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Sample records for advanced extravehicular mobility

  1. Advanced extravehicular mobility unit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.

    1982-01-01

    Components of the advanced extravehicular mobility unit (suit) are described. Design considerations for radiation protection, extravehicular operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effector, anthropometric definition, lighting, and equipment turnaround are addressed.

  2. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  3. A Communication Architecture for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobile Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the communication architecture for the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). The following systems are described in detail: Caution Warning and Control System, Informatics, Storage, Video, Audio, Communication, and Monitoring Test and Validation. This document also provides some background as well as the purpose and goals of the PAS subsystem being developed at Glenn Research Center (GRC).

  4. Antenna Design Considerations for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakula, Casey J.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios

    2015-01-01

    NASA is designing an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU)to support future manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A key component of the AEMU is the communications assembly that allows for the wireless transfer of voice, video, and suit telemetry. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) currently used on the International Space Station (ISS) contains a radio system with a single omni-directional resonant cavity antenna operating slightly above 400 MHz capable of transmitting and receiving data at a rate of about 125 kbps. Recent wireless communications architectures are calling for the inclusion of commercial wireless standards such as 802.11 that operate in higher frequency bands at much higher data rates. The current AEMU radio design supports a 400 MHz band for low-rate mission-critical data and a high-rate band based on commercial wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to support video, communication with non-extravehicular activity (EVA) assets such as wireless sensors and robotic assistants, and a redundant path for mission-critical EVA data. This paper recommends the replacement of the existing EMU antenna with a new antenna that maintains the performance characteristics of the current antenna but with lower weight and volume footprints. NASA has funded several firms to develop such an antenna over the past few years, and the most promising designs are variations on the basic patch antenna. This antenna technology at UHF is considered by the authors to be mature and ready for infusion into NASA AEMU technology development programs.

  5. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  6. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  7. Investigation of humidity control via membrane separation for advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbold, D. D.; Ray, R. J.; Pledger, W. A.; Mccray, S. B.; Brown, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a membrane-based process for dehumidifying the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The membrane process promises to be smaller, lighter, and more energy efficient than the other technologies for dehumidification. The dehydration membranes were tested for 90 days at conditions expected to be present in the EMU. The results of these tests indicate that membrane-based technology can effectively control humidity in the EMU.

  8. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  9. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  10. Extravehicular mobility unit thermal simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.; Phillips, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical methods, thermal model, and user's instructions for the SIM bay extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) routine are presented. This digital computer program was developed for detailed thermal performance predictions of the crewman performing a command module extravehicular activity during transearth coast. It accounts for conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer as well as fluid flow and associated flow control components. The program is a derivative of the Apollo lunar surface EMU digital simulator. It has the operational flexibility to accept card or magnetic tape for both the input data and program logic. Output can be tabular and/or plotted and the mission simulation can be stopped and restarted at the discretion of the user. The program was developed for the NASA-JSC Univac 1108 computer system and several of the capabilities represent utilization of unique features of that system. Analytical methods used in the computer routine are based on finite difference approximations to differential heat and mass balance equations which account for temperature or time dependent thermo-physical properties.

  11. Challenges in the development of the shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmann, H. J.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) has required significant technology advances in the design of the astronaut life support system and space-suit assembly. The life support system and space-suit assemblies are integrated into a single system and optimized for the primary function of supporting astronaut extravehicular operations. Rather than accommodating a limited, male-only astronaut population, the EMU must satisfy size requirements for both males and females with a minimum of sized parts. In addition, the Shuttle EMU has been designed to implement Space Shuttle Program philosophy of long operating life and mission reuse capability to minimize program lifetime cost. The advancement in life support system and space-suit technology achieved by the development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) is illustrated by comparison with the requirements for and the design features of the Apollo EMU.

  12. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  13. Materials considerations in the design of a metal-hydride heat pump for an advanced extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    A metal-hydride heat pump (HHP) has been proposed to provide an advanced regenerable nonventing thermal sink for the liquid-cooled garment worn during an extravehicular activity (EVA). The conceptual design indicates that there is a potential for significant advantages over the one presently being used by shuttle crew personnel as well as those that have been proposed for future use with the space station. Compared to other heat pump designs, a HHP offers the potential for extended use with no electrical power requirements during the EVA. In addition, a reliable, compact design is possible due to the absence of moving parts other than high-reliability check valves. Because there are many subtleties in the properties of metal hydrides for heat pump applications, it is essential that a prototype hydride heat pump be constructed with the selected materials before a committment is made for the final design. Particular care must be given to the evaporator heat exchanger worn by the astronaut since the performance of hydride heat pumps is generally heat transfer limited.

  14. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  15. Skylab extravehicular mobility unit thermal simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.; Phillips, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The analytical methods, thermal model, and user's instructions for the Skylab Extravehicular Mobility Unit (SEMU) routine are presented. This digital computer program was developed for detailed thermal performance predictions of the SEMU on the NASA-JSC Univac 1108 computer system. It accounts for conductive, convective, and radiant heat transfer as well as fluid flow and special component characterization. The program provides thermal performance predictions for a 967 node thermal model in one thirty-sixth (1/36) of mission time when operated at a calculating interval of three minutes (mission time). The program has the operational flexibility to: (1) accept card or magnetic tape data input for the thermal model describing the SEMU structure, fluid systems, crewman and component performance, (2) accept card and/or magnetic tape input of internally generated heat and heat influx from the space environment, and (3) output tabular or plotted histories of temperature, flow rates, and other parameters describing system operating modes.

  16. Labeled cutaway line drawing of Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Labeled cutaway line drawing of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) identifies its various components and equipment. The portable life support system (PLSS) and protective layers of fabric (thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG)) incorporated in this extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit are shown.

  17. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  18. Composite materials for the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V.; Tello, Hector M.

    1992-01-01

    The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), commonly known as the astronaut space suit assembly (SSA) and primary life support system (PLSS), has evolved through the years to incorporate new and innovative materials in order to meet the demands of the space environment. The space shuttle program which is seeing an increasing level of extravehicular activity (EVA), also called space walks, along with interest in an EMU for Lunar-Mars missions means even more demanding conditions are being placed on the suit and PLSS. The project for this NASA-ASEE Summer Program was to investigate new materials for these applications. The focus was to emphasize the use of composite materials for every component of the EMU to enhance the properties while reducing the total weight of the EMU. To accomplish this, development of new materials called fullerene reinforced materials (FRM's) was initiated. Fullerenes are carbon molecules which when added to a material significantly reduce the weight of that material. The Faculty Fellow worked directly on the development of the fullerene reinforced materials. A chamber for fullerene production was designed and assembled and first generation samples were processed. He also supervised with the JSC Colleague, a study of composite materials for the EMU conducted by the student participant in the NASA-ASEE Program, Hector Tello a Rice University graduate student, and by a NASA Aerospace Technologist (Materials Engineer) Evelyne Orndoff, in the Systems Engineering Analysis Office (EC7), also a Rice University graduate student. Hector Tello conducted a study on beryllium and Be alloys and initiated a study of carbon and glass reinforced composites for space applications. Evelyne Orndoff compiled an inventory of the materials on the SSA. Ms. Orndoff also reviewed SSA material requirements and cited aspects of the SSA design where composite materials might be further considered. Hector Tello spent part of his time investigating the solar radiation

  19. Advanced Extravehicular Protective System (AEPS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of Advanced Extravehicular Protective Systems (AEPS) for the future missions beyond Skylab in earth orbit, on the lunar surface, and on the Martian surface. The study concentrated on the origination of regenerable life support concepts for use in portable extravehicular protective systems, and included evaluation and comparison with expendable systems, and selection of life support subsystems. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, subsystem concepts for performing life support functions in AEPS which are regenerable or partially regenerable were originated, and in addition, expendable subsystems were considered. Parametric data for each subsystem concept were evolved including subsystem weight and volume, power requirement, thermal control requirement; base regeneration equipment weight and volume, requirement. The second phase involved an evaluation of the impact of safety considerations involving redundant and/or backup systems on the selection of the regenerable life support subsystems. In addition, the impact of the space shuttle program on regenerable life support subsystem development was investigated.

  20. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  1. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  2. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  3. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  4. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  5. Apollo experience report: Development of the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, C. C.; Stutesman, H. L.; Carson, M. A.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1975-01-01

    The development and performance history of the Apollo extravehicular mobility unit and its major subsystems is described. The three major subsystems, the pressure garment assembly, the portable life-support system, and the oxygen purge system, are defined and described in detail as is the evolutionary process that culminated in each major subsystem component. Descriptions of ground-support equipment and the qualification testing process for component hardware are also presented.

  6. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  7. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  8. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. The EMU is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for the Shuttle crewmember to perform Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in Earth orbit. Two EMUs are included on each baseline Orbiter mission, and consumables are provided for three two-man EVAs. The EMU consists of the Life Support System (LSS), Caution and Warning System (CWS), and the Space Suit Assembly (SSA). Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. The majority of these PCIs are resultant from failures which cause loss of one or more primary functions: pressurization, oxygen delivery, environmental maintenance, and thermal maintenance. It should also be noted that the quantity of PCIs would significantly increase if the SOP were to be treated as an emergency system rather than as an unlike redundant element.

  9. Extravehicular Mobility Unit Training Suit Symptom Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the symptoms and injuries experienced by NASA astronauts during extravehicular activity (space walk) spacesuit training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. We identified the frequency and incidence rates of symptoms by each general body location and characterized mechanisms of injury and effective countermeasures. Based on these findings a comprehensive list of recommendations was made to improve training, test preparation, and current spacesuit components, and to design the next -generation spacesuit. At completion of each test event a comprehensive questionnaire was produced that documented suit symptom comments, identified mechanisms of injury, and recommended countermeasures. As we completed our study we found that most extravehicular mobility unit suit symptoms were mild, self-limited, and controlled by available countermeasures. Some symptoms represented the potential for significant injury with short- and long-term consequences regarding astronaut health and interference with mission objectives. The location of symptoms and injuries that were most clinically significant was in the hands, shoulders, and feet. Correction of suit symptoms issues will require a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, early medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  10. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  11. Extravehicular mobility unit subcritical liquid oxygen storage and supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John; Martin, Timothy; Hodgson, ED

    1992-01-01

    The storage of life support oxygen in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit in the liquid state offers some advantages over the current method of storing the oxygen as a high pressure gas. Storage volume is reduced because of the increased density associated with liquid. The lower storage and operating pressures also reduce the potential for leakage or bursting of the storage tank. The potential for combustion resulting from adiabatic combustion of the gas within lines and components is substantially reduced. Design constraints on components are also relaxed due to the lower system pressures. A design study was performed to determine the requirements for a liquid storage system and prepare a conceptual design. The study involved four tasks. The first was to identify system operating requirements that influence or direct the design of the system. The second was to define candidate storage system concepts that could possibly satisfy the requirements. An evaluation and comparison of the candidate concepts was conducted in the third task. The fourth task was devoted to preparing a conceptual design of the recommended storage system and to evaluate concerns with integration of the concept into the EMU. The results are presented.

  12. Materials Assessment of Components of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, John D.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    1996-01-01

    Current research interests for Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) design and development are directed toward enhancements of the Shuttle EMU, implementation of the Mark 3 technology for Shuttle applications, and development of a next generation suit (the X suit) which has applications for prolonged space flight, longer extravehicular activity (EVA), and Moon and Mars missions. In this research project two principal components of the EMU were studied from the vantage point of the materials and their design criteria. An investigation of the flexible materials which make up the lay-up of materials for abrasion and tear protection, thermal insulation, pressure restrain, etc. was initiated. A central focus was on the thermal insulation. A vacuum apparatus for measuring the flexibility of the materials was built to access their durability in vacuum. Plans are to include a Residual Gas Analyzer on the vacuum chamber to measure volatiles during the durability testing. These tests will more accurately simulate space conditions and provide information which has not been available on the materials currently used on the EMU. Durability testing of the aluminized mylar with a nylon scrim showed that the material strength varied in the machine and transverse directions. Study of components of the EMU also included a study of the EMU Bearing Assemblies as to materials selection, engineered materials, use of coatings and flammability issues. A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the current design, which is a stainless steel assembly, was conducted and use of titanium alloys or engineered alloy systems and coatings was investigated. The friction and wear properties are of interest as are the general manufacturing costs. Recognizing that the bearing assembly is subject to an oxygen environment, all currently used materials as well as titanium and engineered alloys were evaluated as to their flammability. An aim of the project is to provide weight reduction since bearing

  13. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  14. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  15. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) / International Space Station (ISS) Coolant Loop Failure and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Cole, Harold; Cronin, Gary; Gazda, Daniel B.; Steele, John

    2006-01-01

    Following the Colombia accident, the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) onboard ISS were unused for several months. Upon startup, the units experienced a failure in the coolant system. This failure resulted in the loss of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the US segment of ISS. With limited on-orbit evidence, a team of chemists, engineers, metallurgists, and microbiologists were able to identify the cause of the failure and develop recovery hardware and procedures. As a result of this work, the ISS crew regained the capability to perform EVAs from the US segment of the ISS.

  16. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  17. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  18. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  19. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  20. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Integration with the ISS Extravehicular Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margiott, Victoria; Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA has developed a Solid Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) to provide cooling for the next generation spacesuit. One approach to increasing the TRL of the system is to incorporate this hardware with the existing EMU. Several integration issues were addressed to support a potential demonstration of the SWME with the existing EMU. Systems analysis was performed to assess the capability of the SWME to maintain crewmember cooling and comfort as a replacement for sublimation. The materials of the SWME were reviewed to address compatibility with the EMU. Conceptual system placement and integration with the EMU via an EVA umbilical system to ensure crew mobility and Airlock egress were performed. A concept of operation for EVA use was identified that is compatible with the existing system. This concept is extensible as a means to provide cooling for the existing EMU. The cooling system of one of the EMUs on orbit has degraded, with the root cause undetermined. Should there be a common cause resident on ISS, this integration could provide a means to recover cooling capability for EMUs on orbit.

  1. Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Elms, Theresa; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2016-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to scrub the failed EMU cooling water loop on-orbit during routine scrubbing operations. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation is being investigation. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples have been designed. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin are undergoing evaluation. These efforts are undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit.

  2. Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Elms, Theresa; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to scrub the failed EMU cooling water loop on-orbit during routine scrubbing operations. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation is being investigated. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples has been designed. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin are undergoing evaluation. These efforts are undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit.

  3. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-03-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  4. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  5. Status of the Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Arnold, Dane; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to perform on-orbit routine scrubbing operations for the EMU cooling water loop which led to the failure. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation have been investigated and are being incorporated. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples has been designed as well. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin have been selected. These efforts are being undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit. The intent of this paper is to provide an update of the effort to re-design the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) hardware. Last year, this effort was in the early stages of concept development and test which was reported in ICES Paper ICES-2016-221. Those phases are now complete and the final outcomes, as well as plans to build and field the hardware, are being reported on.

  6. Design and Certification of the Extravehicular Activity Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Processing Jumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Neumeyer, Derek J.; Lewis, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure due to cooling water contamination from biomass and corrosion byproducts forming solids around the EMU pump rotor. The coolant had no biocide and a low pH which induced biofilm growth and corrosion precipitates, respectively. NASA JSC was tasked with building hardware to clean the ionic, organic, and particulate load from the EMU coolant loop before and after Extravehicular Activity (EVAs). Based on a return sample of the EMU coolant loop, the chemical load was well understood, but there was not sufficient volume of the returned sample to analyze particulates. Through work with EMU specialists, chemists, (EVA) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) representation, safety and mission assurance, astronaut crew, and team engineers, requirements were developed for the EMU Water Processing hardware (sometimes referred to as the Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery [A/L CLR] system). Those requirements ranged from the operable level of ionic, organic, and particulate load, interfaces to the EMU, maximum cycle time, operating pressure drop, flow rate, and temperature, leakage rates, and biocide levels for storage. Design work began in February 2005 and certification was completed in April 2005 to support a return to flight launch date of May 12, 2005. This paper will discuss the details of the design and certification of the EMU Water Processing hardware and its components

  7. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  8. Advanced extravehicular protective systems for shuttle, space station, lunar base and Mars missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimlich, P. F.; Sutton, J. G.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Advances in extravehicular life support system technology will directly influence future space mission reliability and maintainability considerations. To identify required new technology areas, an appraisal of advanced portable life support system and subsystem concepts was conducted. Emphasis was placed on thermal control and combined CO2 control/O2 supply subsystems for both primary and emergency systems. A description of study methodology, concept evaluation techniques, specification requirements, and selected subsystems and systems are presented. New technology recommendations encompassing thermal control, CO2 control and O2 supply subsystems are also contained herein.

  9. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the extravehicular mobility unit, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort performed an independent analysis of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware and system, generating draft failure modes criticalities and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were than compared to the most recent proposed Post 51-L NASA FMEA/CIL baseline. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison was provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter EMU hardware.

  10. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the extravehicular mobility unit, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort performed an independent analysis of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware and system, generating draft failure modes criticalities and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the most recent proposed Post 51-L NASA FMEA/CIL baseline. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison was provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter EMU hardware. Volume 2 continues the presentation of IOA analysis worksheets and contains the potential critical items list and NASA FMEA to IOA worksheet cross references and recommendations.

  11. Comparison of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suited and unsuited isolated joint strength measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Demel, Kenneth J.; Morgan, David A.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Pandya, Abhilash K.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the strength of subjects suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMU's) - or Space Shuttle suits - was compared to the strength of unsuited subjects. The authors devised a systematic and complete data set that characterizes isolated joint torques for all major joints of EMU-suited subjects. Six joint motions were included in the data set. The joint conditions of six subjects were compared to increase our understanding of the strength capabilities of suited subjects. Data were gathered on suited and unsuited subjects. Suited subjects wore Class 3 or Class 1 suits, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG's). Suited and unsuited conditions for each joint motion were compared. From this the authors found, for example, that shoulder abduction suited conditions differ from each other and from the unsuited condition. A second-order polynomial regression model was also provided. This model, which allows the prediction of suited strength when given unsuited strength information, relates the torques of unsuited conditions to the torques of all suited conditions. Data obtained will enable computer modeling of EMU strength, conversion from unsuited to suited data, and isolated joint strength comparisons between suited and unsuited conditions at any measured angle. From these data mission planners and human factors engineers may gain a better understanding of crew posture, and mobility and strength capabilities. This study also may help suit designers optimize suit strength, and provide a foundation for EMU strength modeling systems.

  12. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  13. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  14. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    Water entered the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) helmet during extravehicular activity (EVA) no. 23 aboard the International Space Station on July 16, 2013, resulting in the termination of the EVA approximately 1 hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5 liters of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronaut's hearing, vision, and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based test, tear-down, and evaluation of the affected EMU hardware components determined that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator degassing function, which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, migrating around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing shortcomings of the Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery (ALCLR) Ion Filter Beds, which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware, and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  15. Physiological and engineering study of advanced thermoregulatory systems for extravehicular space suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of thermal control for extravehicular space suits are reported. The characteristics of independent cooling of temperature and removal of excess heat from separate regions of the body, and the applications of heat pipes in protective suits are discussed along with modeling of the human thermal system.

  16. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation (A/L CLR) Hardware - Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2011-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery -- A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. A conservative duty cycle and set of use parameters for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. Several initiatives were undertaken to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters of the hardware. Examination of post-flight samples and EMU Coolant Loop hardware provided invaluable information on the performance of the A/L CLR and has allowed for an optimization of the process. The intent of this paper is to detail the evolution of the A/L CLR hardware, efforts to optimize the duty cycle and use parameters, and the final recommendations for implementation in the post-Shuttle retirement era.

  17. An Ergonomic Evaluation of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit Hard Upper Torso (HUT) Size Effect on Metabolic, Mobility, and Strength Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Harvill, Lauren; England, Scott; Young, Karen; Norcross, Jason; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance differences between a nominally sized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit and a nominal +1 (plus) sized EMU. Method: This study evaluated suit size conditions by using metabolic cost, arm mobility, and arm strength as performance metrics. Results: Differences between the suit sizes were found only in shoulder extension strength being 15.8% greater for the plus size. Discussion: While this study was able to identify motions and activities that were considered to be practically or statistically different, it does not signify that use of a plus sized suit should be prohibited. Further testing would be required that either pertained to a particular mission critical task or better simulates a microgravity environment that the EMU suit was designed to work in.

  18. Tests of an alternate mobile transporter and extravehicular activity assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Watson, Judith J.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Wallsom, Richard E.; Phelps, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a ground test program of an alternate mobile transporter (MT) concept and extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) truss keel. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss beam consisting of 44 2-in-diameter struts and 16 nodes was assembled repeatedly in neutral buoyancy by pairs of pressure-suited test subjects working from astronaut positioning devices (APD's) on the MT. The truss bays were cubic with edges 15 ft long. All the truss joint hardware was found to be EVA compatible. The average unit assembly time for a single pair of experienced test subjects was 27.6 sec/strut, which is about half the time derived from other SSF truss assembly tests. A concept for integration of utility trays during truss assembly is introduced and demonstrated in the assembly tests. The concept, which requires minimal EVA handling of the trays, is shown to have little impact on overall assembly time. The results of these tests indicate that by using an MT equipped with APD's, rapid EVA assembly of a space station-size truss structure can be expected.

  19. Extravehicular Mobility Unit Penetration Probability from Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris: Revised Analytical Model and Potential Space Suit Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Thomas D.; Splawn, Keith; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection ability has recently been assessed against an updated, higher threat space environment model. The new environment was analyzed in conjunction with a revised EMU solid model using a NASA computer code. Results showed that the EMU exceeds the required mathematical Probability of having No Penetrations (PNP) of any suit pressure bladder over the remaining life of the program (2,700 projected hours of 2 person spacewalks). The success probability was calculated to be 0.94, versus a requirement of >0.91, for the current spacesuit s outer protective garment. In parallel to the probability assessment, potential improvements to the current spacesuit s outer protective garment were built and impact tested. A NASA light gas gun was used to launch projectiles at test items, at speeds of approximately 7 km per second. Test results showed that substantial garment improvements could be made, with mild material enhancements and moderate assembly development. The spacesuit s PNP would improve marginally with the tested enhancements, if they were available for immediate incorporation. This paper discusses the results of the model assessment process and test program. These findings add confidence to the continued use of the existing NASA EMU during International Space Station (ISS) assembly and Shuttle Operations. They provide a viable avenue for improved hypervelocity impact protection for the EMU, or for future space suits.

  20. Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU): Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery (A/L CLR) Hardware - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Rector, tony; Gazda, Daniel; Lewis, John

    2009-01-01

    An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. Conservative schedules for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. The examination of postflight samples and EMU hardware in November of 2006 indicated that the A/L CLR kits were functioning well and had excess capacity that would allow a relaxation of the initially conservative schedules of use and component life. A relaxed use schedule and list of component lives was implemented thereafter. Since the adoption of the relaxed A/L CLR schedules of use and component lives, several A/L CLR kit components, transport loop water samples and sensitive EMU transport loop components have been examined to gage the impact of the relaxed requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize the findings of that evaluation, and to outline updated schedules for A/L CLR use and component life.

  1. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  2. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Integration with the ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margiott, Victoria; Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA has developed a Solid Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) to provide cooling for the next generation spacesuit. The current spacesuit team has looked at this technology from the standpoint of using the ISS EMU to demonstrate the SWME technology while EVA, and from the standpoint of augmenting EMU cooling in the case of a fouled EMU cooling system. One approach to increasing the TRL of the system is to incorporate this hardware with the existing EMU. Several integration issues were addressed to support a potential demonstration of the SWME with the existing EMU. Systems analysis was performed to assess the capability of the SWME to maintain crewmember cooling and comfort as a replacement for sublimation. The materials of the SWME were reviewed to address compatibility with the EMU. Conceptual system placement and integration with the EMU via an EVA umbilical system to ensure crew mobility and Airlock egress were performed. A concept of operation for EVA use was identified that is compatible with the existing system. This concept is extensible as a means to provide cooling for the existing EMU. The cooling system of one of the EMUs on orbit has degraded, with the root cause undetermined. Should there be a common cause resident on ISS, this integration could provide a means to recover cooling capability for EMUs on orbit.

  3. Continued Advancement of Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has historically performed very well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Therefore, the size and weight of the unit would have to be increased to extend EVA times. Consequently, new CO2 control technologies must be developed in order to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA; however, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A much simpler approach is to employ a membrane that vents CO2 to space and retains oxygen (O2). A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no limit on capacity, it requires no consumables, and it does not need any hardware to switch beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have the needed selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over O2. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. achieved the required CO2 permeance and selectivity with an SLM in a flat sheet configuration. This paper describes work to convert the SLM into a more compact form and to scale it up to handle more representative process flow rates.

  4. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application. 1 President

  5. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application.

  6. Regenerable thermal control and carbon dioxide control techniques for use in advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Copeland, R. J.; Nebbon, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    The most promising closed CO2 control concept identified by this study is the solid pellet, Mg(OH2)2 system. Two promising approaches to closed thermal control were identified. The AHS system uses modular fusible heat sinks, with a contingency evaporative mode, to allow maximum EVA mobility. The AHS/refrigerator top-off subsystem requires an umbilical to minimize expendables, but less EVA time is used to operate the system, since there is no requirement to change modules. Both of these subsystems are thought to be practical solutions to the problem of providing closed heat rejection for an EVA system.

  7. Continued Development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) System for Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papale, William; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Jeng, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Development activities related to the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Humidity control system have progressed to the point of integrating the RCA into an advanced Primary Life Support System (PLSS 2.0) to evaluate the interaction of the RCA among other PLSS components in a ground test environment. The RCA 2.0 assembly (integrated into PLSS 2.0) consists of a valve assembly with commercial actuator motor, a sorbent canister, and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based process node controller. Continued design and development activities for RCA 3.0 have been aimed at optimizing the canister size and incorporating greater fidelity in the valve actuator motor and valve position feedback design. Further, the RCA process node controller is envisioned to incorporate a higher degree of functionality to support a distributed PLSS control architecture. This paper will describe the progression of technology readiness levels of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 along with a review of the design and manufacturing successes and challenges for 2.0 and 3.0 units. The anticipated interfaces and interactions with the PLSS 2.0/2.5/3.0 assemblies will also be discussed.

  8. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity on the International Space Station for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet, the supply of extremely high quality water required for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit cooling on the International Space Station (ISS) will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. One proposed solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semipermeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins, a special class of transmembrane proteins that facilitate passive, selective transport of water in vivo. The specificity of aquaporins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and it is this novel property that invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically those onboard the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are also currently being developed for use in terrestrial filtration systems.

  9. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance Time in the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter,David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, robert; Zande, Chris Vande

    2012-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR - Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post- Shuttle 6-year service life.

  10. Advanced Networks in Motion Mobile Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced mobile networking technology applicable to mobile sensor platforms was developed, deployed and demonstrated. A two-tier sensorweb design was developed. The first tier utilized mobile network technology to provide mobility. The second tier, which sits above the first tier, utilizes 6LowPAN (Internet Protocol version 6 Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks) sensors. The entire network was IPv6 enabled. Successful mobile sensorweb system field tests took place in late August and early September of 2009. The entire network utilized IPv6 and was monitored and controlled using a remote Web browser via IPv6 technology. This paper describes the mobile networking and 6LowPAN sensorweb design, implementation, deployment and testing as well as wireless systems and network monitoring software developed to support testing and validation.

  11. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  12. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  13. Advanced Mobility Handover for Mobile IPv6 Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches. PMID:25614890

  14. Advanced mobility handover for mobile IPv6 based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.

  15. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  16. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  17. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  18. Advanced communications payload for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, S. A.; Kwan, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced satellite payload is proposed for single hop linking of mobile terminals of all classes as well as Very Small Aperture Terminal's (VSAT's). It relies on an intensive use of communications on-board processing and beam hopping for efficient link design to maximize capacity and a large satellite antenna aperture and high satellite transmitter power to minimize the cost of the ground terminals. Intersatellite links are used to improve the link quality and for high capacity relay. Power budgets are presented for links between the satellite and mobile, VSAT, and hub terminals. Defeating the effects of shadowing and fading requires the use of differentially coherent demodulation, concatenated forward error correction coding, and interleaving, all on a single link basis.

  19. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  20. Extravehicular Space Suit Bearing Technology Development Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yan; Liu, Xiangyang; Guanghui, Xie

    2017-03-01

    Pressure bearing has been acting an important role in the EVA (extravehicular activity) suit as a main mobility component. EVA suit bearing has its unique traits on the material, dustproof design, seal, interface, lubrication, load and performance. This paper states the peculiarity and development of the pressure bearing on the construction design element, load and failure mode, and performance and test from the point view of structure design. The status and effect of EVA suit pressure bearing is introduced in the paper. This analysis method can provide reference value for our country’s EVA suit pressure bearing design and development.

  1. Advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun S.; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2004-10-01

    Intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths to accomplish a variety of tasks. Such machines have many potential useful applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home so that the design of such machines is a challenge with great potential rewards. Even though intelligent systems may have symbiotic closure that permits them to make a decision or take an action without external inputs, sensors such as vision permit sensing of the environment and permit precise adaptation to changes. Sensing and adaptation define a reactive system. However, in many applications some form of learning is also desirable or perhaps even required. A further level of intelligence called understanding may involve not only sensing, adaptation and learning but also creative, perceptual solutions involving models of not only the eyes and brain but also the mind. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots with examples of adaptive, creative and perceptual learning. The significance of this work is in providing a greater understanding of the applications of learning to mobile robots that could lead to important beneficial applications.

  2. Integrating advanced mobility into lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Messerschmid, Ernst

    2012-06-01

    With growing knowledge of the lunar surface environment from recent robotic missions, further assessment of human lunar infrastructures and operational aspects for surface exploration become possible. This is of particular interest for the integration of advanced mobility assets, where path planning, balanced energy provision and consumption as well as communication coverage grow in importance with the excursion distance. The existing modeling and simulation tools for the lunar surface environment have therefore been revisited and extended to incorporate aspects of mobile exploration. An extended analysis of the lunar topographic models from past and ongoing lunar orbital missions has resulted in the creation of a tool to calculate and visualize slope angles in selected lunar regions. This allows for the identification of traversable terrain with respect to the mobile system capabilities. In a next step, it is combined with the analysis of the solar illumination conditions throughout this terrain to inform system energy budgets in terms of electrical power availability and thermal control requirements. The combination of the traversability analysis together with a time distributed energy budget assessment then allows for a path planning and optimization for long range lunar surface mobility assets, including manned excursions as well as un-crewed relocation activities. The above mentioned tools are used for a conceptual analysis of the international lunar reference architecture, developed in the frame of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG) of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). Its systems capabilities are evaluated together with the planned surface exploration range and paths in order to analyze feasibility of the architecture and to identify potential areas of optimization with respect to time-based and location-based integration of activities.

  3. Metabolic cost of extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The data on metabolic rates during Skylab extravehicular activities are presented and compared with prior experience during Gemini and Apollo. Difficulties experienced with Gemini extravehicular activities are reviewed. The effect of a pressure suit on metabolic rate is discussed and the life support equipment capabilities of each life support system are reviewed. The methods used to measure metabolic rate, utilizing bioinstrumentation and operational data on the life support system, are described. Metabolic rates are correlated with different activities. Metabolic rates in Skylab were found to be within the capacities of the life support systems and to be similar to the metabolic rates experienced during Apollo lunar 1/6-g extravehicular activities. They were found to range from 100 kcal/h to 500 kcal/h, during both 1/6-g and zero-g extravehicular activities. The average metabolic rates measured during long extravehicular activities were remarkably consistent and appeared to be a function of crew pacing of activity rather than to the effort involved in individual tasks.

  4. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  5. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  6. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; McBarron, James W.; Severin, Guy I.

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronautics initialed in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mothercraft of different combinations arc discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  7. The advanced use of mobile phones in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, Leopoldina; Taipale, Sakari

    2014-06-01

    The paper explores the advanced users of mobile phones in Italy, France, Germany, Spain and the UK (EU5 countries) and aims to clarify the social meaning of advanced use. The mobile phone is seen as a strategic tool of social labour, whose capabilities are exploited to a different extent in the five studied countries. The analysis is based on a cross-national survey data collected in 2009 (N = 7,255). First, the results show that there are substantial differences in the advanced use of mobile phone and its predictors in Europe. Generally, only about one third of the studied mobile features are exploited. British and French people are the most advanced users, followed by German, Spanish and Italians. While Italians have stuck to early developed mobile phone features, Britons especially have continued to adopt the newer properties of the mobile phone. Second, the article shows that owing to the extensive under-utilization of its features, the mobile phone as a tool of social labour is efficiently exploited by only a small number of people. They, however, constitute technological vanguards that make use of the diverse features in different countries. This limited use of advanced features results in the new patterns of social stratification.

  8. Advanced Communications Technology: Mobile Communications Requirements Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    The Coast Guard's mobile communications requirements will outstrip existing system capabilities, available capacity, and affordability by the late 1990s. This will require changes in the mix of mobile communications equipment and services used by operational units. New commercial mobile satellite services are available now, with many others arriving on the market between 1998 and 2003. These new services present unique opportunities to satisfy mission requirements, reduce investment in communications infrastructure, and realize more costeffective communications services. The Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) has undertaken an effort to identify and evaluate current and emerging satellite services that may be used to satisfy Coast Guard mobile communications requirements. As part of this effort, Anteon Corporation has been tasked by R&DC to collect the mobile communications functional requirements that have been identified by program managers. Anteon analysts have reviewed the Government Furnished Information (GFI) and researched other related documentation to identify and collect the requirements that may be used to describe the needed operating environment. Anteon analysts assessed the functional requirements to develop system requirements that describe the features that a communications system must provide to support the functional requirements. This report presents the current and projected Coast Guard mobile communications system requirements.

  9. Antenna technology for advanced mobile communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rammos, Emmanuel; Roederer, Antoine; Rogard, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The onboard antenna front end is the key subsystem conditioning configuration and performance of mobile communication satellites. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate this key role and to review L-band satellite antenna technology for earth coverage and regional applications. Multibeam arrays are first discussed, then unfurlable and inflatable reflector antennas are described. These technologies are now qualified in Europe for future mobile systems, for which the optimum choice of antenna technology has been found to be the key to efficient use of spectrum and power resources.

  10. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Training: Mobile Learning Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukich, John C.; Ackerman, Amanda A.

    2010-01-01

    Across Colorado, manufacturing employers forecast an on-going need not only for workers who are interested in career opportunities but who are prepared to enter the advanced manufacturing industry with the necessary high-tech skills. Additionally, employers report concerns about replacing retiring workers that take with them decades of…

  12. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001

  13. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller--advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)--that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot.

  14. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  15. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  16. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  17. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  18. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  19. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  20. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the subsystem studies are presented. Initial identification and evaluation of candidate subsystem concepts in the area of thermal control, humidity control, CO2 control/O2 supply, contaminant control and power supply are discussed. The candidate concepts that were judged to be obviously noncompetitive were deleted from further consideration and the remaining candidate concepts were carried into the go/no go evaluation. A detailed parametric analysis of each of the thermal/humidity control and CO2 control/O2 supply subsystem concepts which passed the go/no go evaluation is described. Based upon the results of the parametric analyses, primary and secondary evaluations of the remaining candidate concepts were conducted. These results and the subsystem recommendations emanating from these results are discussed. In addition, the parametric analyses of the recommended subsystem concepts were updated to reflect the final AEPS specification requirements. A detailed discussion regarding the selection of the AEPS operating pressure level is presented.

  1. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  2. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

  3. LTE-advanced MIMO uplink for mobile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhasson, Bader; Li, Xin; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.

    2010-08-01

    By increasing multimedia communications, mobile communications are expected to reliably support high data rate transmissions. To provide higher peak rate at a better system efficiency, which is necessary to support broadband data services over Wireless links, we need to employ long term evolution Advanced (LTE-A) Multiple-input multiple-output MIMO uplink. The outline of this paper is to investigate and discuss the Long Term Evolution (LTE) for broadband wireless technologies and to discuss its functionality. We explore how LTE uses the inter-technology mobility to support a variety of access technology. This paper investigates the channel capacity and bit error rate of MIMO-OFDM system. In addition, it introduces various MIMO technologies employed in LTE and provide a brief overview on the MIMO technologies currently discussed in the LTE-Advanced forum.

  4. A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity

  5. Using advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, G.; Birchmore, F.; Biagtan Pacis, E.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    The Technology Transfer project employs a spiral development process to enhance the functionality and autonomy of mobile robot systems in the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) Robotic Systems Pool by converging existing component technologies onto a transition platform for optimization. An example of this approach is the implementation of advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots. We demonstrate the implementation and testing of the following two algorithms useful on mobile robots: 1) object classification using a boosted Cascade of classifiers trained with the Adaboost training algorithm, and 2) human presence detection from a moving platform. Object classification is performed with an Adaboost training system developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Computer Vision Lab. This classification algorithm has been used to successfully detect the license plates of automobiles in motion in real-time. While working towards a solution to increase the robustness of this system to perform generic object recognition, this paper demonstrates an extension to this application by detecting soda cans in a cluttered indoor environment. The human presence detection from a moving platform system uses a data fusion algorithm which combines results from a scanning laser and a thermal imager. The system is able to detect the presence of humans while both the humans and the robot are moving simultaneously. In both systems, the two aforementioned algorithms were implemented on embedded hardware and optimized for use in real-time. Test results are shown for a variety of environments.

  6. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  7. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  8. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  9. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  10. Advanced Spacesuit Informatics Software Design for Power, Avionics and Software Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    A description of the software design for the 2016 edition of the Informatics computer assembly of the NASAs Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU), also called the Advanced Spacesuit. The Informatics system is an optional part of the spacesuit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and warning information. It also provides an interface to the suit mounted camera for recording still images, video, and audio field notes.

  11. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, James H.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J; Campbell, Joseph L

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  12. Using advanced mobile devices in nursing practice--the views of nurses and nursing students.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Pauline; Petersson, Göran; Saveman, Britt-Inger; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2014-09-01

    Advanced mobile devices allow registered nurses and nursing students to keep up-to-date with expanding health-related knowledge but are rarely used in nursing in Sweden. This study aims at describing registered nurses' and nursing students' views regarding the use of advanced mobile devices in nursing practice. A cross-sectional study was completed in 2012; a total of 398 participants replied to a questionnaire, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that the majority of the participants regarded an advanced mobile device to be useful, giving access to necessary information and also being useful in making notes, planning their work and saving time. Furthermore, the advanced mobile device was regarded to improve patient safety and the quality of care and to increase confidence. In order to continuously improve the safety and quality of health care, advanced mobile devices adjusted for nursing practice should be further developed, implemented and evaluated in research.

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  14. Metabolic responses to simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Rendon, Lisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic control of the liquid cooling garment (LCG) worn by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) would more efficiently regulate astronaut thermal comfort and improve astronaut productivity. An experiment was conducted in which subjects performed exercise profiles on a unique, supine upper body ergometer to elicit physiological and thermal responses similar to those achieved during zero-g EVAs. Results were analyzed to quantify metabolic rate, various body temperatures, and other heat balance parameters. Such data may lead to development of a microprocessor-based system to automatically maintain astronaut heat balance during extended EVAs.

  15. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  16. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  17. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  18. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  19. Advanced mobile satellite communications using COMETS satellite in MM-wave and Ka-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Isobe, Shunkichi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Naito, Hideyuki

    1993-01-01

    Early in the 21st century, the demand for personal communications using mobile, hand-held, and VSAT terminals will rapidly increase. In a future system, many different types of services should be provided with one-hop connection. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has studied a future advanced mobile satellite communications system using millimeter wave and Ka band. In 1990, CRL started the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) project. The satellite has been developed in conjunction with NASDA and will be launched in 1997. This paper describes the COMETS payload configuration and the experimental system for the advanced mobile communications mission.

  20. Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  1. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  2. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  3. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  4. Advancing Higher Education with Mobile Learning Technologies: Cases, Trends, and Inquiry-Based Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared, Ed.; Maxfield, Marian B., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advancements in technology are creating new opportunities for educators to enhance their classroom techniques with digital learning resources. Once used solely outside of the classroom, smartphones, tablets, and e-readers are becoming common in many school settings. "Advancing Higher Education with Mobile Learning Technologies: Cases,…

  5. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  6. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  7. Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) study program. Volume 2: Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The construction portion of the Extravehicular Crewman Work System Study defines the requirements and selects the concepts for the crewman work system required to support the construction of large structures in space.

  8. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  9. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  10. Advanced multiple access concepts in mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananasso, Fulvio

    1990-01-01

    Some multiple access strategies for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) are discussed. These strategies were investigated in the context of three separate studies conducted for the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Satellite-Switched Frequency Division Multiple Access (SS-FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency-Addressable Beam architectures are addressed, discussing both system and technology aspects and outlining advantages and drawbacks of either solution with associated relevant hardware issues. An attempt is made to compare the considered option from the standpoint of user terminal/space segment complexity, synchronization requirements, spectral efficiency, and interference rejection.

  11. Biomedical Support of U.S. Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Dervay, J. P.; Gillis, D.; McMann, H. J.; Thomas, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    rates of 1000 BTU/hr and peaks of up to 2200 BTU/hr. Mobility was further augmented with the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Apollo extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) was made up of over 15 components, ranging from a biomedical belt for capturing and transmitting biomedical data, urine and fecal containment systems, a liquid cooling garment, communications cap, a modular portable life support system (PLSS), a boot system, thermal overgloves, and a bubble helmet with eye protection. Apollo lunar astronauts performed successful EVAs on the lunar surface from a 5 psia (34.4 kPa) 100% oxygen environment in the Lunar Lander. A maximum of three EVAs were performed on any mission. For Skylab a modified A7LB suit, used for Apollo 15, was selected. The Skylab astronaut life support assembly (ALSA) provided umbilical support through the life support umbilical (LSU) and used open loop oxygen flow, rather than closed-loop as in Apollo missions. Thermal control was provided by liquid water circulated by spacecraft pumps and electrical power also was provided from the spacecraft via the umbilical. The cabin atmosphere of 5 psia (34.4 kPa), 70% oxygen, provided a normoxic atmosphere and because of the very low nitrogen partial pressures, no special protocols were required to protect against decompression sickness (DCS) as was the case with the Apollo spacecraft with a 5 psi, 100% oxygen environment.

  12. Miniaturized Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a low-volume, low-mass free-flying camera system . AERCam project team personnel recently initiated development of a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam. The Mini AERCam target design is a spherical "nanosatellite" free-flyer 7.5 inches in diameter and weighing 1 0 pounds. Mini AERCam is building on the success of the AERCam Sprint STS-87 flight experiment by adding new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving enhanced capability in a smaller package depends on applying miniaturization technology across virtually all subsystems. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion system , rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides beneficial on-orbit views unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by EVA crewmembers.

  13. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Osipov YuYu; Spichkov, A N; Filipenkov, S N

    1998-01-01

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha' (ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  14. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  15. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  16. Evaluation of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility using advanced biomechanical methods.

    PubMed

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Graf, Adam; Krzak, Joseph J; Reiners, Kathryn; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    There is minimal research of upper extremity joint dynamics during pediatric wheelchair mobility despite the large number of children using manual wheelchairs. Special concern arises with the pediatric population, particularly in regard to the longer duration of wheelchair use, joint integrity, participation and community integration, and transitional care into adulthood. This study seeks to provide evaluation methods for characterizing the biomechanics of wheelchair use by children with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twelve subjects with SCI underwent motion analysis while they propelled their wheelchair at a self-selected speed and propulsion pattern. Upper extremity joint kinematics, forces, and moments were computed using inverse dynamics methods with our custom model. The glenohumeral joint displayed the largest average range of motion (ROM) at 47.1° in the sagittal plane and the largest average superiorly and anteriorly directed joint forces of 6.1% BW and 6.5% BW, respectively. The largest joint moments were 1.4% body weight times height (BW × H) of elbow flexion and 1.2% BW × H of glenohumeral joint extension. Pediatric manual wheelchair users demonstrating these high joint demands may be at risk for pain and upper limb injuries. These evaluation methods may be a useful tool for clinicians and therapists for pediatric wheelchair prescription and training.

  17. A system architecture for an advanced Canadian wideband mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takats, P.; Keelty, M.; Moody, H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the system architecture for an advanced Canadian ka-band geostationary mobile satellite system is described, utilizing hopping spot beams to support a 256 kbps wideband service for both N-ISDN and packet-switched interconnectivity to small briefcase-size portable and mobile terminals. An assessment is given of the technical feasibility of the satellite payload and terminal design in the post year 2000 timeframe. The satellite payload includes regeneration and on-board switching to permit single hop interconnectivity between mobile terminals. The mobile terminal requires antenna tracking and platform stabilization to ensure acquisition of the satellite signal. The potential user applications targeted for this wideband service includes: home-office, multimedia, desk-top (PC) videoconferencing, digital audio broadcasting, single and multi-user personal communications.

  18. Apollo experience report: Assessment of metabolic expenditures. [extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Hawkins, W. R.; Humbert, G. F.; Nelson, L. J.; Vogel, S. J.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A significant effort was made to assess the metabolic expenditure for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. After evaluation of the real-time data available to the flight controller during extravehicular activity, three independent methods of metabolic assessment were chosen based on the relationship between heart rate and metabolic production, between oxygen consumption and metabolic production, and between the thermodynamics of the liquid-cooled garment and metabolic production. The metabolic assessment procedure is analyzed and discussed. Real-time use of this information by the Apollo flight surgeon is discussed. Results and analyses of the Apollo missions and comments concerning future applications are included.

  19. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  20. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  1. Mobile patient applications within diabetes - from few and easy to advanced functionalities.

    PubMed

    Årsand, Eirik; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Hejlesen, Ole; Horsch, Alexander; Godtliebsen, Fred; Grøttland, Astrid; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patient diaries as apps on mobile phones are becoming increasingly common, and can be a good support tool for patients who need to organize information relevant for their disease. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals and can be a tool for lifestyle changes for patients with Type 2 diabetes. The autoimmune disease Type 1 diabetes requires a more intensive management than Type 2 - thus more advanced functionalities is desirable for users. Both simple and easy-to-use and more advanced diaries have their respective benefits, depending on the target user group and intervention. In this poster we summarize main findings and experience from more than a decade of research and development in the diabetes area. Several versions of the mobile health research platform-the Few Touch Application (FTA) are presented to illustrate the different approaches and results.

  2. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  3. Advanced Mobility Testbed for Dynamic Semi-Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    a collaborative project between US Army TARDEC and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop an advanced UGV mobility testbed using JPL’s ROAMS...based parametric studies. ROAMS has been successfully used at JPL in several space mission-critical scenarios for NASA across multiple domains (cruise...vehicle autonomy simulation needs. This simulation approach has been successfully used by analysts across multiple NASA centers for a variety of problems

  4. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  5. Advanced mobile multimedia applications: using MPEG-21 and time-dependent metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sutter, Robbie; Lerouge, Sam; De Neve, Wesley; Lambert, Peter; Van de Walle, Rik

    2003-11-01

    While the price of mobile devices is dropping quickly, the set of features and capabilities of these devices is advancing very dramatically. Because of this, new mobile multimedia applications are conceivable, also thanks to the availability of high speed mobile networks like UMTS and Wireless LAN. However, creating such applications is still difficult due to the huge diversity of features and capabilities of mobile devices. Software developers also have to take into account the rigorous limitation on processing capabilities, display possibilities, and the limited battery life of these devices. On top of that, the availability of the device resources fluctuates strongly during execution of an application, directly and violently influencing the user experience, whereas equivalent fluctuations on traditional desktop PC's are far less prominent. Using new technology like MPEG-4, -7 and -21 can help application developers to overcome these problems. We have created an MPEG-21-based Video-on-Demand application optimized for mobile devices that is aware of the usage environment (i.e., user preference, device capabilities, device conditions, network status, etc.) of the client and adapts the MPEG-4 videos to it. The application is compliant with the Universal Multimedia Access framework, supports Time-Dependent Metadata, and relies on both MPEG-4 and MPEG-21 technology.

  6. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, Shunkichi; Ohmori, Shingo; Hamamoto, Naokazu; Yamamoto, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite communications system. An Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter bank and regenerative transponder are suitable for this function. The transponder configuration of an advanced mobile communications mission of the R&D Satellite for experiment is shown. High power transmitters of Ka and millimeter-wave bands, a 3x3 IF filter band and Single Channel Per Carrier/Time Division Multiplexing (SCPC/TDM) regenerative MODEMS, which will be boarded on the R&D Satellite, are being developed for the purpose of studying the feasibility of advanced mobile communications system.

  7. Advanced lytic lesion is a poor mobilization factor in peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the incidence and predictors of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization failure in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Retrospective data for 104 patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or with cyclophosphamide as mobilization regimens were analyzed. The rates of mobilization failure using two definitions of failure (< 2 × 10(6) and < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg) following the first collection attempt were 16.3 and 33.7%, respectively. Predictors of mobilization failure were evaluated using logistic regression analysis which included age, advanced osteolytic lesions, bone marrow cellularity before mobilization, platelet count, body mass index before mobilization, and mobilization method. Lytic bone lesions were assessed using a conventional skeletal survey, and advanced osteolytic lesions were defined as lytic lesions in more than three skeletal sites regardless of the number of lytic lesions. On multivariate analysis, advanced osteolytic lesions [hazard ratio (HR) = 10.95, P = 0.001] and age ≥60 years (HR = 5.45, P = 0.016) were associated with a PBSC yield < 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg, and advanced osteolytic lesions (HR = 5.08, P = 0.006), white blood cell count ≤4,000/µL before mobilization (HR = 4.72, P = 0.005), and G-CSF only mobilization (HR 10.52, P < 0.001) were associated with PBSC yield < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The data suggest that an advanced osteolytic lesion is a significant predictor of mobilization failure in MM patients.

  8. Power Subsystem for Extravehicular Activities for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has the responsibility to develop the next generation space suit power subsystem to support the Vision for Space Exploration. Various technology challenges exist in achieving extended duration missions as envisioned for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. This paper presents an overview of ongoing development efforts undertaken at the Glenn Research Center in support of power subsystem development for future extravehicular activity systems.

  9. Advances in ion mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry reveal key insights into amyloid assembly☆

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L.A.; Radford, S.E.; Ashcroft, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacing ion mobility spectrometry to mass spectrometry (IMS–MS) has enabled mass spectrometric analyses to extend into an extra dimension, providing unrivalled separation and structural characterization of lowly populated species in heterogeneous mixtures. One biological system that has benefitted significantly from such advances is that of amyloid formation. Using IMS–MS, progress has been made into identifying transiently populated monomeric and oligomeric species for a number of different amyloid systems and has led to an enhanced understanding of the mechanism by which small molecules modulate amyloid formation. This review highlights recent advances in this field, which have been accelerated by the commercial availability of IMS–MS instruments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mass spectrometry in structural biology. PMID:23063533

  10. Technology-design-manufacturing co-optimization for advanced mobile SoCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Da; Gan, Chock; Chidambaram, P. R.; Nallapadi, Giri; Zhu, John; Song, S. C.; Xu, Jeff; Yeap, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    How to maintain the Moore's Law scaling beyond the 193 immersion resolution limit is the key question semiconductor industry needs to answer in the near future. Process complexity will undoubtfully increase for 14nm node and beyond, which brings both challenges and opportunities for technology development. A vertically integrated design-technologymanufacturing co-optimization flow is desired to better address the complicated issues new process changes bring. In recent years smart mobile wireless devices have been the fastest growing consumer electronics market. Advanced mobile devices such as smartphones are complex systems with the overriding objective of providing the best userexperience value by harnessing all the technology innovations. Most critical system drivers are better system performance/power efficiency, cost effectiveness, and smaller form factors, which, in turns, drive the need of system design and solution with More-than-Moore innovations. Mobile system-on-chips (SoCs) has become the leading driver for semiconductor technology definition and manufacturing. Here we highlight how the co-optimization strategy influenced architecture, device/circuit, process technology and package, in the face of growing process cost/complexity and variability as well as design rule restrictions.

  11. Accuracy Evaluation of a Mobile Mapping System with Advanced Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, I.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Remondino, F.; Minto, S.; Orlandini, S.; Fuller, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses a methodology to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of a commercial Mobile Mapping System (MMS) with advanced statistical methods. So far, the metric potentialities of this emerging mapping technology have been studied in few papers, where generally the assumption that errors follow a normal distribution is made. In fact, this hypothesis should be carefully verified in advance, in order to test how well the Gaussian classic statistics can adapt to datasets that are usually affected by asymmetrical gross errors. The workflow adopted in this study relies on a Gaussian assessment, followed by an outlier filtering process. Finally, non-parametric statistical models are applied, in order to achieve a robust estimation of the error dispersion. Among the different MMSs available on the market, the latest solution provided by RIEGL is here tested, i.e. the VMX-450 Mobile Laser Scanning System. The test-area is the historic city centre of Trento (Italy), selected in order to assess the system performance in dealing with a challenging and historic urban scenario. Reference measures are derived from photogrammetric and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) surveys. All datasets show a large lack of symmetry that leads to the conclusion that the standard normal parameters are not adequate to assess this type of data. The use of non-normal statistics gives thus a more appropriate description of the data and yields results that meet the quoted a-priori errors.

  12. Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) study program. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) requirements for manned support of space construction and satellite service are defined. Characteristics of structures and satellites are described. Requirements for extravehicular tasks and support equipment are defined. Equipment concepts are presented and evaluated for extravehicular life support, spacesuit, and work aids. Preliminary design of recommended ECWS equipment concepts and new technology developments required for their implementation are discussed.

  13. The mobilize center: an NIH big data to knowledge center to advance human movement research and improve mobility.

    PubMed

    Ku, Joy P; Hicks, Jennifer L; Hastie, Trevor; Leskovec, Jure; Ré, Christopher; Delp, Scott L

    2015-11-01

    Regular physical activity helps prevent heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic diseases, yet a broad range of conditions impair mobility at great personal and societal cost. Vast amounts of data characterizing human movement are available from research labs, clinics, and millions of smartphones and wearable sensors, but integration and analysis of this large quantity of mobility data are extremely challenging. The authors have established the Mobilize Center (http://mobilize.stanford.edu) to harness these data to improve human mobility and help lay the foundation for using data science methods in biomedicine. The Center is organized around 4 data science research cores: biomechanical modeling, statistical learning, behavioral and social modeling, and integrative modeling. Important biomedical applications, such as osteoarthritis and weight management, will focus the development of new data science methods. By developing these new approaches, sharing data and validated software tools, and training thousands of researchers, the Mobilize Center will transform human movement research.

  14. The mobilize center: an NIH big data to knowledge center to advance human movement research and improve mobility

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Joy P; Hicks, Jennifer L; Hastie, Trevor; Leskovec, Jure; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity helps prevent heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic diseases, yet a broad range of conditions impair mobility at great personal and societal cost. Vast amounts of data characterizing human movement are available from research labs, clinics, and millions of smartphones and wearable sensors, but integration and analysis of this large quantity of mobility data are extremely challenging. The authors have established the Mobilize Center (http://mobilize.stanford.edu) to harness these data to improve human mobility and help lay the foundation for using data science methods in biomedicine. The Center is organized around 4 data science research cores: biomechanical modeling, statistical learning, behavioral and social modeling, and integrative modeling. Important biomedical applications, such as osteoarthritis and weight management, will focus the development of new data science methods. By developing these new approaches, sharing data and validated software tools, and training thousands of researchers, the Mobilize Center will transform human movement research. PMID:26272077

  15. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  16. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  17. Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document describes the method and results of the LDA EVA Neutral Buoyancy Development Test to ensure that the LDA hardware support the deployment of the cargo items from the pallet. This document includes the test objectives, flight and mockup hardware description, descriptions of procedures and data collection used in the testing, and the results of the development test at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).

  18. Advanced communication satellites worldwide - Satellites of opportunity for the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girardey, Catherine C.

    1993-01-01

    Space agencies worldwide are involved in advanced satellite communication systems. This paper presents an overview of these satellites and related technologies in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. They are geostationary satellites using high frequency bands such as K/Ka (20/30 GHz) and O-band (millimeter wave), as well as optical frequencies. The similarity of these programs demonstrate a common interest to develop large capacity satellite communication systems, and shows that closer international cooperation could be set up. The ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project discussed here is such an example. The AMT's compatibility with satellites other than ACTS has been studied, and a proposed common experiment is presented here. The Japanese Engineering Test Satellite ETS-VI has been identified as the best initial 'satellite of opportunity' for AMT in this preliminary assessment.

  19. Advancing the High Throughput Identification of Liver Fibrosis Protein Signatures Using Multiplexed Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Diamond, Deborah L.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Orton, Daniel J.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purdy, David E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Danielson, William F.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Sandoval, John D.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Simons, Brenna C.; McMahon, Brian J.; Bhattacharya, Renuka; Perkins, James D.; Carithers, Robert L.; Strom, Susan; Self, Steven; Katze, Michael G.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    Rapid diagnosis of disease states using less invasive, safer, and more clinically acceptable approaches than presently employed is an imperative goal for the field of medicine. While mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approaches have attempted to meet these objectives, challenges such as the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in clinically relevant biofluid samples coupled with the need to address human biodiversity have slowed their employment. Herein, we report on the use of a new platform that addresses these challenges by coupling technical advances in rapid gas phase multiplexed ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations [1, 2] with liquid chromatography (LC) and MS to dramatically increase measurement sensitivity and throughput, further enabling future MS-based clinical applications. An initial application of the LC-IMS-MS platform for the analysis of blood serum samples from stratified post-liver transplant patients with recurrent fibrosis progression illustrates its potential utility for disease characterization and use in personalized medicine [3, 4].

  20. Personal mobility and manipulation using robotics, artificial intelligence and advanced control.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan; Grindle, Garrett G; Wang, Hongwu

    2007-01-01

    Recent advancements of technologies, including computation, robotics, machine learning, communication, and miniaturization technologies, bring us closer to futuristic visions of compassionate intelligent devices. The missing element is a basic understanding of how to relate human functions (physiological, physical, and cognitive) to the design of intelligent devices and systems that aid and interact with people. Our stakeholder and clinician consultants identified a number of mobility barriers that have been intransigent to traditional approaches. The most important physical obstacles are stairs, steps, curbs, doorways (doors), rough/uneven surfaces, weather hazards (snow, ice), crowded/cluttered spaces, and confined spaces. Focus group participants suggested a number of ways to make interaction simpler, including natural language interfaces such as the ability to say "I want a drink", a library of high level commands (open a door, park the wheelchair, ...), and a touchscreen interface with images so the user could point and use other gestures.

  1. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  2. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  3. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  4. Advanced Tie Feature Matching for the Registration of Mobile Mapping Imaging Data and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Peter, M.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping's ability to acquire high-resolution ground data is opposing unreliable localisation capabilities of satellite-based positioning systems in urban areas. Buildings shape canyons impeding a direct line-of-sight to navigation satellites resulting in a deficiency to accurately estimate the mobile platform's position. Consequently, acquired data products' positioning quality is considerably diminished. This issue has been widely addressed in the literature and research projects. However, a consistent compliance of sub-decimetre accuracy as well as a correction of errors in height remain unsolved. We propose a novel approach to enhance Mobile Mapping (MM) image orientation based on the utilisation of highly accurate orientation parameters derived from aerial imagery. In addition to that, the diminished exterior orientation parameters of the MM platform will be utilised as they enable the application of accurate matching techniques needed to derive reliable tie information. This tie information will then be used within an adjustment solution to correct affected MM data. This paper presents an advanced feature matching procedure as a prerequisite to the aforementioned orientation update. MM data is ortho-projected to gain a higher resemblance to aerial nadir data simplifying the images' geometry for matching. By utilising MM exterior orientation parameters, search windows may be used in conjunction with a selective keypoint detection and template matching. Originating from different sensor systems, however, difficulties arise with respect to changes in illumination, radiometry and a different original perspective. To respond to these challenges for feature detection, the procedure relies on detecting keypoints in only one image. Initial tests indicate a considerable improvement in comparison to classic detector/descriptor approaches in this particular matching scenario. This method leads to a significant reduction of outliers due to the limited availability

  5. Mobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    istic and romantic emotionalism that typifies this genre. Longino, James C., et al. “A Study of World War Procurement and Industrial Mobilization...States. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1941. CARL 355.22 J72b. Written in rough prose , this World War II era document explains the

  6. Advancing Mobile Learning in Formal and Informal Settings via Mobile App Technology: Where to from Here, and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaddage, Ferial; Müller, Wolfgang; Flintoff, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief review of the framework that addressed mobile learning implementation challenges (pedagogical, technological, policy and research) that was developed by Khaddage et al. (2015) is briefly discussed, followed by possible solutions that could be deployed to tackle those challenges. A unique approach is then applied to bridge the…

  7. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  8. Physiological and technological considerations for Mars mission extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, James M.; Sedej, Melaine M.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of the suit is a function of the needs of human physiology, the ambient environment outside the suit, and the type of activity to be accomplished while in the suit. The physiological requirements that must be provided for in the Martian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit will be reviewed. The influence of the Martian environment on the EVA suit and EVA capabilities is elaborated, and the Martian environment is compared with the lunar environment. The differences that may influence the EVA design are noted. The type, nature, and duration of activities to be done in transit to Mars and on the Martian surface will be evaluated and the impact of these activities on the requirements for EVA systems will be discussed. Furthermore, the interaction between Martian surface transportation systems and EVA systems will be covered. Finally, options other than EVA will be considered such as robotics, nonanthropometric suits, and vehicles with anthropometric extremities or robotic end effectors.

  9. Study of CO2 sorbents for extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Portable life support equipment was studied for meeting the requirements of extravehicular activities. Previous studies indicate that the most promising method for performing the CO2 removal function removal function were metallic oxides and/or metallic hydroxides. Mgo, Ag2, and Zno metallic oxides and Mg(OH)2 and Zn(OH)2 metallic hydroxides were studied, by measuring sorption and regeneration properties of each material. The hydroxides of Mg and Zn were not regenerable and the zinc oxide compounds showed no stable form. A silver oxide formulation was developed which rapidly absorbs approximately 95% of its 0.19 Kg CO2 Kg oxide and has shown no sorption or structural degeneration through 22 regenerations. It is recommended that the basic formula be further developed and tested in large-scale beds under simulated conditions.

  10. STS-114 Astronauts Participate in Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. In this photograph, astronaut Soichi Noguchi, STS-114 mission specialist representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), participates in the mission's first scheduled session of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Noguchi and crew mate Stephen K. Robinson (out of frame) completed a demonstration of Shuttle thermal protection repair techniques and enhancements to the ISS's attitude control system during the successful 6 hour, 50 minute space walk.

  11. A simulation system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose A.; Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    America's next major step into space will be the construction of a permanently manned Space Station which is currently under development and scheduled for full operation in the mid-1990's. Most of the construction of the Space Station will be performed over several flights by suited crew members during an extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle. Once fully operational, EVA's will be performed from the Space Station on a routine basis to provide, among other services, maintenance and repair operations of satellites currently in Earth orbit. Both voice recognition and helmet-mounted display technologies can improve the productivity of workers in space by potentially reducing the time, risk, and cost involved in performing EVA. NASA has recognized this potential and is currently developing a voice-controlled information system for Space Station EVA. Two bench-model helmet-mounted displays and an EVA simulation program have been developed to demonstrate the functionality and practicality of the system.

  12. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  13. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  14. Advancing Ethics Frameworks and Scenario-Based Learning to Support Educational Research into Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Trish; Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Wishart, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile devices and their use for collecting and sharing data require a reconsideration of approaches taken to managing ethical concerns in the educational research context. In the mobile age, the concept of educational research extends beyond traditional understandings and contexts due to: the wide range of mobile learning research…

  15. Army Instructors’ Use of Mobile Devices in the Infantry Advanced Leaders Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    mobile devices in the classroom . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Training, Mobile Devices, Army Training, Adaptive Training, Blended Learning...either in a classroom or in a field location. This project explored the use of mobile devices to assist instructors as their role moves from... classroom technology infrastructure. Overall, instructors saw some promise for the future potential of tablet devices for instructor use, but encountered

  16. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  17. Metabolic Assessment of Suited Mobility Using Functional Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating extravehicular activity (EVA) suit mobility have typically focused on isolated joint range of motion or torque, but these techniques have little to do with how well a crewmember functionally performs in an EVA suit. To evaluate suited mobility at the system level through measuring metabolic cost (MC) of functional tasks.

  18. 41 CFR 302-10.300 - May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home? 302-10.300 Section 302-10.300 Public... Advance of Funds § 302-10.300 May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports...

  19. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  20. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Austin; Bhavsar, Sheila; Riley, Erinn; Caponetti, Gabriel; Agrawal, Devendra

    2016-10-01

    Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  1. Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

  2. Exploiting orbital effects for short-range extravehicular transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    1993-01-01

    The problem studied in this paper is that of using Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) to carry out efficient short-range transfers from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the vicinity of the underside of the vehicle, for instance for inspection and repair of thermal tiles or umbilical doors. Trajectories are shown to exist, for the shuttle flying noise forward and belly down, that take the astronaut to the vicinity of the underside with no thrusting after the initial push-off. However, these trajectories are too slow to be of practical interest, as they take roughly an hour to execute. Additionally, they are quite sensitive to errors in the initial push-off rates. To overcome both of these difficulties, trajectories are then studied which include a single in-flight impulse of small magnitude ( in the range 0.1 - 0.4 fps). For operational simplicity, this impulse is applied towards the Orbiter at the moment when the line-of -sight of the EVA crewmember is tangential to the underside of the vehicle. These trajectories are considerably faster than the non-impulsive ones: transit times of less than 10 minutes are achievable. Furthermore, the man-in-the-loop feedback scheme used for impulse timing greatly reduces the sensitivity to initial velocity errors. Finally, similar one-impulse trajectories are also shown to exist for the Orbiter in a gravity-gradient attitiude.

  3. A human factors evaluation of Extravehicular Activity gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1989-01-01

    One of the major problems faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human-hand capabilities. NASA has sponsored a program to develop a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six performance domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each performance domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand, an EVA glove without pressure, an EVA glove at operation pressure. Thus, the differential effect on performance of the glove with and without pressure was tested. Bare hand performance was used to 'calibrate' the effects. Ten subjects participated in the test setup as a repeated-measures experimental design. The paper will report the results of the test program.

  4. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Reports for The Risk of Decompression Sickness (from here on referred to as the 2014 DCS Evidence Report) and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (from here on referred to as the 2014 EVA Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plans for these Risks. The SRP appreciated the time and effort that the DCS and EVA disciplines put into their review documents and presentations. The SRP felt that the 2014 DCS Evidence Report and the 2014 EVA Evidence Reports were very thorough and addressed the majority of the known DCS and EVA issues. The researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have the knowledge base to deal with the DCS and EVA issues. Overall, the SRP thinks the DCS and EVA research teams have compiled excellent reports which address the majority of the literature and background information.

  5. Integrated model of G189A and Aspen-plus for the transient modeling of extravehicular activity atmospheric control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matthew; Conger, Bruce C.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized modeling tool, under development for the transient modeling of an extravehicular activity atmospheric control subsystem is described. This subsystem includes the astronaut, temperature control, moisture control, CO2 removal, and oxygen make-up components. Trade studies evaluating competing components and subsystems to guide the selection and development of hardware for lunar and Martian missions will use this modeling tool. The integrated modeling tool uses the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) to accomplish pseudosteady-state simulations, and the general environmental thermal control and life support program (G189A) to manage overall control of the run and transient input output, as well as transient modeling computations and database functions. Flow charts and flow diagrams are included.

  6. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  7. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Mahon, Richard; Klaus, David; Neuman, Tom; Pilmanis, Andrew; Regis, David

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the Research Plans for The Risk of Decompression Sickness and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations, as well as the Evidence Reports for both of these Risks. The SRP found that the NASA DCS/EVA team did an excellent job of presenting their research plans. The SRP considers it critical that NASA proceeds with the high priority tasks identified in this report (DCS1, DCS3, DCS5). The highest priority is to determine the acceptable DCS and hypoxia risk associated with the planned human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The risk of DCS is highly dependent upon the pressure within the exploration vehicle. If slightly more hypoxia is permitted then (even with the same percentage of oxygen) the pressure within the exploration vehicle can be lowered thus further mitigating the risk of DCS. The second highest priority is to test and validate the recommended 8.2psi/34% O2 atmosphere. Development of procedures and equipment for human exploration missions are very limited until the results of this testing are completed. The SRP also suggests that DCS7 be separated into two Gaps. Gap DCS7 should deal with DCS treatment while a new Gap should be created to deal with the long-term effects of DCS. The SRP also encourages NASA to increase collaboration with other organizations and pool resources where possible. The current NASA DCS/EVA team has the extensive expertise and a wealth of knowledge in this area. The SRP suggests that increased manpower for this team would be highly productive.

  8. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Oxygen Regulator Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt R.; Watts, Carly

    2011-01-01

    The advanced spacesuit portable life support system (PLSS) oxygen regulators represent an evolutionary approach to regulator development. Several technology development prototypes have been produced that borrow much of the mechanical regulator design from the well proven Shuttle/ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Secondary Oxygen Regulator, but incorporate a motor-settable pressure set-point feature that facilitates significantly greater operational flexibility. For example, this technology would enable EVA to begin at a higher suit pressure, which would reduce pre-breathe time, and then slowly step down to a lower pressure to increase suit mobility for the duration of the EVA. Comprehensive testing of the prototypes was performed on the component level as well as part of the PLSS 1.0 system level testing. Results from these tests characterize individual prototype performance and demonstrate successful operation during multiple nominal and contingency EVA modes

  9. Advancing Ambitions: The Role of Career Guidance in Supporting Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Tristram; Matheson, Jesse; Watts, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Career guidance describes activities that support individuals in learning about education and employment, and in planning for their future lives, learning, and work. These activities contribute to social mobility, which helps people discover and access opportunities that might exist outside of their immediate networks. Changes in funding and in…

  10. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  11. Core Structure Elements Architectures to Facilitate Construction and Secure Interconnection of Mobile Services Frameworks and Advanced IAM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karantjias, Athanasios; Polemi, Nineta

    The impressing penetration rates of electronic and mobile networks provide the unique opportunity to organizations to provide advanced e/m-services, accelerating their entrance in the digital society, and strengthening their fundamental structure. Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) is an acknowledged promising technology to overcome the complexity inherent to the communication among multiple e-business actors across organizational domains. Nevertheless, the need for more privacy-aware transactions raises specific challenges that SOAs need to address, including the problems of managing identities and ensuring privacy in the e/m-environment. This article presents a targeted, user-centric scalable and federated Identity Management System (IAM), calledSecIdAM, and a mobile framework for building privacy-aware, interoperable, and secure mobile applications with respect to the way that the trust relationship among the involved entities, users and SOAs, is established. Finally, it analyzes a user-transparent m-process for obtaining an authentication and authorization token, issued from the SecIdAM as integrated in the IST European programme SWEB for the public sector.

  12. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  13. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  14. An advanced generation land mobile satellite system and its critical technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naderi, F.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design for a Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for the 1990s is presented. LMSS involves small tranceivers accessing satellites directly, with ground reception through small car-top antennas. The satellite would have a large antenna and blanket coverage areas in the UHF. The call may originate from a home, be carried by wire to a gateway, transmitted to satellite on the S-band, converted to UHF on the satellite, and transmitted to the vehicle. The system design is constrained by the number of users in an area during the busiest hours, Shuttle storage, controllability factors, and the total area served. A 55-m antenna has been selected, with 87 spot beams and two 10 MHz UHF bands in the 806-890 MHz band. A 17 dB interbeam isolation level is required, implying that sufficient sub-bands can be generated to assure 8265 total channels. The mobile satellite (MSAT) would have an 83 m mast lower segment, a 34 m upper segment, and a second, 10 m antenna made of a deployable mesh. Various antenna function modes are considered.

  15. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  16. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  17. Management of the Post-Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Hill, Terry; Wells, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The EMU incorporates two separate water circuits for the rejection of metabolic heat from the astronaut and the cooling of electrical components. The first (the Transport Water Loop) circulates in a semi-closed-loop manner and absorbs heat into a Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) warn by the astronaut. The second (the Feed Water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) with a porous plate, and that water subsequently sublimates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. Efforts are underway to streamline the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR) that is being used to periodically clean and disinfect the Transport Loop Water. Those efforts include a fine tuning of the duty cycle based on a review of prior performance data as well as an assessment of a fixed installation of this kit into the EMU backpack or within on-orbit EMU interface hardware. Furthermore, testing is being conducted to ensure compatibility between the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) effluent and the EMU Sublimator as a prelude to using the WPA effluent as influent to the EMU Feed Water loop. This work is undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  18. Management of the Post-Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Hill, Terry; Wells, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The EMU incorporates two separate water circuits for the rejection of metabolic heat from the astronaut and the cooling of electrical components. The first (the Transport Water Loop) circulates in a semi-closed-loop manner and absorbs heat into a Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) worn by the astronaut. The second (the Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) with a porous plate, and that water subsequently sublimates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. Efforts are underway to streamline the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR) that is being used to periodically clean and disinfect the Transport Loop Water. Those efforts include a fine tuning of the duty cycle based on a review of prior performance data as well as an assessment of a fixed installation of this kit into the EMU backpack, within on-orbit EMU interface hardware or as a stand-alone unit. Furthermore, testing is being conducted to ensure compatibility between the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) effluent and the EMU Sublimator as a prelude to using the WPA effluent as influent to the EMU Feed Water loop. This work is undertaken to reduce the crewtime and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a 6-year service life.

  19. A Mobile Communications Space Link Between the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Bondyopadhyay, P.; Shaw, Roland

    1994-01-01

    A communications experiment is described as a link between the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Breadboarding for this experiment has led to two items with potential for commercial application: a 1-Watt Ka-band amplifier and a Ka-band, circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Results of the hybrid Ka-band amplifier show gain at 30 dB and a saturated output power of 28.5 dBm. A second version comprised of MMIC amplifiers is discussed. Test results of the microstrip antenna subarray show a gain of approximately 13 dB and excellent circular polarization.

  20. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  1. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  2. IRLooK: an advanced mobile infrared signature measurement, data reduction, and analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukur, Tamer; Altug, Yelda; Uzunoglu, Cihan; Kilic, Kayhan; Emir, Erdem

    2007-04-01

    Infrared signature measurement capability has a key role in the electronic warfare (EW) self protection systems' development activities. In this article, the IRLooK System and its capabilities will be introduced. IRLooK is a truly innovative mobile infrared signature measurement system with all its design, manufacturing and integration accomplished by an engineering philosophy peculiar to ASELSAN. IRLooK measures the infrared signatures of military and civil platforms such as fixed/rotary wing aircrafts, tracked/wheeled vehicles and navy vessels. IRLooK has the capabilities of data acquisition, pre-processing, post-processing, analysis, storing and archiving over shortwave, mid-wave and long wave infrared spectrum by means of its high resolution radiometric sensors and highly sophisticated software analysis tools. The sensor suite of IRLooK System includes imaging and non-imaging radiometers and a spectroradiometer. Single or simultaneous multiple in-band measurements as well as high radiant intensity measurements can be performed. The system provides detailed information on the spectral, spatial and temporal infrared signature characteristics of the targets. It also determines IR Decoy characteristics. The system is equipped with a high quality field proven two-axes tracking mount to facilitate target tracking. Manual or automatic tracking is achieved by using a passive imaging tracker. The system also includes a high quality weather station and field-calibration equipment including cavity and extended area blackbodies. The units composing the system are mounted on flat-bed trailers and the complete system is designed to be transportable by large body aircraft.

  3. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  4. Using advanced dispersion models and mobile monitoring to characterize spatial patterns of ultrafine particles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwack, Leonard M.; Hanna, Steven R.; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-09-01

    In urban settings with elevated bridges, buildings, and other complex terrain, the relationship between traffic and air pollution can be highly variable and difficult to accurately characterize. Atmospheric dispersion models are often used in this context, but incorporating background concentrations and characterizing emissions at high spatiotemporal resolution is challenging, especially for ultrafine particles (UFPs). Ambient pollutant monitoring can characterize this relationship, especially when using continuous real-time monitoring. However, it is challenging to quantify local source contributions over background or to characterize spatial patterns across a neighborhood. The goal of this study is to evaluate contributions of traffic to neighborhood-scale air pollution using a combination of regression models derived from mobile UFP monitoring observations collected in Brooklyn, NY and outputs from the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model. QUIC is a dispersion model that can explicitly take into account the three-dimensional shapes of buildings. The monitoring-based regression model characterized concentration gradients from a major elevated roadway, controlling for real-time traffic volume, meteorological variables, and other local sources. QUIC was applied to simulate dispersion from this same major roadway. The relative concentration decreases with distance from the roadway estimated by the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and by QUIC were similar. Horizontal contour plots with both models demonstrated non-uniform patterns related to building configuration and source heights. We used the best-fit relationship between the monitoring-based regression model after removal of background and the QUIC outputs ( R2 = 0.80) to estimate a UFP emissions factor of 5.7 × 10 14 particles/vehicle-km, which was relatively consistent across key model assumptions. Our joint applications of novel techniques for analyzing mobile monitoring

  5. Tradespace Exploration of Distributed Propulsors for Advanced On-Demand Mobility Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Moore, Mark D.; Turnbull, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Combustion-based sources of shaft power tend to significantly penalize distributed propulsion concepts, but electric motors represent an opportunity to advance the use of integrated distributed propulsion on an aircraft. This enables use of propellers in nontraditional, non-thrust-centric applications, including wing lift augmentation, through propeller slipstream acceleration from distributed leading edge propellers, as well as wingtip cruise propulsors. Developing propellers for these applications challenges long-held constraints within propeller design, such as the notion of optimizing for maximum propulsive efficiency, or the use of constant-speed propellers for high-performance aircraft. This paper explores the design space of fixed-pitch propellers for use as (1) lift augmentation when distributed about a wing's leading edge, and (2) as fixed-pitch cruise propellers with significant thrust at reduced tip speeds for takeoff. A methodology is developed for evaluating the high-level trades for these types of propellers and is applied to the exploration of a NASA Distributed Electric Propulsion concept. The results show that the leading edge propellers have very high solidity and pitch well outside of the empirical database, and that the cruise propellers can be operated over a wide RPM range to ensure that thrust can still be produced at takeoff without the need for a pitch change mechanism. To minimize noise exposure to observers on the ground, both the leading edge and cruise propellers are designed for low tip-speed operation during takeoff, climb, and approach.

  6. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  7. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irimies, David

    2011-01-01

    EVA systems consist of a spacesuit or garment, a PLSS, a PAS system, and spacesuit interface hardware. The PAS system is responsible for providing power for the suit, communication of several types of data between the suit and other mission assets, avionics hardware to perform numerous data display and processing functions, and information systems that provide crewmembers data to perform their tasks with more autonomy and efficiency. Irimies discussed how technology development efforts have advanced the state-of-the-art in these areas and shared technology development challenges.

  8. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  9. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  10. Overexpression of receptor for advanced glycation end products and high-mobility group box 1 in human dental pulp inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tancharoen, Salunya; Tengrungsun, Tassanee; Suddhasthira, Theeralaksna; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Vechvongvan, Nuttavun; Tokuda, Masayuki; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1). RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection.

  11. Design of an advanced temporary hip prosthesis for an effective recovery of septic mobilizations: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Danti, S; Rizzo, C; Polacco, G; Cascone, M G; Giusti, P; Lisanti, M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the design and preliminary feasibility study of an advanced temporary hip prosthesis acting as an in-site drug dispensing system. An interactive device was designed to improve the recovery of bone infections compared to the mechanical spacers currently used in septic mobilizations. A commercial device was chosen and modified specifically for the purpose. First of all, the device was provided with a hydraulic multi-channel system connected via catheter to a subcutaneous valve, refillable with a drug aqueous solution from the outside. Moreover, since it allows samples of biological fluids for analyses to be drawn directly from the implantation site, this chemical dispensing system was designed to allow the course of infections to be monitored and customized therapies to be dosed. The insertion of biocompatible membranes inside the channel ends was considered essential to prevent their occlusion by fibrous tissue growth, thereby preserving the device functionality. Moreover, a biodegradable spongy ring was designed to be fixed onto the stem in distal position both to give primary stability to the implant and to act simultaneously as a scaffold for bonelike cell growth.

  12. Development of Advanced Alloys using Fullerenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J.; Wasz, M.; O'Brien, J.; Callahan, D. L.; Barrera, E. V.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced alloys using fullerenes is currently underway to produce materials for use in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). These materials will be directed toward commercial usages as they are continually developed. Fullerenes (of which the most common is C(sub 60)) are lightweight, nanometer size, hollow molecules of carbon which can be dispersed in conventional alloy systems to enhance strength and reduce weight. In this research, fullerene interaction with aluminum is investigated and a fullerene-reinforced aluminum alloy is being developed for possible use on the EMU. The samples were manufactured using standard commercial approaches including powder metallurgy and casting. Alloys have been processed having 1.3, 4.0 and 8.0 volume fractions of fullerenes. It has been observed that fullerene dispersion is related to the processing approach and that they are stable for the processing conditions used in this research. Emphasis will be given to differential thermal analysis and wavelength dispersive analysis of the processed alloys. These two techniques are particularly useful in determining the condition of the fullerenes during and after processing. Some discussion will be given as to electrical properties of fullerene-reinforced materials. Although the aluminum and other advanced alloys with fullerenes are being developed for NASA and the EMU, the properties of these materials will be of interest for commercial applications where specific Dual-Use will be given.

  13. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T. (Inventor); Gleason, Kevin J. (Inventor); Cowley, Scott W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    There is disclosed a portable life support system with a component for removal of at least one selected gas. In an embodiment, the system includes a supported liquid membrane having a first side and a second side in opposition to one another, the first side configured for disposition toward an astronaut and the second side configured for disposition toward a vacuum atmosphere. The system further includes an ionic liquid disposed between the first side and the second side of the supported liquid membrane, the ionic liquid configured for removal of at least one selected gas from a region housing the astronaut adjacent the first side of the supported liquid membrane to the vacuum atmosphere adjacent the second side of the supported liquid membrane. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

  14. Design of a Borescope for Extravehicular Non-Destructive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, Rafic

    2003-01-01

    Anomalies such as corrosion, structural damage, misalignment, cracking, stress fiactures, pitting, or wear can be detected and monitored by the aid of a borescope. A borescope requires a source of light for proper operation. Today s current lighting technology market consists of incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and other types of electric arc and electric discharge vapor lamp. Recent advances in LED technology have made LEDs viable for a number of applications, including vehicle stoplights, traffic lights, machine-vision-inspection, illumination, and street signs. LEDs promise significant reduction in power consumption compared to other sources of light. This project focused on comparing images taken by the Olympus IPLEX, using two different light sources. One of the sources is the 50-W internal metal halide lamp and the other is a 1 W LED placed at the tip of the insertion tube. Images acquired using these two light sources were quantitatively compared using their histogram, intensity profile along a line segment, and edge detection. Also, images were qualitatively compared using image registration and transformation [l]. The gray-level histogram, edge detection, image profile and image registration do not offer conclusive results. The LED light source, however, produces good images for visual inspection by an operator. Analysis using pattern recognition using Eigenfaces and Gaussian Pyramid in face recognition may be more useful.

  15. The Evolution of Extravehicular Activity Operations to Lunar Exploration Based on Operational Lessons Learned During 2009 NASA Desert RATS Field Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ernest R., Jr.; Welsh, Daren; Coan, Dave; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; McDaniel, Randall; Looper, Chris; Guirgis, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present options to evolutionary changes in several philosophical areas of extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. These areas will include single person verses team EVAs; various loss of communications scenarios (with Mission Control, between suited crew, suited crew to rover crew, and rover crew A to rover crew B); EVA termination and abort time requirements; incapacitated crew ingress time requirements; autonomous crew operations during loss of signal periods including crew decisions on EVA execution (including decision for single verses team EVA). Additionally, suggestions as to the evolution of the make-up of the EVA flight control team from the current standard will be presented. With respect to the flight control team, the major areas of EVA flight control, EVA Systems and EVA Tasks, will be reviewed, and suggested evolutions of each will be presented. Currently both areas receive real-time information, and provide immediate feedback during EVAs as well as spacesuit (extravehicular mobility unit - EMU) maintenance and servicing periods. With respect to the tasks being performed, either EMU servicing and maintenance, or the specific EVA tasks, daily revising of plans will need to be able to be smoothly implemented to account for unforeseen situations and findings. Many of the presented ideas are a result of lessons learned by the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate operations team support during the 2009 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS). It is important that the philosophy of both EVA crew operations and flight control be examined now, so that, where required, adjustments can be made to a next generation EMU and EVA equipment that will complement the anticipated needs of both the EVA flight control team and the crews.

  16. An Exploratory Study of Advancing Mobilization in the Life Insurance Industry: The Case of Taiwan's Nan Shan Life Insurance Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luarn, Pin; Lin, Tom M. Y.; Lo, Peter K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Employs a case study method, using in-depth interviews of 29 corporate managers and experts, to understand the current state of mobilization in the life insurance industry. Suggests a conceptual framework and formulates possible research propositions incorporating several variables. Suggests 10 key success factors for implementing mobilization in…

  17. 76 FR 32901 - The Provision of Fixed and Mobile Broadband Access, Educational and Other Advanced Services in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... subscriber station and base station with a typical cell radius of 3 to 10 kilometers. WiMAX can support fixed... satellite service (MSS) system with the downlink (satellite to mobile earth stations) in the 2483.5-2500 MHz... of 6 MHz or the actual emission bandwidth as defined in Sec. 27.53(m)(6). Mobile Satellite...

  18. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  19. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  20. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  1. The use of decompression to simulate the effect of extravehicular activity on human lymphocyte transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R. T.; Duncan, U.; Neale, L.; Waligora, J.; Taylor, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 35 subjects participating in a chamber study simulating extravehicular activity (EVA) conditions were studied. No significant differences in H3 thymidine uptake between pre chamber and post chamber response to any mitogens autologous plasma, or among circulating mononuclear cells by flow cytometry are observed. The studies could not identify the subjects who developed venous bubbles. Data from eight subjects suggests that acute stress associated with participating in the study augments in vitro lymphocyte proliferation. Results indicate EVA exposure does not greatly influence space-flight induced alterations in immune effector cell function.

  2. Design, development, and fabrication of extravehicular activity tools for support of the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albritton, L. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Tyler, T. R.

    1993-01-01

    Seven extravehicular activity (EVA) tools and a tool carrier have been designed and developed by MSFC in order to provide a two fault tolerant system for the transfer orbit stage (TOS) shuttle mission. The TOS is an upper stage booster for delivering payloads to orbits higher than the shuttle can achieve. Payloads are required not to endanger the shuttle even after two failures have occurred. The Airborne Support Equipment (ASE), used in restraining and deploying TOS, does not meet this criteria. The seven EVA tools designed will provide the required redundancy with no impact to the TOS hardware.

  3. Extravehicular Crewman Work System (ECWS) study program. Volume 3: Satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilde, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The satellite service portion of the Extravehicular Crewman Work System Study defines requirements and service equipment concepts for performing satellite service from the space shuttle orbiter. Both normal and contingency orbital satellite service is required. Service oriented satellite design practices are required to provide on orbit satellite service capability for the wide variety of satellites at the subsystem level. Development of additional satellite service equipment is required. The existing space transportation system provides a limited capability for performing satellite service tasks in the shuttle payload bay area.

  4. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  5. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  6. Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Richard L.; Graham, Jeffrey S.; Tyree, Kim S.; Hirsh, Robert L.; Garry, W. Brent; Semple, Abigail; Shum, Simon J. Buckingham; Shadbolt, Nigel; Rupert, Shannon M.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Agents (MA) is an advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) communications and computing system to increase astronaut self-reliance and safety, reducing dependence on continuous monitoring and advising from mission control on Earth. MA is voice controlled and provides information verbally to the astronauts through programs called "personal agents." The system partly automates the role of CapCom in Apollo-including monitoring and managing navigation, scheduling, equipment deployment, telemetry, health tracking, and scientific data collection. Data are stored automatically in a shared database in the habitat/vehicle and mirrored to a site accessible by a remote science team. The program has been developed iteratively in authentic work contexts, including six years of ethnographic observation of field geology. Analog field experiments in Utah enabled empirically discovering requirements and testing alternative technologies and protocols. We report on the 2004 system configuration, experiments, and results, in which an EVA robotic assistant (ERA) followed geologists approximately 150 m through a winding, narrow canyon. On voice command, the ERA took photographs and panoramas and was directed to serve as a relay on the wireless network.

  7. Mobility Demonstrator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-22

    Resilient Technologies (Polaris Defense) Technology: Non- Pneumatic Tire Description: Airless Tire/wheel with honeycombed shaped polymer supporting...self-adjusting track tensioners • The biggest advancement in these systems has been pneumatic external road-arm design (external suspensions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. 90 Payoff:  Enabler for silent mobility, hybridization , and export power capabilities

  8. Advanced EVA system design requirements study, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the space station advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related EVA support equipment were established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as operational, procedures and training issues were considered.

  9. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  10. Design of high pressure oxygen filter for extravehicular activity life support system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with extravehicular activity life support emergency oxygen supply subsystems has shown a large number of problems associated with particulate contamination. These problems have resulted in failures of high pressure oxygen component sealing surfaces. A high pressure oxygen filter was designed which would (a) control the particulate contamination level in the oxygen system to a five-micron glass bead rating, ten-micron absolute condition (b) withstand the dynamic shock condition resulting from the sudden opening of 8000 psi oxygen system shutoff valve. Results of the following program tasks are reported: (1) contaminant source identification tests, (2) dynamic system tests, (3) high pressure oxygen filter concept evaluation, (4) design, (5) fabrication, (6) test, and (7) application demonstration.

  11. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  12. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  13. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  14. Extravehicular activity compatibility evaluation of developmental hardware for assembly and repair of precision reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Phelps, James E.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results of tests performed in neutral buoyancy by two pressure-suited test subjects to simulate Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tasks associated with the on-orbit construction and repair of a precision reflector spacecraft. Two complete neutral buoyancy assemblies of the test article (tetrahedral truss with three attached reflector panels) were performed. Truss joint hardware, two different panel attachment hardware concepts, and a panel replacement tool were evaluated. The test subjects found the operation and size of the truss joint hardware to be acceptable. Both panel attachment concepts were found to be EVA compatible, although one concept was judged by the test subjects to be considerably easier to operate. The average time to install a panel from a position within arm's reach of the test subjects was 1 min 14 sec. The panel replacement tool was used successfully to demonstrate the removal and replacement of a damaged reflector panel in 10 min 25 sec.

  15. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  16. Freeze Tolerant Radiator for an Advanced EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Elliott, Jeannine; Weislogel, Mark

    2004-01-01

    During an Extravehicular Activity (EVA), the astronaut s metabolic heat and the heat produced by the Portable Life Support Unit (PLSS) must be rejected. This heat load is currently rejected by a sublimator, which vents up to eight pounds of water each EVA. However, for advanced space missions of the future, water venting to space needs to be minimized because resupply impacts from earth will be prohibitive. If this heat load could be radiated to space from the PLSS, which has enough surface area to radiate most of the heat, the amount of water now vented could be greatly reduced. Unfortunately, a radiator rejects heat at a relatively constant rate, but the astronauts generate a variable heat load depending on how hard they are working. Without a way to vary the heat removal rate, the astronaut would experience cold discomfort or even frostbite. A proven method allowing a radiator to be turned-down is to sequentially allow tubes that carry the heat transfer fluid to the radiator to freeze. A drawback of current freezable radiators using this method is that they are far to heavy for use on a PLSS, because they use heavy construction to prevent the tubes from bursting as they freeze and thaw. This creates the need for a large radiator to reject most of the heat but with a lightweight tube that doesn t burst as it freezes and thaws. The new freezable radiator for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has features to accommodate the expansion of the radiator fluid when it freezes, and still have the high tube to fin conductance needed to minimize the number and weight of the tubes. Radiator fluid candidates are water and a propylene glycol-water mixture. This design maintains all materials within their elastic limits so that large volume changes can be achieved without breaking the tube. This concept couples this elastic expansion with an extremely lightweight, extremely high conductivity carbon fiber fin that can carry the heat needed to thaw a frozen tube. By using

  17. Mobile computing for radiology.

    PubMed

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications.

  18. Advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds, Phase III - demonstration of BCSRHP mobile regenerator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Under Phase I of the subject contract, feasibility studies and basic engineering studies were performed for a Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery Heat Pump (BCSRBP) system to prevent pollution from small source emitters. It was determined that the cost of a complete system, including adsorbers and regeneration process, would be far too much for the small emission source in most cases. This {open_quotes}integrated{close_quotes} approach was therefore not feasible. However, it was concluded that the expensive portion of the Brayton cycle process, the regenerator, could be shared by mounting it on a trailer that could be transported to different sites to regenerate an adsorber. Under Phase II of the project a mobile regenerator (BCSRI-IP) was designed and built to serve a large number of sites. Adsorbers were designed to control emissions for a week or more between regenerations. The purpose of phase III was to demonstrate the cost effectiveness and efficiency of the shared (decoupled) BRAYSORB{reg_sign} solvent recovery system in energy use and emission control compared to other control technologies through a performance testing program at representative industrial and commercial host sites in Southern California. NUCON was the prime contractor for the demonstration portion of this project. Support and funding were received from Southern California Edison Company, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the U.S. Department of Energy in addition to the contribution by NUCON. Contractual arrangements were completed with each of the host sites and permits for both the stationary and mobile equipment were acquired. The adsorbers were installed at each host site and the appropriate interface connections were made. The mobile regenerator was transported to Southern California for the demonstration.

  19. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  20. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  1. Patients' perceptions and experiences of using a mobile phone-based advanced symptom management system (ASyMS) to monitor and manage chemotherapy related toxicity.

    PubMed

    McCann, L; Maguire, R; Miller, M; Kearney, N

    2009-03-01

    Chemotherapy forms a core component of treatment for the majority patients with cancer. Recent changes in cancer services mean patients frequently receive such treatment as outpatients and are often required to manage side effects at home without direct support from oncology health professionals. Information technology continues to develop to support patients in the community; this study evaluated the impact of a mobile phone-based advanced symptom management system (ASyMS) on chemotherapy related toxicity in patients with lung, breast or colorectal cancer. One hundred and twelve patients were randomized from seven clinical sites across the UK; 56 patients used the mobile phone to record their symptoms, sending their reports directly to the nurses at their clinical site; 56 control group patients received standard care. Health professionals were alerted about any severe or life-threatening symptoms through the development of a chemotherapy symptom risk model. Patients' perceptions of ASyMS were evaluated pre and post participation. Patients reported many benefits of using ASyMS including improved communication with health professionals, improvements in the management of their symptoms, and feeling reassured their symptoms were being monitored while at home. ASyMS has the potential to positively impact on the management of symptoms in patients receiving chemotherapy treatment.

  2. 802.16e System Profile for NASA Extra-Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Chelmins, David T.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Downey, Joseph A.; Finn, Gregory G.; Cagley, Richard E.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies an 802.16e system profile that is applicable to a lunar surface wireless network, and specifically for meeting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) data flow requirements. EVA suit communication needs are addressed. Design-driving operational scenarios are considered. These scenarios are then used to identify a configuration of the 802.16e system (system profile) that meets EVA requirements, but also aim to make the radio realizable within EVA constraints. Limitations of this system configuration are highlighted. An overview and development status is presented by Toyon Research Corporation concerning the development of an 802.16e compatible modem under NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. This modem is based on the recommended system profile developed as part of this report. Last, a path forward is outlined that presents an evolvable solution for the EVA radio system and lunar surface radio networks. This solution is based on a custom link layer, and 802.16e compliant physical layer compliant to the identified system profile, and a later progression to a fully interoperable 802.16e system.

  3. [Analysis of decompression safety during extravehicular activity of astronauts in the light of probability theory].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P; Katuntsev, V P

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of the study were comparative assessment of the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects during shirt-sleeve simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) following Russian and U.S. protocols, and analysis of causes of the difference between real and simulated EVA decompression safety. To this end, DCS risk during exposure to a sing-step decompression was estimated with an original method. According to the method, DCS incidence is determined by distribution of nucleation efficacy index (z) in the worst body tissues and its critical values (zm) as a function of initial nitrogen tension in these tissues and final ambient pressure post decompression. Gaussian distribution of z values was calculated basing on results of the DCS risk evaluation on the U.S. EVA protocol in an unsuited chamber test with various pre-breath procedures (Conkin et al., 1987). Half-time of nitrogen washout from the worst tissues was presumed to be 480 min. Calculated DCS risk during short-sleeve EVA simulation by the Russian and U.S. protocols with identical physical loading made up 19.2% and 23.4%, respectively. Effects of the working spacesuit pressure, spacesuit rigidity, metabolic rates during operations in EVA space suit, transcutaneous nitrogen exchange in the oxygen atmosphere of space suit, microgravity, analgesics, short compression due to spacesuit leak tests on the eye of EVA are discussed. Data of the study illustrate and advocate for high decompression safety of current Russian and U.S. EVA protocols.

  4. Surface extra-vehicular activity emergency scenario management: Tools, procedures, and geologically related implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zea, Luis; Diaz, Alejandro R.; Shepherd, Charles K.; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2010-07-01

    Extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) are an essential part of human space exploration, but involve inherently dangerous procedures which can put crew safety at risk during a space mission. To help mitigate this risk, astronauts' training programs spend substantial attention on preparing for surface EVA emergency scenarios. With the help of two Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) crews (61 and 65), wearing simulated spacesuits, the most important of these emergency scenarios were examined at three different types of locations that geologically and environmentally resemble lunar and Martian landscapes. These three platforms were analyzed geologically as well as topographically (utilizing a laser range finder with slope estimation capabilities and a slope determination software). Emergency scenarios were separated into four main groups: (1) suit issues, (2) general physiological, (3) attacks and (4) others. Specific tools and procedures were developed to address each scenario. The tools and processes were tested in the field under Mars-analog conditions with the suited subjects for feasibility and speed of execution.

  5. Design and control of a hand exoskeleton for use in extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, B.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    To counter problems inherent in extravehicular activities (EVA) and complex space operations, an exoskeleton, a unique adaptive structure, has been designed. The exoskeleton fits on the hand and powers the proximal and middle phalanges of the index finger, the middle finger, and the combined ring and little finger. A kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton joints was performed using the loop-closure method. This analysis determined the angular displacement and velocity relationships of the exoskeleton joints. This information was used to determine the output power of the exoskeleton. Three small DC motors (one for each finger) are used to power the exoskeleton. The motors are mounted on the forearm. Power is transferred to the exoskeleton using lead screws. The control system for the exoskeleton measures the contact force between the operator and the exoskeleton. This information is used as the input to drive the actuation system. The control system allows the motor to rotate in both directions so that the operator may close or open the exoskeleton.

  6. Results of On-Orbit Testing of an Extra-Vehicular Infrared Camera Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Cramer, K. Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss an infrared camera inspection system that has been developed to allow astronauts to demonstrate the ability to inspect reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) components on the space shuttle as part of extra-vehicular activities (EVA) while in orbit. Presented will be the performance of the EVA camera system coupled with solar heating for inspection of damaged RCC specimens and NDE standards. The data presented was acquired during space shuttle flights STS-121 and STS-115 as well during a staged EVA from the ISS. The EVA camera system was able to detect flatbottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 25% material loss. Results obtained are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory using the same camera and simulated solar heating. Data on both the time history of the specimen temperature and the ability of the inspection system to image defects due to impact will likewise be presented.

  7. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  8. Stress, Workload and Physiology Demand During Extravehicular Activity: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extravehicular activity (EVA), such as exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is essential for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration like long Mars mission. Aim: The study was planned stress, workload, and physiological demands of simulated Mars exploration. Materials and Methods: In this study, the six-person crew lived (24 hours) for 14 days during a short-term stay at the Mars Desert Research Station. The heart rates, salivary cortisol, workload, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity of the crew are measured before, during and after an EVA. Results: Data for heart rate showed the same trend as peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity, with a maximal increase to 85% of peak. The rating of subscale showed a significant increase in EVA as compared to run. Salivary cortisol levels and heart rates were increased in both groups, although significant increased of cortisol levels and heart rates more in EVA as compared to hill running crew members. Conclusion: Further study is required on large scale taken into account of limitations of this study and including other physiological and psychological parameters in Mars analog environment. PMID:22754877

  9. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  10. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  11. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  12. Computational simulation of extravehicular activity dynamics during a satellite capture attempt.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, G; Newman, D J; Robinson, S K

    2000-01-01

    A more quantitative approach to the analysis of astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks is needed because of their increasing complexity, particularly in preparation for the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station. Existing useful EVA computer analyses produce either high-resolution three-dimensional computer images based on anthropometric representations or empirically derived predictions of astronaut strength based on lean body mass and the position and velocity of body joints but do not provide multibody dynamic analysis of EVA tasks. Our physics-based methodology helps fill the current gap in quantitative analysis of astronaut EVA by providing a multisegment human model and solving the equations of motion in a high-fidelity simulation of the system dynamics. The simulation work described here improves on the realism of previous efforts by including three-dimensional astronaut motion, incorporating joint stops to account for the physiological limits of range of motion, and incorporating use of constraint forces to model interaction with objects. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the simulation is modeled on an actual EVA task, namely, the attempted capture of a spinning Intelsat VI satellite during STS-49 in May 1992. Repeated capture attempts by an EVA crewmember were unsuccessful because the capture bar could not be held in contact with the satellite long enough for the capture latches to fire and successfully retrieve the satellite.

  13. Radiation Tests of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Space Suit for the International Space Station Using Energetic Protons. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Shavers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements using silicon detectors to characterize the radiation transmitted through the EMU space suit and a human phantom have been performed using 155 and 250 MeV proton beams at LLUMC. The beams simulate radiation encountered in space, where trapped protons having kinetic energies on the order of 100 MeV are copious. Protons with 100 MeV kinetic energy and above can penetrate many centimeters of water or other light materials, so that astronauts exposed to such energetic particles will receive doses to their internal organs. This dose can be enhanced or reduced by shielding - either from the space suit or the self-shielding of the body - but minimization of the risk depends on details of the incident particle flux (in particular the energy spectrum) and on the dose responses of the various critical organs. Data were taken to characterize the beams and to calibrate the detectors using the beam in a treatment room at LLUPTF, in preparation for an experiment with the same beams incident on detectors placed in a human phantom within the EMU suit. Nuclear interactions of high-energy protons in various materials produce a small flux of highly ionizing, low-energy secondary radiation. Secondaries are of interest for their biological effects, since they cause doses and especially dose-equivalents to increase relative to the values expected simply from ionization energy loss along the Bragg curve. Because many secondaries have very short ranges, they are best measured in passive track detectors such as CR-39. The silicon detector data presented here are intended to supplement the CR-39 data in regions where silicon has greater sensitivity, in particular the portion of the LET spectrum below 5 keV/micron. The results obtained in this study suggest that optimizing the radiation shielding properties of space suits is a formidable task. The naive assumption that adding mass can reduce risk is not supported by the data, which show that reducing the dose delivered at or near the skin by low-energy particles may increase the dose delivered by energetic particles to points deeper in the body.

  14. Feasibility study of automatic control of crew comfort in the shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit. [liquid cooled garment regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulation is used to demonstrate that crewman comfort can be assured by using automatic control of the inlet temperature of the coolant into the liquid cooled garment when input to the controller consists of measurements of the garment inlet temperature and the garment outlet temperature difference. Subsequent tests using a facsimile of the control logic developed in the computer program confirmed the feasibility of such a design scheme.

  15. An aeronautical mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, T. C.; Dessouky, K. I.; Lay, N. E.

    1990-01-01

    The various activities and findings of a NASA/FAA/COMSAT/INMARSAT collaborative aeronautical mobile satellite experiment are detailed. The primary objective of the experiment was to demonstrate and evaluate an advanced digital mobile satellite terminal developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the NASA Mobile Satellite Program. The experiment was a significant milestone for NASA/JPL, since it was the first test of the mobile terminal in a true mobile satellite environment. The results were also of interest to the general mobile satellite community because of the advanced nature of the technologies employed in the terminal.

  16. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  17. Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods

    SciTech Connect

    Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

    2013-12-31

    The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

  18. An Approach for Performance Based Glove Mobility Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for exploration missions. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's Game-Changing Development Program provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Element as part of the Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) Project in the fall of 2013. The overarching goal of the HPEG Element is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability in on-pristine environments, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Element focused initial efforts on developing quantifiable and repeatable methodologies for assessing glove performance with respect to mobility, injury potential, thermal conductivity, and abrasion resistance. The team used these methodologies to establish requirements against which emerging technologies and glove designs can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The mobility performance testing methodology was an early focus for the HPEG team as it stems from collaborations between the SSA Development team and the JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) that began investigating new methods for suited mobility and fit early in the Constellation Program. The combined HPEG and ABF team used lessons learned from the previous efforts as well as additional reviews of methodologies in physical and

  19. An Approach for Performance Based Glove Mobility Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for exploration missions. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's Game-Changing Development Program provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Element as part of the Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) Project in the fall of 2013. The overarching goal of the HPEG Element is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability in on-pristine environments, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Element focused initial efforts on developing quantifiable and repeatable methodologies for assessing glove performance with respect to mobility, injury potential, thermal conductivity, and abrasion resistance. The team used these methodologies to establish requirements against which emerging technologies and glove designs can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The mobility performance testing methodology was an early focus for the HPEG team as it stems from collaborations between the SSA Development team and the JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) that began investigating new methods for suited mobility and fit early in the Constellation Program. The combined HPEG and ABF team used lessons learned from the previous efforts as well as additional reviews of methodologies in physical and

  20. Exceptional mobility of an advancing rhyolitic obsidian flow at Cordón Caulle volcano in Chile.

    PubMed

    Tuffen, Hugh; James, Mike R; Castro, Jonathan M; Schipper, C Ian

    2013-01-01

    The emplacement mechanisms of rhyolitic lava flows are enigmatic and, despite high lava viscosities and low inferred effusion rates, can result in remarkably, laterally extensive (>30 km) flow fields. Here we present the first observations of an active, extensive rhyolitic lava flow field from the 2011-2012 eruption at Cordón Caulle, Chile. We combine high-resolution four-dimensional flow front models, created using automated photo reconstruction techniques, with sequential satellite imagery. Late-stage evolution greatly extended the compound lava flow field, with localized extrusion from stalled, ~35 m-thick flow margins creating >80 breakout lobes. In January 2013, flow front advance continued ~3.6 km from the vent, despite detectable lava supply ceasing 6-8 months earlier. This illustrates how efficient thermal insulation by the lava carapace promotes prolonged within-flow horizontal lava transport, boosting the extent of the flow. The unexpected similarities with compound basaltic lava flow fields point towards a unifying model of lava emplacement.

  1. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  2. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  3. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  4. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  5. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  6. An evaluation of three-dimensional sensors for the extravehicular activity helper/retreiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever/Helper (EVAHR) is a robotic device currently under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center that is designed to fetch objects or to assist in retrieving an astronaut who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. The EVAHR will be required to exhibit a high degree of intelligent autonomous operation and will base much of its reasoning upon information obtained from one or more three-dimensional sensors that it will carry and control. At the highest level of visual cognition and reasoning, the EVAHR will be required to detect objects, recognize them, and estimate their spatial orientation and location. The recognition phase and estimation of spatial pose will depend on the ability of the vision system to reliably extract geometric features of the objects such as whether the surface topologies observed are planar or curved and the spatial relationships between the component surfaces. In order to achieve these tasks, accurate sensing of the operational environment and objects in the environment will therefore be critical. The qualitative and quantitative results of empirical studies of three sensors that are capable of providing three-dimensional information to the EVAHR, but using completely different hardware approaches are documented. The first of these devices is a phase shift laser with an effective operating range (ambiguity interval) of approximately 15 meters. The second sensor is a laser triangulation system designed to operate at much closer range and to provide higher resolution images. The third sensor is a dual camera stereo imaging system from which range images can also be obtained. The remainder of the report characterizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of these systems relative to quality of data extracted and how different object characteristics affect sensor operation.

  7. The Extravehicular Suit Impact Load Attenuation Study for Use in Astronaut Bone Fracture Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Gilkey, Kelly M.; Sulkowski, Christina M.; Samorezov, Sergey; Myers, Jerry G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fracture of the proximal femur is a traumatic injury that would likely result in loss of mission if it were to happen during spaceflight. The low gravity exposure causes decreases in bone mineral density which heightens the concern. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have quantified bone fracture probability during spaceflight with a probabilistic model. It was assumed that a pressurized extravehicular activity (EVA) suit would attenuate load during a fall, but no supporting data was available. The suit impact load attenuation study was performed to collect analogous data. METHODS: A pressurized EVA suit analog test bed was used to study how the offset, defined as the gap between the suit and the astronaut s body, impact load magnitude and suit operating pressure affects the attenuation of impact load. The attenuation data was incorporated into the probabilistic model of bone fracture as a function of these factors, replacing a load attenuation value based on commercial hip protectors. RESULTS: Load attenuation was more dependent on offset than on pressurization or load magnitude, especially at small offsets. Load attenuation factors for offsets between 0.1 - 1.5 cm were 0.69 +/- 0.15, 0.49 +/- 0.22 and 0.35 +/- 0.18 for mean impact forces of 4827, 6400 and 8467 N, respectively. Load attenuation factors for offsets of 2.8 - 5.3 cm were 0.93 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.1 and 0.84 +/- 0.5, for the same mean impact forces. Reductions were observed in the 95th percentile confidence interval of the bone fracture probability predictions. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in uncertainty and improved confidence in bone fracture predictions increased the fidelity and credibility of the fracture risk model and its benefit to mission design and operational decisions.

  8. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  9. A vision system planner for increasing the autonomy of the Extravehicular Activity Helper/Retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) is a robotic device currently being developed by the Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to support activities in the neighborhood of the Space Shuttle or Space Station Freedom. As the name implies, the Retriever's primary function will be to provide the capability to retrieve tools and equipment or other objects which have become detached from the spacecraft, but it will also be able to rescue a crew member who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. Later goals will include cooperative operations between a crew member and the Retriever such as fetching a tool that is required for servicing or maintenance operations. This paper documents a preliminary design for a Vision System Planner (VSP) for the EVAR that is capable of achieving visual objectives provided to it by a high level task planner. Typical commands which the task planner might issue to the VSP relate to object recognition, object location determination, and obstacle detection. Upon receiving a command from the task planner, the VSP then plans a sequence of actions to achieve the specified objective using a model-based reasoning approach. This sequence may involve choosing an appropriate sensor, selecting an algorithm to process the data, reorienting the sensor, adjusting the effective resolution of the image using lens zooming capability, and/or requesting the task planner to reposition the EVAR to obtain a different view of the object. An initial version of the Vision System Planner which realizes the above capabilities using simulated images has been implemented and tested. The remaining sections describe the architecture and capabilities of the VSP and its relationship to the high level task planner. In addition, typical plans that are generated to achieve visual goals for various scenarios are discussed. Specific topics to be addressed will include object search strategies, repositioning of the EVAR to improve the

  10. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a recirculating control loop which had no water quality maintenance. Results show that periodic water maintenance can improve performance of the SWME. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage of this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to enhance the robustness of the SWME through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A patented bed design that was developed for a United Technologies Aerospace System military application provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in the SWME recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for the ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  11. ACTS Mobile Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Agan, Martin J.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) and its follow-on, the Broadband Aeronautical Terminal (BAT), have provided an excellent testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications systems. An overview of both of these terminals is presented in this paper.

  12. Expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, a target for high mobility group box 1 protein, and its role in chronic recalcitrant rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Dzaman, Karolina; Szczepanski, Miroslaw J; Molinska-Glura, Marta; Krzeski, Antoni; Zagor, Mariola

    2015-06-01

    A receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been linked to several chronic diseases, and acts as a trigger for inflammation signaling. Here, we study RAGE and HMGB1 expression in chronic, recalcitrant rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) to determine its potential clinical significance, i.e., disease recurrence and severity. RAGE and HMGB1 expression in CRSwNP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells of fresh sinonasal mucosa samples obtained from the patients diagnosed with recalcitrant CRSwNP (n = 25) and normal control mucosa (NC) (n = 26). RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in tissues were correlated with disease severity assessed by nasal endoscopy, CT scan, number of previous sinus surgeries, allergy status and nasosinusal microbiology. RAGE and HMGB1 were moderately or strongly expressed in CRSwNP tissue. No or weak RAGE expression was found in NC. HMGB1 was equally strongly expressed in NC. We observed a strong correlation between RAGE and disease severity, recurrence, undergone operations, asthma and aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Elevated RAGE expression is associated with increased disease severity, as well as allergy and AERD in patients with recalcitrant CRSwNP. It is possible that the explanation for recurrent CRSwNP pathogenesis might be related to RAGE overexpression with subsequent sinus mucosa hyperproliferation, necessitating several operations.

  13. Clinical Implications of High-mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) in Cutaneous Malignancy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Austin Huy; Detty, Shannon Q; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and the immune system play a role in the development and progression of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting effects of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) have been investigated in these cutaneous malignancies. The clinical implication of these molecules is not fully described. The National Library of Medicine database was searched for articles addressing the clinical relevance of HMGB1 and RAGE in melanoma, BCC, and SCC. This systematic review includes nine articles, with six summarizing RAGE in cutaneous malignancies and three involving HMGB1. RAGE has been found to be up-regulated in SCC lesions, as well as melanoma. Levels of RAGE were highest in stage IV melanomas. Lower levels of soluble RAGE have been associated with poor overall survival in melanoma. Sporadic extracellular expression of HMGB1 was evident in BCC and SCC lesions, which could be released by necrotic tumor cells. HMGB1 was found to be a prognostic marker in melanoma, and HMGB1 levels were elevated in patients who were non-responders to ipilimumab treatment. HMGB1 and RAGE could serve as potential prognostic markers or therapeutic targets in treating melanoma, BCC, and SCC, but further research regarding the clinical utility of the HMGB1-RAGE axis in cutaneous malignancies is warranted.

  14. Clinical use of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products in the prognosis and risk stratification of heart failure: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Amanda M; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Parker, Taylor M; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that represents the end stage of heart disease and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As heart failure mortality rates remain elevated, additional biomarkers that facilitate early detection or risk stratification in HF is of particularly great interest. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) cause the activation of intracellular signaling, gene expression, and production of inflammatory cytokines and have been linked to many inflammatory disease states such as diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Few studies have investigated their role in the pathophysiology of HF and any significant correlation remains uncertain. Review of the available literature discussing HMGB1 and RAGE clinical values as independent prognostic variables in HF resulted in the inclusion of 11 studies, which enrolled a total of 2025 heart failure patients. Overall, the data suggests a statistically significant positive correlation between RAGE and HF, with increasing RAGE levels associated with increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of heart failure. HMGB1 correlations were not as extensively studied, but there is evidence that both HMGB1 and RAGE have a definite potential as biomarkers for the prognosis and risk stratification of HF patients.

  15. Association of high mobility group BOX-1 and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts with clinicopathological features of haematological malignancies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Sheila B.; Riley, Erinn M.; Caponetti, Gabriel C.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2017-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a versatile protein with nuclear and extracellular functions. In the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). The expressions of HMGB1 and RAGE have been described in a variety of cancers. However, the clinical values of HMGB1 and RAGE in haematological malignancies have yet to be evaluated. A systematic search through PubMed and the Web of Science for articles discussing the role of HMGB1 and RAGE in haematological malignancies produced 15 articles. Overexpression of HMGB1 was reported to be associated with malignancy and, in certain studies, poor prognosis and tumour aggressiveness. Only one included study investigated the clinical value of RAGE, in which no significant difference was found between expression of RAGE in CLL neoplastic cells and nonmalignant controls. The discussed associations of HMGB1 and RAGE with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with haematological malignancies warrants further investigation into the prognostic and diagnostic value of both of these molecules. PMID:28239277

  16. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  17. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  18. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  19. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  20. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture to where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publicatoin5, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra- Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the

  1. Li-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid Design for Long Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    With the need for long periods of extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the Moon or Mars or a near-asteroid, the need for long-performance batteries has increased significantly. The energy requirements for the EVA suit, as well as surface systems such as rovers, have increased significantly due to the number of applications they need to power at the same time. However, even with the best state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, it is not possible to power the suit or the rovers for the extended period of performance. Carrying a charging system along with the batteries makes it cumbersome and requires a self-contained power source for the charging system that is usually not possible. An innovative method to charge and use the Li-ion batteries for long periods seems to be necessary and hence, with the advent of the Li-ion supercapacitors, a method has been developed to extend the performance period of the Li-ion power system for future exploration applications. The Li-ion supercapacitors have a working voltage range of 3.8 to 2.5 V, and are different from a traditional supercapacitor that typically has a working voltage of 1 V. The innovation is to use this Li-ion supercapacitor to charge Liion battery systems on an as-needed basis. The supercapacitors are charged using solar arrays and have battery systems of low capacity in parallel to be able to charge any one battery system while they provide power to the application. Supercapacitors can safely take up fast charge since the electrochemical process involved is still based on charge separation rather than the intercalation process seen in Li-ion batteries, thus preventing lithium metal deposition on the anodes. The lack of intercalation and eliminating wear of the supercapacitors allows for them to be charged and discharged safely for a few tens of thousands of cycles. The Li-ion supercapacitors can be charged from the solar cells during the day during an extended EVA. The Liion battery used can be half the capacity

  2. Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

    2008-01-01

    Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation

  3. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  4. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  5. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  7. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2013-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  8. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  9. The Mobile Agents 2005 Field Test at MDRS: Planning for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maaretn; Alena, Rick; Berrios, Dan; Dowding John; Garry, Brent; Graham, Jeff; Hirsh, Rob; Rupert, Shannon; Semple, Abigail; vanHoof, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Society s Desert Research Station (MDRS) Rotation 38, April 3-17, 2005, was dedicated to field tests of NASA's Mobile Agents EVA communications system. MDRS provided an excellent, cost-effective venue for bringing together eighteen scientists and engineers from NASA Ames and Johnson Space Center, in an intensive two weeks of system integration and experiments. The Mobile Agents architecture and collaborative engineering methodology provides a flexible toolkit for configuring extravehicular activity (EVA) components, visualizing and formalizing EVA plans, and automating key supervisory functions.

  10. Advanced EMU electrochemically regenerable CO2 and moisture absorber module breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Sudar, M.; Chang, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of the Electrochemically Regenerable Carbon Dioxide and Moisture Absorption Technology to the advanced extravehicular mobility unit was demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a breadboard Absorber Module and an Electrochemical Regenerator. Test results indicated that the absorber module meets or exceeds the carbon dioxide removal requirements specified for the design and can meet the moisture removal requirement when proper cooling is provided. CO2 concentration in the vent gas stream was reduced from 0.52 to 0.027 kPa (3.9 to 0.20 mm Hg) for the full five hour test period. Vent gas dew point was reduced from inlet values of 294 K (69 F) to 278 K (41 F) at the outlet. The regeneration of expended absorbent was achieved by the electrochemical method employed in the testing. An absorbent bed using microporous hydrophobic membrane sheets with circulating absorbent is shown to be the best approach to the design of an Absorber Module based on sizing and performance. Absorber Module safety design, comparison of various absorbents and their characteristics, moisture absorption and cooling study and subsystem design and operation time-lining study were also performed.

  11. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2012-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  12. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2011-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  13. High-mobility group box 1 inhibits HCO3− absorption in medullary thick ascending limb through a basolateral receptor for advanced glycation end products pathway

    PubMed Central

    George, Thampi; Watts, Bruns A.

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecule implicated in mediating kidney dysfunction in sepsis and sterile inflammatory disorders. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly in response to infection or injury, where it interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and other receptors to mediate inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that LPS inhibits HCO3- absorption in the medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) through a basolateral TLR4-ERK pathway (Watts BA III, George T, Sherwood ER, Good DW. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301: C1296–C1306, 2011). Here, we examined whether HMGB1 could inhibit HCO3- absorption through the same pathway. Adding HMGB1 to the bath decreased HCO3− absorption by 24% in isolated, perfused rat and mouse MTALs. In contrast to LPS, inhibition by HMGB1 was preserved in MTALs from TLR4−/− mice and was unaffected by ERK inhibitors. Inhibition by HMGB1 was eliminated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antagonist FPS-ZM1 and by neutralizing anti-RAGE antibody. Confocal immunofluorescence showed expression of RAGE in the basolateral membrane domain. Inhibition of HCO3−absorption by HMGB1 through RAGE was additive to inhibition by LPS through TLR4 and to inhibition by Gram-positive bacterial molecules through TLR2. Bath amiloride, which selectively prevents inhibition of MTAL HCO3− absorption mediated through Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1), eliminated inhibition by HMGB1. We conclude that HMGB1 inhibits MTAL HCO3− absorption through a RAGE-dependent pathway distinct from TLR4-mediated inhibition by LPS. These studies provide new evidence that HMGB1-RAGE signaling acts directly to impair the transport function of renal tubules. They reveal a novel paradigm for sepsis-induced renal tubule dysfunction, whereby exogenous pathogen-associated molecules and endogenous damage-associated molecules act directly and independently to inhibit MTAL HCO3− absorption through different receptor

  14. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  15. Mobile and Prichard, Ala., Among 22 Communities Selected Nationally to Receive EPA Assistance to Advance Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Mobile and Prichard, Ala., are among 22 communities selected to receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability

  16. Centaur: A Mobile Dexterous Humanoid for Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Goza, S. Michael; Junkin, Lucien; Neuhaus, Peter D.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2005-01-01

    Future human and robotic planetary expeditions could benefit greatly from expanded Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities supporting a broad range of multiple, concurrent surface operations. Risky, expensive and complex, conventional EVAs are restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower, creating a resource management problem. A mobile, highly dexterous Extra-Vehicular Robotic (EVR) system called Centaur is proposed to cost-effectively augment human astronauts on surface excursions. The Centaur design combines a highly capable wheeled mobility platform with an anthropomorphic upper body mounted on a three degree-of-freedom waist. Able to use many ordinary handheld tools, the robot could conserve EVA hours by relieving humans of many routine inspection and maintenance chores and assisting them in more complex tasks, such as repairing other robots. As an astronaut surrogate, Centaur could take risks unacceptable to humans, respond more quickly to EVA emergencies and work much longer shifts. Though originally conceived as a system for planetary surface exploration, the Centaur concept could easily be adapted for terrestrial military applications such as de-Gig, surveillance and other hazardous duties.

  17. An aeronautical-mobile satellite experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Dessouky, Khaled I.; Lay, Norman E.

    1991-01-01

    The various activities and findings of a NASA/FAA/COMSAT/INMARSAT collaborative aeronautical mobile-satellite experiment are detailed. The primary objective of the experiment was to demonstrate and evaluate an advanced digital mobile-satellite terminal developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the NASA Mobile Satellite Program. The experiment was a significant milestone for NASA/JPL, since it was the first test of the mobile terminal in a true mobile-satellite environment. The results were also of interest to the general mobile-satellite community because of the advanced nature of the technologies employed in the terminal.

  18. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  19. Robonaut 2 - Preparing for Intra-Vehicular Mobility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia; Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Taylor, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has been undergoing experimental trials on board the International Space Station (ISS) for more than a year. This upper-body anthropomorphic robotic system shown in Figure 1 has been making steady progress after completing its initial checkout. R2 demonstrated free space motion, physically interacted with its human crew mates, manipulated interfaces on its task board and has even used its first tool. This steady growth in capability will lead R2 to its next watershed milestone. Developers are currently testing prototype robotic climbing appendages and a battery backpack in preparation of sending flight versions of both subsystems to the ISS in late 2013. Upon integration of its new components, R2 will be able to go mobile inside the space station with a twofold agenda. First, R2 will learn to maneuver in microgravity in the best possible laboratory for such a task. Second, it will start providing early payback to the ISS program by helping with intra-vehicular (IVA) maintenance tasks. The experience gained inside the ISS will be invaluable in reducing risk when R2 moves to its next stage and is deployed as an extra-vehicular (EVA) tool. Even on its current fixed base stanchion, R2 has already shown its capability of performing several maintenance tasks on the ISS. It has measured the air flow through one of the stations vents and provided previously unavailable real time flow data to ground operators. R2 has cleaned its first handrail, exciting some crew members that perhaps Saturday morning housekeeping on the station may someday become a task they can hand off to their robotic colleague. Other tasks, including using radio frequency identification (RFID) tools for inventory tasks or vacuuming air filters, have also been suggested and will be explored. Once mobile, R2 will take on these tasks and more to free up crew time for more important science and exploration pursuits. In addition to task exploration, research and testing is happening on orbit

  20. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (MiniAERCam) for Spacecraft Inspection and Remote

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Fredericksn, S.

    2004-01-01

    AERCam is a nano-satellite class free-flying spacecraft with a full suite of avionics, propulsion, navigation, and communications. 1) 3 major development programs, one ending in DTO of protoflight unit, other two ending in ground demonstrations with integrated hardware and software. 2) Incremental increase in capability to reduce crew workload, provide better inspection capability. 3) Two crew evaluations and 4) Significant technology advancement.

  1. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  2. Sustainment of Expeditionary Forces in the Pacific Theater during the Second World War: The Development of the Advanced Base and Mobile Base Programs and Their Relevance Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-19

    flood the staging areas from Pearl Harbor. As the campaign came to a close, the Navy’s challenge became the requirement to sustain the 23 mobile...b) the Hawaiian Islands; (2) Hongkong and the insular possessions which the British Empire now holds or may hereafter acquire in the Pacific Ocean

  3. The Mobile Costume Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, Cindy; Nelson, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties of costume construction for high school theater productions. Advances a plan (and provides a design) for a mobile costume shop which contains the basic needs of a functional costume facility, using only 60 square feet of space. Lists every element and implement needed. (PA)

  4. Mobility management techniques for the next-generation wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junzhao; Howie, Douglas P.; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-10-01

    The tremendous demands from social market are pushing the booming development of mobile communications faster than ever before, leading to plenty of new advanced techniques emerging. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Mobility management is an important issue in the area of mobile communications, which can be best solved at the network layer. One of the key features of the next generation wireless networks is all-IP infrastructure. This paper discusses the mobility management schemes for the next generation mobile networks through extending IP's functions with mobility support. A global hierarchical framework model for the mobility management of wireless networks is presented, in which the mobility management is divided into two complementary tasks: macro mobility and micro mobility. As the macro mobility solution, a basic principle of Mobile IP is introduced, together with the optimal schemes and the advances in IPv6. The disadvantages of the Mobile IP on solving the micro mobility problem are analyzed, on the basis of which three main proposals are discussed as the micro mobility solutions for mobile communications, including Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP), Cellular IP, and Handoff-Aware Wireless Access Internet Infrastructure (HAWAII). A unified model is also described in which the different micro mobility solutions can coexist simultaneously in mobile networks.

  5. Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program.

    PubMed

    Severin, G; Abramov, I; Svertshek, V; Stoklitsky, A

    1996-09-01

    Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

  6. Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, G.; Abramov, I.; Svertshek, V.; Stoklitsky, A.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

  7. Task network models in the prediction of workload imposed by extravehicular activities during the Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Takamoto, Neal; Woolford, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    In a joint effort with Brooks AFB, Texas, the Flight Crew Support Division at JSC has begun a computer simulation and performance modeling program directed at establishing the predictive validity of software tools for modeling human performance during spaceflight. This paper addresses the utility of task network modeling for predicting the workload that astronauts are likely to encounter in extravehicular activities (EVA) during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) repair mission. The intent of the study was to determine whether two EVA crewmembers and one intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmember could reasonably be expected to complete HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) replacement in the allotted time. Ultimately, examination of the points during HST servicing that may result in excessive workload will lead to recommendations to the HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project concerning (1) expectation of degraded performance, (2) the need to change task allocation across crewmembers, (3) the need to expand the timeline, and (4) the need to increase the number of EVA's.

  8. Design, Development and Testing of the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) Guidance, Navigation and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, J.; Fredrickson, S.; Manning, T.; Jones, B.

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA Johnson Space Center have designed, developed, and tested a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spaceflight activities. The technology demonstration system, known as the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam), has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The primary focus has been to develop a system capable of providing external views of the International Space Station. The Mini AERCam system is spherical-shaped and less than eight inches in diameter. It has a full suite of guidance, navigation, and control hardware and software, and is equipped with two digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations. Tests have been performed in both a six degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation and on an air-bearing table. The Mini AERCam system can also be used as a test platform for evaluating algorithms and relative navigation for autonomous proximity operations and docking around the Space Shuttle Orbiter or the ISS.

  9. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  10. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  11. The Impact of the DoD Mobile Code Policy on Advanced Distributed Learning, Web-Based Distance Learning and Other Educational Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-30

    agencies and 13 Learning Management System vendors. Eighteen surveys were returned, and only one-third of the respondents indicated that they used...Documenting the frequency with which mobile code is used in web- enabled courseware programming Questionnaires were distributed to learning management system courseware...web-enabled courseware was sent to points of contact at 51 DoD Academic agencies and 13 Learning Management System vendors. Eighteen surveys were

  12. Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The main task for this project was the development of a prototype for the Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio (SSAER). The SSAER is an updated version of the Space to Space EMU Radio (SSER), which is the current radio used by EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) for communication between suits and with the ISS. The SSER was developed in 1999, and it was desired to update the design used in the system. Importantly, besides replacing out-of-production parts it was necessary to decrease the size of the radio due to increased volume constraints with the updated Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.5, which will be attached on future space suits. In particular, it was desired to fabricate a PCB for the front-end of the prototype SSAER system. Once this board was manufactured and all parts assembled, it could then be tested for quality of operation as well as compliancy with the SSER required specifications. Upon arrival, a small outline of the target system was provided, and it was my responsibility to take that outline to a finished, testable board. This board would include several stages, including frequency mixing, amplification, modulation, demodulation, and handled both the transmit and receive lines of the radio. I developed a new design based on the old SSER system and the outline provided to me, and found parts to fit the tasks in my design. It was also important to consider the specifications of the SSER, which included the system noise figure, gain, and power consumption. Further, all parts needed to be impedance matched, and spurious signals needed to be avoided. In order to fulfill these two requirements, it was necessary to perform some calculations using a Smith Chart and excel analysis. Once all parts were selected, I drew the schematics for the system in Altium Designer. This included developing schematic symbols, as well as layout. Once the schematic was finished, it was then necessary to lay the parts out onto a PCB using Altium. Similar to the schematic

  13. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  14. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  15. Mobile systems; From chaos to convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R. S.

    An outline of the two most recent and significant mobile communication developments in Europe is given. These are the Global System for Mobility (GSM) and Digital European Cordless Telecoms (DECT). A summary of advanced communications research is also presented, and the topics covered include the following: Research into Advanced Communications in Europe (RACE); 3rd-generation mobile communication systems; a common unified Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS); convergence of mobile radio services; and equipment interface standardization. Finally, a brief review is given of the areas where further antenna and propagation research is needed: handset antennas, in-building propagation, and full system emulation.

  16. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  17. Satellite services system analysis study, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The background, ground rules and assumptions, individual design reference mission results and total user benefit projection for the economic benefit analysis are discussed. Radiation protection, extravehicular activity (EVA) operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effects, anthropometric definition, EVA lighting, and equipment turnaround for the advanced extravehicular maneuvering unit are also discussed.

  18. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  19. Proceedings of the Fourth International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigley, Jack R. (Compiler); Estabrook, Polly (Compiler); Reekie, D. Hugh M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The theme to the 1995 International Mobile Satellite Conference was 'Mobile Satcom Comes of Age'. The sessions included Modulation, Coding, and Multiple Access; Hybrid Networks - 1; Spacecraft Technology; propagation; Applications and Experiments - 1; Advanced System Concepts and Analysis; Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Communications; Mobile Terminal Antennas; Mobile Terminal Technology; Current and Planned Systems; Direct Broadcast Satellite; The Use of CDMA for LEO and ICO Mobile Satellite Systems; Hybrid Networks - 2; and Applications and Experiments - 2.

  20. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  1. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

  2. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; RochlisZumbado, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  3. Description and performance of a digital mobile satellite terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, N.; Jedrey, T.; Parkyn, J.; Divsalar, D.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) program at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) is the development of an advanced digital terminal for use in land mobile satellite communication. The terminal has been developed to minimize the risk of applying advanced technologies to future commercial mobile satellite systems (MSS). Testing with existing L band satellites was performed in fixed, land mobile and aeronautical mobile environments. JPL's development and tests of its mobile terminal have demonstrated the viability of narrowband digital voice communications in a land mobile environment through geostationary satellites. This paper provides a consolidated description of the terminal architecture and the performance of its individual elements.

  4. Mobile Phone Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  5. Research Priorities in Mobile Learning: An International Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-Chang; Ching, Yu-Hui; Snelson, Chareen

    2014-01-01

    Along with advancing mobile technologies and proliferating mobile devices and applications, mobile learning research has gained great momentum in recent years. While there have been review articles summarizing past research, studies identifying mobile learning research priorities based on experts' latest insights have been lacking. This study…

  6. Corps Mobilization Posture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    lation. The " one - stop " service concept is fundamental among these elements. Despite what the Corps’ internal structure may be, external customers (e.g...34 one - stop " service dictates that there be a total vertical and lateral communi- cations network between the lead district and all elements that must...should approve the " one - stop " service concept for application to advance mobilization planning and execution. b. COE should approve the concept of MC

  7. Comprehensive Peptide Ion Structure Studies Using Ion Mobility Techniques: Part 1. An Advanced Protocol for Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Collision Cross-Section Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Tafreshian, Amirmahdi; J. Valentine, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Collision cross-section (CCS) measurements with a linear drift tube have been utilized to study the gas-phase conformers of a model peptide (acetyl-PAAAAKAAAAKAAAAKAAAAK). Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted to derive an advanced protocol for the generation of a comprehensive pool of in-silico structures; both higher energy and more thermodynamically stable structures are included to provide an unbiased sampling of conformational space. MD simulations at 300 K are applied to the in-silico structures to more accurately describe the gas-phase transport properties of the ion conformers including their dynamics. Different methods used previously for trajectory method (TM) CCS calculation employing the Mobcal software [1] are evaluated. A new method for accurate CCS calculation is proposed based on clustering and data mining techniques. CCS values are calculated for all in-silico structures, and those with matching CCS values are chosen as candidate structures. With this approach, more than 300 candidate structures with significant structural variation are produced; although no final gas-phase structure is proposed here, in a second installment of this work, gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange data will be utilized as a second criterion to select among these structures as well as to propose relative populations for these ion conformers. Here the need to increase conformer diversity and accurate CCS calculation is demonstrated and the advanced methods are discussed.

  8. Comprehensive Peptide Ion Structure Studies Using Ion Mobility Techniques: Part 1. An Advanced Protocol for Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Collision Cross-Section Calculation.

    PubMed

    Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Tafreshian, Amirmahdi; J Valentine, Stephen

    2017-02-16

    Collision cross-section (CCS) measurements with a linear drift tube have been utilized to study the gas-phase conformers of a model peptide (acetyl-PAAAAKAAAAKAAAAKAAAAK). Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been conducted to derive an advanced protocol for the generation of a comprehensive pool of in-silico structures; both higher energy and more thermodynamically stable structures are included to provide an unbiased sampling of conformational space. MD simulations at 300 K are applied to the in-silico structures to more accurately describe the gas-phase transport properties of the ion conformers including their dynamics. Different methods used previously for trajectory method (TM) CCS calculation employing the Mobcal software [1] are evaluated. A new method for accurate CCS calculation is proposed based on clustering and data mining techniques. CCS values are calculated for all in-silico structures, and those with matching CCS values are chosen as candidate structures. With this approach, more than 300 candidate structures with significant structural variation are produced; although no final gas-phase structure is proposed here, in a second installment of this work, gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange data will be utilized as a second criterion to select among these structures as well as to propose relative populations for these ion conformers. Here the need to increase conformer diversity and accurate CCS calculation is demonstrated and the advanced methods are discussed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  10. Comparison of V-4 and V-5 Exercise/Oxygen Prebreathe Protocols to Support Extravehicular Activity in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Vann, R. D.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Conkin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    The Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) used exercise during oxygen prebreathe to reduce necessary prebreathe time prior to depressurizing to work in a 4.3 psi suit during extravehicular activity (EVA). Initial testing produced a two-hour protocol incorporating ergometry exercise and a 30 min cycle of depress/repress to 10.2 psi where subjects breathed 26.5% oxygen/balance nitrogen (Phase II - 10 min at 75% peak oxygen consumption [VO2 peak] followed by 40 min intermittent light exercise [ILE] [approx. 5.8 mL-per kilogram- per minute], then 50 min of rest). The Phase II protocol (0/45 DCS) was approved for operations and has been used on 40 EVAs, providing significant time savings compared to the standard 4 h resting oxygen prebreathe. The Phase V effort focused on performing all light in-suit exercise. Two oxygen prebreathe protocols were tested sequentially: V-4) 160 min prebreathe with 150 min of continuous ILE. The entire protocol was completed at 14.7 psi. All exercise involved upper body effort. Exercise continued until decompression. V-5) 160 min prebreathe with 140 min of ILE - first 40 min at 14.7 psi, then 30 min at 10.2 psi (breathing 26.5% oxygen) after a 20 min depress, simulating a suit donning period. Subjects were then repressed to 14.7 psi and performed another 50 min of lower body ILE, followed by 50 min rest before decompression. The V-4 protocol was rejected with 3 DCS/6 person-exposures. Initial V-5 testing has produced 0 DCS/11 person-exposures (ongoing trials). The difference in DCS rate was significant (Fisher Exact p=0.029). The observations of DCS were significantly lower in early V-5 trials than in V-4 trials. Additional studies are required to evaluate the relative contribution of the variables in exercise distribution, the 10.2 psi depress/repress component, pre-decompression rest, or possible variation in total oxygen consumption.

  11. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Chappell, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project is performing tests in different analog environments to understand human performance during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with the aim of developing more safe and efficient systems for lunar exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The project is characterizing human EVA performance in studies using several test beds, including the underwater NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) facilities, JSC fs Partial Gravity Simulator (POGO), and the NASA Reduced Gravity Office (RGO) parabolic flight aircraft. Using these varied testing environments, NASA can gain a more complete understanding of human performance issues related to EVA and the limitations of each testing environment. Tests are focused on identifying and understanding the EVA system factors that affect human performance such as center of gravity (CG), inertial mass, ground reaction forces (GRF), suit weight, and suit pressure. The test results will lead to the development of lunar EVA systems operations concepts and design requirements that optimize human performance and exploration capabilities. METHODS: Tests were conducted in the NBL and during NEEMO missions in the NOAA Aquarius Habitat. A reconfigurable back pack with repositionable mass was used to simulate Perfect, Low, Forward, High, Aft and NASA Baseline CG locations. Subjects performed simulated exploration tasks that included ambulation, kneel and recovery, rock pick-up, and shoveling. Testing using POGO, that simulates partial gravity via pneumatic weight offload system and a similar reconfigurable rig, is underway for a subset of the same tasks. Additionally, test trials are being performed on the RGO parabolic flight aircraft. Subject performance was assessed using a modified Cooper-Harper scale to assess operator compensation required to achieve desired performance. All CG locations are based on the assumption of a

  12. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  13. NASA's mobile satellite development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William; Dessouky, Khaled; Sue, Miles

    1988-01-01

    A Mobile Satellite System (MSS) will provide data and voice communications over a vast geographical area to a large population of mobile users. A technical overview is given of the extensive research and development studies and development performed under NASA's mobile satellite program (MSAT-X) in support of the introduction of a U.S. MSS. The critical technologies necessary to enable such a system are emphasized: vehicle antennas, modulation and coding, speech coders, networking and propagation characterization. Also proposed is a first, and future generation MSS architecture based upon realized ground segment equipment and advanced space segment studies.

  14. Proceedings of the 1989 CESAR/CEA (Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research/Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) workshop on autonomous mobile robots (May 30--June 1, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Harber, K.S.; Pin, F.G. . Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research)

    1990-03-01

    The US DOE Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique's (CEA) Office de Robotique et Productique within the Directorat a la Valorization are working toward a long-term cooperative agreement and relationship in the area of Intelligent Systems Research (ISR). This report presents the proceedings of the first CESAR/CEA Workshop on Autonomous Mobile Robots which took place at ORNL on May 30, 31 and June 1, 1989. The purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss methodologies and algorithms under development at the two facilities in the area of perception and navigation for autonomous mobile robots in unstructured environments. Experimental demonstration of the algorithms and comparison of some of their features were proposed to take place within the framework of a previously mutually agreed-upon demonstration scenario or base-case.'' The base-case scenario described in detail in Appendix A, involved autonomous navigation by the robot in an a priori unknown environment with dynamic obstacles, in order to reach a predetermined goal. From the intermediate goal location, the robot had to search for and locate a control panel, move toward it, and dock in front of the panel face. The CESAR demonstration was successfully accomplished using the HERMIES-IIB robot while subsets of the CEA demonstration performed using the ARES robot simulation and animation system were presented. The first session of the workshop focused on these experimental demonstrations and on the needs and considerations for establishing benchmarks'' for testing autonomous robot control algorithms.

  15. Mobile healthcare.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stephen A; Agee, Nancy Howell

    2012-01-01

    Mobile technology's presence in healthcare has exploded over the past five years. The increased use of mobile devices by all segments of the US population has driven healthcare systems, providers, and payers to accept this new form of communication and to develop strategies to implement and leverage the use of mobile healthcare (mHealth) within their organizations and practices. As healthcare systems move toward a more value-driven model of care, patient centeredness and engagement are the keys to success. Mobile healthcare will provide the medium to allow patients to participate more in their care. Financially, mHealth brings to providers the ability to improve efficiency and deliver savings to both them and the healthcare consumer. However, mHealth is not without challenges. Healthcare IT departments have been reluctant to embrace this shift in technology without fully addressing security and privacy concerns. Providers have been hesitant to adopt mHealth as a form of communication with patients because it breaks with traditional models. Our healthcare system has just started the journey toward the development of mHealth. We offer an overview of the mobile healthcare environment and our approach to solving the challenges it brings to healthcare organizations.

  16. Technology Review for Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styliaras, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the technological advancement in mobile devices has made possible the development of hypermedia applications that exploit their features. A potential application domain for mobile devices is multimedia educational applications and modules. Such modules may be shared, commented and further reused under other circumstances through the…

  17. Experiment In Aeronautical-Mobile/Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Lay, Norman E.; Dessouky, Khaled

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of performance of digital mobile/satellite communication terminals of advanced design intended for use in ground stations and airplanes in aeronautical-mobile service. Study was collaboration of NASA, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Communications Satellite Corp. (COMSAT), and International Maritime Satellite System (INMARSAT).

  18. A comparison of the Shuttle remote manipulator system and the Space Station Freedom mobile servicing center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Edith C.; Ross, Michael

    1989-01-01

    The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System is a mature system which has successfully completed 18 flights. Its primary functional design driver was the capability to deploy and retrieve payloads from the Orbiter cargo bay. The Space Station Freedom Mobile Servicing Center is still in the requirements definition and early design stage. Its primary function design drivers are the capabilities: to support Space Station construction and assembly tasks; to provide external transportation about the Space Station; to provide handling capabilities for the Orbiter, free flyers, and payloads; to support attached payload servicing in the extravehicular environment; and to perform scheduled and un-scheduled maintenance on the Space Station. The differences between the two systems in the area of geometric configuration, mobility, sensor capabilities, control stations, control algorithms, handling performance, end effector dexterity, and fault tolerance are discussed.

  19. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  20. Application of Mobile-ip to Space and Aeronautical Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Kent; Shell, Dan; Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AAT-F), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This paper describes mobile-ip and mobile routers--in particular, the features, capabilities, and initial performance of the mobile router are presented. The application of mobile-router technology to NASA's space and aeronautics programs is also discussed.

  1. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit.

    PubMed

    Doerr, D F

    2001-01-01

    advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  2. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  3. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutral buoyancy test evaluation of hardware and extravehicular activity procedures for on-orbit assembly of a 14 meter precision reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.

    1993-02-01

    A procedure that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform efficient on-orbit assembly of large paraboloidal precision reflectors is presented. The procedure and associated hardware are verified in simulated Og (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14 m diameter precision reflector mockup. The test article represents a precision reflector having a reflective surface which is segmented into 37 individual panels. The panels are supported on a doubly curved tetrahedral truss consisting of 315 struts. The entire truss and seven reflector panels were assembled in three hours and seven minutes by two pressure-suited test subjects. The average time to attach a panel was two minutes and three seconds. These efficient assembly times were achieved because all hardware and assembly procedures were designed to be compatible with EVA assembly capabilities.

  5. Neutral buoyancy test evaluation of hardware and extravehicular activity procedures for on-orbit assembly of a 14 meter precision reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform efficient on-orbit assembly of large paraboloidal precision reflectors is presented. The procedure and associated hardware are verified in simulated Og (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14 m diameter precision reflector mockup. The test article represents a precision reflector having a reflective surface which is segmented into 37 individual panels. The panels are supported on a doubly curved tetrahedral truss consisting of 315 struts. The entire truss and seven reflector panels were assembled in three hours and seven minutes by two pressure-suited test subjects. The average time to attach a panel was two minutes and three seconds. These efficient assembly times were achieved because all hardware and assembly procedures were designed to be compatible with EVA assembly capabilities.

  6. Generic extravehicular (EVA) and telerobot task primitives for analysis, design, and integration. Version 1.0: Reference compilation for the EVA and telerobotics communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Drews, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The results are described of an effort to establish commonality and standardization of generic crew extravehicular (crew-EVA) and telerobotic task analysis primitives used for the study of spaceborne operations. Although direct crew-EVA plans are the most visible output of spaceborne operations, significant ongoing efforts by a wide variety of projects and organizations also require tools for estimation of crew-EVA and telerobotic times. Task analysis tools provide estimates for input to technical and cost tradeoff studies. A workshop was convened to identify the issues and needs to establish a common language and syntax for task analysis primitives. In addition, the importance of such a syntax was shown to have precedence over the level to which such a syntax is applied. The syntax, lists of crew-EVA and telerobotic primitives, and the data base in diskette form are presented.

  7. Ensuring seamlessness in mobility services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotti, Timo; Tavi, Jari

    2001-10-01

    The infrastructure required for wireless and mobility services is becoming increasingly complex involving a multitude of different nodes such as smart terminals, base stations, access gateways and application servers and up to tens of millions of concurrent users. For true mobility services, the need to provide seamless access to data - independent of location or device - becomes apparent. But how do you ensure that this data and the corresponding mobile applications are distributed to those network nodes where the data is needed? Whether it's managing subscriber provisioning data of a large farm of access gateways, replicating application servers to allow for system scalability or distributing application software to smart terminals, seamlessness in mobility services requires a distributed data management functionality coupled with advanced multi-user, multi-device synchronization.

  8. Advancements in the Micromirror Array Projector Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Mobile Extended Spectrum EO Test Set ( MESEOTS ). The MESEOTS is a prototype advanced EO test set which will be capable of projecting...the design of a Mobile Extended Spectrum Electro-Optical Test Set ( MESEOTS ). This test set is designed for testing UV, visible, NIR and IR sensors as...LWIR spectral bands. The prototype mobile extended

  9. Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Accumulation and Physiological Function in the Launch and Entry and Advanced Crew Escape Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip; Greenisen, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) are worn by astronauts for launch and entry. Previous work by Waligora, et al., 1992, Waligora and Gilbert, 1992, and Dalrymple 1996, have found that carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the LES/ACES helmet may be problematic. CO2 accumulation is important because high inspired levels of CO2 reduce physical function and pose a safety hazard (e.g. levels of CO2 accumulation of 3.6% in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit are sufficient to terminate Extra Vehicular Activities). My task was to design a suitable test protocol for determining the important physiological aspects of LES/ACES use. Three basic issues arose. First was the determination of the astronaut's CO2 inspiration during visor-down use at rest and during walking at 3.5 mph. A sub-issue was the impact of a pneumotach on CO2 since it has been previously observed that when the Aerosport pneumotach was used, performance seemed improved, which might be attributable to a lowered respiration rate when using the pneumotach. The second issue was the energy costs of waLking in the LES/ACES with various G-suit inflation levels, since G-suit inflation increases metabolic costs and metabolic costs influence the C02 production in the LES/ACES helmet. Since G-suit inflation improves orthostatic tolerance after space flight, but likely increases the energy costs of walking, the balance between G-suit inflation and C02 accumulation is an important safety consideration. The third issue which arose from pilot work was the substantial reduction in physical function after a 10 min visor-down period prior to walk.

  10. Prospects for the Use of Mobile Technologies in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years there have been great strides in the advancement of technology with the rise of mobile devices leading to an era characterized by the instant access to and mobility of information. Mobile technologies have more recently been used in a variety of educational settings for a variety of purposes and educational goals.…

  11. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  12. Proceedings of the Fifth International Mobile Satellite Conference 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, T. (Compiler); Rigley, J. (Compiler); Anderson, Louise (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Satellite-based mobile communications systems provide voice and data communications to users over a vast geographic area. The users may communicate via mobile or hand-held terminals, which may also provide access to terrestrial communications services. While previous International Mobile Satellite Conferences have concentrated on technical advances and the increasing worldwide commercial activities, this conference focuses on the next generation of mobile satellite services. The approximately 80 papers included here cover sessions in the following areas: networking and protocols; code division multiple access technologies; demand, economics and technology issues; current and planned systems; propagation; terminal technology; modulation and coding advances; spacecraft technology; advanced systems; and applications and experiments.

  13. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  14. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  15. Mobility Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Abele, G.; Walker, D.A.; Brown, J .; Brewer, M.C.; Atwood, D.M. TI - Effects of low ground pressure vehicle traffic on tundra aL Lonely, Alaska SO...resistance, bulldozing resistance. NTIS ’ DT ’ . [ Acces. J "D-4 CONTENTS Chapter I Snow vehicles or snowmobiles Chapter II Rolling resistance Chapter III...Russian Swe Swedish Eng English Jap Japanese Ger German Pol Polish Czech Czechoslovakian Nor Norwegian P reface This mobility bibliography was

  16. Composite Materials for Advanced Global Mobility Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    materials: examples include impregnation with phenolic or other resins, lamination with Kevlar tape, and lamination with a phenolic-resin skin... nanofibers or nanotubes, and crushed calcined cokes can add significantly to the strength and tailorability of the foams; unidirectional expansion

  17. Mobile Technologies for the Surgical Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in hardware and computing power contained within mobile devices have made it possible to use these devices to improve and enhance pathologist workflow. This article discusses the possible uses ranging from basic functions to intermediate functions to advanced functions. Barriers to implementation are also discussed.

  18. Going mobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, Eric

    1987-12-01

    By 1990, all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and rural areas close to major cities or towns are expected to have cellular telephone service; 22 Canadian cities also feature cellular service. To supply mobile telecommunication services to sparsely-populated rural areas, a mobile satellite service (MSS) is now being developed. In this paper the projected possibilities of the MSS system are discussed, including a possibility that a piggyback-MSS payload be added to the GSTAR-4 satellite which is scheduled for a launch in 1988 or 1989; one in which some of the hardware from aborted direct-broadcast satellites would be used; and the possibility of building a new MSS satellite with large servicing capacity. Canada is planning to launch its own mobile satellite, MSAT, in the early 1990s. The MSS is expected to be 'generic', serving not only people on land but maritime and aeronautical users as well. It will also offer major benefits to truck and automobile drivers, making it possible for them to conduct business or to call for assistance from locations beyond the range of cellular systems.

  19. Mobile Network Defense Interface for Cyber Defense and Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    networks. Advances in mobile technology have created an environment well suited to address this shortfall. Faced with limited processing power and less...device within network management. Advances in mobile technology from both platform and security aspects make this a viable option in today’s...healthy operational state for their network. 3.3 Goals and Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research is that by using state-of-the-art mobile

  20. Mobile Technology for the Practice of Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Recently, several technological advances have been introduced to mobile phones leading some people to refer to them as "smartphones." These changes have led to widespread consumer adoption. A similar adoption has occurred within the medical field and this revolution is changing the practice of medicine, including pathology. Several mobile applications have been published for dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and clinical pathology. The applications are wide ranging, including mobile technology to increase patient engagement, self-monitoring by patients, clinical algorithm calculation, facilitation between experts to resource-poor environments. These advances have been received with mixed reviews. For anatomic pathology, mobile technology applications can be broken into 4 broad categories: (a) educational uses, (b) microscope with mobile phone, (c) mobile phone as microscope/acquisition device, and (d) miscellaneous. Using a mobile phone as an acquisition device paired with a microscope seems to be the most interesting current application because of the need for expert consultation with resource-poor environments. However, several emerging uses for mobile technology may become more prominent as the technology matures including image analysis, alternative light sources, and increased opportunities for clinician and patient engagement. The flexibility represented by mobile technology represents a burgeoning field in pathology informatics.

  1. Channel and terminal description of the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Agan, M. J.; Girardey, C. C.; Jedrey, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) is a proof-of-concept K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications terminal under development by NASA at JPL. Currently the AMT is undergoing systems integration and testing in preparation for a July 1993 ACTS launch and the subsequent commencement of mobile experiments in the fall of 1993. The AMT objectives are presented, followed by a discussion of the AMT communications channel and the mobile terminal's design and performance.

  2. Channel and terminal description of the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Agan, M. J.; Girardey, C. C.; Jedrey, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) is a proof-of-concept K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications terminal under development by NASA at JPL. Currently the AMT is undergoing system integration and test in preparation for a July 1993 ACTS launch and the subsequent commencement of mobile experiments in the fall of 1993. The AMT objectives are presented followed by a discussion of the AMT communications channel and mobile terminal design and performance.

  3. Mobile Forensics: An Introduction from Indian Law Enforcement Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Dharaskar, Rajiv V.

    Mobile phone proliferation in our societies is on the increase. Advances in semiconductor technologies related to mobile phones and the increase of computing power of mobile phones led to an increase of functionality of mobile phones while keeping the size of such devices small enough to fit in a pocket. This led mobile phones to become portable data carriers. This in turn increased the potential for data stored on mobile phone handsets to be used as evidence in civil or criminal cases. This paper examines the nature of some of the newer pieces of information that can become potential evidence on mobile phones. It also highlights some of the weaknesses of mobile forensic toolkits and procedures. Finally, the paper shows the need for more in depth examination of mobile phone evidence.

  4. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  5. USACE Mobilization Posture Update: 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    and MC Projects to Terminate 30 Identify Funding Authority Increases 31 vii Section Page Institute " One - stop " Service Concept 31 Develop Means of...further conceptual adjustments. b. " One - stop " service and "lead-support" district concepts. The twin hearts of the recommended operational concepts...were implementation of the one - stop " service concept for mobilization advance planning and execution, and the "lead-support" district concept. Under the

  6. Mobile Propagation Results from Using the ACTS Mobile Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinck, Deborah; Rice, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an ideal spaced-based platform for analyzing the Ka-band mobile satellite channel. This paper reports on the results of the Ka-band mobile propagation analysis campaign using the ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The objectives of the mobile propagation experiments were to measure and analyze the fading characteristics of the Ka-band channel. The analysis involved examining pilot tone tests in three environments: lightly shadowed suburban, moderately shadowed suburban, and heavily shadowed suburban. The results indicate that Ka-band pilot tones experience significant multipath and fading effects. It may be possible to design link margins to provide reliable service for the lightly shadowed suburban environment at Ka-band. However, for areas with moderate and heavy shadowing, the link margin required to realize reliable communications with 99% availability is excessive (26 dB for moderate shadowing, and greater then 30 dB for heavy shadowing). An alternate approach would be to use shadowing/fading countermeasures (e.g., interleaved error control coding and antenna diversity). Such mitigation techniques, necessary for reliable Ka-band mobile communication within a suburban environment, are currently being considered within the NASA program.

  7. A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia applications using portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losquadro, G.; Luglio, M.; Vatalaro, F.

    1997-01-01

    A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia services via portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals was developed within the framework of the Advanced Communications Technology Service (ACTS) programs. The architecture of the system developed under the 'satellite extremely high frequency communications for multimedia mobile services (SECOMS)/ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal experiment' (ABATE) project is presented. The system will be composed of a Ka band system component, and an extremely high frequency band component. The major characteristics of the space segment, the ground control station and the portable, aeronautical and mobile user terminals are outlined.

  8. Study to evaluate the effect of EVA on payload systems. Volume 1: Executive summary. [project planning of space missions employing extravehicular activity as a means of cost reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Programmatic benefits to payloads are examined which can result from the routine use of extravehicular activity (EVA) during space missions. Design and operations costs were compared for 13 representative baseline payloads to the costs of those payloads adapted for EVA operations. The EVA-oriented concepts developed in the study were derived from these baseline concepts and maintained mission and program objectives as well as basic configurations. This permitted isolation of cost saving factors associated specifically with incorporation of EVA in a variety of payload designs and operations. The study results were extrapolated to a total of 74 payload programs. Using appropriate complexity and learning factors, net EVA savings were extrapolated to over $551M for NASA and U.S. civil payloads for routine operations. Adding DOD and ESRO payloads increases the net estimated savings of $776M. Planned maintenance by EVA indicated an estimated $168M savings due to elimination of automated service equipment. Contingency problems of payloads were also analyzed to establish expected failure rates for shuttle payloads. The failure information resulted in an estimated potential for EVA savings of $1.9 B.

  9. [Space radiation doses in the anthropomorphous phantom in space experiment "Matryeshka-R" and spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, D A; Petrov, V M; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Akatov, Iu A; Shurshakov, V A

    2010-01-01

    Russian space experiment "Matryeshka-R" was conducted in 2004-2005 to study dose distribution in the body of anthropomorphous phantom inserted in a spacesuit imitating container mounted on outer surface of the ISS Service module (experiment "Matryeshka"). The objective was to compare doses inside the phantom in the container to human body donned in spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity (EVA). The shielding function was calculated using the geometric model, specification of the phantom shielded by the container, "Orlan-M" description, and results of ground-based estimation of shielding effectiveness by gamma-raying. Doses were calculated from the dose attenuation curves obtained for galactic cosmic rays, and the AE-8/AP-8 models of electron and proton flows in Earth's radiation belt. Calculated ratios of equivalent doses in representative points of the body critical organs to analogous doses in phantom "Matryeshka" H(ORLAN-M)/H(Matryeshka) for identical radiation conditions vary with organs and solar activity in the range from 0.1 to 1.8 with organs and solar activity. These observations should be taken into account when applying Matryeshka data to the EVA conditions.

  10. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  11. Optimizing mobilization strategies in difficult-to-mobilize patients: The role of plerixafor.

    PubMed

    Goker, Hakan; Etgul, Sezgin; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell collection is currently the most widely used source for hematopoietic autologous transplantation. Several factors such as advanced age, previous chemotherapy, disease and marrow infiltration at the time of mobilization influence the efficacy of CD34(+) progenitor cell mobilization. Despite the safety and efficiency of the standard mobilization protocols (G-CSF ± chemotherapy), there is still a significant amount of mobilization failure rate (10-40%), which necessitate novel agents for effective mobilization. Plerixafor, is a novel agent, has been recently approved for mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The combination of Plerixafor with G-CSF provides the collection of large numbers of stem cells in fewer apheresis sessions and can salvage those who fail with standard mobilization regimens. The development and optimization of practical algorithms for the use Plerixafor is crucial to make hematopoietic stem cell mobilization more efficient in a cost-effective way. This review is aimed at summarizing how to identify poor mobilizers, and define rational use of Plerixafor for planning mobilization in hard-to-mobilize patients.

  12. Volume 4 - Mobile Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mobile source reference material for activity data collection from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides complete methods for collecting key inputs to onroad mobile and nonroad mobile emissions models.

  13. ACTS mobile propagation campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for three propagation measurement campaigns involving a mobile receiving laboratory and 20 GHz transmissions from the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four 1994 campaigns were executed during weekly periods in and around Austin, Texas in February and May, in Central Maryland during March, and in Fairbanks, Alaska and environs in June. Measurements tested the following effects at 20 GHz: (1) attenuation due to roadside trees with and without foliage, (2) multipath effects for scenarios in which line-of-sight paths were unshadowed, (3) fades due to terrain and roadside obstacles, (4) fades due to structures in urban environs, (5) single tree attenuation, and (6) effects of fading at low elevation angles (8 deg in Fairbanks, Alaska) and high elevation angles (55 deg in Austin, Texas). Results presented here cover sampled measurements in Austin, Texas for foliage and non-foliage cases and in Central Maryland for non-foliage runs.

  14. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  15. Toward Risk Reduction for Mobile Service Composition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuiguang; Huang, Longtao; Li, Ying; Zhou, Honggeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Cao, Xiongfei; Kataev, Mikhail Yu; Li, Ling

    2016-08-01

    The advances in mobile technologies enable us to consume or even provide services through powerful mobile devices anytime and anywhere. Services running on mobile devices within limited range can be composed to coordinate together through wireless communication technologies and perform complex tasks. However, the mobility of users and devices in mobile environment imposes high risk on the execution of the tasks. This paper targets reducing this risk by constructing a dependable service composition after considering the mobility of both service requesters and providers. It first proposes a risk model and clarifies the risk of mobile service composition; and then proposes a service composition approach by modifying the simulated annealing algorithm. Our objective is to form a service composition by selecting mobile services under the mobility model and to ensure the service composition have the best quality of service and the lowest risk. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can yield near-optimal solutions and has a nearly linear complexity with respect to a problem size.

  16. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  17. Collaborative Context Recognition for Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huuskonen, Pertti; Mäntyjärvi, Jani; Könönen, Ville

    The next wave of mobile applications is at hand. Mobile phones, PDAs, cameras, music players, and gaming gadgets are creating a connected mobile ecosystem where it is possible to implement systems with significant embedded intelligence. Such advances will make it possible to move many functions of the current PC-centric applications to the mobile domain. Since the inherent difficulties that come with mobility—limited UIs, short attention spans, power dependency, intermittent connectivity, to name but a few—are still not going away, new solutions are needed to make mobile computing satisfactory. We are facing the paradox of cramming ever more functions into our ever more portable devices, while seeking to achieve radically better usablility and semi-usable automated intelligence.

  18. Third International Workshop on Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Basic research in ion mobility spectrometry has given rise to rapid advancement in hardware development and applications. The Third International Workshop on Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was held October 16-19, 1994, at Johnson Space Center to provide a forum for investigators to present the most recent results of both basic and applied IMS research. Presenters included manufacturers and various users, including military research organizations and drug enforcement agencies. Thirty papers were given in the following five sessions: Fundamental IMS Studies, Instrument Development, Hyphenated IMS Techniques, Applications, and Data Reduction and Signal Processing. Advances in hardware development, software development, and user applications are described.

  19. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  20. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  1. Mobile health requires mobile security: challenges, solutions, and standardization.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Extended communication and advanced cooperation in a permanently growing healthcare and welfare domain require a well-defined set of security services provided by an interoperable security infrastructure based on international and European standards. Any communication and collaboration procedure requires a purpose. But such legal purpose-binding is definitely not the only aspect to carefully be observed and investigated. More and more, aspects of security, safety, privacy, ethics, and quality reach importance while discussing about future-proof health information systems and health networks - regardless whether local, regional or even pan-European networks. During the course of the current paradigm change from an organization-centered to a process-related and to a person-centered health system, different new technologies including mobile solutions need to be applied in order to meet challenges arising from both legal and technical circumstances. Beside the typical Information and Communication Technology systems and applications, the extended use of modern technologies includes large medical devices like, e.g., MRI and CT but also small devices like sensors worn by a person or included in clothing. Security and safety are on top of the priority list. The paper addresses the identification of some specific aspects like mobile technology and safety when moving both IT and people towards mobile health aiming at increasing citizens and patients awareness, confidence, and acceptance in future mobile care - a world often still beyond the horizon.

  2. Intelligent Mobile Health Monitoring System (IMHMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriyar, Rifat; Bari, Md. Faizul; Kundu, Gourab; Ahamed, Sheikh Iqbal; Akbar, Md. Mostofa

    Health monitoring is repeatedly mentioned as one of the main application areas for Pervasive computing. Mobile Health Care is the integration of mobile computing and health monitoring. It is the application of mobile computing technologies for improving communication among patients, physicians, and other health care workers. As mobile devices have become an inseparable part of our life it can integrate health care more seamlessly to our everyday life. It enables the delivery of accurate medical information anytime anywhere by means of mobile devices. Recent technological advances in sensors, low-power integrated circuits, and wireless communications have enabled the design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight and intelligent bio-sensor nodes. These nodes, capable of sensing, processing, and communicating one or more vital signs, can be seamlessly integrated into wireless personal or body area networks for mobile health monitoring. In this paper we present Intelligent Mobile Health Monitoring System (IMHMS), which can provide medical feedback to the patients through mobile devices based on the biomedical and environmental data collected by deployed sensors.

  3. 19. INTERIOR VIEW INSIDE BUNKER SHOWING NITROGEN TANKS, 'MOBILE AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW INSIDE BUNKER SHOWING NITROGEN TANKS, 'MOBILE AIR MONITOR' EQUIPMENT, MAN. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6183, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Critical Factors in Mobile Learning: A Quasi-Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Sergio Assis; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pereira; Arnaud, Lucas; de Souza, Jano Moreira

    2013-01-01

    The advance of mobile industry and research has expanded e-learning in order to support an efficient and effective educational process. However, the promised benefits are as much attractive as the existing difficulties and barriers. In this paper, we intend to identify and summarize the critical factors in mobile learning through a…

  5. Mobile Chatting Behaviour of Arts and Science College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Priya, J. Johnsi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile connectivity is the order of the day. Personas irrespective of their socio-economic status possess mobile device either basic or advanced android or windows or IOS. The chat applications have become popular with younger generation. It has started trickling down to children below the age of eighteen. The behaviour has influenced the aged…

  6. Factors Impacting Teachers' Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Callum, Kathryn; Jeffrey, Lynn; Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    As mobile technology has advanced, awareness is growing that these technologies may benefit teaching and learning. However, despite this interest, the factors that will determine the acceptance of mobile technology by lecturers have been limited. This study proposed and tested a new model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) with…

  7. Reflections on Education and Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief personal reflection on the state of research into the relation between education and social mobility. Quantitative methods are both essential and advancing in this field. Sociologists seek scientific solutions but achieve ethical neutrality only with difficulty because all are tempted to bias from social and political…

  8. Space batteries for mobile battlefield power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1991-01-01

    A review of space power systems was undertaken to identify advanced space batteries for mobile applications. State-of-the-art systems are described. The technology issues that need to be addressed in order to bring these systems along and meet the needs of the user are discussed. Future research directions are examined.

  9. Mobile health systems: a brief overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskarides, S.; Pattichis, Constantinos S.; Habib Istepanian, Robert S.; Kyriacou, E.; Pattichis, Marios S.; Schizas, C. N.

    2002-06-01

    Rapid advances in information technology and telecommunications, and more specifically wireless and mobile communications, and their convergence (telematics) are leading to the emergence of a new type of information infrastructure that has the potential of supporting an array of advanced services for healthcare. The objective of this paper is to provide a snapshot of the applications of mobile technology in healthcare. A brief review of the spectrum of these applications and the potential benefits of these efforts will be presented, followed by success case studies in electronic patient record, emergency telemedicine, teleradiology, and home monitoring. It is anticipated that the progress carried out in these efforts, and the potential benefits of emerging mobile technologies will trigger the development of more applications, thus enabling the offering of a better service to the citizen.

  10. Aging, the Central Nervous System, and Mobility in Older Adults: Neural Mechanisms of Mobility Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Clark, David J.; Viswanathan, Anand; Scherzer, Clemens R.; De Jager, Philip; Csiszar, Anna; Laurienti, Paul J.; Hausdorff, Jeffery M.; Chen, Wen G.; Ferrucci, Luiggi; Rosano, Caterina; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Black, Sandra E.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mobility is crucial for successful aging and is impaired in many older adults. We know very little about the subtle, subclinical age-related changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that mediate mobility impairment. Methods. A conference series focused on aging, the CNS, and mobility was launched. The second conference addressed major age-associated mechanisms of CNS-mediated mobility impairment. Speakers and conference attendees recommended key areas for future research, identified barriers to progress, and proposed strategies to overcome them. Results. Priorities identified for future research include (a) studying interactions among different mechanisms; (b) examining effects of interventions targeting these mechanisms; (c) evaluating the effect of genetic polymorphisms on risks and course of age-related mobility impairment; and (d) examining the effect of age on CNS repair processes, neuroplasticity, and neuronal compensatory mechanisms. Key strategies to promote research include (a) establish standard measures of mobility across species; (b) evaluate the effect of aging in the absence of disease on CNS and mobility; and (c) use advanced computational methods to better evaluate the interactions between CNS and other systems involved in mobility. Conclusions. CNS is a major player in the process, leading to mobility decline with aging. Future research in this area has the potential to prolong independence in older persons. Better interactions among disciplines and shared research paradigms are needed to make progress. Research priorities include the development of innovative approaches to integrate research on aging, cognition, and movement with attention to neurovascular function, neuroplasticity, and neurophysiological reserve. PMID:26386013

  11. Mobile Router Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  12. Contributions of mobile technologies to addiction research

    PubMed Central

    Swendsen, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies are revolutionizing the field of mental health, and particular progress has been made in their application to addiction research and treatment. The use of smartphones and other mobile devices has been shown to be feasible with individuals addicted to any of a wide range of substances, with few biases being observed concerning the repeated monitoring of daily life experiences, craving, or substance use. From a methodological point of view, the use of mobile technologies overcomes longstanding limitations of traditional clinical research protocols, including the more accurate assessment of temporal relationships among variables, as well as the reduction in both contextual constraints and discipline-specific methodological isolation. The present article presents a conceptual review of these advances while using illustrations of research applications that are capable of overcoming specific methodological barriers. Finally, a brief review of both the benefits and risks of mobile technology use for the treatment of patients will be addressed. PMID:27489461

  13. Contributions of mobile technologies to addiction research.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies are revolutionizing the field of mental health, and particular progress has been made in their application to addiction research and treatment. The use of smartphones and other mobile devices has been shown to be feasible with individuals addicted to any of a wide range of substances, with few biases being observed concerning the repeated monitoring of daily life experiences, craving, or substance use. From a methodological point of view, the use of mobile technologies overcomes longstanding limitations of traditional clinical research protocols, including the more accurate assessment of temporal relationships among variables, as well as the reduction in both contextual constraints and discipline-specific methodological isolation. The present article presents a conceptual review of these advances while using illustrations of research applications that are capable of overcoming specific methodological barriers. Finally, a brief review of both the benefits and risks of mobile technology use for the treatment of patients will be addressed.

  14. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  15. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  16. ECG by mobile technologies.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Malik, Marek

    Mobile electrocardiographs consist of three components: a mobile device (e.g. a smartphone), an electrocardiographic device or accessory, and a mobile application. Mobile platforms are small computers with sufficient computational power, good quality display, suitable data storage, and several possibilities of data transmission. Electrocardiographic electrodes and sensors for mobile use utilize unconventional materials, e.g. rubber, e-textile, and inkjet-printed nanoparticle electrodes. Mobile devices can be handheld, worn as vests or T-shirts, or attached to patient's skin as biopatches. Mobile electrocardiographic devices and accessories may additionally record other signals including respiratory rate, activity level, and geolocation. Large-scale clinical studies that utilize electrocardiography are easier to conduct using mobile technologies and the collected data are suitable for "big data" processing. This is expected to reveal phenomena so far inaccessible by standard electrocardiographic techniques.

  17. Mobility and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…

  18. Mobile Student Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  19. The Add-On Impact of Mobile Applications in Learning Strategies: A Review Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ting-Ting; Huang, Yueh-Min; Tan, Qing; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices are more powerful and portable nowadays with plenty of useful tools for assisting people to handle daily life. With the advance of mobile technology, the issue of mobile learning has been widely investigated in e-learning research. Many researches consider it is important to integrate pedagogical and technical strengths of mobile…

  20. The Innovative Immersion of Mobile Learning into a Science Curriculum in Singapore: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Daner; Looi, Chee-Kit; Wu, Longkai; Xie, Wenting

    2016-01-01

    With advancements made in mobile technology, increasing emphasis has been paid to how to leverage the affordances of mobile technology to improve science learning and instruction. This paper reports on a science curriculum supported by an inquiry-based framework and mobile technologies. It was developed by teachers and researchers in a multiyear…

  1. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 4; An Integrated Methodology for Evaluating Space Suit Mobility and Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. Vernon; Newman, Dava

    1999-01-01

    The empirical investigation of extravehicular activity (EVA) mass handling conducted on NASA's Precision Air-Bearing Floor led to a Phase I SBIR from JSC. The purpose of the SBIR was to design an innovative system for evaluating space suit mobility and stability in conditions that simulate EVA on the surface of the Moon or Mars. The approach we used to satisfy the Phase I objectives was based on a structured methodology for the development of human-systems technology. Accordingly the project was broken down into a number of tasks and subtasks. In sequence, the major tasks were: 1) Identify missions and tasks that will involve EVA and resulting mobility requirements in the near and long term; 2) Assess possible methods for evaluating mobility of space suits during field-based EVA tests; 3) Identify requirements for behavioral evaluation by interacting with NASA stakeholders;.4) Identify necessary and sufficient technology for implementation of a mobility evaluation system; and 5) Prioritize and select technology solutions. The work conducted in these tasks is described in this final volume of the series on EVA mass handling. While prior volumes in the series focus on novel data-analytic techniques, this volume addresses technology that is necessary for minimally intrusive data collection and near-real-time data analysis and display.

  2. Comparison of thermal insulation performance of fibrous materials for the advanced space suit.

    PubMed

    Paul, Heather L; Diller, Kenneth R

    2003-10-01

    The current multi-layer insulation used in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) will not be effective in the atmosphere of Mars due to the presence of interstitial gases. Alternative thermal insulation means have been subjected to preliminary evaluation by NASA to attempt to identify a material that will meet the target conductivity of 0.005 W/m-K. This study analyzes numerically the thermal conductivity performance for three of these candidate insulating fiber materials in terms of various denier (size), interstitial void fractions, interstitial void media, and orientations to the applied temperature gradient to evaluate their applicability for the new Mars suit insulation. The results demonstrate that the best conductive insulation is achieved for a high-void-fraction configuration with a grooved fiber cross section, aerogel void medium, and the fibers oriented normal to the heat flux vector. However, this configuration still exceeds the target thermal conductivity by a factor of 1.5.

  3. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  4. Residential mobility microsimulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifei; Wu, Lun

    2010-09-01

    Residential mobility refers to the spatial movement of individuals and households between dwellings within an urban area. This considerable amount of intra-urban movement affects the urban structure and has significant repercussions for urban transportation. In order to understand and project related impacts, a considerable number of residential mobility models has been developed and used in the regional planning process. Within this context, the history and state-of-art residential mobility models are discussed and indicated. Meanwhile, a residential mobility Microsimulation model, called URM-Microsim (Urban Residential Mobility Microsimulation), is introduced and discussed.

  5. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  6. Mobile biometric device (MBD) technology :

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    Mobile biometric devices (MBDs) capable of both enrolling individuals in databases and performing identification checks of subjects in the field are seen as an important capability for military, law enforcement, and homeland security operations. The technology is advancing rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate through an Interagency Agreement with Sandia sponsored a series of pilot projects to obtain information for the first responder law enforcement community on further identification of requirements for mobile biometric device technology. Working with 62 different jurisdictions, including components of the Department of Homeland Security, Sandia delivered a series of reports on user operation of state-of-the-art mobile biometric devices. These reports included feedback information on MBD usage in both operational and exercise scenarios. The findings and conclusions of the project address both the limitations and possibilities of MBD technology to improve operations. Evidence of these possibilities can be found in the adoption of this technology by many agencies today and the cooperation of several law enforcement agencies in both participating in the pilot efforts and sharing of information about their own experiences in efforts undertaken separately.

  7. Advanced Prototype Fan Operating Experience, Post Test Evaluation, and Refurbishment for PLSS 2.0 Test Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Oehler, William; Dionne, Steve; Converse, David; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s plans for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) portable life support systems for future exploration missions result in different design requirements than those which led to the combined fan / pump / separator in the current ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). To meet these new requirements, NASA contracted with Hamilton Sundstrand to provide two new prototype fans designed to meet anticipated future system requirements. Based on design trade studies, a high speed fan with mechanical bearing support of the rotating elements and a novel non-metallic barrier canned motor design was developed and implemented in the deliverable prototypes. The prototypes, which used two different bearing lubricants, have been extensively tested in both stand-alone and integrated system tests in NASA laboratories and proven to meet the anticipated performance requirements. Subsequently, they have been subjected to post test inspection and analysis in Hamilton Sundstrand laboratories to assess the effects of integrated operation and resultant exposure to vent loop contaminants. Results have confirmed expectations that one of the lubricants would be superior in this application and the prototype fans have been reassembled with new bearings with the superior lubricant. They have now been returned to the Johnson Space Center for further testing and maturation as part of NASA s PLSS 2.0 integrated test effort. This paper will discuss the test history of these units, resulting test data, the results of post test evaluation, and plans for further testing in the near future.

  8. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  9. Enhanced performance of the Westinghouse Series 1000 Mobile Satellite Telephone System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Series 1000 Mobile Satellite Telephone System is designed for land mobile, maritime, and fixed site land applications. The product currently operates on the Optus Mobilesat system in Australia and will operate on American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC) Skycell service in the U.S. and TMI Communications' (TMIC) MSAT service in Canada. The architecture allows the same transceiver electronics to be used for diverse mobile applications. Advanced antenna designs have made land mobile satellite communications a reality. This paper details the unique high performance product and its configuration for the vehicle mounted land mobile application.

  10. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang Im, Hyunsik

    2014-07-28

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  11. Mobile learning in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  12. Towards Autonomous Inspection of Space Systems Using Mobile Robotic Sensor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Saad, Ashraf; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The space transportation systems required to support NASA's Exploration Initiative will demand a high degree of reliability to ensure mission success. This reliability can be realized through autonomous fault/damage detection and repair capabilities. It is crucial that such capabilities are incorporated into these systems since it will be impractical to rely upon Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), visual inspection or tele-operation due to the costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming nature of these methods. One approach to achieving this capability is through the use of an autonomous inspection system comprised of miniature mobile sensor platforms that will cooperatively perform high confidence inspection of space vehicles and habitats. This paper will discuss the efforts to develop a small scale demonstration test-bed to investigate the feasibility of using autonomous mobile sensor platforms to perform inspection operations. Progress will be discussed in technology areas including: the hardware implementation and demonstration of robotic sensor platforms, the implementation of a hardware test-bed facility, and the investigation of collaborative control algorithms.

  13. Exploring the mobility of mobile phone users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáji, Balázs Cs.; Browet, Arnaud; Traag, V. A.; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-03-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100,000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread of users’ frequent locations and show that commuting distances can be reasonably well explained by a gravity model.

  14. Doctors going mobile.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Having a Web page and a blog site are the minimum requirements for an Internet presence in the new millennium. However, a Web page that loads on a personal computer or a laptop will be ineffective on a mobile or cellular phone. Today, with more existing and potential patients having access to cellular technology, it is necessary to reconfigure the appearance of your Web site that appears on a mobile phone. This article discusses mobile computing and suggestions for improving the appearance of your Web site on a mobile or cellular phone.

  15. Mobile Agents: A Distributed Voice-Commanded Sensory and Robotic System for Surface EVA Assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A model-based, distributed architecture integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: spacesuit biosensors, cameras, GPS, and a robotic assistant. The system transmits data and assists communication between the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, the crew in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team. Software processes ("agents"), implemented in a system called Brahms, run on multiple, mobile platforms, including the spacesuit backpacks, all-terrain vehicles, and robot. These "mobile agents" interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. Different types of agents relate platforms to each other ("proxy agents"), devices to software ("comm agents"), and people to the system ("personal agents"). A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface enables people to communicate with their personal agents, supporting a speech-driven navigation and scheduling tool, field observation record, and rover command system. An important aspect of the engineering methodology involves first simulating the entire hardware and software system in Brahms, and then configuring the agents into a runtime system. Design of mobile agent functionality has been based on ethnographic observation of scientists working in Mars analog settings in the High Canadian Arctic on Devon Island and the southeast Utah desert. The Mobile Agents system is developed iteratively in the context of use, with people doing authentic work. This paper provides a brief introduction to the architecture and emphasizes the method of empirical requirements analysis, through which observation, modeling, design, and testing are integrated in simulated EVA operations.

  16. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  18. Mobile Apps in Cardiology: Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. Objective The aim of this paper is to study the literature on mobile systems and applications currently available, as well as the existing apps related to cardiology from the leading app stores and to then classify the results to see what is available and what is missing, focusing particularly on commercial apps. Methods Two reviews have been developed. One is a literature review of mobile systems and applications, retrieved from several databases and systems such as Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Knowledge. The other is a review of mobile apps in the leading app stores, Google play for Android and Apple’s App Store for iOS. Results Search queries up to May 2013 located 406 papers and 710 apps related to cardiology and heart disease. The most researched section in the literature associated with cardiology is related to mobile heart (and vital signs) monitoring systems and the methods involved in the classification of heart signs in order to detect abnormal functions. Other systems with a significant number of papers are mobile cardiac rehabilitation systems, blood pressure measurement, and systems for the detection of heart failure. The majority of apps for cardiology are heart monitors and medical calculators. Other categories with a high number of apps are those for ECG education and interpretation, cardiology news and journals, blood pressure tracking, heart rate monitoring using an external device, and CPR instruction. There are very few guides on cardiac rehabilitation and apps for the management of the

  19. Learning for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Liao, Xiaoqun; Alhaj Ali, Souma M.

    2003-10-01

    Unlike intelligent industrial robots which often work in a structured factory setting, intelligent mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. However, such machines have many potential applications in medicine, defense, industry and even the home that make their study important. Sensors such as vision are needed. However, in many applications some form of learning is also required. The purpose of this paper is to present a discussion of recent technical advances in learning for intelligent mobile robots. During the past 20 years, the use of intelligent industrial robots that are equipped not only with motion control systems but also with sensors such as cameras, laser scanners, or tactile sensors that permit adaptation to a changing environment has increased dramatically. However, relatively little has been done concerning learning. Adaptive and robust control permits one to achieve point to point and controlled path operation in a changing environment. This problem can be solved with a learning control. In the unstructured environment, the terrain and consequently the load on the robot"s motors are constantly changing. Learning the parameters of a proportional, integral and derivative controller (PID) and artificial neural network provides an adaptive and robust control. Learning may also be used for path following. Simulations that include learning may be conducted to see if a robot can learn its way through a cluttered array of obstacles. If a situation is performed repetitively, then learning can also be used in the actual application. To reach an even higher degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. Recently learning theories such as the adaptive critic have been proposed. In this type of learning a critic provides a grade to the controller of an action module such as a robot. The creative control process is used that is "beyond the adaptive critic." A

  20. Mobile Goes Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning--the use of mobile devices for educational purposes by students--is rapidly moving from an experimental initiative by a few innovative districts over the last five years to a broadly accepted concept in K12. The latest research and surveys, results of pilot programs, and analysis of trends in both public education and the broader…

  1. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  2. Mobile Learning Anytime, Anywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlodan, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    Some educational institutions are taking the leap to mobile learning (m-learning) by giving out free iPods. For example, Abilene Christian University gave iPods or iPhones to freshman students and developed 15 Web applications specifically for the mobile devices. The iPod is not the only ubiquitous m-learning device. Any technology that connects…

  3. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  4. Mastering Mobile Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…

  5. Mobility Test Article (MTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.

  6. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  7. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  8. Skylab mobile laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  9. Proceedings of the Third International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1993)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Robert (Compiler); Rigley, Jack (Compiler); Cassingham, Randy (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Satellite-based mobile communications systems provide voice and data communications to users over a vast geographic area. The users may communicate via mobile or hand-held terminals, which may also provide access to terrestrial cellular communications services. While the first and second International Mobile Satellite Conferences (IMSC) mostly concentrated on technical advances, this Third IMSC also focuses on the increasing worldwide commercial activities in Mobile Satellite Services. Because of the large service areas provided by such systems, it is important to consider political and regulatory issues in addition to technical and user requirements issues. Topics covered include: the direct broadcast of audio programming from satellites; spacecraft technology; regulatory and policy considerations; advanced system concepts and analysis; propagation; and user requirements and applications.

  10. Gone Mobile? (Mobile Libraries Survey 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2010-01-01

    Librarians, like patrons and researchers, are caught between traditional library service models and the promise of evolving information technologies. In recent years, professional conferences have strategically featured programs and presentations geared toward building a mobile agenda and adapting or adopting services to meet new demands of mobile…

  11. Potential of mobile intraoperative radiotherapy technology.

    PubMed

    Goer, Donald A; Musslewhite, Chapple W; Jablons, David M

    2003-10-01

    Mobile IORT units have the potential to change the way patients who have cancer are treated. The integration of IORT into cancer treatment programs, made possible by the new technologies of mobile linear accelerators that can be used in unshielded operating rooms, makes IORT significantly less time-consuming, less costly, and less risky to administer. It is now practical for IORT to be used in early-stage disease, in addition to advanced disease, and in sites for which patient transportation in the middle of surgery is considered too risky. Preliminary results of trials for early-stage breast and rectal cancer indicate benefits of IORT. Pediatric patients and patients who have lung cancer, previously underserved by IORT therapies, can be offered potential gains when patient transport issues do not limit IORT. Furthermore, because many of these mobile systems require no shielding, it is now practical for mobile units to be shared between hospitals, making this new mobile technology much more widely available.

  12. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Lumsden, Jo; O'Sullivan, Dympna; Bartlett, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    There are around 285 million visually impaired people worldwide, and around 370,000 people are registered as blind or partially sighted in the UK. Ongoing advances in information technology (IT) are increasing the scope for IT-based mobile assistive technologies to facilitate the independence, safety, and improved quality of life of the visually impaired. Research is being directed at making mobile phones and other handheld devices accessible via our haptic (touch) and audio sensory channels. We review research and innovation within the field of mobile assistive technology for the visually impaired and, in so doing, highlight the need for successful collaboration between clinical expertise, computer science, and domain users to realize fully the potential benefits of such technologies. We initially reflect on research that has been conducted to make mobile phones more accessible to people with vision loss. We then discuss innovative assistive applications designed for the visually impaired that are either delivered via mainstream devices and can be used while in motion (e.g., mobile phones) or are embedded within an environment that may be in motion (e.g., public transport) or within which the user may be in motion (e.g., smart homes).

  13. Time-critical social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Galen; Pan, Wei; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex

    2011-10-28

    The World Wide Web is commonly seen as a platform that can harness the collective abilities of large numbers of people to accomplish tasks with unprecedented speed, accuracy, and scale. To explore the Web's ability for social mobilization, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) held the DARPA Network Challenge, in which competing teams were asked to locate 10 red weather balloons placed at locations around the continental United States. Using a recursive incentive mechanism that both spread information about the task and incentivized individuals to act, our team was able to find all 10 balloons in less than 9 hours, thus winning the Challenge. We analyzed the theoretical and practical properties of this mechanism and compared it with other approaches.

  14. An overview of the Space Station Technology/Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, R. F.; Ambrus, J. H.; Hall, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Plan of the Fiscal Year (FY) 1986 is designed to focus on the most promising technology options applicable to the Space Station (SS), selected from the list of tasks identified by the FY 1984 Technology Program as the most critical technologies to be developed for the initial SS Initial Operating Capability. Most of the current activities are in the stages of manufacture and life tests of specific SS subsystems. Special attention is given to major technologies, which include power systems (PSs) (with emphasis on a Solar Dynamic PS concept); the thermal control system (with the focus on the 'thermal bus' concept); the environmental control and life support system; and the data management system; all are illustrated schematically. Other tasks, including dynamics, communications, extravehicular activities, mechanics, propulsion, and fluid, as well as the tasks of cost, maintainability, automation and robotics, and productivity are discussed.

  15. Space architecture monograph series. Volume 4: Genesis 2: Advanced lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieber, Joseph P.; Huebner-Moths, Janis; Paruleski, Kerry L.; Moore, Gary T. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This research and design study investigated advanced lunar habitats for astronauts and mission specialists on the Earth's moon. Design recommendations are based on environmental response to the lunar environment, human habitability (human factors and environmental behavior research), transportability (structural and materials system with least mass), constructability (minimizing extravehicular time), construction dependability and resilience, and suitability for NASA launch research missions in the 21st century. The recommended design uses lunar lava tubes, with construction being a combination of Space Station Freedom derived hard modules and light weight Kevlar laminate inflatable structures. The proposed habitat includes research labs and a biotron, crew quarters and crew support facility, mission control, health maintenance facility, maintenance work areas for psychological retreat, privacy, and comtemplation. Furniture, specialized equipment, and lighting are included in the analysis and design. Drawings include base master plans, construction sequencing, overall architectural configuration, detailed floor plans, sections and axonometrics, with interior perspectives.

  16. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  17. Curb Mounting, Vertical Mobility, and Inverted Mobility on Rough Surfaces Using Microspine-Enabled Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Three robots that extend microspine technology to enable advanced mobility are presented. First, the Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform (DROP) and the ReconRobotics Scout platform use a new rotary configuration of microspines to provide improved soldier-portable reconnaissance by moving rapidly over curbs and obstacles, transitioning from horizontal to vertical surfaces, climbing rough walls and surviving impacts. Next, the four-legged LEMUR robot uses new configurations of opposed microspines to anchor to both manmade and natural rough surfaces. Using these anchors as feet enables mobility in unstructured environments, from urban disaster areas to deserts and caves.

  18. 77 FR 19575 - Promoting Interoperability in the 700 MHz Commercial Spectrum; Interoperability of Mobile User...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... meaningful access to a wide range of advanced devices. The result, they argue, is that this spectrum is being... interoperability requirement in the 700 MHz band is necessary to obtain affordable, advanced mobile devices to... on the Deployment of Advanced Broadband Services. The record to date suggests that, unless...

  19. A Formative Assessment-Based Mobile Learning Approach to Improving the Learning Attitudes and Achievements of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Hsun-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of mobile and wireless communication technologies has encouraged an increasing number of studies concerning mobile learning, in which students are able to learn via mobile devices without being limited by space and time; in particular, the students can be situated in a real-world scenario associated with the learning content.…

  20. Limits of social mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  1. Mobile Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  2. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  3. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.

  4. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing. PMID:28335475

  5. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  6. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  7. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    PubMed

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  8. Land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, John D.

    1990-07-01

    The general advantages and potential operating characteristics of the mobile satellite service (MSS) are described, and distinctions are made between radio telephone, which is interconnected to the public switched telephone network, and private mobile radio systems. Mobile satellite service offers voice, data, position location, and paging services, interconnection to the public switched telephone network, and the possibility of private networks. Performance and cost characteristics are given along with summaries of market needs and market demands. The space and ground systems of the MSS are described.

  9. Mobile sensor networks for inspection tasks in harsh industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Jacob; Wang, Xinyu; Ferwerda, Franke; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled the fast development of mobile sensor networks operating in various unknown and sometimes hazardous environments. In this paper, we introduce one integrative approach to design, analyze and test distributed control algorithms to coordinate a network of autonomous mobile sensors by utilizing both simulation tools and a robotic testbed. The research has been carried out in the context of the mobile sensing project, PicoSmart, in the northern provinces of the Netherlands for the inspection of natural gas pipelines.

  10. A secure wireless mobile-to-server link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Akopian, David; Agaian, Sos; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2009-02-01

    Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends indicate continuous growth in mobile phone applications. Nowadays phones are equipped with cameras that can capture still images and video, they are equipped with software that can read, convert, manipulate, communicate and save multimedia in multiple formats. This tremendous progress increased the volumes of communicated sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized access. This paper discusses two general approaches for data protection, steganography and cryptography, and demonstrates how to integrate such algorithms with a mobile-toserver link being used by many applications.

  11. Establishing a mobile health and wellness program for rural veterans.

    PubMed

    Therien, J

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Salem, Virginia provides mobile access to health care for over 4000 veterans in southwestern Virginia. This innovative program has joined community outreach with increased use of advanced practice nurses to provide health screenings, risk identification and stratification, education, and enrollment to veterans living in the facility's predominantly rural primary service area. Concurrently, veterans are placed within a comprehensive continuum of care through nurse practitioner intake and assessment clinics, primary care, or routine care every 4 months, with follow-up using the mobile program. Salem's mobile program is extremely effective in its clinical management and fiscal outcomes.

  12. Mobile Sensor Networks for Inspection Tasks in Harsh Industrial Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Jacob; Wang, Xinyu; Ferwerda, Franke; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled the fast development of mobile sensor networks operating in various unknown and sometimes hazardous environments. In this paper, we introduce one integrative approach to design, analyze and test distributed control algorithms to coordinate a network of autonomous mobile sensors by utilizing both simulation tools and a robotic testbed. The research has been carried out in the context of the mobile sensing project, PicoSmart, in the northern provinces of the Netherlands for the inspection of natural gas pipelines. PMID:22294889

  13. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Shilpa; Sood, Archana; Sood, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I-V as well as interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.

  14. A conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hongjiao; Zhao, Yue

    In recent years, cell phones have played an increasingly important role in rapidly-developing global telecommunication services. At present, mobile business develops very fast. However, the development in other mobile service fields, such as public service, mobile medical service, etc, is still in its infant stage. Drawing on the experience of the 'doctor workstation project' which is cooperated by Renmin University of China and Norway Fredskorps Corporation, this paper discusses the research and implementation of the Doctor Workstation System based on cell phone mobile platform. From the practice of the Doctor Workstation System, the paper advances a conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform.

  15. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  16. Mobile Tools | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    These mobile resources can help you quit when you're on the go. SmokefreeTXT SmokefreeTXT is a mobile text messaging service designed for adults across the United States who are trying to quit smoking. The program offers 24/7 encouragement, advice, and tips to help smokers quit smoking and stay quit. If you are interested in signing up, fill out this form.

  17. Stem cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cottler-Fox, Michele H; Lapidot, Tsvee; Petit, Isabelle; Kollet, Orit; DiPersio, John F; Link, Dan; Devine, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Successful blood and marrow transplant (BMT), both autologous and allogeneic, requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) capable of homing to the marrow cavity and regenerating a full array of hematopoietic cell lineages in a timely fashion. At present, the most commonly used surrogate marker for HPCs is the cell surface marker CD34, identified in the clinical laboratory by flow cytometry. Clinical studies have shown that infusion of at least 2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg recipient body weight results in reliable engraftment as measured by recovery of adequate neutrophil and platelet counts approximately 14 days after transplant. Recruitment of HPCs from the marrow into the blood is termed mobilization, or, more commonly, stem cell mobilization. In Section I, Dr. Tsvee Lapidot and colleagues review the wide range of factors influencing stem cell mobilization. Our current understanding focuses on chemokines, proteolytic enzymes, adhesion molecules, cytokines and stromal cell-stem cell interactions. On the basis of this understanding, new approaches to mobilization have been designed and are now starting to undergo clinical testing. In Section II, Dr. Michele Cottler-Fox describes factors predicting the ability to mobilize the older patient with myeloma. In addition, clinical approaches to improving collection by individualizing the timing of apheresis and adjusting the volume of blood processed to achieve a desired product are discussed. Key to this process is the daily enumeration of blood CD34(+) cells. Newer methods of enumerating and mobilizing autologous blood HPCs are discussed. In Section III, Dr. John DiPersio and colleagues provide data on clinical results of mobilizing allogeneic donors with G-CSF, GM-CSF and the combination of both as relates to the number and type of cells collected by apheresis. Newer methods of stem cell mobilization as well as the relationship of graft composition on immune reconstitution

  18. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Louis Stork, 13, and Erin Whittle, 14, look on as Brianna Johnson, 14, conducts a 'test' of a space shuttle main engine in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  19. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  20. Adolescent Mobile Phone Use and Mobile Phone-Based Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Harpin, Scott; Ezeanochie, Nnamdi; Bull, Sheana

    2014-12-01

    The past 20 years of mobile technology has shifted the ways in which young people communicate and network with one another. Mobile phone use is prevalent among adolescents and therefore is an ideal form of communication for tailored health care. This is especially so given the dramatic uptake in use of mobile technologies in this age group. Technology developments have also altered how physicians and public health interventionists communicate with adolescents for prevention messages. Rapidly changing technology has made the study of how best to communicate with youth a challenge because research can scarcely keep up with advances in the technology. However, best practices from behavior change and communication theories remain a foundation for future intervention directions and how we might best meet the health promotion needs of adolescents.

  1. Mobility decline in old age.

    PubMed

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to promote mobility in old age.

  2. View of astronaut Jack Lousma in the Shuttle spacesuits (EMU) at bldg 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Portrait view of astronaut Jack Lousma in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) at bldg 29 Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). He is wearing the full extravehicular mobility unit and is standing on platform about to be lowered into the water.

  3. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  4. Mobil Solar Energy Corporation thin EFG octagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalejs, J. P.

    1994-06-01

    Mobil Solar Energy Corporation manufactures photovoltaic modules based on its unique Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) process for producing octagon-shaped hollow polycrystalline silicon tubes. The octagons are cut by lasers into 100 mm x 100 mm wafers which are suitable for solar cell processing. This process avoids slicing, grinding and polishing operations which are wasteful of material and are typical of most other wafer production methods. EFG wafers are fabricated into solar cells and modules using processes that have been specially developed to allow scaling up to high throughput rates. The goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Initiative (PVMaT) program at Mobil Solar were to improve the EFG manufacturing line through technology advances that accelerate cost reduction in production and stimulate market growth for its product. The program was structured into three main tasks: to decrease silicon utilization by lowering wafer thickness from 400 to 200 (mu)m; to enhance laser cutting yields and throughput while improving the wafer strength; and to raise crystal growth productivity and yield. The technical problems faced and the advances made in the Mobil Solar PVMaT program are described. The author concludes with a presentation of the results of a detailed cost model for EFT module production. This model describes the accelerated reductions in manufacturing costs which are already in place and the future benefits anticipated to result from the technical achievements of the PVMaT program.

  5. Addendum to the Proceedings of the Third International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC 1993)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Robert (Compiler); Rigley, Jack (Compiler); Cassingham, Randy (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Satellite-based mobile communications systems provide voice and data communications to users over a vast geographic area. The users may communicate via mobile or hand-held terminals, which may also provide access to terrestrial cellular communications services. This Third IMSC focuses on the increasing worldwide commercial activities in Mobile Satellite Services, along with technical advances in the field. Because of the large service areas provided by such systems, it is important to consider political and regulatory issues in addition to technical and user requirements issues. The official Proceedings presented in 11 sessions include: direct broadcast of audio programming from satellites; spacecraft technology; regulatory and policy considerations; hybrid networks for personal and mobile applications; advanced system concepts and analysis; propagation; and mobile terminal technology; and mobile antenna technology.

  6. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Ebert, Thomas; Cox, Rachel; Rahmatian, Laila; Wood, James; Schuler, Jason; Nick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) excavator robot is a teleoperated mobility platform with a space regolith excavation capability. This more compact, lightweight design (<50 kg) has counterrotating bucket drums, which results in a net-zero reaction horizontal force due to the self-cancellation of the symmetrical, equal but opposing, digging forces.

  7. Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Roger L.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced laptop and small personal computer technology is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following areas of hand carried computers and mobile workstation technology are covered: background, applications, high end products, technology trends, requirements for the Control Center application, and recommendations for the future.

  8. TACOM-USU intelligent mobility program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2004-09-01

    Over a six year period the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's Intelligent Mobility Program sponsored research to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles. In this paper we describe the Intelligent Mobility Program"s research accomplishments achieved at Utah State University"s (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSIOS). The CSOIS program was based on USU"s "smart wheel" technology, which enables design of an omni-directional vehicle (ODV). Through the course of the program, USU researchers built thirty robots using eight distinct ODV robot designs. These robots were also demonstrated in a number of application scenarios. The program has culminated in the actual fielding of the final robot developed, the ODIS-T2, which was designed for undervehicle inspection at security checkpoints. The design and deployment of these robots required research advances in mechanical and vetronics design, sensor integration, control engineering and intelligent behavior generation algorithms, system integration, and human interface. An overview of the USU-developed robotics technology is presented that details the technology development and technical accomplishments achieved by the TACOM-USU Intelligent Mobility Program, with a focus on the actual hardware produced.

  9. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  10. Multimedia for mobile environment: image enhanced navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Shantanu; Sarkis, Gabi; Tjandranegara, Edwin; Zelkowitz, Evan; Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    As mobile systems (such as laptops and mobile telephones) continue growing, navigation assistance and location-based services are becoming increasingly important. Existing technology allow mobile users to access Internet services (e.g. email and web surfing), simple multimedia services (e.g. music and video clips), and make telephone calls. However, the potential of advanced multimedia services has not been fully developed, especially multimedia for navigation or location based services. At Purdue University, we are developing an image database, known as LAID, in which every image is annotated with its location, compass heading, acquisition time, and weather conditions. LAID can be used to study several types of navigation problems: A mobile user can take an image and transmit the image to the LAID sever. The server compares the image with the images stored in the database to determine where the user is located. We refer to this as the "forward" navigation problem. The second type of problem is to provide a "virtual tour on demand". A user inputs a starting and an ending addresses and LAID retrieves the images along a route that connects the two addresses. This is a generalization of route planning. Our database currently contains over 20000 images and covers approximately 25% of the city of West Lafayette, Indiana.

  11. An Active K-Band Receive Slot Array for Mobile Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulintseff, A. N.; Lee, K. A.; Sukamto, L. M.; Chew, W.

    1994-01-01

    An active receive slot array has been developed for operation in the downlink frequency band, 19.914-20.064 GHz, of NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) for the ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project.

  12. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimizat...

  13. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    PubMed

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  14. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6

    PubMed Central

    Jebaseeli Samuelraj, Ananthi; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point. PMID:26366431

  15. Advancing Reflectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-21

    transmissions, was first demonstrated using Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS ) reflections. Recently, reflectometry has been extended to digital... GNSS +R workshop provided an opportunity for engineers and Earth scientists to assess the state of the art, demonstrate new applications, and discuss...18 Eos, Vol. 94, No. 21, 21 May 2013 MEETING -.~ Advancing Reflectometry Workshop on Renectometry Using GNSS and Other Signals of Opportunity

  16. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  17. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  18. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  19. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  20. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed.

  1. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-12-14

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (rS>0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.66.

  2. Impaired neural activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in functional mobility are common with advancing age, though the physiological determinants underlying this problem are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that muscle power, the product of force and velocity, is an independent predictor of mobility function in older adul...

  3. Are You Still with Us? Managing Mobile Phone Use and Group Interaction in PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Gillian; Wiggins, Sally; Anderson, Tony

    2016-01-01

    As mobile phone technology becomes more advanced, so too does its presence in everyday life. Research has shown, for instance, that students are using their mobile phones in classroom settings, a practice that holds both potential advantages and disadvantages. In group work, these interactions may have consequences for group dynamics in that…

  4. Effects of Short-Term Memory and Content Representation Type on Mobile Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Hsieh, Sheng-Wen; Kinshuk

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapid advancements in mobile communication and wireless technologies, many researchers and educators have started to believe that these emerging technologies can be leveraged to support formal and informal learning opportunities. Mobile language learning can be effectively implemented by delivering learning content through mobile…

  5. A Review of Models and Frameworks for Designing Mobile Learning Experiences and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-Chang; Ching, Yu-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning has become increasingly popular in the past decade due to the unprecedented technological affordances achieved through the advancement of mobile computing, which makes ubiquitous and situated learning possible. At the same time, there have been research and implementation projects whose efforts centered on developing mobile…

  6. Message Design for Mobile Learning: Learning Theories, Human Cognition and Design Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minjuan; Shen, Ruimin

    2012-01-01

    The demands of an increasingly knowledge-based society and the dramatic advances in mobile phone technology are combining to spur the growth of mobile learning (mLearning). However, for mLearning to attain its full potential, it is essential to develop pedagogy and instructional design tailored to the needs of this new learning environment. At…

  7. NASA's mobile satellite communications program; ground and space segment technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naderi, F.; Weber, W. J.; Knouse, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the Mobile Satellite Communications Program of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The program's objectives are to facilitate the deployment of the first generation commercial mobile satellite by the private sector, and to technologically enable future generations by developing advanced and high risk ground and space segment technologies. These technologies are aimed at mitigating severe shortages of spectrum, orbital slot, and spacecraft EIRP which are expected to plague the high capacity mobile satellite systems of the future. After a brief introduction of the concept of mobile satellite systems and their expected evolution, this paper outlines the critical ground and space segment technologies. Next, the Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described. MSAT-X is the framework through which NASA will develop advanced ground segment technologies. An approach is outlined for the development of conformal vehicle antennas, spectrum and power-efficient speech codecs, and modulation techniques for use in the non-linear faded channels and efficient multiple access schemes. Finally, the paper concludes with a description of the current and planned NASA activities aimed at developing complex large multibeam spacecraft antennas needed for future generation mobile satellite systems.

  8. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  9. Mobility of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Chris; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Francia, M Victoria; Rocha, Eduardo P C; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Plasmids are key vectors of horizontal gene transfer and essential genetic engineering tools. They code for genes involved in many aspects of microbial biology, including detoxication, virulence, ecological interactions, and antibiotic resistance. While many studies have decorticated the mechanisms of mobility in model plasmids, the identification and characterization of plasmid mobility from genome data are unexplored. By reviewing the available data and literature, we established a computational protocol to identify and classify conjugation and mobilization genetic modules in 1,730 plasmids. This allowed the accurate classification of proteobacterial conjugative or mobilizable systems in a combination of four mating pair formation and six relaxase families. The available evidence suggests that half of the plasmids are nonmobilizable and that half of the remaining plasmids are conjugative. Some conjugative systems are much more abundant than others and preferably associated with some clades or plasmid sizes. Most very large plasmids are nonmobilizable, with evidence of ongoing domestication into secondary chromosomes. The evolution of conjugation elements shows ancient divergence between mobility systems, with relaxases and type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) often following separate paths from type IV secretion systems. Phylogenetic patterns of mobility proteins are consistent with the phylogeny of the host prokaryotes, suggesting that plasmid mobility is in general circumscribed within large clades. Our survey suggests the existence of unsuspected new relaxases in archaea and new conjugation systems in cyanobacteria and actinobacteria. Few genes, e.g., T4CPs, relaxases, and VirB4, are at the core of plasmid conjugation, and together with accessory genes, they have evolved into specific systems adapted to specific physiological and ecological contexts.

  10. An interactive visualization tool for mobile objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    Recent advancements in mobile devices---such as Global Positioning System (GPS), cellular phones, car navigation system, and radio-frequency identification (RFID)---have greatly influenced the nature and volume of data about individual-based movement in space and time. Due to the prevalence of mobile devices, vast amounts of mobile objects data are being produced and stored in databases, overwhelming the capacity of traditional spatial analytical methods. There is a growing need for discovering unexpected patterns, trends, and relationships that are hidden in the massive mobile objects data. Geographic visualization (GVis) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) are two major research fields that are associated with knowledge discovery and construction. Their major research challenges are the integration of GVis and KDD, enhancing the ability to handle large volume mobile objects data, and high interactivity between the computer and users of GVis and KDD tools. This dissertation proposes a visualization toolkit to enable highly interactive visual data exploration for mobile objects datasets. Vector algebraic representation and online analytical processing (OLAP) are utilized for managing and querying the mobile object data to accomplish high interactivity of the visualization tool. In addition, reconstructing trajectories at user-defined levels of temporal granularity with time aggregation methods allows exploration of the individual objects at different levels of movement generality. At a given level of generality, individual paths can be combined into synthetic summary paths based on three similarity measures, namely, locational similarity, directional similarity, and geometric similarity functions. A visualization toolkit based on the space-time cube concept exploits these functionalities to create a user-interactive environment for exploring mobile objects data. Furthermore, the characteristics of visualized trajectories are exported to be utilized for data

  11. Development of correlations to predict biopolymer mobility in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hejri, S.; Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes the flow and rheological behavior of biopolymer solutions in sandpacks over a wide range of permeability and frontal advance rates. Empirical correlations were developed to estimate polymer mobility in porous media. The correlations are based on porous medium properties, polymer concentration, and rheological parameters for the polymer derived from steady-shear measurements.

  12. Mobile transporter path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

  13. The Space Mobile Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    The definition and development of the next generation space communications and navigation architecture is underway. The primary goals are to remove communications and navigations constraints from missions and to enable increased autonomy. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) is an architectural concept that includes new technology and operations that will provide flight systems with an similar user experience to terrestrial wireless mobile networks. This talk will describe the SMN and its proposed new features, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), optical communications, and User Initiated Services (UIS).

  14. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  15. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  16. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  17. Mobile physician order entry.

    PubMed

    Ying, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Because both computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems and mobile technologies such as handheld devices have the potential to greatly impact the industry's future, IT vendors, hospitals, and clinicians are simply merging them into a logical convergence--"CPOE on a handheld"--with an expectation of full functionality on all platforms: computer workstations, rolling laptops, tablet PCs, and handheld devices. For these trends to succeed together, however, this expectation must be revised to establish a distinct category--mobile physician order entry (MPOE)--that is different from CPOE in form, function, and implementation.

  18. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  19. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  20. Emergency medical support system for extravehicular activity training held at weightless environment test building (WETS) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) : future prospects and a look back over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Isao; Tachibana, Masakazu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Asari, Yasushi; Matsuyama, Shigenori

    2011-12-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides extravehicular activity (EVA) training to astronauts in a weightless environment test building (WETS) located in Tsukuba City. For EVA training, Tsukuba Medial Center Hospital (TMCH) has established an emergency medical support system, serving as operations coordinator. Taking the perspective of emergency physicians, this paper provides an overview of the medical support system and examines its activities over the past decade as well as future issues. Fortunately, no major accident has occurred during the past 10 years of NBS. Minor complaints (external otitis, acute otitis media, transient dizziness, conjunctival inflammation, upper respiratory inflammation, dermatitis, abraded wounds, etc.) among the support divers have been addressed onsite by attending emergency physicians. Operations related to the medical support system at the WETS have proceeded smoothly for the former NASDA and continue to proceed without event for JAXA, providing safe, high-quality emergency medical services. If an accident occurs at the WETS, transporting the patient by helicopter following initial treatment by emergency physicians can actually exacerbate symptoms, since the procedure exposes a patient who was recently within a hyperbaric environment to the low-pressure environment involved in air transportation. If a helicopter is used, the flight altitude should be kept as low as possible by taking routes over the river.