in the routine safety evaluation of various bridges and other large-scale engineering structures. PMID:27563901

  14. ANL's electric vehicle battery activities for USABC. [US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides advanced battery R D; technology transfer to industry; technical analyses, assessments, modeling, and databases; and independent testing and post-test analyses of advanced batteries. These capabilities and services are being offered to the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) are being negotiated for USABC-sponsored work at ANL. A small portion of DOE's cost share for USABC projects has been provided to ANL to continue R D and testing activities on key technologies that were previously supported directly by DOE. This report summarizes progress on these USABC projects during the period of April I through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 2.0 Nickel/Metal Hydride Support 3.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  15. Clinical activity of sunitinib in patients with advanced desmoplastic round cell tumor: a case series.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Kind, Michèle; Cioffi, Angela; Maki, Robert G; Bui, Binh

    2013-09-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with poor outcome occurring in adolescents and young adults. Therapeutic options for patients with advanced disease are limited. Preclinical studies have shown that VEGFR-2 and VEGFA are overexpressed in DSRCT and that DSRCT xenografts were highly responsive to anti-VEGF agents such as bevacizumab. We report here the clinical activity of sunitinib in eight patients with DSCRT. Our data suggest that sunitinib may be associated with clinical benefit even in heavily pretreated patients.

  16. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge): active cellular immunotherapy for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McKarney, I

    2007-09-01

    (1) Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is an active cellular immunotherapy (therapeutic vaccine) that is designed to stimulate the patient's T-cells to recognize and attack prostate cancer cells that express prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) antigen. (2) Sipuleucel-T demonstrated a survival benefit in men with advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), although this preliminary finding requires confirmation in larger trials. (3) Mild to moderate myalgia, chills, fever, and tremor are the most commonly reported adverse events for patients receiving sipuleucel-T. These events generally resolve quickly. (4) More studies are needed to evaluate sipuleucel-T in the earlier stages of prostate cancer and in combination with conventional therapies.

  17. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  18. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation (A/L CLR) Hardware - Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery -- A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. A conservative duty cycle and set of use parameters for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. Several initiatives were undertaken to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters of the hardware. Examination of post-flight samples and EMU Coolant Loop hardware provided invaluable information on the performance of the A/L CLR and has allowed for an optimization of the process. The intent of this paper is to detail the evolution of the A/L CLR hardware, efforts to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters, and the final recommendations for implementation in the post-Shuttle retirement era.

  19. Recent advances in endophytic exopolysaccharides: Production, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Xingchi; Pu, Huimin; Liu, Shuang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2017-02-10

    Endophytes are microorganisms that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. In recent years, both endophytic bacteria and fungi have been demonstrated to be excellent exopolysaccharides (EPS) producers. This review focuses on the recent advances in EPS produced by endophytes, including its production, isolation and purification, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity. In general, EPS production is influenced by media components and cultivation conditions. The structures of purified EPS range from linear homopolysaccharides to highly branched heteropolysaccharides. These structurally novel EPS not only play important roles in plant-endophyte interactions; but also exhibit several biological functions, such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and prebiotic activities. In order to utilize endophytic EPS on an industrial scale, both yield and productivity enhancement strategies are required at several levels. Besides, the exact mechanisms on the physiological roles and biological functions of EPS should be elucidated in future.

  20. Advancing the science for active surveillance: rationale and design for the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership.

    PubMed

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Racoosin, Judith A; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Reich, Christian; Welebob, Emily; Scarnecchia, Thomas; Woodcock, Janet

    2010-11-02

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that the FDA develop a system for using automated health care data to identify risks of marketed drugs and other medical products. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership is a public-private partnership among the FDA, academia, data owners, and the pharmaceutical industry that is responding to the need to advance the science of active medical product safety surveillance by using existing observational databases. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership's transparent, open innovation approach is designed to systematically and empirically study critical governance, data resource, and methodological issues and their interrelationships in establishing a viable national program of active drug safety surveillance by using observational data. This article describes the governance structure, data-access model, methods-testing approach, and technology development of this effort, as well as the work that has been initiated.

  1. Incorporating an advanced aerosol activation parameterization into WRF-CAM5: Model evaluation and parameterization intercomparison: An Advanced Aerosol Activation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; He, Jian; Leung, L. Ruby; Fan, Jiwen; Nenes, Athanasios

    2015-07-22

    Aerosol activation into cloud droplets is an important process that governs aerosol indirect effects. The advanced treatment of aerosol activation by Fountoukis and Nenes (2005) and its recent updates, collectively called the FN series, have been incorporated into a newly developed regional coupled climate-air quality model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the physics package of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (WRF-CAM5) to simulate aerosol-cloud interactions in both resolved and convective clouds. The model is applied to East Asia for two full years of 2005 and 2010. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed for model predictions of meteorological, radiative, and cloud variables, chemical concentrations, and column mass abundances against satellite data and surface observations from air quality monitoring sites across East Asia. The model performs overall well for major meteorological variables including near-surface temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitable water, downward shortwave and longwave radiation, and column mass abundances of CO, SO2, NO2, HCHO, and O3 in terms of both magnitudes and spatial distributions. Larger biases exist in the predictions of surface concentrations of CO and NOx at all sites and SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations at some sites, aerosol optical depth, cloud condensation nuclei over ocean, cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), cloud liquid and ice water path, and cloud optical thickness. Compared with the default Abdul-Razzack Ghan (2000) parameterization, simulations with the FN series produce ~107–113% higher CDNC, with half of the difference attributable to the higher aerosol activation fraction by the FN series and the remaining half due to feedbacks in subsequent cloud microphysical processes. With the higher CDNC, the FN series are more skillful in simulating cloud water path, cloud optical thickness, downward shortwave radiation

  2. Dopamine regulates distinctively the activity patterns of striatal output neurons in advanced parkinsonian primates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun; Liang, Li; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Cao, Xuebing

    2014-01-01

    Nigrostriatal dopamine denervation plays a major role in basal ganglia circuitry disarray and motor abnormalities of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies in rodent and primate models have revealed that striatal projection neurons, namely, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), increase the firing frequency. However, their activity pattern changes and the effects of dopaminergic stimulation in such conditions are unknown. Using single-cell recordings in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates with advanced parkinsonism, we studied MSN activity patterns in the transition to different motor states following levodopa administration. In the “off” state (baseline parkinsonian disability), a burst-firing pattern accompanied by prolonged silences (pauses) was found in 34% of MSNs, and 80% of these exhibited a levodopa response compatible with dopamine D1 receptor activation (direct pathway MSNs). This pattern was highly responsive to levodopa given that bursting/pausing almost disappeared in the “on” state (reversal of parkinsonism after levodopa injection), although this led to higher firing rates. Nonbursty MSNs fired irregularly with marked pausing that increased in the on state in the MSN subset with a levodopa response compatible with dopamine D2 receptor activation (indirect pathway MSNs), although the pause increase was not sustained in some units during the appearance of dyskinesias. Data indicate that the MSN firing pattern in the advanced parkinsonian monkey is altered by bursting and pausing changes and that dopamine differentially and inefficiently regulates these behaviorally correlated patterns in MSN subpopulations. These findings may contribute to understand the impact of striatal dysfunction in the basal ganglia network and its role in motor symptoms of PD. PMID:25505120

  3. Mice Expressing Activated PI3K Rapidly Develop Advanced Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leystra, Alyssa A.; Deming, Dustin A.; Zahm, Christopher D.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Paul Olson, Terrah J.; Hadac, Jamie N.; Nettekoven, Laura A.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Clipson, Linda; Sullivan, Ruth; Washington, Mary Kay; Torrealba, Jose R.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway play a key role in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers by altering cellular growth, metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis (1). Mutations in the catalytic domain of PI3K that generate a dominantly active kinase are commonly found in human colorectal cancers and have been thought to drive tumor progression, but not initiation (2). However, the effects of constitutively activated PI3K upon the intestinal mucosa have not been previously studied in animal models. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of a dominantly active form of the PI3K protein in the mouse intestine results in hyperplasia and advanced neoplasia. Mice expressing constitutively active PI3K in the epithelial cells of the distal small bowel and colon rapidly developed invasive adenocarcinomas in the colon that spread into the mesentery and adjacent organs. The histological characteristics of these tumors were strikingly similar to invasive mucinous colon cancers in humans. Interestingly, these tumors formed without a benign polypoid intermediary, consistent with the lack of aberrant WNT signaling observed. Together, our findings indicate a non-canonical mechanism of colon tumor initiation that is mediated through activation of PI3K. This unique model has the potential to further our understanding of human disease and facilitate the development of therapeutics through pharmacologic screening and biomarker identification. PMID:22525701

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiushi; Song, Binlin; Jiang, Shuai; Liang, Chen; Chen, Xiao; Shi, Jing; Li, Xinyuan; Sun, Yingying; Wu, Mingming; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Ma, He-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (PO) in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S) and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT) mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic) and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC PO remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related “metabolic memory” may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway. PMID:26078825

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushi; Song, Binlin; Jiang, Shuai; Liang, Chen; Chen, Xiao; Shi, Jing; Li, Xinyuan; Sun, Yingying; Wu, Mingming; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Ma, He-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (P O ) in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S) and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT) mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic) and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC P O remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related "metabolic memory" may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway.

  6. Inhibition of AKR1C3 Activation Overcomes Resistance to Abiraterone in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengfei; Armstrong, Cameron M; Lou, Wei; Lombard, Alan; Evans, Christopher P; Gao, Allen C

    2017-01-01

    Abiraterone suppresses intracrine androgen synthesis via inhibition of CYP17A1. However, clinical evidence suggests that androgen synthesis is not fully inhibited by abiraterone and the sustained androgen production may lead to disease relapse. In the present study, we identified AKR1C3, an important enzyme in the steroidogenesis pathway, as a critical mechanism driving resistance to abiraterone through increasing intracrine androgen synthesis and enhancing androgen signaling. We found that overexpression of AKR1C3 confers resistance to abiraterone while downregulation of AKR1C3 resensitizes resistant cells to abiraterone treatment. In abiraterone-resistant prostate cancer cells, AKR1C3 is overexpressed and the levels of intracrine androgens are elevated. In addition, AKR1C3 activation increases intracrine androgen synthesis and enhances androgen receptor (AR) signaling via activating AR transcriptional activity. Treatment of abiraterone-resistant cells with indomethacin, an AKR1C3 inhibitor, overcomes resistance and enhances abiraterone therapy both in vitro and in vivo by reducing the levels of intracrine androgens and diminishing AR transcriptional activity. These results demonstrate that AKR1C3 activation is a critical mechanism of resistance to abiraterone through increasing intracrine androgen synthesis and enhancing androgen signaling. Furthermore, this study provides a preclinical proof-of-principle for clinical trials investigating the combination of targeting AKR1C3 using indomethacin with abiraterone for advanced prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 35-44. ©2016 AACR.

  7. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance Time in the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter,David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, robert; Zande, Chris Vande

    2012-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR - Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post- Shuttle 6-year service life.

  8. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes.

  9. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  10. Can activated sludge treatments and advanced oxidation processes remove organophosphorus flame retardants?

    PubMed

    Cristale, Joyce; Ramos, Dayana D; Dantas, Renato F; Machulek Junior, Amilcar; Lacorte, Silvia; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the occurrence of 10 OPFRs (including chlorinated, nonchlorinated alkyl and aryl compounds) in influent, effluent wastewaters and partitioning into sludge of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Catalonia (Spain). All target OPFRs were detected in the WWTPs influents, and the total concentration ranged from 3.67 µg L(-1) to 150 µg L(-1). During activated sludge treatment, most OPFRs were accumulated in the sludge at concentrations from 35.3 to 9980 ng g(-1) dw. Chlorinated compounds tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) were not removed by the conventional activated sludge treatment and they were released by the effluents at approximately the same inlet concentration. On the contrary, aryl compounds tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP) together with alkyl tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were not detected in any of the effluents. Advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2 and O3) were applied to investigate the degradability of recalcitrant OPFRs in WWTP effluents. Those detected in the effluent sample (TCEP, TCIPP, TDCPP, tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) had very low direct UV-C photolysis rates. TBOEP, TNBP and TIBP were degraded by UV/H2O2 and O3. Chlorinated compounds TCEP, TDCPP and TCIPP were the most recalcitrant OPFR to the advanced oxidation processes applied. The study provides information on the partitioning and degradability pathways of OPFR within conventional activated sludge WWTPs.

  11. Carbon fibers: Thermochemical recovery from advanced composite materials and activation to an adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Todd Andrew

    This research addresses an expanding waste disposal problem brought about by the increasing use of advanced composite materials, and the lack of technically and environmentally viable recycling methods for these materials. A thermochemical treatment process was developed and optimized for the recycling of advanced composite materials. Counter-current gasification was employed for the treatment of carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy resin composite wastes. These materials were treated, allowing the reclamation of the material's valuable components. As expected in gasification, the organic portion of the waste was thermochemically converted to a combustible gas with small amounts of organic compounds that were identified by GC/MS. These compounds were expected based on data in the literature. The composites contain 70% fiber reinforcement, and gasification yielded approximately 70% recovered fibers, representing nearly complete recovery of fibers from the waste. Through SEM and mechanical testing, the recovered carbon fibers were found to be structurally and mechanically intact, and amenable to re-use in a variety of applications, some of which were identified and tested. In addition, an application was developed for the carbon fiber component of the waste, as an activated carbon fiber adsorbent for the treatment of wastewaters. This novel class of adsorbent was found to have adsorption rates, for various organic molecules, up to a factor of ten times those of commercial granular activated carbon, and adsorption capacities similar to conventional activated carbons. Overall, the research addresses an existing environmental waste problem, employing a thermochemical technique to recycle and reclaim the waste. Components of the reclaimed waste material are then employed, after further modification, to address other existing and potential environmental waste problems.

  12. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  13. Activity of gefitinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with very poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Yin, Ming-Chang; Lin, Ching-Pei; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with poor performance status (PS) are less likely to respond to chemotherapy, or to have an improvement in survival, but more likely to experience toxicity. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of gefitinib in patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor PS in Taiwan. Patients with stage IIIB, IV NSCLC with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS of 3-4 received oral gefitinib 250 mg once daily. Totally, 52 patients were included (25 men, 27 women). Forty-three patients (82.7%) were in a PS of 3. Tumor response rate was 25.0% (13/52). Tumor response rate to gefitinib was highest in chemonaive patients 38.1% (8/21) vs. failed 1 chemotherapy regimen 13.3% (2/15) vs. failed 2 or more chemotherapy regimens 18.8% (3/16), p = 0.015. The median overall survival was 2.5 months (response group 9.1 months, stable disease 3.1 months, and progressive group 0.8 month, p < 0.001). Adverse events, mainly skin reactions and diarrhea, were generally mild (grade 1 or 2) except paronychia and acne. Thus, gefitinib has clinically antitumor activity and good tolerability in Taiwan patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor performance status, with a higher response rate than that seen Europe or in European heritage Americans. Chemonaive patients responded better than patients with prior chemotherapy. Formal clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the role of gefitinib in this situation.

  14. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  15. Advanced glycation end products regulate anabolic and catabolic activities via NLRP3-inflammasome activation in human nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yukun; Geng, Wen; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuai; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xinghuo; Kang, Liang; Yang, Cao

    2017-02-22

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is widely recognized as a cause of lower back pain, neurological dysfunction and other musculoskeletal disorders. The major inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration; however, the molecular mechanisms that drive IL-1β production in the intervertebral disc, especially in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, are unknown. In some tissues, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in NP tissues and promote its degeneration, increase oxidative stress and IL-1β secretion, resulting in disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ageing. It remains unclear whether AGEs exhibit similar effects in NP cells. In this study, we observed significant activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in NP tissues obtained from patients with degenerative disc disease compared to that with idiopathic scoliosis according to results detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Using NP cells established from healthy tissues, our in vitro study revealed that AGEs induced an inflammatory response in NP cells and a degenerative phenotype in a NLRP3-inflammasome-dependent manner related to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE)/NF-κB pathway and mitochondrial damage induced by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) activation and calcium mobilization. Among these signals, both RAGE and mitochondrial damage primed NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β activation as upstream signals of NF-κB activity, whereas mitochondrial damage was critical for the assembly of inflammasome components. These results revealed that accumulation of AGEs in NP tissue may initiate inflammation-related degeneration of the intervertebral disc via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  16. Special issue: The changing shapes of active volcanoes: Recent results and advances in volcano geodesy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Newman, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    The 18 papers herein report on new geodetic data that offer valuable insights into eruptive activity and magma transport; they present new models and modeling strategies that have the potential to greatly increase understanding of magmatic, hydrothermal, and volcano-tectonic processes; and they describe innovative techniques for collecting geodetic measurements from remote, poorly accessible, or hazardous volcanoes. To provide a proper context for these studies, we offer a short review of the evolution of volcano geodesy, as well as a case study that highlights recent advances in the field by comparing the geodetic response to recent eruptive episodes at Mount St. Helens. Finally, we point out a few areas that continue to challenge the volcano geodesy community, some of which are addressed by the papers that follow and which undoubtedly will be the focus of future research for years to come.

  17. Summary of the Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) Phase 2 Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, Mark Raymond

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an end-of-year summary reflecting the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-LWR designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone in M3AT-15IN2001017 in work package AT-15IN200101. These criteria have been designated as ARDC, and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the GDC that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. The report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of example adaptations of ARDC for Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) and modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs.

  18. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  19. The "Conflicted Dying": The Active Search for Life Extension in Advanced Cancer Through Biomedical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shan; Peter, Elizabeth; Gastaldo, Denise; Howell, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Using a poststructural perspective, we examine the subjectivities that are produced when advanced cancer patients seek life extension through biomedical treatments. Seven case studies were developed that included 20 interviews with patients, family, nurses, and physicians recruited from a tertiary hospital in Canada, 30 documents, and 5 hours of participant observation. We identify seven types of subjectivity: (a) the Desperate Subject, (b) the Cancer Expert Subject, (c) the Proactive Subject, (d) the Productive Subject, (e) the Mistrusting Subject, (f) the Model Patient Subject, and (g) the Suffering Subject. We characterize the "conflicted dying," a contemporary figure who holds multiple perspectives about seeking curative treatment despite the acknowledgment of death. Using active strategies to gain access to treatment, this figure resists traditional arrangements of power/knowledge established by health care providers. We suggest that the search for life extension is a process of shaping the self to fit certain aesthetical traits associated with surviving cancer.

  20. Advancing understanding of microbial bioenergy conversion processes by activity-based protein profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Fredrickson, James K.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-09-25

    Here, the development of renewable biofuels is a global priority, but success will require novel technologies that greatly improve our understanding of microbial systems biology. An approach with great promise in enabling functional characterization of microbes is activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which employs chemical probes to directly measure enzyme function in discrete enzyme classes in vivo and/or in vitro, thereby facilitating the rapid discovery of new biocatalysts and enabling much improved biofuel production platforms. We review general design strategies in ABPP, and highlight recent advances that are or could be pivotal to biofuels processes including applications of ABPP to cellulosic bioethanol, biodiesel, and phototrophic production of hydrocarbons. We also examine the key challenges and opportunities of ABPP in renewable biofuels research. The integration of ABPP with molecular and systems biology approaches will shed new insight on the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of functional enzymes and their synergistic effects in the field of biofuels production.

  1. Advanced Glycation End Products Activate a Chymase-Dependent Angiotensin II Generating Pathway in Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Vijay; Wang, Wansheng; Huang, Xiao Ru; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Truong, Luan D.; Lan, Hui Y

    2006-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin II is a key mediator of diabetes-related vascular disease. It is now recognized that in addition to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), chymase is an important alternative angiotensin II generating enzyme in hypertension and diabetes. However, the mechanism of induction of chymase in diabetes remains unknown. Methods and Results: Here we report that chymase is upregulated in coronary and renal arteries in patients with diabetes by immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of vascular chymase is associated with deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), increase in expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), and activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase. In vitro, AGEs can induce chymase expression and chymase-dependent angiotensin II generation in human vascular smooth muscle cells via the RAGE-ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. This is confirmed by blockade of AGE-induced vascular chymase expression with a neutralizing RAGE antibody and an inhibitor to ERK1/2, and by overexpression of the dominant negative-ERK1/2. Compared to ACE, chymase contributes to the majority of angiotensin II production (more than 70%, p<0.01) in response to AGEs. Further more, AGE-induced Angiotensin II production is blocked by the anti-RAGE antibody and by inhibition of ERK1/2 MAP kinase activities. Conclusions: Advanced glycation end products, a hallmark of diabetes, induce chymase via the RAGE-ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. Chymase initiates an important alternative angiotensin II generating pathway in diabetes and may play a critical role in diabetic vascular disease. PMID:16520412

  2. Efficiency of advanced oxidation processes in lowering bisphenol A toxicity and oestrogenic activity in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Plahuta, Maja; Tišler, Tatjana; Toman, Mihael Jožef; Pintar, Albin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor with adverse oestrogen-like effects eliciting adverse effects in humans and wildlife. For this reason it is necessary to set up an efficient removal of BPA from wastewaters, before they are discharged into surface waters. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of BPA removal from aqueous samples with photolytic, photocatalytic, and UV/H₂O₂ oxidation. BPA solutions were illuminated with different bulbs (halogen; 17 W UV, 254 nm; and 150 W UV, 365 nm) with or without the TiO₂ P-25 catalyst or H₂O₂ (to accelerate degradation). Acute toxicity and oestrogenic activity of treated samples were determined using luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), water fleas (Daphnia magna), zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), and Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay with genetically modified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results confirmed that BPA is toxic and oestrogenically active. Chemical analysis showed a reduction of BPA levels after photolytic treatment and 100 % conversion of BPA by photocatalytic and UV/H₂O₂ oxidation. The toxicity and oestrogenic activity of BPA were largely reduced in photolytically treated samples. Photocatalytic oxidation, however, either did not reduce BPA toxic and oestrogenic effects or even increased them in comparison with the baseline, untreated BPA solution. Our findings suggest that chemical analysis is not sufficient to determine the efficiency of advanced oxidation processes in removing pollutants from water and needs to be complemented with biological tests.

  3. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  4. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (MiniAERCam) for Spacecraft Inspection and Remote

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Fredericksn, S.

    2004-01-01

    AERCam is a nano-satellite class free-flying spacecraft with a full suite of avionics, propulsion, navigation, and communications. 1) 3 major development programs, one ending in DTO of protoflight unit, other two ending in ground demonstrations with integrated hardware and software. 2) Incremental increase in capability to reduce crew workload, provide better inspection capability. 3) Two crew evaluations and 4) Significant technology advancement.

  5. Activation of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products System in Women with Severe Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Emily A.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Baumbusch, Margaret A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Lee, Sarah Y.; Zhao, Guomao; Jing, Shichu; Pettker, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates cellular injury. Soluble forms of RAGE [soluble RAGE (sRAGE), endogenous secretory (esRAGE)] bind RAGE ligands, thereby preventing downstream signaling and damage. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize the changes in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, and cord blood soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) during physiological gestation and to provide insight into mechanisms responsible for RAGE activation in preeclampsia. Design and Settings: This was a cross-sectional study at a tertiary university hospital. Patients: We studied 135 women in the following groups: nonpregnant controls (n = 16), healthy pregnant controls (n = 68), pregnant women with chronic hypertension (n = 13), or pregnant women with severe preeclampsia (sPE; n = 38). Interventions and Main Outcome Measures: sRAGE and esRAGE levels were evaluated in vivo by ELISA in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, and cord blood and in vitro after stimulation of the amniochorion and placental explants with lipopolysaccharide or xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Placenta and amniochorion were immunostained for RAGE. Real-time quantitative PCR measured RAGE mRNA. Results: Pregnant women had significantly decreased serum sRAGE compared with nonpregnant subjects (P < 0.001). sPE women had higher serum and amniotic fluid sRAGE and esRAGE relative to those expected for gestational age (P < 0.001). Cord blood sRAGE remained unaffected by sPE. RAGE immunoreactivity and mRNA expression appeared elevated in the amniochorion of sPE women. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase (but not lipopolysaccharide) significantly up-regulated the release of sRAGE (P < 0.001) in the amniochorion explant system. Conclusions: Fetal membranes are a rich source of sRAGE. Elevated maternal serum and amniotic fluid sRAGE and esRAGE, paralleled by increased RAGE expression in the amniochorion, suggest activation of this system in s

  6. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology to an Advanced Subsonic Transport Project, established as one element of the NASA/Boeing Energy Efficient Transport Technology Program. The performance assessment showed that incorporating ACT into an airplane designed to fly approximately 200 passengers approximately 2,000 nmi could yield block fuel savings from 6 to 10 percent at the design range. The principal risks associated with incorporating these active control functions into a commercial airplane are those involved with the ACT system implementation. The Test and Evaluation phase of the IAAC Project focused on the design, fabrication, and test of a system that implemented pitch axis fly-by-wire, pitch axis augmentation, and wing load alleviation. The system was built to be flight worthy, and was planned to be experimentally flown on the 757. The system was installed in the Boeing Digital Avionics Flight Controls Laboratory (DAFCL), where open loop hardware and software tests, and a brief examination of a direct drive valve (DDV) actuation concept were accomplished. The IAAC Project has shown that ACT can be beneficially incorporated into a commercial transport airplane. Based on the results achieved during the testing phase, there appears to be no fundamental reason(s) that would preclude the commercial application of ACT, assuming an appropriate development effort is included.

  8. Biologically active filters - An advanced water treatment process for contaminants of emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangyi; Gitungo, Stephen W; Axe, Lisa; Raczko, Robert F; Dyksen, John E

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing concern of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in source water, this study examines the hypothesis that existing filters in water treatment plants can be converted to biologically active filters (BAFs) to treat these compounds. Removals through bench-scale BAFs were evaluated as a function of media, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dual media, empty bed contact time (EBCT), and pre-ozonation. For GAC BAFs, greater oxygen consumption, increased pH drop, and greater dissolved organic carbon removal normalized to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were observed indicating increased microbial activity as compared to anthracite/sand dual media BAFs. ATP concentrations in the upper portion of the BAFs were as much as four times greater than the middle and lower portions of the dual media and 1.5 times greater in GAC. Sixteen CECs were spiked in the source water. At an EBCT of 18 min (min), GAC BAFs were highly effective with overall removals greater than 80% without pre-ozonation; exceptions included tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and iopromide. With a 10 min EBCT, the degree of CECs removal was reduced with less than half of the compounds removed at greater than 80%. The dual media BAFs showed limited CECs removal with only four compounds removed at greater than 80%, and 10 compounds were reduced by less than 50% with either EBCT. This study demonstrated that GAC BAFs with and without pre-ozonation are an effective and advanced technology for treating emerging contaminants. On the other hand, pre-ozonation is needed for dual media BAFs to remove CECs. The most cost effective operating conditions for dual media BAFs were a 10 min EBCT with the application of pre-ozonation.

  9. Current Advances in L-DOPA and DOPA-Peptidomimetics: Chemistry, Applications and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Tortolini, Silvia; Rotelli, Luca; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine [2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (L-DOPA) is a natural constituent of animal and plant tissue derived from post-translational modification of the amino acid tyrosine. L-DOPA is modified during metabolism to catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are characterized by different biological activities. L-DOPA has been the first drug of choice in the therapy of Parkinson's disease that is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta. The social and economic impact of these diseases is very high due to the progressive aging of the population. This review focuses on the biological effect of LDOPA, as well as on the synthesis of L-DOPA derivatives and their application in central nervous system diseases. Among them, L-DOPA-containing peptides (L-DOPA-Pep) show important biological and pharmacological activities. For example, L-DOPA analogues of the alpha-factor interact with models of the G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and are used for improving L-DOPA absorption in long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease and as skin moisturizer in cosmetic compositions. Moreover, L-DOPA residues in proteins provide reactive tools for the preparation of adhesives and coatings materials. Usually, L-DOPA-Pep is prepared by traditional liquid or solid state procedures starting from simple amino acids. Recently, selective side-chain modifications of pre-formed peptides have also been reported both for linear and branched peptides. Here, we describe the recent advances in the synthesis of L-DOPA and dopa-peptidomimetics and their biological and pharmacological activities, focusing the attention on new synthetic procedures and biological mechanism of actions.

  10. Advanced oxidation protein products inhibit differentiation and activate inflammation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiu Gen; Peng, Xin; Hu, Li Li; Xie, Di; Zhou, Min; Hou, Fan Fan

    2010-10-01

    Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) is prevalent in metabolic syndromes, a condition with impaired preadipocytes differentiation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AOPPs disturb preadipocyte differentiation. Exposure of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to increased levels of AOPPs inhibited accumulation of intracellular triglyceride and decreased the expression of the essential markers of matured adipocytes, such as adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in response to standard adipogenic induction. Inhibitory effects of AOPPs on preadipocytes differentiation was time sensitive, which occurred at the early stage of differentiation. In the presence of AOPPs, induction of preadipocytes differentiation resulted in upregulated expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and CUG-Triplet repeat-binding protein (CUGBP), two important inhibitors of preadipocytes differentiation. In addition, treatment with AOPPs increased abundance of C/EBP-beta-liver enriched inhibitory protein (C/EBP-beta-LIP), a truncated C/EBP-beta isoform without adipogenic activity. Moreover, AOPPs-treated preadipocytes expressed a macrophage marker F4/80 and overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 via nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent pathway. However, blocking inflammation with NF-kappaB inhibitor failed to improve AOPPs-induced inhibition of preadipocytes differentiation. These data suggest that accumulation of AOPPs may inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes and activate inflammation in these cells. This information might have implication for understanding the impairment of preadipocytes differentiation and fat inflammation seen in metabolic syndrome.

  11. Protein Kinase C Activation Promotes Microtubule Advance in Neuronal Growth Cones by Increasing Average Microtubule Growth Lifetimes

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Nurul; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Nakhost, Arash; Sossin, Wayne S.; Forscher, Paul

    2001-01-01

    We describe a novel mechanism for protein kinase C regulation of axonal microtubule invasion of growth cones. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters resulted in a rapid, robust advance of distal microtubules (MTs) into the F-actin rich peripheral domain of growth cones, where they are normally excluded. In contrast, inhibition of PKC activity by bisindolylmaleimide and related compounds had no perceptible effect on growth cone motility, but completely blocked phorbol ester effects. Significantly, MT advance occurred despite continued retrograde F-actin flow—a process that normally inhibits MT advance. Polymer assembly was necessary for PKC-mediated MT advance since it was highly sensitive to a range of antagonists at concentrations that specifically interfere with microtubule dynamics. Biochemical evidence is presented that PKC activation promotes formation of a highly dynamic MT pool. Direct assessment of microtubule dynamics and translocation using the fluorescent speckle microscopy microtubule marking technique indicates PKC activation results in a nearly twofold increase in the typical lifetime of a MT growth episode, accompanied by a 1.7-fold increase and twofold decrease in rescue and catastrophe frequencies, respectively. No significant effects on instantaneous microtubule growth, shortening, or sliding rates (in either anterograde or retrograde directions) were observed. MTs also spent a greater percentage of time undergoing retrograde transport after PKC activation, despite overall MT advance. These results suggest that regulation of MT assembly by PKC may be an important factor in determining neurite outgrowth and regrowth rates and may play a role in other cellular processes dependent on directed MT advance. PMID:11238458

  12. Extravehicular Mobility Unit Penetration Probability from Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris: Revised Analytical Model and Potential Space Suit Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Thomas D.; Splawn, Keith; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection ability has recently been assessed against an updated, higher threat space environment model. The new environment was analyzed in conjunction with a revised EMU solid model using a NASA computer code. Results showed that the EMU exceeds the required mathematical Probability of having No Penetrations (PNP) of any suit pressure bladder over the remaining life of the program (2,700 projected hours of 2 person spacewalks). The success probability was calculated to be 0.94, versus a requirement of >0.91, for the current spacesuit s outer protective garment. In parallel to the probability assessment, potential improvements to the current spacesuit s outer protective garment were built and impact tested. A NASA light gas gun was used to launch projectiles at test items, at speeds of approximately 7 km per second. Test results showed that substantial garment improvements could be made, with mild material enhancements and moderate assembly development. The spacesuit s PNP would improve marginally with the tested enhancements, if they were available for immediate incorporation. This paper discusses the results of the model assessment process and test program. These findings add confidence to the continued use of the existing NASA EMU during International Space Station (ISS) assembly and Shuttle Operations. They provide a viable avenue for improved hypervelocity impact protection for the EMU, or for future space suits.

  13. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU): Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery (A/L CLR) Hardware - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Rector, tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2009-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. Conservative schedules for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. The examination of postflight samples and EMU hardware in November of 2006 indicated that the A/L CLR kits were functioning well and had excess capacity that would allow a relaxation of the initially conservative schedules of use and component life. A relaxed use schedule and list of component lives was implemented thereafter. Since the adoption of the relaxed A/L CLR schedules of use and component lives, several A/L CLR kit components, transport loop water samples and sensitive EMU transport loop components have been examined to gage the impact of the relaxed requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize the findings of that evaluation, and to outline updated schedules for A/L CLR use and component life.

  14. Advanced oxidation protein products and total antioxidant activity in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avinash, S S; Anitha, M; Vinodchandran; Rao, Gayathri M; Sudha, K; Shetty, Beena V

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and percent hemolysis (that indirectly indicates the degree of membrane damage secondary to lipid peroxidation) in colorectal carcinoma. Glutathione (GSH), total thiols and albumin were measured to determine the antioxidant status. Considering the dynamic interaction between various antioxidants in the body, we measured the total antioxidant activity (AOA). Globulin was measured to assess the inflammatory response secondary to oxidative stress. Investigations were conducted in 45 cases of recently diagnosed primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. As control, 45 age and sex matched healthy persons were chosen. GSH was estimated in whole blood, percent hemolysis in RBC suspension and other parameters in plasma. We observed a very high significant increase (P<0.001) in AOPP, percent hemolysis and a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in globulin in colorectal carcinoma. We observed a very high significant decrease (P<0.001) in whole blood GSH, total thiols, albumin, AOA and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma GSH in colorectal carcinoma. A very high significant negative correlation between percent hemolysis and AOA and an apparent negative correlation between total thiols and AOPP was seen in colorectal carcinoma. This demonstrated oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant status and secondary inflammatory response in colorectal carcinoma.

  15. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  16. Ecteinascidin-743: Evidence of Activity in Advanced, Pretreated Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huygh, G.; Clement, Paul M. J.; Dumez, H.; Schöffski, P.; Wildiers, H.; Selleslach, J.; Jimeno, J. M.; Wever, I. De; Sciot, R.; Duck, L.; Van Oosterom, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the activity and safety of ecteinascidin (ET-743) in pretreated patients with advanced or metastatic soft tissue and bone sarcoma. Patients or subjects. Eighty-nine patients received ET-743 as a 24-hour continuous infusion at a dose of 900–1500 μg/m2 every 3 weeks. Results. We observed one complete remission, 5 partial remissions, one minimal response, and 16 patients with a disease stabilization of 6 months or more. The objective response rate was 6.7% and the clinical benefit rate at 3 and 6 months was 37.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Responses were noted in patients with lipo-, leiomyo-, osteo-, and myogenic sarcoma, with a median duration of 9.85 months. Toxicity mainly involved an asymptomatic elevation of transaminases and neutropenia. Estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates were 39.4% and 15.8%. Median overall survival was 8.25 months. Discussion. This retrospective analysis confirms that ET-743 induces objective responses and progression arrest in a clinically relevant proportion of patients. PMID:17496996

  17. Advancing understanding of microbial bioenergy conversion processes by activity-based protein profiling

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yun; Fredrickson, James K.; Sadler, Natalie C.; ...

    2015-09-25

    Here, the development of renewable biofuels is a global priority, but success will require novel technologies that greatly improve our understanding of microbial systems biology. An approach with great promise in enabling functional characterization of microbes is activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which employs chemical probes to directly measure enzyme function in discrete enzyme classes in vivo and/or in vitro, thereby facilitating the rapid discovery of new biocatalysts and enabling much improved biofuel production platforms. We review general design strategies in ABPP, and highlight recent advances that are or could be pivotal to biofuels processes including applications of ABPP to cellulosicmore » bioethanol, biodiesel, and phototrophic production of hydrocarbons. We also examine the key challenges and opportunities of ABPP in renewable biofuels research. The integration of ABPP with molecular and systems biology approaches will shed new insight on the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of functional enzymes and their synergistic effects in the field of biofuels production.« less

  18. Risk reduction activities for an F-1-based advanced booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, A. M.; Doering, K. B.; Cook, S. A.; Meadows, R. G.; Lariviere, B. W.; Bachtel, F. D.

    For NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) procurement, Dynetics, Inc. and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's goal of enabling competition on an affordable booster that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team will apply state-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. ABEDRR will use NASA test facilities to perform full-scale F-1 gas generator and powerpack hot-fire test campaigns for engine risk reduction. Dynetics will also fabricate and test a tank assembly to verify the structural design. The Dynetics Team is partnered with NASA through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) to maximize the expertise and capabilities applied to ABEDRR.

  19. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a recirculating control loop which had no water quality maintenance. Results show that periodic water maintenance can improve performance of the SWME. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage of this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to enhance the robustness of the SWME through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A patented bed design that was developed for a United Technologies Aerospace System military application provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in the SWME recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for the ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  20. STS-49 ASEM activities illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activities are illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. The multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) grappled by the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector is positioned over OV-105's payload bay (PLB) as extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmembers attach MPESS to ASEM truss structure with 'legs'. One astronaut, floating, works near the top of the structure while the second astronaut works at a payload retention latch assembly (PLRA) on the starboard sill. The empty INTELSAT perigee stage cradle structure is seen in the aft PLB.

  1. STS-49 ASEM activities illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activities are illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. Two extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmembers work on multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) (with legs attached) grappled by remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector and positioned in the over-the-nose location (above OV-105's crew compartment). This position has been designated as the assembly area for Space Station Freedom (SSF). This procedure will evaluate the ability to use the RMS to position MPESS carrier and EVA crewmembers forward and above the PLB.

  2. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  3. Curcumin Micelles Remodel Tumor Microenvironment and Enhance Vaccine Activity in an Advanced Melanoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Miao, Lei; Wang, Yuhua; Xu, Zhenghong; Zhao, Yi; Shen, Youqing; Xiang, Guangya; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we have reported a lipid-based Trp2 peptide vaccine for immunotherapy against melanoma. The suppressive immune microenvironment in the tumor is a major hurdle for an effective vaccine therapy. We hypothesized that curcumin (CUR) would remodel the tumor microenvironment to improve the vaccine activity. Curcumin–polyethylene glycol conjugate (CUR–PEG), an amphiphilic CUR-based micelle, was delivered intravenously (i.v.) to the tumor. Indeed, in the B16F10 tumor–bearing mice, the combination of CUR–PEG and vaccine treatment resulted in a synergistic antitumor effect (P < 0.001) compared to individual treatments. In the immune organs, the combination therapy significantly boosted in vivo cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response (41.0 ± 5.0% specific killing) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production (sevenfold increase). In the tumor microenvironment, the combination therapy led to significantly downregulated levels of immunosuppressive factors, such as decreased numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) cells and declined levels of interleukin-6 and chemokine ligand 2—in correlation with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ as well as an elevation in the CD8+ T-cell population. The results indicated a distinct M2 to M1 phenotype switch in the treated tumors. Combining CUR–PEG and vaccine also dramatically downregulated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway (76% reduction). Thus, we conclude that CUR–PEG is an effective agent to improve immunotherapy for advanced melanoma. PMID:26334519

  4. FY13 Annual Report: PHEV Advanced Series Gen-set Development/Demonstration Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this project is to integrate ORNL advancements in vehicle technologies to properly design, and size a gen-set for various vehicle applications and then simulate multiple advanced series hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles with the genset models.

  5. Safety and Activity of Anti–PD-L1 Antibody in Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brahmer, Julie R.; Tykodi, Scott S.; Chow, Laura Q.M.; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Hwu, Patrick; Drake, Charles G.; Camacho, Luis H.; Kauh, John; Odunsi, Kunle; Pitot, Henry C.; Hamid, Omid; Bhatia, Shailender; Martins, Renato; Eaton, Keith; Chen, Shuming; Salay, Theresa M.; Alaparthy, Suresh; Grosso, Joseph F.; Korman, Alan J.; Parker, Susan M.; Agrawal, Shruti; Goldberg, Stacie M.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Gupta, Ashok; Wigginton, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, a T-cell coinhibitory receptor, and one of its ligands, PD-L1, play a pivotal role in the ability of tumor cells to evade the host’s immune system. Blockade of interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 enhances immune function in vitro and mediates antitumor activity in preclinical models. METHODS In this multicenter phase 1 trial, we administered intravenous anti–PD-L1 antibody (at escalating doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) to patients with selected advanced cancers. Anti–PD-L1 antibody was administered every 14 days in 6-week cycles for up to 16 cycles or until the patient had a complete response or confirmed disease progression. RESULTS As of February 24, 2012, a total of 207 patients — 75 with non–small-cell lung cancer, 55 with melanoma, 18 with colorectal cancer, 17 with renal-cell cancer, 17 with ovarian cancer, 14 with pancreatic cancer, 7 with gastric cancer, and 4 with breast cancer — had received anti–PD-L1 antibody. The median duration of therapy was 12 weeks (range, 2 to 111). Grade 3 or 4 toxic effects that investigators considered to be related to treatment occurred in 9% of patients. Among patients with a response that could be evaluated, an objective response (a complete or partial response) was observed in 9 of 52 patients with melanoma, 2 of 17 with renal-cell cancer, 5 of 49 with non–small-cell lung cancer, and 1 of 17 with ovarian cancer. Responses lasted for 1 year or more in 8 of 16 patients with at least 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Antibody-mediated blockade of PD-L1 induced durable tumor regression (objective response rate of 6 to 17%) and prolonged stabilization of disease (rates of 12 to 41% at 24 weeks) in patients with advanced cancers, including non–small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal-cell cancer. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00729664.) PMID:22658128

  6. Assessing the Influence of Human Activities on Global Water Resources Using an Advanced Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2010-12-01

    In order to examine the impact of human intervention on the global hydrological cycle, a Land Surface Model was enhanced with schemes to assess the anthropogenic disturbance on the natural water flow at the global scale. Four different schemes namely; reservoir operation, crop growth, environmental flow, and anthropogenic water withdrawal modules from a state-of-the-art global water resources assessment model called H08 were integrated into an offline version of LSM, Minimal Advance Treatment of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO). MATSIRO represents majority of the hydrological processes of water and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere on a physical basis and is designed to be coupled with GCM. The integrated model presented here thus has the capability to simulate both natural and anthropogenic flows of water globally at a spatial resolution of 1°x1°, considering dam operation, domestic, industrial and agricultural water withdrawals and environmental flow requirements. The model can also be coupled with climate models to assess the impact of human activities on the climate system. A simple groundwater scheme was also incorporated and the model can be used to assess the change in water table due to groundwater pumping for irrigation. The model was validated by comparing simulated soil moisture, river discharge and Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) with observations. The model performs well in simulating TWSA as compared to GRACE observation in different river basins ranging from very wet to very dry. Soil moisture cannot be validated globally because of the lack of validation datasets. For Illinois region, where long term soil moisture observations are available, the model captures the seasonal variation quite well. The simulated global potential irrigation demand is about 1100km3/year, which is within the range of previously published estimates based on various water balance models and LSMs. The model has an advanced option

  7. How the UK Can Lead the Terrestrial Translation of Biomedical Advances Arising from Lunar Exploration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David A.

    2010-12-01

    biomedical science activities would retain mission critically (and thus avoid obsolesce) so long as a human is involved (irrespective of specific mission architecture) and could be used to leverage opportunities for UK-based institutions, companies and individuals, most notably current ESA astronaut candidate Major Tim Peake. A combination of ESA engagement and national support for space biomedical sciences via research councils (e.g. Medical Research Council) could facilitate a virtuous circle of investment, advancement and socio-economic return invigorating the NHS, education, and key research initiatives such as ESA Harwell, UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation, and the newly instigated Academic Health Science Centres. Such a strategy could also boost private space enterprise within the UK including the creation of a space port and could help retain the UK's position as a European aerospace transportation, services and legislative hub. By focusing upon its biomedical strength within a multi-faceted but co-ordinated strategy of engagement, the UK could reap significant socio-economic benefits for the UK and its citizens, be they on the Moon, or the Earth.

  8. Degradation of antibiotic activity during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and photolysis in wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Linden, Karl G

    2013-11-19

    Trace levels of antibiotics in treated wastewater effluents may present a human health risk due to the rise of antibacterial activity in the downstream environments. Advanced oxidation has a potential to become an effective treatment technology for transforming trace antibiotics in wastewater effluents, but residual or newly generated antibacterial properties of transformation products are a concern. This study demonstrates the effect of UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation on transformation of 6 antibiotics, each a representative of a different structural class, in pure water and in two different effluents and reports new or confirmatory photolysis quantum yields and hydroxyl radical rate constants. The decay of the parent compound was monitored with HPLC/ITMS, and the corresponding changes in antibacterial activity were measured using bacterial inhibition assays. No antibacterially active products were observed following treatment for four of the six antibiotics (clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin-G, and trimethoprim). The remaining two antibiotics (erythromycin and doxycycline) showed some intermediates with antibacterial activity at low treatment doses. The antibacterially active products lost activity as the UV dose increased past 500 mJ/cm(2). Active products were observed only in wastewater effluents and not in pure water, suggesting that complex secondary reactions controlled by the composition of the matrix were responsible for their formation. This outcome emphasizes the importance of bench-scale experiments in realistic water matrices. Most importantly, the results indicate that photosensitized processes during high dose wastewater disinfection may be creating antibacterially active transformation products from some common antibiotics.

  9. Montessori-based activities for long-term care residents with advanced dementia: effects on engagement and affect.

    PubMed

    Orsulic-Jeras, S; Judge, K S; Camp, C J

    2000-02-01

    Sixteen residents in long-term care with advanced dementia (14 women; average age = 88) showed significantly more constructive engagement (defined as motor or verbal behaviors in response to an activity), less passive engagement (defined as passively observing an activity), and more pleasure while participating in Montessori-based programming than in regularly scheduled activities programming. Principles of Montessori-based programming, along with examples of such programming, are presented. Implications of the study and methods for expanding the use of Montessori-based dementia programming are discussed.

  10. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of U.S. and Russian Extravehicular Activity Suits. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the JSC-sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of ISS. Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the U.S. EMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue-equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at LLUMC. During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6 MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue-equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13% to 27% reduction in total dose and a 0% to 25% reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2% to 14% greater than that measured in the bare phantom head.

  11. Fifteen-minute Extravehicular Activity Prebreathe Protocol Using NASA's Exploration Atmosphere (8.2 psia/ 34% 02)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    A TBDM DCS probability model based on an existing biophysical model of inert gas bubble growth provides significant prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures. 2. Model predictions suggest that 15-minute O2 prebreathe protocols used in conjunction with suit ports and an 8.2 psi, 34% O2, 66% N2 atmosphere may enable rapid EVA capability for future exploration missions with the risk of DCS = 12%. ? EVA could begin immediately at 6.0 psi, with crewmembers decreasing suit pressure to 4.3 psi after completing the 15-minute in-suit prebreathe. 3. Model predictions suggest that intermittent recompression during exploration EVA may reduce decompression stress by 1.8% to 2.3% for 6 hours of total EVA time. Savings in gas consumables and crew time may be accumulated by abbreviating the EVA suit N2 purge to 2 minutes (20% N2) compared with 8 minutes (5% N2) at the expense of an increase in estimated decompression risk of up to 2.4% for an 8-hour EVA. ? Increased DCS risk could be offset by IR or by spending additional time at 6 psi at the beginning of the EVA. ? Savings of 0.48 lb of gas and 6 minutes per person per EVA corresponds to more than 31 hours of crew time and 1800 lb of gas and tankage under the Constellation lunar architecture. 6. Further research is needed to characterize and optimize breathing mixtures and intermittent recompression across the range of environments and operational conditions in which astronauts will live and work during future exploration missions. 7. Development of exploration prebreathe protocols will begin with definition of acceptable risk, followed by development of protocols based on models such as ours, and, ultimately, validation of protocols through ground trials before operational implementation.

  12. Temsirolimus in advanced leiomyosarcomas: patterns of response and correlation with the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Kind, Michèle; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Jones, Natalie; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Bui, Binh

    2011-06-01

    Preclinical data have indicated that alteration of PTEN and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway play a crucial role in the oncogenesis of leiomyosarcoma. The objective of this exploratory study was to assess the clinical role of mTOR inhibition in patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma refractory to standard chemotherapy. Patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma were treated with temsirolimus and consented to retrospective collection of data from their medical records and analysis of archival tumor specimens. Tumor response was determined according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumor (RECIST) and Choi criteria. Tumors were assessed for immunohistochemical evidence of PTEN loss of expression and mTOR activation. Six patients participated in the study. According to the RECIST, three patients had stable disease and three patients had progressive disease. The three patients with RECIST stable disease had partial response according to the Choi criteria. Partial response according to the Choi criteria was associated with clinical improvement and biological signs of temsirolimus antitumor activity. The immunohistochemical status of PTEN and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein was not predictive of the outcome. This exploratory study indicates antitumor activity of temsirolimus in leiomyosarcoma, possibly through a mechanism involving aberration of the PTEN gene. Further investigations of the phosphoinositide 3-kinases/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway are needed to explore the role of mTOR inhibitors, either alone or in combination, in patients with advanced sarcoma.

  13. Effectivity of advanced wastewater treatment: reduction of in vitro endocrine activity and mutagenicity but not of in vivo reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Giebner, Sabrina; Ostermann, Sina; Straskraba, Susanne; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2016-09-06

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have a limited capacity to eliminate micropollutants. One option to improve this is tertiary treatment. Accordingly, the WWTP Eriskirch at the German river Schussen has been upgraded with different combinations of ozonation, sand, and granulated activated carbon filtration. In this study, the removal of endocrine and genotoxic effects in vitro and reproductive toxicity in vivo was assessed in a 2-year long-term monitoring. All experiments were performed with aqueous and solid-phase extracted water samples. Untreated wastewater affected several endocrine endpoints in reporter gene assays. The conventional treatment removed the estrogenic and androgenic activity by 77 and 95 %, respectively. Nevertheless, high anti-estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicity persisted. All advanced treatment technologies further reduced the estrogenic activities by additional 69-86 % compared to conventional treatment, resulting in a complete removal of up to 97 %. In the Ames assay, we detected an ozone-induced mutagenicity, which was removed by subsequent filtration. This demonstrates that a post treatment to ozonation is needed to minimize toxic oxidative transformation products. In the reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a decreased number of embryos was observed for all wastewater samples. This indicates that reproductive toxicants were eliminated by neither the conventional nor the advanced treatment. Furthermore, aqueous samples showed higher anti-estrogenic and reproductive toxicity than extracted samples, indicating that the causative compounds are not extractable or were lost during extraction. This underlines the importance of the adequate handling of wastewater samples. Taken together, this study demonstrates that combinations of multiple advanced technologies reduce endocrine effects in vitro. However, they did not remove in vitro anti-estrogenicity and in vivo reproductive toxicity. This

  14. Advances in integrated system heath management system technologies : overview of NASA and industry collaborative activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, Sunil; Brown, Steve; Fijany, Amir; Park, Han; Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Baroth, Ed

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe recent advances in ISHM technologies made through collaboration between NASA and industry. In particular, the paper will focus on past, present, and future technology development and maturation efforts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and its industry partner, Northrop Grumman lntegrated Systems (NGIS).

  15. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  16. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  18. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2013-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  19. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  20. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed γ-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Alan; Reedy, E. T.E.; Mozin, V.; Tobin, S. J.

    2015-02-12

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed γ-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed γ-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed γ-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  1. Intrinsic resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with activating EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Baocheng; Chu, Huili; Yao, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying activating EGFR mutations is a useful predictive strategy that helps select a population of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations (predominantly an in-frame deletion in exon 19 and an L858R substitution) are highly responsive to first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, and show improved progression-free survival without serious side effects. However, all patients with activating EGFR mutations who are initially responsive to EGFR TKIs eventually develop acquired resistance after a median progression-free survival of 10–16 months, followed by disease progression. Moreover, ~20%–30% of NSCLC patients have no objective tumor regression on initial EGFR TKI treatment, although they harbor an activating EGFR mutation. These patients represent an NSCLC subgroup that is defined as having intrinsic or primary resistance to EGFR TKIs. Different mechanisms of acquired EGFR TKI resistance have been identified, and several novel compounds have been developed to reverse acquired resistance, but little is known about EGFR TKI intrinsic resistance. In this review, we summarize the latest findings involving mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to EGFR TKIs in advanced NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations and present possible therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. PMID:27382309

  2. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and advances in structure-activity relationships (SARs) of novel tri-substituted thiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Guda Mallikarjuna; Garcia, Jarem Raul; Reddy, Vemulapati Hanuman; de Andrade, Ageo Meier; Camilo, Alexandre; Pontes Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; de Lazaro, Sergio Ricardo

    2016-11-10

    Trisubstituted thiazoles were synthesized and studied for their antimicrobial activity and supported by theoretical calculations. In addition, MIC, MBC and MFC were also tested. Moreover, the present study was analyzed to scrutinize comprehensive structure-activity relationships. In fact, LUMO orbital energy and orbital orientation was reliable to explain their antibacterial and antifungal assay. Amongst the tested compounds, tri-methyl-substituted thiazole compound showed higher antimicrobial activity and low MIC value due to highest LUMO energy.

  3. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  4. Advancements in the Synthesis and Applications of Cationic N-Heterocycles through Transition Metal-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Gandeepan, Parthasarathy; Cheng, Chien-Hong

    2016-02-18

    Cationic N-heterocycles are an important class of organic compounds largely present in natural and bioactive molecules. They are widely used as fluorescent dyes for biological studies, as well as in spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These compounds are key intermediates in many natural and pharmaceutical syntheses. They are also a potential candidate for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Because of these useful applications, the development of new methods for the synthesis of cationic N-heterocycles has received a lot of attention. In particular, many C-H activation methodologies that realize high step- and atom-economies toward these compounds have been developed. In this review, recent advancements in the synthesis and applications of cationic N-heterocycles through C-H activation reactions are summarized. The new C-H activation reactions described in this review are preferred over their classical analogs.

  5. Multi-damage detection with embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm using piezoelectric wafer active sensors through advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2005-05-01

    The embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm was developed by using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. EUSR has been verified to be effective for detecting a single crack either at a broadside or at an offside position. In this research, advanced signal processing techniques were included to enhance inspection image quality and detect multiple damage. The signal processing methods include discrete wavelet transform for signal denoising, short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform for time-frequency analysis, continuous wavelet transform for frequency filtering, and Hilbert transform for envelope extraction. All these signal processing modules were implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabVIEW. The paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm, followed with the theoretical aspect of the phased array signal processing method. Then, the mathematical algorithms for advanced signal processing are introduced. In the end, laboratory experimental results are presented to show how efficiently the improved EUSR works. The results are analyzed and EUSR is concluded to have been improved by using the advanced signal processing techniques. The improvements include: 1) EUSR is able to provide better image of the specimen under monitoring; 2) it is able to detect multi-damage such as several cracks; 3) it is able to identify different damage types.

  6. Development of an advanced pitch active control system for a wide body jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Wiley A.; Rising, Jerry J.; Davis, Walt J.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced PACS control law was developed for a commercial wide-body transport (Lockheed L-1011) by using modern control theory. Validity of the control law was demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley visual motion simulator. The PACS design objective was to develop a PACS that would provide good flying qualities to negative 10 percent static stability margins that were equivalent to those of the baseline aircraft at a 15 percent static stability margin which is normal for the L-1011. Also, the PACS was to compensate for high-Mach/high-g instabilities that degrade flying qualities during upset recoveries and maneuvers. The piloted flight simulation tests showed that the PACS met the design objectives. The simulation demonstrated good flying qualities to negative 20 percent static stability margins for hold, cruise and high-speed flight conditions. Analysis and wind tunnel tests performed on other Lockheed programs indicate that the PACS could be used on an advanced transport configuration to provide a 4 percent fuel savings which results from reduced trim drag by flying at negative static stability margins.

  7. Activity in Mission Control Center during Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Overal view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, during the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. When this picture was made the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity was being televised from the surface of the Moon.

  8. Anti-androgens inhibit ABCB1 efflux and ATPase activity and reverse docetaxel resistance in advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yezi; Liu, Chengfei; Armstrong, Cameron; Lou, Wei; Sandher, Amandeep; Gao, Allen C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies show that inhibition of ABCB1 expression overcomes acquired docetaxel resistance in C4-2B-TaxR cells. In this study, we examined if anti-androgens, such as bicalutamide and enzalutamide, could inhibit ABCB1 activity and overcome resistance to docetaxel. Experimental Design ABCB1 efflux activity was determined using a rhodamine efflux assay. ABCB1 ATPase activity was determined by Pgp-Glo™ assay systems. The effects of the anti-androgens bicalutamide and enzalutamide on docetaxel sensitivity were determined by cell growth assays and tumor growth in vivo. Results We found that bicalutamide and enzalutamide inhibit ABCB1 ATP-binding cassette transporter activity through blocking ABCB1 efflux activity. Bicalutamide inhibited ABCB1 efflux activity by 40%, while enzalutamide inhibited ABCB1 efflux activity by ~60%. Both bicalutamide and enzalutamide inhibit ABCB1 ATPase activity. In addition, bicalutamide and enzalutamide inhibit ABCB1 efflux activity and desensitize docetaxel resistant and androgen receptor (AR)-negative DU145 cells. Combination of bicalutamide with docetaxel had a significant anti-tumor effect in both AR-positive and AR-negative docetaxel resistant xenograft models, suggesting that bicalutamide desensitizes docetaxel resistant cells to docetaxel treatment independent of AR status. Conclusions We identified a novel mechanism of action for anti-androgens such as bicalutamide and enzalutamide as inhibitors of ABCB1 efflux and ATPase activity. Bicalutamide and enzalutamide desensitize docetaxel resistant prostate cancer cells to docetaxel treatment independent of AR status. These studies may lead to the development of combinational therapies with bicalutamide/enzalutamide and docetaxel as an effective regiment to treat advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) independent of AR status. PMID:25995342

  9. Impact of a Care Directives Activity Tab in the Electronic Health Record on Documentation of Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Turley, Marianne; Wang, Susan; Meng, Di; Kanter, Michael; Garrido, Terhilda

    2016-01-01

    Context: To ensure patient-centered end-of-life care, advance care planning (ACP) must be documented in the medical record and readily retrieved across care settings. Objective: To describe use of the Care Directives Activity tab (CDA), a single-location feature in the electronic health record for collecting and viewing ACP documentation in inpatient and ambulatory care settings, and to assess its association with ACP documentation rates. Design: Retrospective pre- and postimplementation analysis in 2012 and 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California among 113,309 patients aged 65 years and older with ACP opportunities during outpatient or inpatient encounters. Main Outcome Measures: Providers’ CDA use rates and documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments stratified by CDA use. Results: Documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with outpatient and inpatient encounters were 3.5 to 9.6 percentage points higher for patients with CDA use vs those without it. The greatest differences were for orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with inpatient encounters and for advance directives among patients with outpatient encounters; both were 9.6 percentage points higher among those with CDA use than those without it. All differences were significant after controlling for yearly variation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in documentation rates between patients with and without CDA use suggest the potential of a standardized location in the electronic health record to improve ACP documentation. Further research is required to understand effects of CDA use on retrieval of preferences and end-of-life care. PMID:27057820

  10. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  11. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  12. Online Asynchronous Threaded Discussions: Good Enough to Advance Students through the Proximal Zone of Activity Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurino, Paula San Millan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study which involved researching student interaction and participation under the lens of Activity Theory and Social Computing. Activity Theory is a philosophical framework that integrates the objective, the sociocultural, and the ecological, while Social Computing describes any type of computing application in which software…

  13. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  14. Advances in the assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, M.; Proano, M. )

    1989-07-01

    Knowledge of the severity and extent of the inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases provides a means of determining rational therapeutic strategies in affected patients. During the past 3 decades, several clinical, laboratory, and combined indices have been proposed for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease; refinements in radiologic methods and the availability of endoscopy and biopsy have facilitated the accurate assessment of the extent and severity of the disease. In relapsing conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, however, the use of such procedures is limited by the radiation exposure or the relatively invasive nature of the technique. In this article, we review the proposed methods and recent advances in assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; we also discuss possible strategies at the time of diagnosis, during recurrence, and in evaluation of the efficacy of drug or dietic therapy. 58 references.

  15. Advancing Water and Water-Energy-Food Cluster Activities within Future Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Bhaduri, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-12-01

    In building its emerging program, Future Earth has encouraged former Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) projects to redefine their objectives, priorities and problem approaches so they are aligned with those of Future Earth. These new projects will be characterized by more integrated applications of natural and social sciences as well as dialogue and science integrated across disciplinary boundaries to address a wide range of environmental and social issues. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) has had a heritage of integrating natural and social sciences, and recently started to also look at issues within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) cluster using similar integrated approaches. As part of the growth of the scientific elements of this cluster, GWSP has approached Future Earth opportunities by addressing the sustainability for Water, Energy, and Food through integrated water information and improved governance.In this presentation the approaches being considered for promoting integration in both water and the WEF cluster will be discussed. In particular, potential contributions of Future Earth to research related to the use and management of water and to issues and science underpinning the W-E-F nexus deliberations will be identified. In both cases the increasing ability to utilize Earth observations and big data will advance this research agenda. In addition, the better understanding of the implications of governance structures in addressing these issues and the options for harmonizing the use of scientific knowledge and technological advances will be explored. For example, insights gained from water management studies undertaken within the GWSP are helping to focus plans for a "sustainable water futures" project and a WEF cluster within Future Earth. The potential role of the Sustainable Development Goals in bringing together the monitoring and science capabilities, and understanding of governance approaches, will be discussed as a framework for facilitating

  16. Anti-Advanced Glycation End-product and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Plants from the Yucatecan Flora

    PubMed Central

    Dzib-Guerra, Wendy del C.; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Derbré, Séverine; Blanchard, Patricia; Richomme, Pascal; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) is recognized as a major pathogenic process in diabetic complications, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, reactive oxygen species and free radicals have also been reported to participate in AGE formation and in cell damage. Natural products with antioxidant and antiAGE activity have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and related complications. Objective: to test ethanolic extracts and aqueous-traditional preparations of plants used to treat diabetes, hypertension and obesity in Yucatecan traditional medicine for their anti-AGE and free radical scavenging activities. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extracts of leaves, stems and roots of nine medicinal plants, together with their traditional preparations, were prepared and tested for their anti-AGE and antioxidant activities using the inhibition of advanced glycation end products and DPPH radical scavenging assays, respectively. Results: the root extract of C. fistula (IC50= 0.1 mg/mL) and the leaf extract of P. auritum (IC50= 0.35 mg/mL) presented significant activity against vesperlysine and pentosidine-like AGE. Although none of the aqueous traditional preparations showed significant activity in the anti-AGE assay, both the traditional preparations and the ethanolic extracts of E. tinifolia, M. zapota, O. campechianum and P. auritum showed significant activity in the DPPH reduction assay. Conclusions: the results suggest that the metabolites responsible for the detected radical-scavenging activity are different to those involved in inhibiting AGE formation; however, the extracts with antioxidant activity may contain other metabolites which are able to prevent AGE formation through a different mechanism. SUMMARY Ethanolic extracts from nine plants used to treat diabetes, hypertension and obesity in Yucatecan traditional medicine were tested for their anti-AGE and free radical

  17. Increasing the activity and enantioselectivity of lipases by sol-gel immobilization: further advancements of practical interest.

    PubMed

    Tielmann, Patrick; Kierkels, Hans; Zonta, Albin; Ilie, Adriana; Reetz, Manfred T

    2014-06-21

    The entrapment of lipases in hydrophobic silicate matrices formed by sol-gel mediated hydrolysis of RSi(OCH3)3/Si(OCH3)4 as originally reported in 1996 has been improved over the years by a number of modifications. In the production of second-generation sol-gel lipase immobilizates, a variety of additives during the sol-gel process leads to increased activity and enhanced stereoselectivity in esterifying kinetic resolution. Recent advances in this type of lipase immobilization are reviewed here, in addition to new results regarding the sol-gel entrapment of the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia. It constitutes an excellent heterogeneous biocatalyst in the acylating kinetic resolution of two synthetically and industrially important chiral alcohols, rac-sulcatol and rac-trans-2-methoxycyclohexanol. The observation that the catalyst can be used 10 times in recycling experiments without losing its significant activity or enantioselectivity demonstrates the practical viability of the sol-gel approach.

  18. In Vitro Oxidation of Collagen Promotes the Formation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and the Activation of Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; de Campos, Luízi Prestes; Sangoi, Manuela Borges; Fernandes, Natieli Flores; Gomes, Patrícia; Moretto, Maria Beatriz; Barbisan, Fernanda; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) has been linked to several pathological conditions. Here, we investigated collagen as a potential source for AOPP formation and determined the effects of hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-treated collagen (collagen-AOPPs) on human neutrophil activity. We also assessed whether alpha-tocopherol could counteract these effects. Exposure to HOCl increased the levels of collagen-AOPPs. Collagen-AOPPs also stimulated the production of AOPPs, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide radicals (O2(-)), and HOCl by neutrophils. Collagen-AOPPs induced apoptosis and decreased the number of viable cells. Alpha-tocopherol prevented the formation of collagen-AOPPs, strongly inhibited the collagen-AOPP-induced production of O2(-) and HOCl, and increased the viability of neutrophils. Our results suggest that collagen is an important protein that interacts with HOCl to form AOPPs, and consequently, collagen-AOPP formation is related to human neutrophil activation and cell death.

  19. Active and passive multispectral scanner for earth resources applications: An advanced applications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Peterson, L. M.; Thomson, F. J.; Work, E. A.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an experimental airborne multispectral scanner to provide both active (laser illuminated) and passive (solar illuminated) data from a commonly registered surface scene is discussed. The system was constructed according to specifications derived in an initial programs design study. The system was installed in an aircraft and test flown to produce illustrative active and passive multi-spectral imagery. However, data was not collected nor analyzed for any specific application.

  20. Advanced Glycation End Products Enhance Macrophages Polarization into M1 Phenotype through Activating RAGE/NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian; Yao, Tongqing; Zhou, Zhong'e; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Song; Hu, Wei; Shen, Chengxing

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are accelerated in patients with diabetes. M1 (classically activated in contrast to M2 alternatively activated) macrophages play key roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major pathogenic factors and active inflammation inducers in diabetes mellitus, this study assessed the effects of AGEs on macrophage polarization. The present study showed that AGEs significantly promoted macrophages to express IL-6 and TNF-α. M1 macrophage markers such as iNOS and surface markers including CD11c and CD86 were significantly upregulated while M2 macrophage markers such as Arg1 and CD206 remained unchanged after AGEs stimulation. AGEs significantly increased RAGE expression in macrophages and activated NF-κB pathway, and the aforementioned effects were partly abolished by administration of anti-RAGE antibody or NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. In conclusion, our results suggest that AGEs enhance macrophage differentiation into proinflammatory M1 phenotype at least partly via RAGE/NF-κB pathway activation.

  1. Advanced Glycation End Products Enhance Macrophages Polarization into M1 Phenotype through Activating RAGE/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xian; Yao, Tongqing; Zhou, Zhong'e; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Song; Hu, Wei; Shen, Chengxing

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are accelerated in patients with diabetes. M1 (classically activated in contrast to M2 alternatively activated) macrophages play key roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major pathogenic factors and active inflammation inducers in diabetes mellitus, this study assessed the effects of AGEs on macrophage polarization. The present study showed that AGEs significantly promoted macrophages to express IL-6 and TNF-α. M1 macrophage markers such as iNOS and surface markers including CD11c and CD86 were significantly upregulated while M2 macrophage markers such as Arg1 and CD206 remained unchanged after AGEs stimulation. AGEs significantly increased RAGE expression in macrophages and activated NF-κB pathway, and the aforementioned effects were partly abolished by administration of anti-RAGE antibody or NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. In conclusion, our results suggest that AGEs enhance macrophage differentiation into proinflammatory M1 phenotype at least partly via RAGE/NF-κB pathway activation. PMID:26114112

  2. A model to predict deflection of bevel-tipped active needle advancing in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Datla, Naresh V; Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Podder, Tarun K; Dicker, Adam P; Yu, Yan; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2014-03-01

    Active needles are recently being developed to improve steerability and placement accuracy for various medical applications. These active needles can bend during insertion by actuators attached to their bodies. The bending of active needles enables them to be steered away from the critical organs on the way to target and accurately reach target locations previously unachievable with conventional rigid needles. These active needles combined with an asymmetric bevel-tip can further improve their steerability. To optimize the design and to develop accurate path planning and control algorithms, there is a need to develop a tissue-needle interaction model. This work presents an energy-based model that predicts needle deflection of active bevel-tipped needles when inserted into the tissue. This current model was based on an existing energy-based model for bevel-tipped needles, to which work of actuation was included in calculating the system energy. The developed model was validated with needle insertion experiments with a phantom material. The model predicts needle deflection reasonably for higher diameter needles (11.6% error), whereas largest error was observed for the smallest needle diameter (24.7% error).

  3. Advances in Distributed Operations and Mission Activity Planning for Mars Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jason M.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Rabe, Kenneth J.; Shams, Khawaja

    2006-01-01

    A centralized mission activity planning system for any long-term mission, such as the Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER), is completely infeasible due to budget and geographic constraints. A distributed operations system is key to addressing these constraints; therefore, future system and software engineers must focus on the problem of how to provide a secure, reliable, and distributed mission activity planning system. We will explain how Maestro, the next generation mission activity planning system, with its heavy emphasis on portability and distributed operations has been able to meet these design challenges. MER has been an excellent proving ground for Maestro's new approach to distributed operations. The backend that has been developed for Maestro could benefit many future missions by reducing the cost of centralized operations system architecture.

  4. Direct Activation of ENaC by Angiotensin II: Recent Advances and New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zaika, Oleg; Mamenko, Mykola; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the principal effector of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). It initiates myriad processes in multiple organs integrated to increase circulating volume and elevate systemic blood pressure. In the kidney, Ang II stimulates renal tubular water and salt reabsorption causing antinatriuresis and antidiuresis. Activation of RAAS is known to enhance activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. In addition to its well described stimulatory actions on aldosterone secretion, Ang II is also capable to directly increase ENaC activity. In this brief review, we discuss recent findings about non-classical Ang II actions on ENaC and speculate about its relevance for renal sodium handling. PMID:23180052

  5. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun; Hu, Liqun; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey-predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  6. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  7. Pazopanib: a multikinase inhibitor with activity in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-05-01

    Treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have changed dramatically, and a new paradigm has evolved. IFN-alpha and IL-2 were previously mainstays of therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the USA for the treatment of advanced RCC. Three of these new agents are multitargeted kinase inhibitors, including sunitinib, sorafenib, and recently pazopanib, two target the mTOR (temsirolimus and everolimus), and one is a humanized monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab in combination with IFN-alpha) that targets VEGF. Sunitinib has emerged as the standard of care for treatment-naive RCC patients, with the recently approved bevacizumab and IFN-alpha combination providing an additional option for this population. The recent approval of pazopanib, based on the results from sequential Phase II and III clinical trials demonstrating improved overall response rates and progression-free survival, provides yet another option for front-line therapy. The current article examines the pazopanib preclinical and clinical data, provides an overview of the development of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and provides some speculation concerning its role in RCC therapy.

  8. Generic extravehicular (EVA) and telerobot task primitives for analysis, design, and integration. Version 1.0: Reference compilation for the EVA and telerobotics communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Drews, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an effort to establish commonality and standardization of generic crew extravehicular (crew-EVA) and telerobotic task analysis primitives used for the study of spaceborne operations. Although direct crew-EVA plans are the most visible output of spaceborne operations, significant ongoing efforts by a wide variety of projects and organizations also require tools for estimation of crew-EVA and telerobotic times. Task analysis tools provide estimates for input to technical and cost tradeoff studies. A workshop was convened to identify the issues and needs to establish a common language and syntax for task analysis primitives. In addition, the importance of such a syntax was shown to have precedence over the level to which such a syntax is applied. The syntax, lists of crew-EVA and telerobotic primitives, and the data base in diskette form are presented.

  9. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity on the International Space Station for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet, the supply of extremely high quality water required for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit cooling on the International Space Station (ISS) will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. One proposed solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semipermeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins, a special class of transmembrane proteins that facilitate passive, selective transport of water in vivo. The specificity of aquaporins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and it is this novel property that invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically those onboard the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are also currently being developed for use in terrestrial filtration systems.

  10. [Advances on investigation of chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa].

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa had been reviewed. The constituents of C. spinosa include the saccharides and glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and volatile oils, fatty acids and steroides and so on. C. spinosa had many extensive pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, antifungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anticoagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction, improve memory. It was used to treat arthrolithiasis, rheumarthritis and dermatosis in clinic in domestic, and it would have a broad application prospects.

  11. 78 FR 30320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Advance Permission To Return to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information... 212(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents...

  12. Advancing the M-Learning Research Agenda for Active, Experiential Learning: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…

  13. Recent Advances on Dark and Light-Activated Cytotoxity of Imidazole-Containing Ruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Jia, Jia; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Imidazole derivatives have known to possess a diverse range of pharmacological activity. In particular, one of ruthenium-based derivatives, imidazolium [trans-RuCl4(1H-imidazole)(DMSOS)] (NAMI-A) which is now in clinical trials, opens a new avenue for developing promising ruthenium-based anticancer drugs alternative to Cisplatin. This mini-review overviews some representative examples of imidazole-containing ruthenium complexes (ICRCs) with in vitro anticancer activities. Special attention is paid on ICRCs with the activities more potent than Cisplatin, and their correlation with their DNA binding properties in the context of possible cancer chemotherapeutic applications. The ICRCs are divided into two main categories according to their dark and light activated cytotoxicity; the former case is further clarified into mononuclear complexes including tris(bidentate polypyridyl) ruthenium complexes and those containing monodentatively coordinative imidazole ligands as well as polynuclear complexes. The perspective, challenges and future efforts for investigations into ICRCs are pointed out or suggested.

  14. C. H. McCloy Lecture: Fifty Years of Advancements in Fitness and Activity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years progress in fitness and activity research has been influenced by social events, technical innovations, and changes in the field of physical education and kinesiology. The conventional wisdom of the 1950s yielded to a new wisdom based on research evidence. The author's research, as well as the research of others, from 1960 to…

  15. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table computer program NASA Advanced Docking System (NADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.; Jantz, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program was developed to describe the three-dimensional motion of the Dynamic Docking Test System active table. The input consists of inertia and geometry data, actuator structural data, forcing function data, hydraulics data, servo electronics data, and integration control data. The output consists of table responses, actuator bending responses, and actuator responses.

  16. An Active Learning Approach to Teach Advanced Multi-Predictor Modeling Concepts to Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsa, Gregory P.; Thomas, Laine; Lee, Linda S.; Neal, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians have characteristics--high scientific maturity, low tolerance for symbol manipulation and programming, limited time outside of class--that limit the effectiveness of traditional methods for teaching multi-predictor modeling. We describe an active-learning based approach that shows particular promise for accommodating these…

  17. Technology Advancements for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Nehrir, A. R.; Liu, Z.; Chen, S.; Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Choi, Y.; Plant, J.; Yang, M. M.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.; Meadows, B.; Dobler, J. T.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes advances in critical lidar technologies and techniques developed as part of the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) system for measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The ACES design demonstrates advancements in: (1) enhanced power-aperture product through the use and operation of multiple co-aligned laser transmitters and a multi-aperture telescope design; (2) high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration operation; and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. Specifically, the lidar simultaneously transmits three IM-CW laser beams from the high power EDFAs operating near 1571 nm. The outgoing laser beams are aligned to the field of view of three fiber-coupled 17.8-cm diameter telescopes, and the backscattered light collected by the same three telescopes is sent to the detector/TIA subsystem, which has a bandwidth of 4.9 MHz and operates service-free with a tactical Dewar and cryocooler. The electronic bandwidth is only slightly higher than 1 MHz, effectively limiting the noise level. Two key laser modulation approaches are being tested to significantly mitigate the effects of thin clouds on the retrieved CO2 column amounts. This work provides an over view of these technologies, the modulation approaches, and results from recent test flights.

  18. Assessment of the Utility of the Advanced Himawari Imager to Detect Active Fire Over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hally, B.; Wallace, L.; Reinke, K.; Jones, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wildfire detection and attribution is an issue of importance due to the socio-economic impact of fires in Australia. Early detection of fires allows emergency response agencies to make informed decisions in order to minimise loss of life and protect strategic resources in threatened areas. Until recently, the ability of land management authorities to accurately assess fire through satellite observations of Australia was limited to those made by polar orbiting satellites. The launch of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Himawari-8 satellite, with the 16-band Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI-8) onboard, in October 2014 presents a significant opportunity to improve the timeliness of satellite fire detection across Australia. The near real-time availability of images, at a ten minute frequency, may also provide contextual information (background temperature) leading to improvements in the assessment of fire characteristics. This paper investigates the application of the high frequency observation data supplied by this sensor for fire detection and attribution. As AHI-8 is a new sensor we have performed an analysis of the noise characteristics of the two spectral bands used for fire attribution across various land use types which occur in Australia. Using this information we have adapted existing algorithms, based upon least squares error minimisation and Kalman filtering, which utilise high frequency observations of surface temperature to detect and attribute fire. The fire detection and attribution information provided by these algorithms is then compared to existing satellite based fire products as well as in-situ information provided by land management agencies. These comparisons were made Australia-wide for an entire fire season - including many significant fire events (wildfires and prescribed burns). Preliminary detection results suggest that these methods for fire detection perform comparably to existing fire products and fire incident reporting from relevant

  19. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  20. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B-747

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing load alleviation to the Boeing 747 is investigated. Winglet aerodynamic design methods and high speed wind tunnel test results of winglets and of symmetrically deflected ailerons are presented. Structural resizing analyses to determine weight and aeroelastic twist increments for all the concepts and flutter model test results for the wing with winglets are included. Control law development, system mechanization/reliability studies, and aileron balance tab trade studies for active wing load alleviation systems are discussed. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on L/D, structural weight, block fuel savings, stability and control, airplane price, and airline operating economics.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymer-antibiotic thin films fabricated by advanced pulsed laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G.; Miroiu, F. M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gittard, S. D.; Miller, P. R.; Narayan, R. J.; Enculescu, M.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2013-08-01

    We report on thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of two polymer-drug composite thin film systems. A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used to deposit composite thin films of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) containing several gentamicin concentrations. FTIR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical structures similar to those of drop cast materials. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of PDLLA-gentamicin composite thin films against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using drop testing. The influence of drug concentration on microbial viability was also assessed. Our studies indicate that polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE may be used to impart antimicrobial activity to implants, medical devices, and other contact surfaces.

  2. ActiveSpaces on the grid: The construction of advanced visualization and interaction environments

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.; Disz, T.; Hereld, M.; Hudson, R.; Judson, I.; Olson, R.; Papka, M. E.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R.

    2000-07-24

    The Futures Lab group at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are designing, building, and evaluating a new type of interactive computing environment that couples in a deep way the concepts of direct manipulation found in virtual reality with the richness and variety of interactive devices found in ubiquitous computing. This environment provides the interactivity and collaboration support of teleimmersive environments with the exibility and availability of desktop collaboration tools. The authors call these environments ActiveSpaces. An ActiveSpace is a physical domain that has been augmented with multiscale multiscreen displays, environment-specific and device-specific sensors, body and object trackers, human-input and instrument-input interfaces, streaming audio and video capture devices, and force feedback devices--and has then been connected to other such spaces via the Grid.

  3. Advances in antitumor polysaccharides from phellinus sensu lato: Production, isolation, structure, antitumor activity, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Pei, Juan-Juan; Ma, Hai-Le; Wang, Zhen-Bin; Liu, Yuan-Shuai

    2017-04-13

    Edible and medicinal fungi (mushrooms) are widely applied to functional foods and nutraceutical products because of their proven nutritive and medicinal properties. Phellinus sensu lato is a well-known medicinal mushroom that has long been used in preventing ailments, including gastroenteric dysfunction, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and cancers, in oriental countries, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Polysaccharides represent a major class of bioactive molecules in Phellinus s. l., which have notable antitumor, immunomodulatory, and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides that were isolated from fruiting bodies, cultured mycelia, and filtrates of Phellinus s. l. have not only activated different immune responses of the host organism but have also directly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. Studies suggest that polysaccharides from Phellinus s. l. are promising alternative anticancer agents or synergizers for existing antitumor drugs. This review summarizes the recent development of polysaccharides from Phellinus s. l., including polysaccharide production, extraction and isolation methods, chemical structure, antitumor activities, and mechanisms of action.

  4. Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon upconversion in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guokui

    2015-03-21

    Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results.

  5. Advances in selective activation of muscles for non-invasive motor neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Koutsou, Aikaterini D; Moreno, Juan C; Del Ama, Antonio J; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L

    2016-06-13

    Non-invasive neuroprosthetic (NP) technologies for movement compensation and rehabilitation remain with challenges for their clinical application. Two of those major challenges are selective activation of muscles and fatigue management. This review discusses how electrode arrays improve the efficiency and selectivity of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transcutaneous electrodes. In this paper we review the principles and achievements during the last decade on techniques for artificial motor unit recruitment to improve the selective activation of muscles. We review the key factors affecting the outcome of muscle force production via multi-pad transcutaneous electrical stimulation and discuss how stimulation parameters can be set to optimize external activation of body segments. A detailed review of existing electrode array systems proposed by different research teams is also provided. Furthermore, a review of the targeted applications of existing electrode arrays for control of upper and lower limb NPs is provided. Eventually, last section demonstrates the potential of electrode arrays to overcome the major challenges of NPs for compensation and rehabilitation of patient-specific impairments.

  6. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment.

  7. Hawai‘i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO‘ĀLA): Addressing Childhood Obesity through Safe Routes to School

    PubMed Central

    Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-01-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai‘i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai‘i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO‘ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai‘i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO‘ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur. PMID:21886289

  8. Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA): addressing childhood obesity through safe routes to school.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Dierenfield, Laura; Alexander, Daniel A; Prose, Marcia; Peterson, Ann C

    2011-07-01

    Increasing active transportation to and from school may reduce childhood obesity rates in Hawai'i. A community partnership was formed to address this issue in Hawai'i's Opportunity for Active Living Advancement (HO'ĀLA), a quasi-experimental study of active transportation in Hawai'i County. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline rates for active transportation rates to and from school and to track changes related to macro-level (statewide) policy, locally-based Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs and bicycle and pedestrian planning initiatives expected to improve the safety, comfort and ease of walking and bicycling to and from school. Measures included parent surveys, student travel tallies, traffic counts and safety observations. Assessments of the walking and biking environment around each school were made using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan. Complete Streets and SRTS policy implementation was tracked through the activities of a state transportation-led Task Force and an advocacy-led coalition, respectively. Planning initiatives were tracked through citizen-based advisory committees. Thirteen volunteer schools participated as the intervention (n=8) or comparison (n=5) schools. The majority of students were Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander in schools located in under-resourced communities. Overall, few children walked or biked to school. The majority of children were driven to and from school by their parents. With the influence of HO'ĀLA staff members, two intervention schools were obligated SRTS project funding from the state, schools were identified as key areas in the pedestrian master plan, and one intervention school was slated for a bike plan priority project. As the SRTS programs are implemented in the next phase of the project, post-test data will be collected to ascertain if changes in active transportation rates occur.

  9. Inhibition of advanced glycation end products by red grape skin extract and its antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the phytochemical content and the protective effect of red grape skin extract (RGSE) against fructose-mediated protein oxidation. In addition, RGSE was screened for its potential as an antioxidant using various in vitro models. Methods Antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating power. The total phenols content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine, and the level of fructosamine. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results The results showed that the content of total phenolics, flavonoids and total anthocyanins in RGSE was 246.3 ± 0.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, 215.9 ± 1.3 mg catechin equivalent/g dried extract, and 36.7 ± 0.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging activity, RGSE had the IC50 values of 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml, 5.40 ± 0.01 mg/ml, and 0.58 ± 0.01 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, RGSE had trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (395.65 ± 1.61 mg trolox equivalent/g dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (114.24 ± 0.03 mM FeSO4/g dried extract), and ferrous ion chelating power (3,474.05 ± 5.55 mg EDTA/g dried extract), respectively. The results showed that RGSE at different concentrations (0.031–0.500 mg/ml) has significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs in terms of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA during 4 weeks of study. The

  10. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  11. Tracing the Construction of Mathematical Activity with an Advanced Graphing Calculator to Understand the Roles of Technology Developers, Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article examines mathematical activity with digital technology by tracing it from its development through its use in classrooms. Drawing on material-semiotic approaches from the field of Science and Technology Studies, it examines the visions of mathematical activity that developers had for an advanced graphing calculator. It then follows the…

  12. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  13. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  14. Advanced fault management for the Space Station External Active Thermal Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, William S.; Hill, Timothy; Robertson, Charles

    1992-07-01

    The Thermal Control System Automation Project is developing three related software systems. The first is a high-fidelity simulator of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS), which provides heating, cooling, and control necessary to maintain elements, systems, and components within their required temperature range. The second is an SSF run-time object data base. The third is a knowledge-based system (KBS) to monitor, control, and perform fault detection, isolation, and recovery on the SSF EATCS. The paper describes the EATCS hardware, the KBS design, the model-based sensor validation, the rule-based diagnosis, human interface issues, and future plans for the KBS.

  15. Recent advances in the link between physical activity, sedentary behavior, physical fitness, and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Lim, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have characterized physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness as distinct, interrelated constructs that influence the risk of CRC and related outcomes. PA levels required to confer protection against CRC may be higher than previously thought. Sedentary behavior, defined as time spent sitting, increases CRC risk independent of PA and may require novel interventions distinct from those targeting PA. Finally, cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with CRC risk and mortality and may provide a potential tool for risk stratification and intervention. PMID:28344777

  16. Advances in the understanding and clinical management of mastocytosis and clonal mast cell activation syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Clonal mast cell activation syndromes and indolent systemic mastocytosis without skin involvement are two emerging entities that sometimes might be clinically difficult to distinguish, and they involve a great challenge for the physician from both a diagnostic and a therapeutic point of view. Furthermore, final diagnosis of both entities requires a bone marrow study; it is recommended that this be done in reference centers. In this article, we address the current consensus and guidelines for the suspicion, diagnosis, classification, treatment, and management of these two entities. PMID:27909577

  17. Tomographic Aspects of Advanced Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Evaluation of Sequelae following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Domenico; Mafort, Thiago; Mogami, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rosana de Souza; Menna Barreto, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate tomographic changes in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), degree of agreement among three radiologists regarding tomographic diagnoses, and sequelae following treatment. Methods. Cross-sectional and descriptive study of 74 TB patients confirmed by sputum culture and chest computed tomography before (CT1) and 6 months after (CT2) drug therapy. Results were performed by three radiologists blinded to clinical and laboratory results. Results. Main findings in CT1 included nodules indicating the presence of a tree-in-bud pattern in 93% of cases, ill-defined nodules in 84% of cases, consolidation in 77% of cases, architectural distortion in 71% of cases, cavitary lesions in 62% of cases, and ground glass opacities in 37% of cases. Airway involvement, characterized by increased thickness and dilatation of the bronchial walls, occurred in 93% of cases. Pleural involvement occurred in 54%. There was an agreement on active TB among the three radiologists in 85% of cases. The results in CT2 indicated the presence of architectural distortion in 91% of cases and cylindrical bronchiectasis in 86%. Conclusions. The study established a tomographic pattern for diagnosis of active TB characterized by the presence of airway nodules, consolidation, architectural distortion, and cavitary lesions, and an almost complete degree of agreement (Kappa) was observed among the radiologists (0.85). CT after treatment assists in defining the cure. PMID:28261498

  18. Advances in treatment of active, moderate-to-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2017-02-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is defined as autoimmune inflammation of extraocular muscles and orbital fat or connective tissue, usually in patients with Graves' disease. About one in 20 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism has moderate-to-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. Corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, but new evidence about immune mechanisms has provided a basis to explore other drug classes. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulses are more effective and better tolerated than oral prednisone in the treatment of active, moderate-to-severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. Rituximab has also been suggested as a possible replacement for intravenous corticosteroids. Two randomised controlled trials of rituximab reached seemingly contradictory conclusions-rituximab was not better with respect to the primary outcome (clinical activity score) than placebo in one trial (which, however, was confounded by rather long Graves' ophthalmopathy duration), but was slightly better than intravenous methylprednisolone pulses in the other (disease flare-ups occurred only in the latter group). On the basis of evidence published so far, rituximab cannot replace intravenous methylprednisolone pulses, but could have a role in corticosteroid-resistant cases. Open-label studies of tumour-necrosis-factor-α blockade had limited efficacy, but other studies showed that interleukin-6 receptor antibodies were effective. Results of randomised controlled trials investigating the efficacy of the IGF-1 receptor antibody teprotumumab and the interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab are expected shortly. Approaches that target the causal mechanism of Graves' ophthalmopathy (antibodies or antagonists that block thyroid-stimulating-hormone receptors) also look promising.

  19. Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture, fixation, and activation by using N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longhua; Wang, Hongming

    2014-04-01

    In the last two decades, CO2 emission has caused a lot of environmental problems. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, various strategies have been implemented, one of which is the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and related complexes to accomplish the capture, fixation, and activation of CO2 effectively. In this review, we summarize CO2 capture, fixation, and activation by utilizing NHCs and related complexes; homogeneous reactions and their reaction mechanisms are discussed. Free NHCs and NHC salts can capture CO2 in both direct and indirect ways to form imidazolium carboxylates, and they can also catalyze the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with CO2 to form carboxylic acids and derivatives. Moreover, associated with transition metals (TMs), NHCs can form NHC-TM complexes to transform CO2 into industrial acid or esters. Non-metal-NHC complexes can also catalyze the reactions of silicon and boron complexes with CO2 . In addition, catalytic cycloaddition of epoxides with CO2 is another effective function of NHC complexes, and NHC ionic liquids perform excellently in this aspect.

  20. Use of activated sludge biomass as an agent for advanced primary separation.

    PubMed

    Araneda, Michael; Pavez, Javier; Luza, Benjamín; Jeison, David

    2017-05-01

    Conventional primary settling is a physical process of solid-liquid separation, normally presenting low removal efficiencies. Improvement of this separation process would result in energetic advantages: lower aeration requirements and higher biogas production form primary and secondary sludges. Secondary sludge has been proposed as a potential agent promoting an increase in primary separation efficiency. Few processes have been proposed, based on the cultivation of sludge under special conditions. However, one can speculate that regular sludge may have a similar effect. The aim of this research was to study that possibility. Sludges from different activated sludge reactors were tested. Results showed that COD removals were up to 55%, 2 times higher than that for simple settling. Under that condition, COD balances showed that aeration requirements would reduce 40%, and biogas production from primary and secondary sludges would increase 50%. It is inferred then that the application of activated sludge as an external agent represents an interesting alternative that have the potential to significantly improve energetic efficiency of sewage treatment plants.

  1. [Advances in research of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of common used spices].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao-nan; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2014-11-01

    Spices have enjoyed a long history and a worldwide application. Of particular interest is the pharmaceutical value of spices in addition to its basic seasoning function in cooking. Concretely, equipped with complex chemical compositions, spices are of significant importance in pharmacologic actions, like antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, as well as therapeutical effects in gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Although increasing evidences in support of its distinct role in the medical field has recently reported, little information is available for substantive, thorough and sophisticated researches on its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities, especially mechanism of these actions. Therefore, in popular wave of studies directed at a single spice, this review presents systematic studies on the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities associated with common used spices, together with current typical individual studies on functional mechanism, in order to pave the way for the exploitation and development of new medicines derived from the chemical compounds of spice (such as, piperine, curcumin, geniposide, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, linalool, estragole, perillaldehyde, syringic acid, crocin).

  2. Active Fail-Safe Micro-Array Flow Control for Advanced Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Mace, James L.; Mani, Mori

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research effort was to develop and analytically demonstrate enhanced first generation active "fail-safe" hybrid flow-control techniques to simultaneously manage the boundary layer on the vehicle fore-body and to control the secondary flow generated within modern serpentine or embedded inlet S-duct configurations. The enhanced first-generation technique focused on both micro-vanes and micro-ramps highly-integrated with micro -jets to provide nonlinear augmentation for the "strength' or effectiveness of highly-integrated flow control systems. The study focused on the micro -jet mass flow ratio (Wjet/Waip) range from 0.10 to 0.30 percent and jet total pressure ratios (Pjet/Po) from 1.0 to 3.0. The engine bleed airflow range under study represents about a 10 fold decrease in micro -jet airflow than previously required. Therefore, by pre-conditioning, or injecting a very small amount of high-pressure jet flow into the vortex generated by the micro-vane and/or micro-ramp, active flow control is achieved and substantial augmentation of the controlling flow is realized.

  3. Mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate advancing the progression of prostate cancer through activating the hedgehog pathway in LNCaP cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Wang; Jiao, Chen; Jianhui, Wu; Yan, Zhao; Qi, Pan; Xiu, Wang; Zuyue, Sun; Yunhui, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a critical role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in male adults. Studies showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) could interference with the Hh pathway. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), the congener of DBP, is the major plasticizer used in plastic materials that are inevitably exposed by patients with PCa. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether mono-2-ethyhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP) could activate the Hh pathway of LNCaP cells. Results showed that the expression of the critical gene of Hh pathway PTCH and androgen-regulated gene KLK3 was significantly decreased on 3, 6 and 9 days with Hh pathway inhibitor cyclopamine's treatment. MEHP notably up-regulated the expression of PTCH with a dose-response relationship in the presence of cyclopamine, which indicate that MEHP might target on the downstream components of Hh pathway and advance the progression of PCa through activating the Hh pathway.

  4. Nature of Catalytic Active Sites Present on the Surface of Advanced Bulk Tantalum Mixed Oxide Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    The most active photocatalyst system for water splitting under UV irradiation (270 nm) is the promoted 0.2%NiO/NaTaO3:2%La photocatalyst with optimized photonic efficiency (P.E.) of 56%, but fundamental issues about the nature of the surface catalytic active sites and their involvement in the photocatalytic process still need to be clarified. This is the first study to apply cutting edge surface spectroscopic analyses to determine the surface nature of tantalum mixed oxide photocatalysts. Surface analysis with HR-XPS (1-3nm) and HS-LEIS (0.3nm) spectroscopy indicates that the NiO and La2O3 promoters are concentrated in the surface region of the bulk NaTaO3 phase. The La2O3 is concentrated on the NaTaO3 outermost surface layers while NiO is distributed throughout the NaTaO3 surface region (1-3nm). Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of NaTaO3 were not modified by the addition of the La2O3 and NiO promoters, with La2O3 resulting in a slightly more ordered structure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy reveals that the addition of La2O3 and NiO produces a greater number of electron traps resulting in the suppression of the recombination of excited electrons/holes. In contrast to earlier reports, the La2O3 is only a textural promoter (increasing the BET surface area ~7x by stabilizing smaller NaTaO3 particles), but causes a ~3x decrease in the specific photocatalytic TORs ( mol H2/m2/h) rate because surface La2O3 blocks exposed catalytic active NaTaO3 sites. The NiO promoter was found to be a potent electronic promoter that enhances the NaTaO3 surface normalized TORs by a factor of ~10-50 and TOF by a factor of ~10. The level of NiO promotion is the same in the absence and presence of La2O3 demonstrating that there is no promotional synergistic interaction between the NiO and La2O3 promoters. This study demonstrates the important contributions of the photocatalyst surface properties to the fundamental

  5. Advances in the In-House CdTe Research Activities at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Gessert, T.; Wu, X.; Dhere, R.; Moutinho, H.; Smith, S.; Romero, M.; Zhou, J.; Duda, A.; Corwine, C.

    2005-01-01

    NREL in-house CdTe research activities have impacted a broad range of recent program priorities. Studies aimed at industrially relevant applications have produced new materials and processes that enhance the performance of devices based on commercial materials (e.g., soda-lime glass, SnO2:F). Preliminary tests of the effectiveness of these novel components using large-scale processes have been encouraging. Similarly, electro- and nano-probe techniques have been developed and used to study the evolution and function of CdTe grain boundaries. Finally, cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) studies on single-crystal samples have yielded improved understanding of how various processes may combine to produce important defects in CdTe films.

  6. [Diversity and bacteria community structure of activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Shang, Hai-tao; Hao, Chun-bo; Luo, Peng; Gu, Jun-nong

    2011-05-01

    Two granular activated carbon (GAC) samples with 1.5 a and 5 a age were collected, Bacterial genome DNA was extracted for the 16S rDNA gene amplification, and then a bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed. After the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, bacterial diversity and community structure of two activated carbon biofilm sample were studied. The results showed the bacteria in GAC with 5 a age could be divided into 11 groups, which were as follows alpha-Proteobacteria (26.5%), beta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), delta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), Planctomycetes (12.2%), Gemmatimonadetes (6.1%), Acidobacteria (4.1%), Nitrospira (2.0%), gamma-Proteobacteria (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.0%), Actinobacteria (2.0%), Unclassified Bacteria (10.2%). The bacteria in GAC with 1.5 a age could be divided into 10 groups, which were as follows alpha-Proteobacteria (21.6%), Planctomycetes( 10.8%), Bacteroidetes (10.8%), beta-Proteobacteria (9.0%), Acidobacteria (9.0%), Nitrospira (7.2%), detla-Proteobacteria (7.2%), Unclassified Proteobacteria (5.4%), Gemmatimonadetes (3.6%), Unclassified Bacteria (14.4%). The results revealed a variety of bacterial divisions on the studied GAC biofilm. Proteobacteria had the highest share in the two total clones, and alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria were on a dominant position. A relatively high proportion of delta-Proteobacteria was observed in the biofilm of GAC with 5 a age, and Nitrospira was in a minor proportion. However, a totally converse condition appeared in GAC with 1.5 a age. Two pathogenic bacteria, Afipia and Chryseobacterium, were detected in analyzed GACs, which implies a potential microbial risk in water supply.

  7. Increasing the activity and enantioselectivity of lipases by sol-gel immobilization: further advancements of practical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielmann, Patrick; Kierkels, Hans; Zonta, Albin; Ilie, Adriana; Reetz, Manfred T.

    2014-05-01

    The entrapment of lipases in hydrophobic silicate matrices formed by sol-gel mediated hydrolysis of RSi(OCH3)3/Si(OCH3)4 as originally reported in 1996 has been improved over the years by a number of modifications. In the production of second-generation sol-gel lipase immobilizates, a variety of additives during the sol-gel process leads to increased activity and enhanced stereoselectivity in esterifying kinetic resolution. Recent advances in this type of lipase immobilization are reviewed here, in addition to new results regarding the sol-gel entrapment of the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia. It constitutes an excellent heterogeneous biocatalyst in the acylating kinetic resolution of two synthetically and industrially important chiral alcohols, rac-sulcatol and rac-trans-2-methoxycyclohexanol. The observation that the catalyst can be used 10 times in recycling experiments without losing its significant activity or enantioselectivity demonstrates the practical viability of the sol-gel approach.The entrapment of lipases in hydrophobic silicate matrices formed by sol-gel mediated hydrolysis of RSi(OCH3)3/Si(OCH3)4 as originally reported in 1996 has been improved over the years by a number of modifications. In the production of second-generation sol-gel lipase immobilizates, a variety of additives during the sol-gel process leads to increased activity and enhanced stereoselectivity in esterifying kinetic resolution. Recent advances in this type of lipase immobilization are reviewed here, in addition to new results regarding the sol-gel entrapment of the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia. It constitutes an excellent heterogeneous biocatalyst in the acylating kinetic resolution of two synthetically and industrially important chiral alcohols, rac-sulcatol and rac-trans-2-methoxycyclohexanol. The observation that the catalyst can be used 10 times in recycling experiments without losing its significant activity or enantioselectivity demonstrates the practical viability of

  8. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  9. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  10. Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, K. M.; Rector, D. M.; Martinez, A. T.; Guerra, F. M.; George, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast

  11. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of "omic" sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an "alphabet" derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals.

  12. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  13. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Snead, L. L.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-09-01

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ∼500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimental results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. The strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9-20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.

  14. Recent Advances in Anticancer Activities and Drug Delivery Systems of Tannins.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuee; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Nelson G; Shi, Zhi; Qiu, Jiange; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-12-22

    Tannins, polyphenols in medicinal plants, have been divided into two groups of hydrolysable and condensed tannins, including gallotannins, ellagitannins, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Potent anticancer activities have been observed in tannins (especially EGCG) with multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of invasion and metastases. Furthermore, the combinational effects of tannins and anticancer drugs have been demonstrated in this review, including chemoprotective, chemosensitive, and antagonizing effects accompanying with anticancer effect. However, the applications of tannins have been hindered due to their poor liposolubility, low bioavailability, off-taste, and shorter half-life time in human body, such as EGCG, gallic acid, and ellagic acid. To tackle these obstacles, novel drug delivery systems have been employed to deliver tannins with the aim of improving their applications, such as gelatin nanoparticles, micelles, nanogold, liposomes, and so on. In this review, the chemical characteristics, anticancer properties, and drug delivery systems of tannins were discussed with an attempt to provide a systemic reference to promote the development of tannins as anticancer agents.

  15. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martenstic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-05-26

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ~500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimental results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. Furthermore, the strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9–20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.

  16. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martenstic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Lizhen; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-05-26

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ~500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimentalmore » results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. Furthermore, the strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9–20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.« less

  17. Advanced semi-active engine and transmission mounts: tools for modelling, analysis, design, and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farjoud, Alireza; Taylor, Russell; Schumann, Eric; Schlangen, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    This paper is focused on modelling, design, and testing of semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) engine and transmission mounts used in the automotive industry. The purpose is to develop a complete analysis, synthesis, design, and tuning tool that reduces the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory and field tests. A detailed mathematical model of such devices is developed using multi-physics modelling techniques for physical systems with various energy domains. The model includes all major features of an MR mount including fluid dynamics, fluid track, elastic components, decoupler, rate-dip, gas-charged chamber, MR fluid rheology, magnetic circuit, electronic driver, and control algorithm. Conventional passive hydraulic mounts can also be studied using the same mathematical model. The model is validated using standard experimental procedures. It is used for design and parametric study of mounts; effects of various geometric and material parameters on dynamic response of mounts can be studied. Additionally, this model can be used to test various control strategies to obtain best vibration isolation performance by tuning control parameters. Another benefit of this work is that nonlinear interactions between sub-components of the mount can be observed and investigated. This is not possible by using simplified linear models currently available.

  18. Impacts of backwashing on granular activated carbon filters for advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joshua; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-12-15

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed filters is a promising option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Frequent backwashing of the filter bed is inevitable, but its effect on potential filter stratification is not well understood yet and thus has been evaluated in the present study for two commercial GAC products. Backwashing of GAC filters was simulated with 10 or 100 filter bed expansions of 20 or 100% at backwash velocities of 12 and 40 m/h, respectively. Five vertical fractions were extracted and revealed a vertical stratification according to grain sizes and material densities. Sieve analyses indicated increasing grain sizes towards the bottom for one GAC while grain sizes of the other GAC were more homogeneously distributed throughout the filter bed. The apparent densities of the top sections were significantly lower than that of the bottom sections of both products. Comparative long term fixed bed adsorption experiments with the top and bottom sections of the stratified GAC showed remarkable differences in breakthrough curves of dissolved organic carbon, UV light absorption at 254 nm wavelength (UVA254) and OMP. GAC from the upper section showed constantly better removal efficiencies than GAC from the bottom section, especially for weakly adsorbing OMP such as sulfamethoxazole. Furthermore correlations between UVA254 reductions and OMP removals were found.

  19. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359

  20. Resveratrol prevents the impairment of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) on macrophage lipid homeostasis by suppressing the receptor for AGE via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihua; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Qihong; Si, Liangyi

    2010-05-01

    Advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) and its receptor (RAGE) axis is involved in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is critical in the pathogenesis of diabetic atherosclerosis. We investigated the protective role of resveratrol against the AGE-induced impairment on macrophage lipid homeostasis. In THP-1-derived macrophages, RAGE was dose-dependently induced by AGE and played a key role in the AGE-induced cholesterol accumulation. Resveratrol markedly reduced RAGE expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma but not PPARalpha or AMP-activated protein kinase. Importantly, pretreatment with resveratrol significantly ameliorated AGE-induced up-regulation of scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 and thus effectively prevented the cholesterol accumulation in macrophages as shown by cellular cholesterol analysis and oil red O staining. Moreover, blockade of PPARgamma abolished all these effects of resveratrol. Collectively, our results indicate that resveratrol prevents the impairment of AGE on macrophage lipid homeostasis partially by suppressing RAGE via PPARgamma activation, which might provide new insight into the protective role of resveratrol against diabetic atherosclerosis.

  1. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  2. MAX '91: An advanced payload for the exploration of high energy processes on the active sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The results of a NASA science working group established to study a follow-on to the Solar Maximum Mission are given. A complement of instruments is suggested, with the primary objective of studying the physics of energetic processes in cosmic plasmas by observing high-energy phenomena in solar flares. High-quality flare observations will be possible with these instruments during the next peak in solar activity expected to last from 1990 through at least 1995. The primary objective of MAX '91 is to study energetic processes in cosmic plasmas by observing high-energy phenomena in solar flares. These processes, which are of general astrophysical importance, include energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport. Results from comprehensive observing programs conducted during the last solar cycle have demonstrated the great scientific potential of high-energy emissions for addressing these central physical processes. Consequently, a payload optimized for observations of high-energy solar flare phenomena is suggested for MAX '91. It consists of the following four specific instruments: (1) a Fourier-transform X-ray and gamma-ray imager covering the energy range from a few keV to 1 MeV with arcsecond spatial resolution; (2) a cooled germanium X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer with keV spectral resolution covering the energy range from 10 keV to 50 MeV; (3) Bragg spectrometers with high spectral resolution at wavelengths between 1 and 9 angstrons; and (4) a soft X-ray, EUV, or UV imaging instrument with arcsecond spatial resolution.

  3. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  4. Recent CESAR (Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research) research activities in sensor based reasoning for autonomous machines

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) in the area of sensor based reasoning, with emphasis being given to their application and implementation on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous mobile vehicle. These activities, including navigation and exploration in a-priori unknown and dynamic environments, goal recognition, vision-guided manipulation and sensor-driven machine learning, are discussed within the framework of a scenario in which an autonomous robot is asked to navigate through an unknown dynamic environment, explore, find and dock at the panel, read and understand the status of the panel's meters and dials, learn the functioning of a process control panel, and successfully manipulate the control devices of the panel to solve a maintenance emergency problems. A demonstration of the successful implementation of the algorithms on our HERMIES-IIB autonomous robot for resolution of this scenario is presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the applicability of the methodologies to more general classes of problems and implications for future work on sensor-driven reasoning for autonomous robots are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The downregulation of thioredoxin accelerated Neuro2a cell apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end product via activating several pathways.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Ma, Haiying; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bo; Qi, Hui; Li, Zeyu; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx), a 12 kDa protein, has different functions in different cellular environments, playing important anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles and regulating the expression of transcription factors. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts from glucose-protein condensation reactions and are considered crucial to the development of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neurodegeneration and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to use a Trx inhibitor to investigate the effects and mechanism of Trx down-regulation on AGE-induced Neuro2a cell apoptosis. Neuro2a cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different conditions. The apoptosis and proliferation of Neuro2a cells were detected using flow cytometry, DNA-Ladder and CCK8 assays. Rho 123 was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. ROS generation and caspase3 activity were detected using a DCFH-DA probe and micro-plate reader. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of proteins and genes. We found that the down-regulation of thioredoxin could accelerate AGE-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. A possible underlying mechanism is that the down-regulation of thioredoxin stimulated the up-regulation of ASK1, p-JNK, PTEN, and Txnip, as well as the down-regulation of p-AKT, ultimately increasing ROS levels and caspase3 activity.

  6. Ability of resveratrol to inhibit advanced glycation end product formation and carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme activity, and to conjugate methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yixiao; Xu, Zhimin; Sheng, Zhanwu

    2017-02-01

    Glycation can generate advanced glycation end products (AGE) and its intermediates methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal in foods, which increase the risk of developing diabetes diseases. In this study, the effect of resveratrol against AGE formation, carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme activity and trapping MGO capability were evaluated. Resveratrol showed a significant inhibition capability against AGE formation in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-fructose, BSA-MGO and arginine-MGO models with inhibition percentages of 57.94, 85.95 and 99.35%, respectively. Furthermore, resveratrol acted as a competitive inhibitor for α-amylase with IC50 3.62μg/ml, while it behaved in an uncompetitive manner for α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 17.54μg/l. A prevention of BSA protein glycation was observed in the BSA-fructose model with addition of resveratrol. Three types of resveratrol-MGO adducts were identified in the model consisting of MGO and resveratrol. The results demonstrated that resveratrol has potential in reducing glycation in foods and retarding carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme activities.

  7. Moving toward implementation: the potential for accountable care organizations and private-public partnerships to advance active neighborhood design.

    PubMed

    Zusman, Edie E; Carr, Sara Jensen; Robinson, Judy; Kasirye, Olivia; Zell, Bonnie; Miller, William Jahmal; Duarte, Teri; Engel, Adrian B; Hernandez, Monica; Horton, Mark B; Williams, Frank

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Affordable Care Act's (ACA) aims of lowering costs and improving quality of care will renew focus on preventive health strategies. This coincides with a trend in medicine to reconsider population health approaches as part of the standard curriculum. This intersection of new policy and educational climates presents a unique opportunity to reconsider traditional healthcare structures. This paper introduces and advances an alignment that few have considered. We propose that accountable care organizations (ACOs), which are expected to proliferate under the ACA, present the best opportunity to establish partnerships between healthcare, public health, and community-based organizations to achieve the legislation's goals. One example is encouraging daily physical activity via built environment interventions and programs, which is recommended by numerous groups. We highlight how nonprofit organizations in Sacramento, California have been able to leverage influence, capital, and policy to encourage design for active living, and how their work is coordinating with public health and healthcare initiatives. In conclusion, we critically examine potential barriers to the success of partnerships between ACOs and community organizations and encourage further exploration and evaluation.

  8. Review of iron-free Fenton-like systems for activating H2O2 in advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2014-06-30

    Iron-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition for in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)) has been extensively developed as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for environmental applications. A variety of catalytic iron species constituting metal salts (in Fe(2+) or Fe(3+) form), metal oxides (e.g., Fe2O3, Fe3O4), and zero-valent metal (Fe(0)) have been exploited for chemical (classical Fenton), photochemical (photo-Fenton) and electrochemical (electro-Fenton) degradation pathways. However, the requirement of strict acidic conditions to prevent iron precipitation still remains the bottleneck for iron-based AOPs. In this article, we present a thorough review of alternative non-iron Fenton catalysts and their reactivity towards hydrogen peroxide activation. Elements with multiple redox states (like chromium, cerium, copper, cobalt, manganese and ruthenium) all directly decompose H2O2 into HO(•) through conventional Fenton-like pathways. The in situ formation of H2O2 and decomposition into HO(•) can be also achieved using electron transfer mechanism in zero-valent aluminum/O2 system. Although these Fenton systems (except aluminum) work efficiently even at neutral pH, the H2O2 activation mechanism is very specific to the nature of the catalyst and critically depends on its composition. This review describes in detail the complex mechanisms and emphasizes on practical limitations influencing their environmental applications.

  9. FISPACT-II: An Advanced Simulation System for Activation, Transmutation and Material Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Eastwood, J. W.; Morgan, J. G.; Gilbert, M. R.; Fleming, M.; Arter, W.

    2017-01-01

    Fispact-II is a code system and library database for modelling activation-transmutation processes, depletion-burn-up, time dependent inventory and radiation damage source terms caused by nuclear reactions and decays. The Fispact-II code, written in object-style Fortran, follows the evolution of material irradiated by neutrons, alphas, gammas, protons, or deuterons, and provides a wide range of derived radiological output quantities to satisfy most needs for nuclear applications. It can be used with any ENDF-compliant group library data for nuclear reactions, particle-induced and spontaneous fission yields, and radioactive decay (including but not limited to TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0u, CENDL-3.1 processed into fine-group-structure files, GEFY-5.2 and UKDD-16), as well as resolved and unresolved resonance range probability tables for self-shielding corrections and updated radiological hazard indices. The code has many novel features including: extension of the energy range up to 1 GeV; additional neutron physics including self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, thin and thick target yields; pathway analysis; and sensitivity and uncertainty quantification and propagation using full covariance data. The latest ENDF libraries such as TENDL encompass thousands of target isotopes. Nuclear data libraries for Fispact-II are prepared from these using processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF. These data include resonance parameters, cross sections with covariances, probability tables in the resonance ranges, PKA spectra, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and energy-dependent fission yields, supplemented with all 27 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are provided in evaluated data tables. The Fispact-II simulation software is described in detail in this paper, together with the nuclear data libraries. The Fispact-II system also includes several utility programs for code-use optimisation

  10. Advancements for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obland, M. D.; Nehrir, A. R.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Kooi, S. A.; Choi, Y.; Plant, J.; Yang, M. M.; Antill, C.; Campbell, J. F.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E. V.; Meadows, B.; Dobler, J. T.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Moore, B., III; Crowell, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) is an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave lidar system recently developed at NASA Langley Research Center that seeks to advance technologies and techniques critical to measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. These advancements include: (1) increasing the power-aperture product to approach ASCENDS mission requirements by implementing multi-aperture telescopes and multiple co-aligned laser transmitters; (2) incorporating high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) developing and incorporating a high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration operation on Global Hawk aircraft, and (4) advancing algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument architecture is being developed for operation on high-altitude aircraft and will be directly scalable to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. ACES simultaneously transmits five laser beams: three from commercial EDFAs operating near 1571 nm, and two from the Exelis oxygen (O2) Raman fiber laser amplifier system operating near 1260 nm. The Integrated-Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar approach is used at both wavelengths to independently measure the CO2 and O2 column number densities and retrieve the average column CO2 mixing ratio. The outgoing laser beams are aligned to the field of view of ACES' three fiber-coupled 17.8-cm diameter athermal telescopes. The backscattered light collected by the three telescopes is sent to the detector/TIA subsystem, which has a bandwidth of 4.7 MHz and operates service-free using a tactical dewar and cryocooler. Two key laser modulation approaches are being tested to significantly mitigate the effects of thin clouds on the retrieved CO2 column amounts. Full instrument development concluded in the

  11. Bisphosphonates enhance EGFR-TKIs efficacy in advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR activating mutation: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Wen-Xiu; Xu, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Ke; Zhu, Wen-Jiang; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jin; Lu, You; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates have exhibited anti-tumor activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to evaluate whether the combination of bisphosphonates with tyrosine kinase inhibitors of EGFR (EGFR-TKIs) could obtain a synergistic effect on advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations. Methods Between January 2008 and October 2013, 114 advanced EGFR mutations NSCLC patients who received EGFR-TKIs as first-line therapy were recruited from two cancer centers. Patients were separated into EGFR-TKIs alone or EGFR-TKIs plus bisphosphonates (combination) group. Median progression free survival (mPFS), median overall survival (mOS) distributions and survival curves were analyzed. Results Among the 114 patients, 62 had bone metastases (19 patients treated with EGFR-TKIs, 43 patients treated with EGFR-TKIs + bisphosphonates). Median PFS and OS were significantly improved in combination group compared with EGFR-TKIs group (mPFS: 15.0 vs 7.3 months, P = 0.0017; mOS: 25.2 vs 10.4 months, P = 0.0015) in patients with bone metastases. Among the 71 patients (19 patients with bone metastases) treated with EGFR-TKIs alone, patients with bone metastases had poor survival prognosis (mPFS:7.3 vs 12.1 months, P = 0.0434; mOS:10.4 vs 22.0 months, P = 0.0036). The survival of patients with bone metastases who received EGFR-TKIs plus bisphosphonates therapy was non-inferior to patients without bone metastases treated with EGFR-TKIs alone (mPFS: 15.0 vs 12.1 months, p = 0.1871; mOS: 25.2 vs 22.0 months, p = 0.9798). Conclusions Concomitant use of bisphosphonates and EGFR-TKIs improves therapeutic efficacy and brings survival benefits to NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation and bone metastases. PMID:26624882

  12. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  13. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  14. First 3D thermal mapping of an active volcano using an advanced photogrammetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Lacogne, Julien; Lopez, Teodolina; Fauchard, Cyrille; Bretar, Frédéric; Arab-Sedze, Mélanie; Staudacher, Thomas; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-05-01

    to extract 3D informations from thermal images taken from different positions. This paper presents the first 3D thermal map of an active volcano (Piton de la Fournaise, La Réunion Island) directly generated from 70 thermal images (so-called "stereothermogrammetric" DEM). The data were obtained above Dolomieu caldera by helicopter just before sunrise, during a clear weather in 2008. They were obtained before the eruptive events occurring within the Dolomieu caldera. We used a 28 mm focal FLIR Thermacam PM695 lent by the Piton de la Fournaise Observatory. The thermal images were acquired automatically every 30 seconds with the helicopter flying around the caldera at low altitude (less than 100 m height above the caldera). This survey led to the acquisition of images with a ground pixel size in the range of 1-3 m. A particular attention has been brought to the obtaining of a high overlap percentage (80 percents) for the localization of the maximum tie points on the image. Finally, the acquisition of 70 images allowed the generation of a 3D thermal model of the caldera containing more than 500000 points. i.e. 1 point each 2 m², considering a surface of 106 m² for the Dolomieu caldera. This model is then compared with a DEM recently obtained with the LIDAR method after the eruptive events occurring within Dolomieu. The comparison of these independent methods leads to the validation of the stereothermogrammetric method. It allows the quantification of the thickness of the lava flows within the Dolomieu collapse in 2008 and 2009, i.e. approximately 80 meters, as estimated by previous studies from field observations.

  15. Pentosidine in advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) during UVA irradiation generates active oxygen species and impairs human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Okano, Y; Masaki, H; Sakurai, H

    2001-08-01

    Our previous study reported that advanced glycation end-products (AGE)-modified BSA produced active oxygen species, *O2-, H2O2, and *OH under UVA irradiation and enhanced the cytotoxicity of UVA light. We examined whether pentosidine in AGE-modified BSA was involved in one of the mechanisms generating the active oxygen species. In biological investigations, fibroblasts exposed to UVA (20 J/cm2) in the presence of pentosidine-rich compounds (PRCs), which were prepared with L-arginine, L-lysine and glucose, showed a time-dependent leakage of the cytosolic enzyme LDH. In addition, release of LDH was suppressed by addition of DMSO and deferoxamine under UVA irradiation. From these results, it was determined that PRCs exposed to UVA damaged the plasma membrane of human dermal fibroblasts due to the conversion of *OH from H2O2 via a Fenton-like reaction. These features of PRCs exposed to UVA were consistent with those of AGE-modified BSA. In an ESR study, PRCs under UVA irradiation yielded DMPO-OH (DMPO-OH adduct) using DMPO as a spin-trapping reagent. *O2- generation from UVA-irradiated PRCs was also indicated by the combination of NBT reduction and SOD. When PRCs were exposed to UVA light controlled with a long-pass filter, WG-360, it was found that their production of *O2- was prohibited less than 50% in the NBT reduction assay. The *O2- production profile of PRCs depending on the wavelength of UVA light was similar to that of AGE-modified BSA. Furthermore, it was found that the H2O2 level was increased by PRCs exposed to UVA. These results indicated that pentosidine is an important factor of AGE-modified BSA in active oxygen generation under UVA irradiation.

  16. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  17. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  18. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  19. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  20. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

  1. Modes of Governmentality in an Online Space: A Case Study of Blog Activities in an Advanced Level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…

  2. Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Improves Stromal Cell–Derived Factor-1 Activity in Model Diabetic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Olekson, Melissa Przyborowski; Faulknor, Renea A.; Hsia, Henry C.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Berthiaume, François

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In diabetes, hyperglycemia causes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through binding the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Because exogenous growth factors have had little success in enhancing chronic wound healing, we investigated whether hyperglycemia-induced AGEs interfere with cellular responses to extracellular signals. We used stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1), an angiogenic chemokine also known to promote stem cell recruitment in skin wounds. Approach: Human leukemia-60 (HL-60) cells and mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which express the SDF-1 receptor CXCR-4, were incubated for 24 h in medium supplemented with 25 mM d-glucose. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) was used to block RAGE activation. Response to SDF-1 was measured in cellular migration and ROS assays. A diabetic murine excisional wound model measured SDF-1 liposome and sRAGE activity in vivo. Results: Hyperglycemia led to significant accumulation of AGEs, decreased SDF-1–directed migration, and elevated baseline ROS levels; it suppressed the ROS spike normally triggered by SDF-1. sRAGE decreased the ROS baseline and restored both the SDF-1–mediated spike and cell migration. Topically applied sRAGE alone promoted healing and enhanced the effect of exogenous SDF-1 on diabetic murine wounds. Innovation: While there is interest in using growth factors to improve wound healing, this strategy is largely ineffective in diabetic wounds. We show that sRAGE may restore signaling, thus potentiating the effect of exogenously applied growth factors. Conclusion: Blocking RAGE with sRAGE restores SDF-1–mediated cellular responses in hyperglycemic environments and may potentiate the effectiveness of SDF-1 applied in vivo. PMID:28078186

  3. Advanced space transportation system support contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The general focus is on a phase 2 lunar base, or a lunar base during the period after the first return of a crew to the Moon, but before permanent occupancy. The software effort produced a series of trajectory programs covering low earth orbit (LEO) to various node locations, the node locations to the lunar surface, and then back to LEO. The surface operations study took a lunar scenario in the civil needs data base (CNDB) and attempted to estimate the amount of space-suit work or extravehicular activity (EVA) required to set up the base. The maintenance and supply options study was a first look at the problems of supplying and maintaining the base. A lunar surface launch and landing facility was conceptually designed. The lunar storm shelter study examined the problems of radiation protection. The lunar surface construction and equipment assembly study defined twenty surface construction and assembly tasks in detail.

  4. Fractionated Radioimmunotherapy With 90Y-Clivatuzumab Tetraxetan and Low-Dose Gemcitabine Is Active in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ocean, Allyson J.; Pennington, Kenneth L.; Guarino, Michael J.; Sheikh, Arif; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Serafini, Aldo N.; Lee, Daniel; Sung, Max W.; Gulec, Seza A.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Manzone, Timothy; Holt, Michael; O’Neil, Bert H.; Hall, Nathan; Montero, Alberto J.; Kauh, John; Gold, David V.; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2014-01-01

    the higher radioimmunotherapy doses. CONCLUSIONS Fractionated radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-hPAM4 and low-dose gemcitabine demonstrated promising therapeutic activity and manageable myelosuppression in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma. PMID:22569804

  5. Satellite services system analysis study, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The background, ground rules and assumptions, individual design reference mission results and total user benefit projection for the economic benefit analysis are discussed. Radiation protection, extravehicular activity (EVA) operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effects, anthropometric definition, EVA lighting, and equipment turnaround for the advanced extravehicular maneuvering unit are also discussed.

  6. Presence of photoperiod-melatonin-induced, sexually-activated rams in spring advances puberty in autumn-born ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Gómez, A; Keller, M; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sexually activated (by specific photoperiodic treatments) vasectomized rams on the onset of puberty in autumn-born ewe lambs in spring. Photoperiodic-treated rams were assigned to one of three groups, which were sequentially exposed to two months of long days (16h light/d) and given three melatonin implants at the end of the long days (sexually-activated-rams; SAR): SAR1 (n=5; 1 December-31 January), SAR2 (n=5; 1 Jan-28 February), and SAR3 (n=5; 1 February-31 March). Control rams (CR; n=4) were exposed to the natural photoperiod. On 1 March, 50 ewe lambs born in September were assigned to the SAR rams (SAR-treated; n=25) or the CR rams (CR-treated; n=25). SAR-treated ewe lambs were housed with SAR1 rams from 1 March. SAR2 rams replaced SAR1 rams (14 April), which were replaced by SAR3 rams (22 May) until 30 June. CR-treated ewe lambs were housed with the unstimulated rams. Ovulation was identified by weekly plasma progesterone concentrations and estrous behavior, as indicated by colored rumps. A greater proportion of SAR than CR ewe lambs ovulated in April (52% vs. 0%) and May (68% vs. 0%) (P<0.0001), and were in estrus in May (64% vs. 0%) and June (92% vs. 24%) (P<0.0001). The presence of SAR rams reduced (P<0.0001) mean (±SD) age (d) at first ovulation and estrus (235±28 [7 May] and 257±24 [29 May], respectively), compared to that of CR-treated ewe lambs (277±5 [18 June] and 302±16 [14 July], respectively). In conclusion, the presence of photoperiod-melatonin-induced, sexually activated rams in spring, advanced puberty in autumn-born ewe lambs. Using this technique might provide an effective and sustainable means of increasing the productive life of ewes, while avoiding the use of hormonal treatments.

  7. In vitro-activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes prolong the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Jun; Yang, Fang; Li, Guang-Jun; Fang, Xiang-Jie; Gao, Bao-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional tumor managements have limited survival benefits and cause severely impaired immune function in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) whereas immunotherapies could restore antitumor immunity. This prospective cohort study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of in vitro-activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes combined with chemotherapy on the survival of patients with advanced GC. Patients and methods Two hundred and seventy-four postoperative patients were enrolled in this study to receive either activated T lymphocytes immunotherapy combining chemotherapy (71 patients) or only receive postoperative chemotherapy (203 patients). Overall survival was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier with log-rank test and Cox’s regression methods. Results The immunotherapy prolonged 9.8-month median survival for advanced gastric cancer (29.70 vs 19.70 months, P=0.036). Furthermore, immunotherapy significantly benefited the survival of patients who underwent radical, palliative resection, and stage III malignancy. No serious adverse effect was observed in the immunotherapy group. Conclusion In vitro-activated tumor-specific T lymphocytes prolonged survival in patients with advanced GC. PMID:27382313

  8. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  9. Long term operation of high concentration powdered activated carbon membrane bio-reactor for advanced water treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, G T; Moon, C D; Chang, S W; Lee, S H

    2004-01-01

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of a membrane bioreactor filled with high concentration powdered activated carbon. This hybrid system has great potential to substitute for existing GAC or O3/BAC processes in the drinking water treatment train. The system was installed at a water treatment plant located downstream of the Nakdong river basin, Korea. Effluent of rapid sand filter was used as influent of the system which consists of PAC bio-reactor, submerged MF membrane module and air supply facility. PAC concentration of 20 g/L was maintained at the beginning of the experiment and it was increased to 40 g/L. The PAC has not been changed during the operational periods. The membrane was a hollow fiber type with pore sizes of 0.1 and 0.4 microm. It was apparent that the high PAC concentration could prevent membrane fouling. 40 g/L PAC was more effective to reduce the filtration resistance than 20 g/L. At the flux of 0.36 m/d, TMP was maintained less than 40 kPa for about 3 months by intermittent suction type operation (12 min suction/3 min idling). Adsorption was the dominant role to remove DOC at the initial operational period. However the biological effect was gradually increased after around 3 months operation. Constant DOC removal could be maintained at about 40% without any trouble and then a tremendous reduction of DBPs (HAA5 and THM) higher than 85% was achieved. Full nitrification was observed at the controlled influent ammonia nitrogen concentration of 3 and 7 mg/L. pH was an important parameter to keep stable ammonia oxidation. From almost two years of operation, it is clear that the PAC membrane bioreactor is highly applicable for advanced water treatment under the recent situation of more stringent DBPs regulation in Korea.

  10. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  11. Session: CSP Advanced Systems -- Advanced Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is: (1) it supports crosscutting activities, e.g. advanced optical materials, that aren't tied to a single CSP technology and (2) it supports the 'incubation' of new concepts in preliminary stages of investigation.

  12. STS-49 ASEM activities illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activities are illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. An extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmember, positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS) manipulator foot restraint (MFR), grabs and maneuvers the multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) using the steering wheel assembly. Once in position the MPESS will be attached to the truss assembly. The crewmember lifting the MPESS out of the PLB is evaluating mass manipulation and berthing of a relatively large mass. This will simulate techniques to be used for module-to-truss installation for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A second EMU suited crewmember oversees and directs the MPESS manipulation from a portable foot restraint (PFR) attached to the starboard sill longeron.

  13. STS-49 ASEM activity illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activity is illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. An extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmember, positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS) manipulator foot restraint (MFR), grabs and maneuvers the multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) with truss assembly attached above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) using the steer wheel assembly. The MPESS/ASEM truss structure has been lifted out the sill-mounted payload retention latch assemblies (PRLAs) and will be repositioned in the PRLAs upon completion of handling procedures. Also seen in this illustration are the empty INTELSAT perigee stage cradle structure (aft PLB) and the capture bar grapple fixture stowed on the port side sill longeron.

  14. Development of Advanced Alloys using Fullerenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J.; Wasz, M.; O'Brien, J.; Callahan, D. L.; Barrera, E. V.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced alloys using fullerenes is currently underway to produce materials for use in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). These materials will be directed toward commercial usages as they are continually developed. Fullerenes (of which the most common is C(sub 60)) are lightweight, nanometer size, hollow molecules of carbon which can be dispersed in conventional alloy systems to enhance strength and reduce weight. In this research, fullerene interaction with aluminum is investigated and a fullerene-reinforced aluminum alloy is being developed for possible use on the EMU. The samples were manufactured using standard commercial approaches including powder metallurgy and casting. Alloys have been processed having 1.3, 4.0 and 8.0 volume fractions of fullerenes. It has been observed that fullerene dispersion is related to the processing approach and that they are stable for the processing conditions used in this research. Emphasis will be given to differential thermal analysis and wavelength dispersive analysis of the processed alloys. These two techniques are particularly useful in determining the condition of the fullerenes during and after processing. Some discussion will be given as to electrical properties of fullerene-reinforced materials. Although the aluminum and other advanced alloys with fullerenes are being developed for NASA and the EMU, the properties of these materials will be of interest for commercial applications where specific Dual-Use will be given.

  15. Fractionate analysis of the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities in advanced breeding lines of high-lycopene tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Ilahy, Riadh; Piro, Gabriella; Tlili, Imen; Riahi, Anissa; Sihem, Rabaoui; Ouerghi, Imen; Hdider, Chafik; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the antioxidant components [lycopene, total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA)] as well as antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions (AAHF and AALF) of peel, pulp and seed fractions isolated from red-ripe berries of the ordinary tomato cultivar Rio Grande and the two high-lycopene tomato breeding lines HLT-F61 and HLT-F62 simultaneously grown in an open-field of Northern Tunisia. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found among cultivars for each trait studied. All fractions isolated from the red-ripe berries of HLT lines showed higher lycopene, total phenolics and total flavonoid contents, as well as higher AAHF and AALF, than those isolated from Rio Grande. Regardless of the fraction, HLT-F61 had the highest lycopene content (893.0 mg per kg fw, 280.0 mg per kg fw, and 47.5 mg per kg fw in peel, pulp and seed fractions, respectively) and total phenolics at least 2-fold and 3-fold higher than HLT-F62 and Rio Grande, respectively. Peel and seed fractions from HLT-F61 red-ripe tomato berries had the highest AsA content (345 mg per kg fw and 115 mg per kg fw, respectively), while no significant difference was found in the seed fraction between HLT-F62 and Rio Grande. The HLT-F62 pulp fraction showed the highest content of AsA (186 mg per kg fw) and DHA (151 mg per kg fw) among all the assayed cultivars. Except for the peel fraction, where HLT-F61 had similar AAHF values to HLT-F62, the high-lycopene line HLT-F61 showed higher AAHF values than HLT-F62 and Rio Grande. Regardless of the fraction, the highest AALF values were recorded in HLT-F61 berries. Thus, both HLT tomato lines are promising for the introduction, as advanced hybrids, in either fresh market or processing industry.

  16. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  17. Developing Advanced Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbel, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth s moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a systems engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD s Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. these products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  18. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  19. Complementary Spectroscopic Assays for Investigating Protein-Ligand Binding Activity: A Project for the Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascotti, David P.; Waner, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    A protein-ligand binding, guided-inquiry laboratory project with potential application across the advanced undergraduate curriculum is described. At the heart of the project are fluorescence and spectrophotometric assays utilizing biotin-4-fluorescein and streptavidin. The use of the same stock solutions for an assay that may be examined by two…

  20. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, George

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).