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Sample records for advanced fiber information

  1. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  2. Advanced fiber information systems seed coat neps baseline response from diverse mediums

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive literature search has revealed that no papers have been published regarding selectivity calculation of the AFIS seed coat neps (SCN) determination over interfering material in cotton. A prerequisite to selectivity measurements is to identify suitable fiber medium(s) that give baseline ...

  3. Progress report on understanding AFIS seed coat nep levels in pre-opened slivers on the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) is utilized in this segment of the research project to study how seed coat neps are measured. A patent search was conducted, and studied to assist with the understanding of the AFIS measurement of this impurity in raw cotton. The older AFIS 2 is primari...

  4. Optical Fiber Sensors for Advanced Civil Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Marten Johannes Cornelius

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop, analyze, and implement optical fiber-based sensors for the nondestructive quantitative evaluation of advanced civil structures. Based on a comparative evaluation of optical fiber sensors that may be used to obtain quantitative information related to physical perturbations in the civil structure, the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) optical fiber sensor is selected as the most attractive sensor. The operation of the EFPI sensor is explained using the Kirchhoff diffraction approach. As is shown in this dissertation, this approach better predicts the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of gap length than methods employed previously. The performance of the optical fiber sensor is demonstrated in three different implementations. In the first implementation, performed with researchers in the Civil Engineering Department at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, optical fiber sensors were used to obtain quantitative strain information from reinforced concrete interior and exterior column-to-beam connections. The second implementation, performed in cooperation with researchers at the United States Bureau of Mines in Spokane, Washington, used optical fiber sensors to monitor the performance of roof bolts used in mines. The last implementation, performed in cooperation with researchers at the Turner-Fairbanks Federal Highway Administration Research Center in McLean, Virginia, used optical fiber sensors, attached to composite prestressing strands used for reinforcing concrete, to obtain absolute strain information. Multiplexing techniques including time, frequency and wavelength division multiplexing are briefly discussed, whereas the principles of operation of spread spectrum and optical time domain reflectometery (OTDR) are discussed in greater detail. Results demonstrating that spread spectrum and OTDR techniques can be used to multiplex optical fiber sensors are presented. Finally, practical

  5. Some properties of an advanced boron fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced coreless boron fiber has exhibited tensile strengths which are more than twice that of the normal CVD B/W fibers. The coreless fiber is made by the chemical removal of the tungsten boride core exposed by splitting the as-grown fiber. The easily splittable fiber is made by the chemical vapor deposition of boron on a larger than usual tungsten substrate. It is expected that the ease of splitting is related to residual stresses in these fibers. Measurements of the axial residual stresses in both the normal and the splittable fibers are presented and the results compared. Differences in these stresses are discussed in connection with the ease of splitting in the splittable fibers.

  6. Advanced fiber-optic acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, João G. V.; Leite, Ivo T.; Silva, Susana; Frazão, Orlando

    2014-09-01

    Acoustic sensing is nowadays a very demanding field which plays an important role in modern society, with applications spanning from structural health monitoring to medical imaging. Fiber-optics can bring many advantages to this field, and fiber-optic acoustic sensors show already performance levels capable of competing with the standard sensors based on piezoelectric transducers. This review presents the recent advances in the field of fiber-optic dynamic strain sensing, particularly for acoustic detection. Three dominant technologies are identified — fiber Bragg gratings, interferometric Mach-Zehnder, and Fabry-Pérot configurations — and their recent developments are summarized.

  7. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  8. Advanced fiber placement of composite fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Grant, Carroll G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hercules/NASA Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program will demonstrate the low cost potential of the automated fiber placement process. The Hercules fiber placement machine was developed for cost effective production of composite aircraft structures. The process uses a low cost prepreg tow material form and achieves equivalent laminate properties to structures fabricated with prepreg tape layup. Fiber placement demonstrations planned for the Hercules/NASA program include fabrication of stiffened test panels which represent crown, keel, and window belt segments of a typical transport aircraft fuselage.

  9. Carpet Specifiers Guide. Ultron, Advanced Generation Nylon Carpet Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsanto Textiles Co., Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist specifiers in properly specifying carpet made of Monsanto Ultron advanced generation nylon fiber. The guide describes a variety of conditions that should be considered in arriving at the proper selection and provides reference information and data, ranging from varying regulatory requirements, performance and…

  10. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  11. Advanced fiber/matrix material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Work completed in Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology program is discussed. Two towpreg forms (commingled yarns and fused powder towpregs) are being characterized under the program. These towpregs will be used to evaluate textile fabrication technologies for advanced aircraft composite structures. The unique characteristic of both of these material forms is that both fiber and matrix resin are handled in a single operation such as weaving, braiding, or fiber placement. The evaluation of both commingled and fused powder towpreg is described. Various polymer materials are considered for both subsonic and supersonic applications. Polymers initially being evaluated include thermoplastic polyimides such as Larc-TPI and New-TPI, thermoplastics such as PEEK and PEKEKK as well as some toughened crosslinked polyimides. Preliminary mechanical properties as well as tow handling are evaluated.

  12. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures.

  13. 21st century market opportunities for advanced fibers and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    High-strength, high-modulus fibers based upon either carbon, organic polymers, or ceramics are relatively new materials. Full-scale commercial production of these fibers began within the last 25 years. Current sales of advanced fibers are measured in thousands of tons per year, not in hundreds of thousands of tons per year, as are sales of glass structural fibers. Selling prices are measured in tens of dollars per pound as compared to dollars per pound for glass fiber. Therefore, advanced fibers must still be considered as specialty materials that will be selected based only upon their high performance. While much thanks is due to the aerospace and sporting goods industries for keeping the interest in advanced fibers and composites alive, it is generally agreed that the market will not grow (and prices will not decline) until these fibers are accepted in the industrial market. This presentation identifies industrial market opportunities for advanced fibers and composites in the next century, which is actually tomorrow in the time-line from the beginning of commercialization of advanced fibers. Specific, potential applications are cited, and the estimated volumes and values of these application given. 3 tabs.

  14. Advanced information society(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Shinji

    This paper proposes that, as countermeasure against the centralization of information activities at the capital Tokyo region, the construction of information infrastructure as well as urban spaces adapted for the exchange and transmission of information be needed at the local regions. Development of information activities at the local regions requires urban spaces with high amenity to promote the characteristics of the city and allow for various kinds of human activities to take place. Making it a reality, the urban spaces should allow for (1) the presentation function of information transmission; (2) the cultural invention function related to knowledge production; and (3) construction of a "Mediacity" which is the actor of information exchange and carries out the international exchange function.

  15. Some properties of an advanced boron fiber. [high strength, splittable fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced coreless boron fiber exhibits tensile strengths which are more than twice that of the normal CVD B/W fibers. The coreless fiber is made by the chemical removal of the tungsten boride core exposed by splitting the as-grown fiber. The easily splittable fiber is made by the chemical vapor deposition of boron on a larger than usual tungsten substrate. It is expected that the ease of splitting is related to residual stresses in these fibers. Measurements of the axial residual stresses in both the normal and the splittable fibers are presented and the results compared. Differences in these stresses are discussed in connection with the ease of splitting in the splittable fibers.

  16. Advanced information society (11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kotaro

    Late in the 1980's the information system of Japanese corporation has been operated strategically to strengthen its competitive position in markets rather than to make corporate management efficient. Therefore, information-oriented policy in the corporation is making remarkable progress. This policy expands the intelligence activity in the corporation and also leads to the extension of the market in an information industry. In this environment closed corporate system is transformed into open one. For this system network and database are important managerial resources.

  17. Advances in sapphire optical fiber sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Anbo; Wang, George Z.; Gollapudi, Sridhar; May, Russell G.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the development and testing of two sapphire fiber sensor designs intended for use in high temperature environments. The first is a birefringence-balanced polarimetric sapphire fiber sensor. In this sensor, two single crystal sapphire rods, acting as the birefringence sensing element, are connected to each other in such a way that the slow axis of the first rod is aligned along with the fast axis of the second rod, and the fast axis of the first rod is along the slow axis of the second rod. This sensor has been demonstrated for measurement of temperature up to 1500 C. The second is a sapphire-fiber-based intrinsic interferometric sensor. In this sensor, a length of uncoated, unclad, structural-graded multimode sapphire fiber is fusion spliced to a singlemode silica fiber to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The reflections from the silica-to-sapphire fiber splice and the free endface of the sapphire fiber give rise to the interfering fringe output. This sensor has been demonstrated for the measurement of temperature above 1510 C, and a resolution of 0.1 C has been obtained.

  18. Advanced information society(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsuka, Takashi

    It was reviewed for the internationalization of information in Japan. The most of information has been imported from the foreign countries to Japan. This is very differ from the industrial products, e.g. the automobiles or the electronic products. While the international telecommunication networks have been developed from the beginning of 1980's, it has been able to access to many of the databases produced in the foreign countries from Japan. On the other hand, the databases produced in Japan has not served to the foreign countries except a few systems, e.g. QUICK. In recent years, it has been tried to provide the foreign countries with some of the databases produced in Japan, e.g. JAPIO English database, JOIS/E, NIKKEI TELECON (English), COMLINE. The transborder data flows has become more important in Japan.

  19. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, Akira

    1997-04-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been utilized to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Qualitative, S-shaped 1hr BSR curves were compared for three selected advanced SiC fiber types and standard Nicalon CG fiber. The temperature corresponding to the middle of the S-curve (where the BSR parameter m = 0.5) is a measure of a fiber`s thermal stability as well as it creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, the measured transition temperatures were Nicalon S (1450{degrees}C), Sylramic (1420{degrees}C), Hi-Nicalon (1230{degrees}C) and Nicalon CG (1110{degrees}C).

  20. Advanced information society (8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Hirotsugu

    As technology such as computer, office automation equipments, industrial robots have come into wide use, mental and physical fatigue called technostress as well as health injury has become social issues. Some people attribute this technostress to psychological unrest created by masscommunication or to computer works. On the other hand other people have been conducting investigations of the stress caused by programming works, and gathering information on the related symptoms. The expression and causes of technostress are diverse depending on the kind of computer related labor, therefore, it is necessary to have delicate and detailed countermeasures against it. However, after all technostress is much concerned with individuals' life style and industrial climate.

  1. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  2. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  3. Recent advancement in optical fiber sensing for aerospace composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Takeda, Nobuo

    2013-12-01

    Optical fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention in health monitoring of aerospace composite structures. This paper briefly reviews our recent advancement mainly in Brillouin-based distributed sensing. Damage detection, life cycle monitoring and shape reconstruction systems applicable to large-scale composite structures are presented, and new technical concepts, "smart crack arrester" and "hierarchical sensing system", are described as well, highlighting the great potential of optical fiber sensors for the structural health monitoring (SHM) field.

  4. Advanced fiber optic seismic sensors (geophone) research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan

    The systematical research on the fiber optic seismic sensors based on optical Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology is presented in this thesis. Optical fiber sensors using fiber Bragg gratings have a number of advantages such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, lightweight, low power consumption. The FBG sensor is intrinsically sensitive to dynamic strain signals and the strain sensitivity can approach sub micro-strain. Furthermore, FBG sensors are inherently suited for multiplexing, which makes possible networked/arrayed deployment on a large scale. The basic principle of the FBG geophone is that it transforms the acceleration of ground motion into the strain signal of the FBG sensor through mechanical design, and after the optical demodulation generates the analog voltage output proportional to the strain changes. The customized eight-channel FBG seismic sensor prototype is described here which consists of FBG sensor/demodulation grating pairs attached on the spring-mass mechanical system. The sensor performance is evaluated systematically in the laboratory using the conventional accelerometer and geophone as the benchmark, Two major applications of FBG seismic sensor are demonstrated. One is in the battlefield remote monitoring system to detect the presence of personnel, wheeled vehicles, and tracked vehicles. The other application is in the seismic reflection survey of oilfield exploration to collect the seismic waves from the earth. The field tests were carried out in the air force base and the oilfield respectively. It is shown that the FBG geophone has higher frequency response bandwidth and sensitivity than conventional moving-coil electromagnetic geophone and the military Rembass-II S/A sensor. Our objective is to develop a distributed FBG seismic sensor network to recognize and locate the presence of seismic sources with high inherent detection capability and a low false alarm rate in an integrated system.

  5. Recent Advances in Fiber Lasers for Nonlinear Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, C.; Wise, F. W.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear microscopy techniques developed over the past two decades have provided dramatic new capabilities for biological imaging. The initial demonstrations of nonlinear microscopies coincided with the development of solid-state femtosecond lasers, which continue to dominate applications of nonlinear microscopy. Fiber lasers offer attractive features for biological and biomedical imaging, and recent advances are leading to high-performance sources with the potential for robust, inexpensive, integrated instruments. This article discusses recent advances, and identifies challenges and opportunities for fiber lasers in nonlinear bioimaging. PMID:24416074

  6. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, Akira

    1997-08-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep {open_quotes}m{close_quotes} curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261{degrees}C), Nicalon S (1256{degrees}C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215{degrees}C), Hi Nicalon (1078{degrees}C), Nicalon CG (1003{degrees}C) and Tyranno E (932{degrees}C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests.

  7. FIBER-TEX 1992: The Sixth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The FIBER-TEX 1992 proceedings contain the papers presented at the conference held on 27-29 Oct. 1992 at Drexel University. The conference was held to create a forum to encourage an interrelationship of the various disciplines involved in the fabrication of materials, the types of equipment, and the processes used in the production of advanced composite structures. Topics discussed were advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures as related to global activities focused on textile structural composites.

  8. Estimation of fiber orientations using neighborhood information.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuyang; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Prince, Jerry L

    2016-08-01

    Data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) can be used to reconstruct fiber tracts, for example, in muscle and white matter. Estimation of fiber orientations (FOs) is a crucial step in the reconstruction process and these estimates can be corrupted by noise. In this paper, a new method called Fiber Orientation Reconstruction using Neighborhood Information (FORNI) is described and shown to reduce the effects of noise and improve FO estimation performance by incorporating spatial consistency. FORNI uses a fixed tensor basis to model the diffusion weighted signals, which has the advantage of providing an explicit relationship between the basis vectors and the FOs. FO spatial coherence is encouraged using weighted ℓ1-norm regularization terms, which contain the interaction of directional information between neighbor voxels. Data fidelity is encouraged using a squared error between the observed and reconstructed diffusion weighted signals. After appropriate weighting of these competing objectives, the resulting objective function is minimized using a block coordinate descent algorithm, and a straightforward parallelization strategy is used to speed up processing. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom, ex vivo tongue dMRI data, and in vivo brain dMRI data for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation. The results demonstrate that FORNI improves the quality of FO estimation over other state of the art algorithms. PMID:27209007

  9. Microgel photonics and lab on fiber technology for advanced label-free fiber optic nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaquinto, M.; Micco, A.; Aliberti, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Ruvo, M.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel optical fiber label free optrode platform resulting from the integration between two rapidly emerging technologies such as Lab-on-Fiber Technology (LOFT) and Microgel Photonics (MPs). The device consists of a microgel (MG) layer painted on a metallic slabs supporting plasmonic resonances, directly integrated on the optical fiber tip. A molecular binding event induces significant changes in the MG layer thickness (and consequently in its 'equivalent' refractive index) resulting in an evident wavelength shift of the resonant feature. As a case of study, glucose-responsive MGs have been synthesized by incorporating into the gel matrix boronic acid moieties, whose interaction with glucose rules the driving forces for gel swelling. Our results pave the way for new technological routes aimed to develop advanced label free fiber optic nanoprobes.

  10. High-power monolithic fiber amplifiers based on advanced photonic crystal fiber designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipes, Donald L.; Tafoya, Jason D.; Schulz, Daniel S.; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Weirich, Johannes; Olausson, Christina B.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development and performance of a fully monolithic PCF amplifier that has achieved over 400 W with near diffraction limited beam quality with an approximately 1GHz phase modulated input. The key components for these amplifiers are an advanced PCF fiber design that combines segmented acoustically tailored (SAT) fiber that is gain tailored, a novel multi fiber-coupled laser diode stack and a monolithic 6+1x1 large fiber pump/signal multiplexer. The precisely aligned 2-D laser diode emitter array found in laser diode stacks is utilized by way of a simple in-line imaging process with no mirror reflections to process a 2-D array of 380-450 elements into 3 400/440μm 0.22NA pump delivery fibers. The fiber combiner is an etched air taper design that transforms low numerical aperture (NA), large diameter pump radiation into a high NA, small diameter format for pump injection into an air-clad large mode area PCF, while maintaining a constant core size through the taper for efficient signal coupling and throughput. The fiber combiner has 6 400/440/0.22 core/clad/NA pump delivery fibers and a 25/440 PM step-index signal delivery fiber on the input side and a 40/525 PM undoped PCF on the output side. The etched air taper transforms the six 400/440 μm 0.22 NA pump fibers to the 525 μm 0.55 NA core of the PCF fiber with a measured pump combining efficiency of over 95% with a low brightness drop. The combiner also operates as a stepwise mode converter via a 30 μm intermediate core region in the combiner between the 20 μm core of the input fiber and the 40 μm fiber core of the PCF with a measured signal efficiency of 60% to 70% while maintaining polarization with a measured PER of 20 dB. These devices were integrated in to a monolithic fiber amplifier with high efficiency and near diffraction limited beam quality.

  11. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  12. Advances in the Echidna fiber-positioning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinis, Andrew; Saunders, Will; Gillingham, Peter; Farrell, Tony J.; Muller, Rolf; Smedley, Scott; Brzeski, Jurek; Waller, Lewis G.; Gilbert, James; Smith, Greg

    2014-07-01

    We present advances in the patented Echidna 'tilting spine' fiber positioner technology that has been in operation since 2007 on the SUBARU telescope in the FMOS system. The new Echidna technology is proposed to be implemented on two large fiber surveys: the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) (5000 fibers) as well the Australian ESO Positioner (AESOP) for 4MOST, a spectroscopic survey instrument for the VISTA telescope (~2500 fibers). The new 'superspine' actuators are stiffer, longer and more accurate than their predecessors. They have been prototyped at AAO, demonstrating reconfiguration times of ~15s for errors of <5 microns RMS. Laboratory testing of the prortotype shows accurate operation at temperatures of -10 to +30C, with an average heat output of 200 microwatts per actuator during reconfiguration. Throughput comparisons to other positioner types are presented, and we find that losses due to tilt will in general be outweighed by increased allocation yield and reduced fiber stress FRD. The losses from spine tilt are compensated by the gain in allocation yield coming from the greater patrol area, and quantified elsewhere in these proceedings. For typical tilts, f-ratios and collimator overspeeds, Echidna offers a clear efficiency gain versus current r-that or theta-phi positioners.

  13. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Mironova, M. Ivanova, M. Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-10-28

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  14. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-10-01

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro - fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  15. Advanced experiments with an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo V. S.; Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.

    2014-07-01

    This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

  16. Parallel Information Processing (Image Transmission Via Fiber Bundle and Multimode Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtarev, Nicholai

    2003-01-01

    Growing demand for visual, user-friendly representation of information inspires search for the new methods of image transmission. Currently used in-series (sequential) methods of information processing are inherently slow and are designed mainly for transmission of one or two dimensional arrays of data. Conventional transmission of data by fibers requires many fibers with array of laser diodes and photodetectors. In practice, fiber bundles are also used for transmission of images. Image is formed on the fiber-optic bundle entrance surface and each fiber transmits the incident image to the exit surface. Since the fibers do not preserve phase, only 2D intensity distribution can be transmitted in this way. Each single mode fiber transmit only one pixel of an image. Multimode fibers may be also used, so that each mode represent different pixel element. Direct transmission of image through multimode fiber is hindered by the mode scrambling and phase randomization. To overcome these obstacles wavelength and time-division multiplexing have been used, with each pixel transmitted on a separate wavelength or time interval. Phase-conjugate techniques also was tested in, but only in the unpractical scheme when reconstructed image return back to the fiber input end. Another method of three-dimensional imaging over single mode fibers was demonstrated in, using laser light of reduced spatial coherence. Coherence encoding, needed for a transmission of images by this methods, was realized with grating interferometer or with the help of an acousto-optic deflector. We suggest simple practical holographic method of image transmission over single multimode fiber or over fiber bundle with coherent light using filtering by holographic optical elements. Originally this method was successfully tested for the single multimode fiber. In this research we have modified holographic method for transmission of laser illuminated images over commercially available fiber bundle (fiber endoscope, or

  17. 7 CFR 29.68 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information. 29.68 Section 29.68 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.68 Advance information. Upon the request of an applicant.... Information relative to grade or other determinations contained or to be contained in a certificate shall...

  18. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  19. A critical view on advanced information society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    This is a record of the keynote lecture at the seminar to summarize various discussions on "advanced information society", which have have been carried by Journal of Information Processing and Management. To begin with reviewing very Japanese tendency toward technological determinism in the concept of advanced information society, it is pointed out that other factors such as growth of social needs and flexible telecommunication policy. Megatrends such as "Globalization", "Aging" and "information management" have been brought us diversified problems during the last decade of the 20th century. In the last part of this paper, major problems to be solved for advanced information society are raised.

  20. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  1. 7 CFR 70.93 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information. 70.93 Section 70.93 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Advance information. Upon request of an applicant, all or part of the contents of any grading...

  2. 7 CFR 70.93 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance information. 70.93 Section 70.93 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Advance information. Upon request of an applicant, all or part of the contents of any grading...

  3. 7 CFR 58.21 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance information. 58.21 Section 58.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Grading Service § 58.21 Advance information. Upon request of an applicant, all or part of the contents...

  4. 7 CFR 56.58 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance information. 56.58 Section 56.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Grading Certificates § 56.58 Advance information. Upon request of...

  5. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  6. Boron/aluminum-graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fabrication feasibility and to assess the potential of adhesively-bonded metal and resin matrix fiber composite hybrids as an advanced material, for aerospace and other structural applications. The results of fabrication studies and of evaluation of physical and mechanical properties show that using this hybrid concept it is possible to design a composite which, when compared to nonhybrid composites, has improved transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for perdicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  7. Standards Advisor-Advanced Information Technology for Advanced Information Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawker, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Developers of space systems must deal with an increasing amount of information in responding to extensive requirements and standards from numerous sources. Accessing these requirements and standards, understanding them, comparing them, negotiating them and responding to them is often an overwhelming task. There are resources to aid the space systems developer, such as lessons learned and best practices. Again, though, accessing, understanding, and using this information is often more difficult than helpful. This results in space systems that: 1. Do not meet all their requirements. 2. Do not incorporate prior engineering experience. 3. Cost more to develop. 4. Take longer to develop. The NASA Technical Standards Program (NTSP) web site at http://standards.nasa.gov has made significant improvements in making standards, lessons learned, and related material available to space systems developers agency-wide. The Standards Advisor was conceived to take the next steps beyond the current product, continuing to apply evolving information technology that continues to improve information delivery to space systems developers. This report describes the features of the Standards Advisor and suggests a technical approach to its development.

  8. 7 CFR 56.58 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Grading Certificates § 56.58 Advance information. Upon request of...

  9. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  10. Graphene nanoribbons as an advanced precursor for making carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Changsheng; Behabtu, Natnael; Liu, Yaodong; Chae, Han Gi; Young, Colin C; Genorio, Bostjan; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E; Zhang, Chenguang; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Lomeda, Jay R; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Kumar, Satish; Pasquali, Matteo; Tour, James M

    2013-02-26

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) and chemically reduced graphene nanoribbons (crGNRs) were dispersed at high concentrations in chlorosulfonic acid to form anisotropic liquid crystal phases. The liquid crystal solutions were spun directly into hundreds of meters of continuous macroscopic fibers. The relationship of fiber morphology to coagulation bath conditions was studied. The effects of colloid concentration, annealing temperature, spinning air gap, and pretension during annealing on the fibers' performance were also investigated. Heat treatment of the as-spun GONR fibers at 1500 °C produced thermally reduced graphene nanoribbon (trGNR) fibers with a tensile strength of 378 MPa, Young's modulus of 36.2 GPa, and electrical conductivity of 285 S/cm, which is considerably higher than that in other reported graphene-derived fibers. This better trGNR fiber performance was due to the air gap spinning and annealing with pretension that produced higher molecular alignment within the fibers, as determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The specific modulus of trGNR fibers is higher than that of the commercial general purpose carbon fibers and commonly used metals such as Al, Cu, and steel. The properties of trGNR fibers can be further improved by optimizing the spinning conditions with higher draw ratio, annealing conditions with higher pretensions, and using longer flake GONRs. This technique is a new high-carbon-yield approach to make the next generation carbon fibers based on solution-based liquid crystal phase spinning. PMID:23339339

  11. Graphene nanoribbons as an advanced precursor for making carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Changsheng; Behabtu, Natnael; Liu, Yaodong; Chae, Han Gi; Young, Colin C; Genorio, Bostjan; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E; Zhang, Chenguang; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Lomeda, Jay R; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Kumar, Satish; Pasquali, Matteo; Tour, James M

    2013-02-26

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) and chemically reduced graphene nanoribbons (crGNRs) were dispersed at high concentrations in chlorosulfonic acid to form anisotropic liquid crystal phases. The liquid crystal solutions were spun directly into hundreds of meters of continuous macroscopic fibers. The relationship of fiber morphology to coagulation bath conditions was studied. The effects of colloid concentration, annealing temperature, spinning air gap, and pretension during annealing on the fibers' performance were also investigated. Heat treatment of the as-spun GONR fibers at 1500 °C produced thermally reduced graphene nanoribbon (trGNR) fibers with a tensile strength of 378 MPa, Young's modulus of 36.2 GPa, and electrical conductivity of 285 S/cm, which is considerably higher than that in other reported graphene-derived fibers. This better trGNR fiber performance was due to the air gap spinning and annealing with pretension that produced higher molecular alignment within the fibers, as determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The specific modulus of trGNR fibers is higher than that of the commercial general purpose carbon fibers and commonly used metals such as Al, Cu, and steel. The properties of trGNR fibers can be further improved by optimizing the spinning conditions with higher draw ratio, annealing conditions with higher pretensions, and using longer flake GONRs. This technique is a new high-carbon-yield approach to make the next generation carbon fibers based on solution-based liquid crystal phase spinning.

  12. Overview of advanced components for fiber optic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Stowe, David W.

    1986-01-01

    The basic operating principles and potential performance of several state-of-the-art fiber-optic devices are illustrated with diagrams and briefly characterized. Technologies examined include high-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers and directional couplers, single-mode fiber polarizers and cut-off polarizers, optical-fiber modulators with radially poled piezoactive polymer (PVF2) jackets, and piezoelectric-squeezer polarization modulators. The need for improved manufacturing techniques to make such fiber-optic devices cost-competitive with their thin-film integrated-optics analogs is indicated.

  13. Advanced optical fiber communication simulations in electrotechnical engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Nguyen Thi, Cac; Thienpont, Hugo

    2004-10-01

    We present our efforts in education to apply advanced optical communication simulation software into our Electrical Engineering curriculum by implementing examples from theoretical courses with commercially available simulation software. Photonic design software is an interesting tool for the education of Engineers: these tools are able to simulate a huge variety of photonic components without major investments in student lab hardware. Moreover: some exotic phenomena ,which would usually involve specialty hardware, can be taught. We chose to implement VPItransmissionMaker from VPIsystems in the lab exercises for graduating Electrotechnical Engineers with majors in Photonics. The guideline we develop starts with basic examples provided by VPIsystems. The simplified simulation schemes serve as an introduction to the simulation techniques. Next, we highlight examples from the theoretical courses on Optical Telecommunications. A last part is an assignment where students have to design and simulate a system using real life component datasheets. The aim is to train them to interpret datasheets, to make design choices for their optical fiber system and to enhance their management skills. We detail our approach, highlight the educational aspects, the insight gained by the students, and illustrate our method with different examples.

  14. Distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors information fusion and decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiyuan

    2005-02-01

    Optical fiber sensors can be used to measure many different parameters including strain, temperature, pressure, displacement, electrical field, refractive index, rotation, position and vibrations. Among a variety of fiber sensors, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) has numerous advantages over other optical fiber sensors. One of the major advantages of this type of sensors is attributed to wavelength-encoded information given by the Bragg grating. Since the wavelength is an absolute parameter, signal from FBG may be processed such that its information remains immune to power fluctuations along the optical path. This inherent characteristic makes the FBG sensors very attractive for application in harsh environment, and on-site measurements. But FBG sensors can measure temperature and strain simultaneously; it is necessary to decouple measurement information. In the present paper, A distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors measurement system that measures global deformations of large surface online-based FBG sensors is introduced. Short overview of the measurement principle and the signal processing realized and fusion method as well as the application of the sensor in the field of large surface will be presented. A new fusion method based on the federal Kalman filter to decouple information of the temperature and strain is proposed. The algorithm of optimum estimation fusion for distributed FBG systems based on the model of deformation of beam is studied. Simulation results and experimental results show algorithm of fusion and decoupling is an efficient method for improving performance of distributed FBG sensors system.

  15. Nanosphere lithography for advanced all fiber Sers probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisco, Marco; Galeotti, Francesco; Quero, Giuseppe; Grisci, Giorgio; Micco, Alberto; Mercaldo, L.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report a straightforward and cost-effective fabrication route for the development of nano-patterned optical fiber tips. The technique is based on self-assembling polystyrene microspheres at the air/water interface and on their successive transferring on the fiber tip of single mode optical fiber. By applying to the fiber further treatments like particle size reduction, metal coating and sphere removal, different periodic structures have been conveniently realized. The morphological analysis reveals indeed the successful creation on the optical fiber tip of regular metallic-dielectric spheres' arrays as well as metallic patterns with dimensional features down to a submicron scale. Finally, as proof of concept, we demonstrated the capability of the realized patterns to work as efficient Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) fiber probes.

  16. Advanced shear-lag model applicable to discontinuous fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, H.; Chou, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis for predicting the stress distribution in unidirectional discontinuous fiber composites has been developed and is reported herein. Although the basic approach is based upon the shear-lag analysis, the load transfer at fiber ends is taken into consideration. This consideration becomes important if the bonding between the fiber and matrix at the fiber end is perfect such as the cases often observed in metal matrix composites, as well as during the early stage of loading of polymeric matrix composites. The present analysis includes the ordinary shear-lag analysis as a special case. 28 references.

  17. Investigation of fatigue strength of multilayer advanced fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, H. R.; Kozik, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The analytical characterization of a multilayer fiber composite plate (without hole) was accomplished for both static and dynamic loading conditions using the finite difference technique. Thornel 300/5208 composites with and without holes were subjected to static and tensile fatigue testing. Five (5) fiber orientations were submitted to test. Tensile fatigue testing also included three (3) loading conditions and two (2) frequencies. The low-cycle test specimens demonstrated a shorter tensile fatigue life than the high-cycle test specimens. Failure surfaces demonstrated effect of testing conditions. Secondary failure mechanisms, such as: delamination, fiber breakage, and edge fiber delamination were present. Longitudinal delamination between plies also occurred in these specimens.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  19. 9 CFR 354.144 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information. 354.144 Section 354.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  20. 9 CFR 354.144 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance information. 354.144 Section 354.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  1. 7 CFR 58.21 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information. 58.21 Section 58.21 Agriculture..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 Regulations Governing the Inspection and Grading Services of Manufactured or Processed Dairy Products Inspection...

  2. Properties of fiber composites for advanced flywheel energy storage devices

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J; Groves, S E

    2001-01-12

    The performance of commercial high-performance fibers is examined for application to flywheel power supplies. It is shown that actual delivered performance depends on multiple factors such as inherent fiber strength, strength translation and stress-rupture lifetime. Experimental results for recent stress-rupture studies of carbon fibers will be presented and compared with other candidate reinforcement materials. Based on an evaluation of all of the performance factors, it is concluded that carbon fibers are preferred for highest performance and E-glass fibers for lowest cost. The inferior performance of the low-cost E-glass fibers can be improved to some extent by retarding the stress-corrosion of the material due to moisture and practical approaches to mitigating this corrosion are discussed. Many flywheel designs are limited not by fiber failure, but by matrix-dominated failure modes. Unfortunately, very few experimental results for stress-rupture under transverse tensile loading are available. As a consequence, significant efforts are made in flywheel design to avoid generating any transverse tensile stresses. Recent results for stress-rupture of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite under transverse tensile load reveal that these materials are surprisingly durable under the transverse loading condition and that some radial tensile stress could be tolerated in flywheel applications.

  3. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  4. Advances in fiber optic sensors for in-vivo monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Francesco; Mignani, Anna G.

    1995-09-01

    Biomedical fiber-optic sensors are attractive for the measurement of both physical and chemical parameters as well as for spectral measurements directly performed on the patient. An overview of fiber-optic sensors for in vivo monitoring is given, with particular attention to the advantages that these sensors are able to offer in different fields of application such as cardiovascular and intensive care, angiology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, oncology, neurology, dermatology, and dentistry.

  5. Advanced in In Situ Inspection of Automated Fiber Placement Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue. Keywords: Automated Fiber Placement, Manufacturing defects, Thermography

  6. Recent advances in active fiber composites for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, Aaron A.; Pizzochero, Alessandro E.

    2000-06-01

    Active Fiber Composites (AFCs) provide a novel method for large scale actuation and sensing in active structures. The composite comprises unidirectionally aligned piezoelectric fibers, a resin matrix system, and interdigital electrode. AFCs have demonstrated distinct advantages over current monolithic piezoceramic actuators, including: higher planar actuation strain, tailorable orthotropic actuation, robustness to damage, conformability to curved surfaces, and potential for large area distributed actuation/sensing system. This manuscript focuses on recent developments in three key areas. The first area describes the completion of a standard AFC baseline material. The baseline AFC consists of 5.5mil diameter PZT-5A fibers laminated with an epoxy film adhesive and silver screen-printed electrodes. A scalable fabrication process based on lamination industry equipment has been implemented. Baseline AFC performance has been characterized, including free strains and blocked force. The send area describes continued work in developing optimized geometry/materials for future AFCs. AFC performance and efficiency can be affected significantly by changes in electrode pitch and fiber diameter and/or cross- sectional geometry. Various improved design have been identified. Third is review of application demonstration that exploit the benefits of AFCs to solve structural control problems.

  7. Fuselage structure using advanced technology fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. K.; Tomlinson, H. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fuselage structure is described in which the skin is comprised of layers of a matrix fiber reinforced composite, with the stringers reinforced with the same composite material. The high strength to weight ratio of the composite, particularly at elevated temperatures, and its high modulus of elasticity, makes it desirable for use in airplane structures.

  8. Advancing an Information Model for Environmental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Schreuders, K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    have been modified to support data management for the Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). This paper will present limitations of the existing information model used by the CUAHSI HIS that have been uncovered through its deployment and use, as well as new advances to the information model, including: better representation of both in situ observations from field sensors and observations derived from environmental samples, extensibility in attributes used to describe observations, and observation provenance. These advances have been developed by the HIS team and the broader scientific community and will enable the information model to accommodate and better describe wider classes of environmental observations and to better meet the needs of the hydrologic science and CZO communities.

  9. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 43083 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Advance Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Advance Payments AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning advance payments. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection... appropriate technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES:...

  11. Advances in in situ inspection of automated fiber placement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-05-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue.

  12. Advances in Optical Fiber-Based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; McHale, G B; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    In the past two years, we have used optical fiber-based Faraday Rotation Diagnostics (FRDs) to measure pulsed currents on several dozen capacitively driven and explosively driven pulsed power experiments. We have made simplifications to the necessary hardware for quadrature-encoded polarization analysis, including development of an all-fiber analysis scheme. We have developed a numerical model that is useful for predicting and quantifying deviations from the ideal diagnostic response. We have developed a method of analyzing quadrature-encoded FRD data that is simple to perform and offers numerous advantages over several existing methods. When comparison has been possible, we have seen good agreement with our FRDs and other current sensors.

  13. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  14. Fiber-optic technologies for advanced thermo-therapy applied ex vivo to liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, D.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.; Braglia, A.; Liu, Y.; Macchi, E. G.; Braschi, G.; Gallati, M.; Cigada, A.; Poeggel, S.; Duraibabu, D. B.; Leen, G.; Lewis, E.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal ablation, using radiofrequency, microwave, and laser sources, is a common treatment for hepatic tumors. Sensors allow monitoring, at the point of treatment, the evolution of thermal ablation procedures. We present optical fiber sensors that allow advanced capabilities for recording the biophysical phenomena occurring in the tissue in real time. Distributed or quasi-distributed thermal sensors allow recording temperature with spatial resolution ranging from 0.1 mm to 5 mm. In addition, a thermally insensitive pressure sensor allows recording pressure rise, supporting advanced treatment of encapsulated tumors. Our investigation is focused on two case studies: (1) radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tissue, performed on a phantom with a stem-shaped applicator; (2) laser ablation of a liver phantom, performed with a fiber laser. The main measurement results are discussed, comparing the technologies used for the investigation, and drawing the potential for using optical fiber sensors for "smart"-ablation.

  15. Information processing and synaptic plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber terminals

    PubMed Central

    Evstratova, Alesya; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Granule cells of the dentate gyrus receive cortical information and they transform and transmit this code to the CA3 area via their axons, the mossy fibers (MFs). Structural and functional complexity of this network has been extensively studied at various organizational levels. This review is focused on the anatomical and physiological properties of the MF system. We will discuss the mechanism by which dentate granule cells process signals from single action potentials (APs), short bursts and longer stimuli. Various parameters of synaptic interactions at different target cells such as quantal transmission, short- and long-term plasticity (LTP) will be summarized. Different types of synaptic contacts formed by MFs have unique sets of rules for information processing during different rates of granule cell activity. We will investigate the complex interactions between key determinants of information transfer between the dentate gyrus and the CA3 area of the hippocampus. PMID:24550783

  16. Advanced information technology: Building stronger databases

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the attributes of the Advanced Information Technology (AIT) tool set, a database application builder designed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. AIT consists of a C library and several utilities that provide referential integrity across a database, interactive menu and field level help, and a code generator for building tightly controlled data entry support. AIT also provides for dynamic menu trees, report generation support, and creation of user groups. Composition of the library and utilities is discussed, along with relative strengths and weaknesses. In addition, an instantiation of the AIT tool set is presented using a specific application. Conclusions about the future and value of the tool set are then drawn based on the use of the tool set with that specific application.

  17. Smart Materials for Advanced Applications: Self-Decontaminating Polymers, Photofunctional Composites, and Electroconductive Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Brian Kevin

    2011-12-01

    Materials capable of providing multifunctional properties controllable by some external stimulus (pH, light, temperature, etc) are highly desirable and obtainable given recent advancements in material science. Development of these so called "Smart" materials spanned across many disciplines of science with applications in industrial areas such as medical, military, security, and environmental. Furthermore, next-generation materials require the ability to not only sense/respond to changes in their external/internal environment, but process information in regards to these changes and adapt accordingly in a dynamic fashion, autonomously, so called "Intelligent" materials. Findings reported in this manuscript detail the synthesis, characterization, and application of smart materials in the following three areas: (1) self-cleaning polymers (2) photoresponsive composites and (3) electroconductive fibers. Self-Cleaning Polymers: Self-decontaminating polymers are unique materials capable of degrading toxic organic chemicals (TOCs). Barriers composed of or coated with our photochemical reactive polymer matrix could be applied to multiple surfaces for defense against TOCs; for example, military garments for protection against chemical warfare agents. This study investigates conditions necessary for formation of peroxides via O2 reduction induced by long-lived, strongly reducing benzophenyl ketyl (BPK) polymer radicals. Photolysis of aqueous solutions composed of sulphonated poly(ether etherketone), SPEEK, and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA lead to the formation of the BPK radicals. Experiments investigate the formation and decomposition of peroxides in aqueous solutions of SPEEK/PVA under photolysis. Photofunctional Composites: Photoresponsive nanoporous (PN) films and powders were studied and evaluated as possible additives to sensitize the initiation of CH3NO2 via a mechanism involving coalescence of reaction sites. Such materials consist of a 3-D mesoporous silica framework

  18. Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

  19. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  20. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is sometimes used ... fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  1. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  2. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  3. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  4. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  5. 16 CFR 303.42 - Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... textile fiber products. 303.42 Section 303.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.42 Arrangement of information in advertising textile fiber products. (a) Where a...

  6. Carbon fibers: Thermochemical recovery from advanced composite materials and activation to an adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Todd Andrew

    This research addresses an expanding waste disposal problem brought about by the increasing use of advanced composite materials, and the lack of technically and environmentally viable recycling methods for these materials. A thermochemical treatment process was developed and optimized for the recycling of advanced composite materials. Counter-current gasification was employed for the treatment of carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy resin composite wastes. These materials were treated, allowing the reclamation of the material's valuable components. As expected in gasification, the organic portion of the waste was thermochemically converted to a combustible gas with small amounts of organic compounds that were identified by GC/MS. These compounds were expected based on data in the literature. The composites contain 70% fiber reinforcement, and gasification yielded approximately 70% recovered fibers, representing nearly complete recovery of fibers from the waste. Through SEM and mechanical testing, the recovered carbon fibers were found to be structurally and mechanically intact, and amenable to re-use in a variety of applications, some of which were identified and tested. In addition, an application was developed for the carbon fiber component of the waste, as an activated carbon fiber adsorbent for the treatment of wastewaters. This novel class of adsorbent was found to have adsorption rates, for various organic molecules, up to a factor of ten times those of commercial granular activated carbon, and adsorption capacities similar to conventional activated carbons. Overall, the research addresses an existing environmental waste problem, employing a thermochemical technique to recycle and reclaim the waste. Components of the reclaimed waste material are then employed, after further modification, to address other existing and potential environmental waste problems.

  7. Hollow fiber membranes for advanced life support systems. [permeable capillaries for medical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing. Breadboard hardware has been manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the three hollow fiber membrane assemblies applicable to use aboard future spacecraft have been characterized.

  8. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  9. Advanced spectral fiber optic sensor systems and their application in energy facility monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Lindner, Eric; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-06-01

    Various spectral-encoded fiber optic sensor concepts and advanced system solutions for application in energy facility monitoring have been investigated. The technological maturity, high performance and reliability of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays and networks for the measurement of temperature, dynamic strain, air flow, and magnetic field distributions in electric power generators increasing their efficiency will be demonstrated by selected examples of field testing under harsh environmental conditions. For high-temperature combustion monitoring in gas turbines, beside silica FBGs with enhanced temperature stability also sapphire FBGs and Fabry-Perot sensors have been tested and evaluated as well as fiber-based black-body thermal radiation sensors. Finally, the potential of FBG sensors for application in cryo-energetic facilities such as super-conductive high-power motors and experimental nuclear fusion reactors will be discussed.

  10. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed. PMID:27119268

  11. Multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement for advanced epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Bekyarova, E; Thostenson, E T; Yu, A; Kim, H; Gao, J; Tang, J; Hahn, H T; Chou, T-W; Itkis, M E; Haddon, R C

    2007-03-27

    We report an approach to the development of advanced structural composites based on engineered multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement. Electrophoresis was utilized for the selective deposition of multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on woven carbon fabric. The CNT-coated carbon fabric panels were subsequently infiltrated with epoxy resin using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) to fabricate multiscale hybrid composites in which the nanotubes were completely integrated into the fiber bundles and reinforced the matrix-rich regions. The carbon nanotube/carbon fabric/epoxy composites showed approximately 30% enhancement of the interlaminar shear strength as compared to that of carbon fiber/epoxy composites without carbon nanotubes and demonstrate significantly improved out-of-plane electrical conductivity. PMID:17326671

  12. Advanced end-to-end fiber optic sensing systems for demanding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad

    2010-09-01

    Optical fibers are small-in-diameter, light-in-weight, electromagnetic-interference immune, electrically passive, chemically inert, flexible, embeddable into different materials, and distributed-sensing enabling, and can be temperature and radiation tolerant. With appropriate processing and/or packaging, they can be very robust and well suited to demanding environments. In this paper, we review a range of complete end-to-end fiber optic sensor systems that IFOS has developed comprising not only (1) packaged sensors and mechanisms for integration with demanding environments, but (2) ruggedized sensor interrogators, and (3) intelligent decision aid algorithms software systems. We examine the following examples: " Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) optical sensors systems supporting arrays of environmentally conditioned multiplexed FBG point sensors on single or multiple optical fibers: In conjunction with advanced signal processing, decision aid algorithms and reasoners, FBG sensor based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are expected to play an increasing role in extending the life and reducing costs of new generations of aerospace systems. Further, FBG based structural state sensing systems have the potential to considerably enhance the performance of dynamic structures interacting with their environment (including jet aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and medical or extravehicular space robots). " Raman based distributed temperature sensing systems: The complete length of optical fiber acts as a very long distributed sensor which may be placed down an oil well or wrapped around a cryogenic tank.

  13. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning service... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 7 CFR 53.17 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 53.17... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.17 Advance information... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  15. 7 CFR 54.15 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information concerning service rendered. 54.15... Service § 54.15 Advance information concerning service rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  16. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-02-01

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5×1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2×103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125μm in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  17. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-02-04

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5x1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2x103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125{mu}m in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  18. The intelligent user interface for NASA's advanced information management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Short, Nicholas, Jr.; Rolofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Intelligent Data Management Project to design and develop advanced information management systems. The project's primary goal is to formulate, design and develop advanced information systems that are capable of supporting the agency's future space research and operational information management needs. The first effort of the project was the development of a prototype Intelligent User Interface to an operational scientific database, using expert systems and natural language processing technologies. An overview of Intelligent User Interface formulation and development is given.

  19. Advancing Careers in Information Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Wilbur W.; Templeton, Dennie E.; Chase, Joe D.; Rose, Melinda; Eaton, Carlotta

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss the joining of 12 Virginia community colleges from the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia with Radford University to form the Regional Technology Education Consortium (RTEC), a three-year project funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education program and designed to develop articulation…

  20. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices. PMID:26650731

  1. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  2. Advanced information feedback in intelligent traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zheng, Wen-Chen; Yin, Chuan-Yang; Zhou, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The optimal information feedback is very important to many socioeconomic systems like stock market and traffic systems aiming to make full use of resources. As to traffic flow, a reasonable real-time information feedback can improve the urban traffic condition by providing route guidance. In this paper, the influence of a feedback strategy named congestion coefficient feedback strategy is introduced, based on a two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide road users to make a choice. Simulation results adopting this optimal information feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other two information feedback strategies, i.e., travel time and mean velocity.

  3. Advanced information feedback in intelligent traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zheng, Wen-Chen; Yin, Chuan-Yang; Zhou, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The optimal information feedback is very important to many socioeconomic systems like stock market and traffic systems aiming to make full use of resources. As to traffic flow, a reasonable real-time information feedback can improve the urban traffic condition by providing route guidance. In this paper, the influence of a feedback strategy named congestion coefficient feedback strategy is introduced, based on a two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide road users to make a choice. Simulation results adopting this optimal information feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other two information feedback strategies, i.e., travel time and mean velocity. PMID:16486093

  4. Advanced information feedback in intelligent traffic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zheng, Wen-Chen; Yin, Chuan-Yang; Zhou, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The optimal information feedback is very important to many socioeconomic systems like stock market and traffic systems aiming to make full use of resources. As to traffic flow, a reasonable real-time information feedback can improve the urban traffic condition by providing route guidance. In this paper, the influence of a feedback strategy named congestion coefficient feedback strategy is introduced, based on a two-route scenario in which dynamic information can be generated and displayed on the board to guide road users to make a choice. Simulation results adopting this optimal information feedback strategy have demonstrated high efficiency in controlling spatial distribution of traffic patterns compared with the other two information feedback strategies, i.e., travel time and mean velocity.

  5. Systems Thinking: An Approach for Advancing Workplace Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary M.; Howard, Zaana

    2008-01-01

    As the importance of information literacy has gained increased recognition, so too have academic library professionals intensified their efforts to champion, activate, and advance these capabilities in others. To date, however, little attention has focused on advancing these essential competencies amongst practitioner advocates. This paper helps…

  6. Advanced Technologies for Design Information Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Michael L.; Sheen, David M.; Rose, Joseph L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2009-07-08

    This paper discusses several technologies that have the potential to enhance facilities design verification. These approaches have shown promise in addressing the challenges associated with the verification of sub-component geometry and material composition for structures that are not directly accessible for physical inspection. A simple example is a pipe that extends into or through a wall or foundation. Both advanced electromagnetic and acoustic modalities will be discussed. These include advanced radar imaging, transient thermographic imaging, and guided acoustic wave imaging. Examples of current applications are provided. The basic principles and mechanisms of these inspection techniques are presented along with the salient practical features, advantages, and disadvantages of each technique. Other important considerations, such as component geometries, materials, and degree of access are also treated. The importance of, and strategies for, developing valid inspection models are also discussed. Beyond these basic technology adaptation and evaluation issues, important user interface considerations are outlined, along with approaches to quantify the overall performance reliability of the various inspection methods.

  7. Advancement Information Resources Management: An Information Understanding Profession in Support of Philanthropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Anne E.

    Professional fundraising has given rise to a new information specialist profession. This career path, which has been known as prospect research or advancement research, should be more accurately characterized as information resources management for advancement. With primary emphasis on value-added information processes that involve analysis and…

  8. The Role of Intelligent Agents in Advanced Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerschberg, Larry

    1999-01-01

    In this presentation we review the current ongoing research within George Mason University's (GMU) Center for Information Systems Integration and Evolution (CISE). We define characteristics of advanced information systems, discuss a family of agents for such systems, and show how GMU's Domain modeling tools and techniques can be used to define a product line Architecture for configuring NASA missions. These concepts can be used to define Advanced Engineering Environments such as those envisioned for NASA's new initiative for intelligent design and synthesis environments.

  9. Fiber-Based, Spatially and Temporally Shaped Picosecond UV Laser for Advanced RF Gun Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shverdin, M Y; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Hernandez, J E; Johnson, M; Jovanovic, I; Messerly, M; Pruet, J; Tremaine, A M; McNabb, D P; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2007-06-08

    The fiber-based, spatially and temporally shaped, picosecond UV laser system described here has been specifically designed for advanced rf gun applications, with a special emphasis on the production of high-brightness electron beams for free-electron lasers and Compton scattering light sources. The laser pulse can be shaped to a flat-top in both space and time with a duration of 10 ps at full width of half-maximum (FWHM) and rise and fall times under 1 ps. The expected pulse energy is 50 {micro}J at 261.75 nm and the spot size diameter of the beam at the photocathode is 2 mm. A fiber oscillator and amplifier system generates a chirped pump pulse at 1047 nm; stretching is achieved in a chirped fiber Bragg grating. A single multi-layer dielectric grating based compressor recompresses the input pulse to 250 fs FWHM and a two stage harmonic converter frequency quadruples the beam. Temporal shaping is achieved with a Michelson-based ultrafast pulse stacking device with nearly 100% throughput. Spatial shaping is achieved by truncating the beam at the 20% energy level with an iris and relay-imaging the resulting beam profile onto the photocathode. The integration of the system, as well as preliminary laser measurements will be presented.

  10. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  11. Feasibility and process scale-up low cost alumina fibers for advanced Re-usable Surface Insulation (RSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of this program was to establish feasibility of a process to produce low cost aluminum oxide fibers having sufficient strength, flexibility, and thermal stability for multiple re-use at temperatures to 1480 C in advanced RSI type heat shields for reentry vehicles. Using bench-scale processing apparatus, the Alcoa 'Saphiber' process was successfully modified to produce nominally 8 microns diameter polycrystalline alpha-alumina fiber. Thermal stability was demonstrated in vacuum reheating tests to 1371 C and in atmospheric reheating to 1483 C. Individual fiber properties of strength, modulus, and flexibility were not determined because of friability and short length of the fiber. Rigidized tile produced from fiber of nominally 8, 20 and 40 micron diameter had thermal conductivities significantly higher than those of RSI SiO2 or mullite at relatively low temperature but became comparable above about 1000 C. Tile densities were high due to short fiber length, especially in the coarser diameter fiber. No significant effect of fiber diameter on thermal properties could be determined form the data. Mechanical properties of tiles deteriorated as fiber diameter increased.

  12. Study on advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    1992-01-01

    Issues related to the reliability of a redundant system with large main memory are addressed. In particular, the Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for Advanced Launch System (ALS) is used as a basis for our presentation. When the system is free of latent faults, the probability of system crash due to nearly-coincident channel faults is shown to be insignificant even when the outputs of computing channels are infrequently voted on. In particular, using channel error maskers (CEMs) is shown to improve reliability more effectively than increasing the number of channels for applications with long mission times. Even without using a voter, most memory errors can be immediately corrected by CEMs implemented with conventional coding techniques. In addition to their ability to enhance system reliability, CEMs--with a low hardware overhead--can be used to reduce not only the need of memory realignment, but also the time required to realign channel memories in case, albeit rare, such a need arises. Using CEMs, we have developed two schemes, called Scheme 1 and Scheme 2, to solve the memory realignment problem. In both schemes, most errors are corrected by CEMs, and the remaining errors are masked by a voter.

  13. Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Tsioulos, Gus; Settles, Joseph; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew; Vonau, Walt

    2010-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the most suitable candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. A design that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was developed into a full-scale prototype consisting 14,300 tube bundled into 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Vacuum chamber testing has been performed characterize heat rejection as a function of inlet water temperature and water vapor backpressure and to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the tolerance to freezing and suitability to reject heat in a Mars pressure environment.

  14. Technological Advances and Information Education 1982-2007: Some Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers technological advances in relation to information education over the 25 years of existence of the journal, "Education for Information." Some key developments before 1980 such as the appearance of MARC and library co-operatives are mentioned along with key post-1980 developments including networking, the World Wide Web, and…

  15. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... information (due to the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or...

  16. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... information (due to the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or...

  17. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... broccoli, spinach, and artichokes legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.) almonds Look for the fiber content of ... salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Add lentils or whole-grain barley to your favorite soups. ...

  18. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The current Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program is reviewed and the potential role of IOCs in FOCSI applications is described. The program is intended for building, environmentally testing, and demonstrating operation in piggyback flight tests (no active control with optical sensors) of a representative sensor system for propulsion and flight control. The optical sensor systems are to be designed to fit alongside the bill-of-materials sensors for comparison. The sensors are to be connected to electrooptic architecture cards which will contain the optical sources and detectors to recover and process the modulated optical signals. The FOCSI program is to collect data on the behavior of passive optical sensor systems in a flight environment and provide valuable information on installation amd maintenance problems for this technology, as well as component survivability (light sources, connectors, optical fibers, etc.).

  19. Evaluation of mobility impacts of advanced information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peeta, S.; Poonuru, K.; Sinha, K.

    2000-06-01

    Advanced technologies under the aegis of advanced traveler information systems and advanced traffic management systems are being employed to address the debilitating traffic congestion problem. Broadly identified under the label intelligent transportation systems (ITS), they focus on enhancing the efficiency of the existing roadway utilization. Though ITS has transitioned from the conceptual framework stage to the operational test phase that analyzes real-world feasibility, studies that systematically quantify the multidimensional real-world impacts of these technologies in terms of mobility, safety, and air quality, are lacking. This paper proposes a simulation-based framework to address the mobility impacts of these technologies through the provision of information to travelers. The information provision technologies are labeled as advanced information systems (AIS), and include pretrip information, en route information, variable message signs, and combinations thereof. The primary focus of the paper is to evaluate alternative AIS technologies using the heavily traveled Borman Expressway corridor in northwestern Indiana as a case study. Simulation results provide insights into the mobility impacts of AIS technologies, and contrast the effectiveness of alternative information provision sources and strategies.

  20. Spectral Resolution and Coverage Impact on Advanced Sounder Information Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global measurements of the Earth s atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Achieving such measurement improvements requires instrument system advancements. This presentation focuses on the impact of spectral resolution and coverage changes on remote sensing system information content, with a specific emphasis on thermodynamic state and trace species variables obtainable from advanced atmospheric sounders such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) systems on the MetOp and NPP/NPOESS series of satellites. Key words: remote sensing, advanced sounders, information content, IASI, CrIS

  1. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  2. White matter fiber degradation attenuates hemispheric asymmetry when integrating visuomotor information.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Tilman; Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2010-09-01

    Degradation of white matter fibers can affect the transmission of signals in brain circuits that normally enable integration of highly lateralized visual and motor processes. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging tractography in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the specific contributions of interhemispheric and intrahemispheric white matter fibers to functional measures of hemispheric transfer and parallel information processing using bilateral and unilateral left and right visual field stimulation in normal and compromised systems. In healthy adults, a greater degree of bilateral processing advantage with the left (nondominant) hand correlated with higher integrity of callosal fibers connecting occipital cortices, whereas less unilateral processing advantage with the right hand correlated with higher integrity of left-hemispheric posterior cingulate fibers. In contrast, alcoholics who have compromised callosal integrity showed less bilateral processing advantage than controls when responding with the left hand and greater unilateral processing advantage when responding with the right hand. We also found degraded left posterior cingulate and posterior callosal fibers in chronic alcoholics, which is consistent with functional imaging results of less left posterior cingulate and extrastriate cortex activation in alcoholics than controls when processing bilateral compared with unilateral visual field stimulation. Together, our results demonstrated that interhemispheric and intrahemispheric white matter fiber pathways mediate visuomotor integration asymmetrically and that subtle white matter fiber degradation in alcoholism attenuated the normal pattern of hemispheric asymmetry, which may have ramifications for the efficiency of visual information processing and fast response execution.

  3. Stochastic information transfer from cochlear implant electrodes to auditory nerve fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao; Grayden, David B.; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2014-08-01

    Cochlear implants, also called bionic ears, are implanted neural prostheses that can restore lost human hearing function by direct electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers. Previously, an information-theoretic framework for numerically estimating the optimal number of electrodes in cochlear implants has been devised. This approach relies on a model of stochastic action potential generation and a discrete memoryless channel model of the interface between the array of electrodes and the auditory nerve fibers. Using these models, the stochastic information transfer from cochlear implant electrodes to auditory nerve fibers is estimated from the mutual information between channel inputs (the locations of electrodes) and channel outputs (the set of electrode-activated nerve fibers). Here we describe a revised model of the channel output in the framework that avoids the side effects caused by an "ambiguity state" in the original model and also makes fewer assumptions about perceptual processing in the brain. A detailed comparison of how different assumptions on fibers and current spread modes impact on the information transfer in the original model and in the revised model is presented. We also mathematically derive an upper bound on the mutual information in the revised model, which becomes tighter as the number of electrodes increases. We found that the revised model leads to a significantly larger maximum mutual information and corresponding number of electrodes compared with the original model and conclude that the assumptions made in this part of the modeling framework are crucial to the model's overall utility.

  4. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  5. Polypropylene/glass fiber hierarchical composites incorporating inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles for advanced technological applications.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Naffakh, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Novel isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/glass fiber (GF) laminates reinforced with inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles as environmentally friendly fillers have been successfully fabricated by simple melt-blending and fiber impregnation in a hot-press without the addition of any compatibilizer. The influence of IF-WS2 concentration on the morphology, viscosity. and thermal and mechanical behavior of the hierarchical composites has been investigated. Results revealed an unprecedented 62 °C increase in the degradation temperature of iPP/GF upon addition of only 4.0 wt % IF-WS2. The coexistence of both micro- and nanoscale fillers resulted in synergistic effects on enhancing the stiffness, strength, crystallinity, thermal stability, glass transition (Tg) and heat distortion temperature (HDT) of the matrix. The approach used in this work is an efficient, versatile, scalable and economic strategy to improve the mechanical and thermal behavior of GF-reinforced thermoplastics with a view to extend their use in advanced technological applications. This new type of composite materials shows great potential to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. PMID:24015820

  6. Pressure driven spinning: A multifaceted approach for preparing nanoscaled functionalized fibers, scaffolds, and membranes with advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Suter, Nicolai

    2010-03-02

    Electrospinning, a flexible jet-based fiber, scaffold, and membrane fabrication approach, has been elucidated as having significance to the heath sciences. Its capabilities have been most impressive as it possesses the ability to spin composite fibers ranging from the nanometer to the micrometer scale. Nonetheless, electrospinning has limitations and hazards, negating its wider exploration, for example, the inability to handle highly conducting suspensions, to its hazardous high voltage. Hence, to date electrospinning has undergone an exhaustive research regime to a point of cliché. Thus, in the work reported herein we unveil a competing technique to electrospinning, which has overcome the above limitations and hazards yet comparable in capabilities. The fiber preparation approach unearthed herein is referred to as "pressure driven spinning (PDS)." The driving mechanism exploited in this fiber spinning process is the pressurized by-pass flow. This mechanism allows the drawing of either micro- or nanosized fibers while processing polymeric suspensions containing a wide range of advanced materials spanning structural, functional, and biological entities. Similar to electrospinning if the collection time of these continuous formed fibers is varied, composite scaffolds and membranes are generated. In keeping with our interests, multicompositional structural entities such as these could have several applications in biology and medicine, for example, ranging from the development of three-dimensional cultures (including disease models) to the development of synthetic tissues and organ structures to advanced approaches for controlled and targeted therapeutics.

  7. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  8. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  9. Full-Scale Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Dillon, Paul; Weaver, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the superior candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. Although a number of design variants were considered, one that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was deemed best for further development. An analysis of test data showed that eight layer stacks of the HoFi sheets that had good exposure on each side of the stack would evaporate water with high efficiency. A design that has 15,000 tubes, with 18 cm of exposed tubes between headers has been built and tested that meets the size, weight, and performance requirements of the SWME. This full-scale prototype consists of 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Testing has been performed to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the sensitivity to surfactants.

  10. Keeping Up with Advancements in Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2016-04-01

    We all face an onslaught of information on a daily basis in our personal and professional lives. We view it as a significant part of our professional responsibility to help our colleagues stay abreast of the latest advancements related to health information technology (HIT). This month we explore some of the key resources that we find helpful for keeping up-to-date with emerging and disruptive technology.

  11. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or she has...

  12. 42 CFR 422.128 - Information on advance directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information on advance directives. 422.128 Section 422.128 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the incapacitating condition or a mental disorder) or articulate whether or not he or she has...

  13. An ultrafast optics undergraduate advanced laboratory with a mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Andrew; Fredrick, Connor; Hoyt, Chad; Jones, Jason

    2015-05-01

    We describe an ultrafast optics undergraduate advanced laboratory comprising a mode-locked erbium fiber laser, auto-correlation measurements, and an external, free-space parallel grating dispersion compensation apparatus. The simple design of the stretched pulse laser uses nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locking to produce pulses at a repetition rate of 55 MHz and average power of 5.5 mW. Interferometric and intensity auto-correlation measurements are made using a Michelson interferometer that takes advantage of the two-photon nonlinear response of a common silicon photodiode for the second order correlation between 1550 nm laser pulses. After a pre-amplifier and compression, pulse widths as narrow as 108 fs are measured at 17 mW average power. A detailed parts list includes previously owned and common components used by the telecommunications industry, which may decrease the cost of the lab to within reach of many undergraduate and graduate departments. We also describe progress toward a relatively low-cost optical frequency comb advanced laboratory. NSF EIR #1208930.

  14. PARP INHIBITION OR GENE DEFICIENCY COUNTERACT INTRAEPIDERMAL NERVE FIBER LOSS AND NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN ADVANCED DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Obrosova, Irina G.; Xu, Weizheng; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V.; Ilnytska, Olga; Mashtalir, Nazar; Vareniuk, Igor; Pavlov, Ivan A.; Zhang, Jie; Slusher, Barbara; Drel, Viktor R.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for important role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation in diabetic complications is emerging. This study evaluated the role for PARP in rat and mouse models of advanced diabetic neuropathy. The orally active PARP inhibitor 10-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-2H-7-oxa-1,2-diaza-benzo[de]anthracen-3-one(GPI-15427, formulated as mesilate salt, 30 mg kg−1d−1 in the drinking water, for 10 weeks after first 2 weeks without treatment) at least partially prevented PARP activation in peripheral nerve and DRG neurons, as well as thermal hypoalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia, tactile allodynia, exaggerated response to formalin, and, the most important, intraepidermal nerve fiber degeneration in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These findings are consistent with the lack of small sensory nerve fiber dysfunction in diabetic PARP−/− mice. Furthermore, whereas diabetic PARP+/+ mice displayed ~ 46% intraepidermal nerve fiber loss, diabetic PARP−/− preserved completely normal intraepidermal nerve fiber density. In conclusion, PARP activation is an important contributor to intraepidermal nerve fiber degeneration and functional changes associated with advanced Type 1 diabetic neuropathy. The results support the rationale for development of potent and low toxic PARP inhibitors and PARP inhibitor-containing combination therapies. PMID:17976390

  15. Joint Multi-Fiber NODDI Parameter Estimation and Tractography Using the Unscented Information Filter

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Chinthala P.; Rathi, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Tracing white matter fiber bundles is an integral part of analyzing brain connectivity. An accurate estimate of the underlying tissue parameters is also paramount in several neuroscience applications. In this work, we propose to use a joint fiber model estimation and tractography algorithm that uses the NODDI (neurite orientation dispersion diffusion imaging) model to estimate fiber orientation dispersion consistently and smoothly along the fiber tracts along with estimating the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions from the diffusion signal. While the NODDI model has been used in earlier works to estimate the microstructural parameters at each voxel independently, for the first time, we propose to integrate it into a tractography framework. We extend this framework to estimate the NODDI parameters for two crossing fibers, which is imperative to trace fiber bundles through crossings as well as to estimate the microstructural parameters for each fiber bundle separately. We propose to use the unscented information filter (UIF) to accurately estimate the model parameters and perform tractography. The proposed approach has significant computational performance improvements as well as numerical robustness over the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Our method not only estimates the confidence in the estimated parameters via the covariance matrix, but also provides the Fisher-information matrix of the state variables (model parameters), which can be quite useful to measure model complexity. Results from in-vivo human brain data sets demonstrate the ability of our algorithm to trace through crossing fiber regions, while estimating orientation dispersion and other biophysical model parameters in a consistent manner along the tracts. PMID:27147956

  16. Joint Multi-Fiber NODDI Parameter Estimation and Tractography Using the Unscented Information Filter.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chinthala P; Rathi, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Tracing white matter fiber bundles is an integral part of analyzing brain connectivity. An accurate estimate of the underlying tissue parameters is also paramount in several neuroscience applications. In this work, we propose to use a joint fiber model estimation and tractography algorithm that uses the NODDI (neurite orientation dispersion diffusion imaging) model to estimate fiber orientation dispersion consistently and smoothly along the fiber tracts along with estimating the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions from the diffusion signal. While the NODDI model has been used in earlier works to estimate the microstructural parameters at each voxel independently, for the first time, we propose to integrate it into a tractography framework. We extend this framework to estimate the NODDI parameters for two crossing fibers, which is imperative to trace fiber bundles through crossings as well as to estimate the microstructural parameters for each fiber bundle separately. We propose to use the unscented information filter (UIF) to accurately estimate the model parameters and perform tractography. The proposed approach has significant computational performance improvements as well as numerical robustness over the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Our method not only estimates the confidence in the estimated parameters via the covariance matrix, but also provides the Fisher-information matrix of the state variables (model parameters), which can be quite useful to measure model complexity. Results from in-vivo human brain data sets demonstrate the ability of our algorithm to trace through crossing fiber regions, while estimating orientation dispersion and other biophysical model parameters in a consistent manner along the tracts. PMID:27147956

  17. Joint Multi-Fiber NODDI Parameter Estimation and Tractography Using the Unscented Information Filter.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chinthala P; Rathi, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Tracing white matter fiber bundles is an integral part of analyzing brain connectivity. An accurate estimate of the underlying tissue parameters is also paramount in several neuroscience applications. In this work, we propose to use a joint fiber model estimation and tractography algorithm that uses the NODDI (neurite orientation dispersion diffusion imaging) model to estimate fiber orientation dispersion consistently and smoothly along the fiber tracts along with estimating the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions from the diffusion signal. While the NODDI model has been used in earlier works to estimate the microstructural parameters at each voxel independently, for the first time, we propose to integrate it into a tractography framework. We extend this framework to estimate the NODDI parameters for two crossing fibers, which is imperative to trace fiber bundles through crossings as well as to estimate the microstructural parameters for each fiber bundle separately. We propose to use the unscented information filter (UIF) to accurately estimate the model parameters and perform tractography. The proposed approach has significant computational performance improvements as well as numerical robustness over the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Our method not only estimates the confidence in the estimated parameters via the covariance matrix, but also provides the Fisher-information matrix of the state variables (model parameters), which can be quite useful to measure model complexity. Results from in-vivo human brain data sets demonstrate the ability of our algorithm to trace through crossing fiber regions, while estimating orientation dispersion and other biophysical model parameters in a consistent manner along the tracts.

  18. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-01

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  19. Rehabilitation of advanced periodontal problems by using a combination of a glass fiber-reinforced composite resin bridge and splint.

    PubMed

    Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Aksoy, Gokhan; User, Atilla

    2008-02-01

    Rehabilitation of masticatory ability in patients with reduced periodontal tissue support is a multiple challenge in dentistry. It has been shown that tooth mobility is reduced by a splint in place. Splints may be constructed of various materials. Development of fiber-reinforced composite materials offers a new and conservative approach for tooth replacement and stabilization. This case report describes the rehabilitation and 2-year follow-up of a patient with advanced periodontal problems by using a glass fiber-reinforced composite resin material. PMID:18389738

  20. Experimental development of advanced air filtration media based on electrospun polymer fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghochaghi, Negar

    Electrospinning is a process by which polymer fibers can be produced using an electrostatically driven fluid jet. Electrospun fibers can be produced at the micro- or nano-scale and are, therefore, very promising for air filtration applications. However, because electrospun fibers are electrically charged, it is difficult to control the morphology of filtration media. Fiber size, alignment and uniformity are very important factors that affect filter performance. The focus of this project is to understand the relationship between filter morphology and performance and to develop new methods to create filtration media with optimum morphology. This study is divided into three focus areas: unimodal and bimodal microscale fibrous media with aligned, orthogonal and random fiber orientations; unimodal and bimodal nanoscale fibers in random orientations; bimodal micrometer and nanometer fiber media with orthogonally aligned orientations. The results indicate that the most efficient filters, which are those with the highest ratio of particle collection efficiency divided by pressure drop, can be obtained through fabricating filters in orthogonal layers of aligned fibers with two different fiber diameters. Moreover, our results show that increasing the number of layers increases the performance of orthogonally layered fibers. Also, controlling fiber spacing in orthogonally layered micrometer fiber media can be an alternative way to study the filtration performance. Finally, such coatings presented throughout this research study can be designed and placed up-stream, down-stream, and/or in between conventional filters.

  1. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  2. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  3. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the risk associated with accidents involving aircraft with carbon fiber composite structural components is examined. The individual fiber segments cause electrical and electronic equipment to fail under certain operating conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model was used to computer the risk. Aircraft accidents with fire, release of carbon fiber material, entrainment of carbon fibers in a smoke plume transport of fibers downwind, transfer of some fibers/into the the interior of buildings, failures of electrical and electronic equipment, and economic impact of failures are discussed. Risk profiles were prepared for individual airports and the Nation. The vulnerability of electrical transmission equipment to carbon fiber incursion and aircraft accident total costs is investigated.

  4. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  5. More than meets the eye in bacterial cellulose: biosynthesis, bioprocessing, and applications in advanced fiber composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Koon-Yang; Buldum, Gizem; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers are one of the stiffest organic materials produced by nature. It consists of pure cellulose without the impurities that are commonly found in plant-based cellulose. This review discusses the metabolic pathways of cellulose-producing bacteria and the genetic pathways of Acetobacter xylinum. The fermentative production of BC and the bioprocess parameters for the cultivation of bacteria are also discussed. The influence of the composition of the culture medium, pH, temperature, and oxygen content on the morphology and yield of BC are reviewed. In addition, the progress made to date on the genetic modification of bacteria to increase the yield of BC and the large-scale production of BC using various bioreactors, namely static and agitated cultures, stirred tank, airlift, aerosol, rotary, and membrane reactors, is reviewed. The challenges in commercial scale production of BC are thoroughly discussed and the efficiency of various bioreactors is compared. In terms of the application of BC, particular emphasis is placed on the utilization of BC in advanced fiber composites to manufacture the next generation truly green, sustainable and renewable hierarchical composites.

  6. Quantum information tapping using a fiber optical parametric amplifier with noise figure improved by correlated inputs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089

  7. Quantum information tapping using a fiber optical parametric amplifier with noise figure improved by correlated inputs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution. PMID:27458089

  8. Quantum information tapping using a fiber optical parametric amplifier with noise figure improved by correlated inputs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y

    2016-07-26

    One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.

  9. Quantum information tapping using a fiber optical parametric amplifier with noise figure improved by correlated inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.

    2016-07-01

    One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.

  10. Variations and relationship of quality and NIR spectral characteristics of cotton fibers collected from multi-location field performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High volume instrumentation (HVITM) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements are increasingly being utilized as primary and routine means of acquiring fiber quality data by cotton breeders and fiber processors. There is amount of information regarding fiber and yarn qualities, but l...

  11. An Advanced Real-Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, I.; Nakamura, H.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Aoi, S.; Fujiwara, H.

    2015-12-01

    J-RISQ (Japan Real-time Information System for earthquake) has been developing in NIED for appropriate first-actions to big earthquakes. When an earthquake occurs, seismic intensities (SI) are calculated first at each observation station and sent to the Data Management Center in different timing. The system begins the first estimation when the number of the stations observing the SI of 2.5 or larger exceeds the threshold amount. It estimates SI distribution, exposed population and earthquake damage on buildings by using basic data for estimation, such as subsurface amplification factors, population, and building information. It has been accumulated in J-SHIS (Japan Seismic Information Station) developed by NIED, a public portal for seismic hazard information across Japan. The series of the estimation is performed for each 250m square mesh and finally the estimated data is converted into information for each municipality. Since October 2013, we have opened estimated SI, exposed population etc. to the public through the website by making full use of maps and tables.In the previous system, we sometimes could not inspect the information of the surrounding areas out of the range suffered from strong motions, or the details of the focusing areas, and could not confirm whether the present information was the latest or not without accessing the website. J-RISQ has been advanced by introducing the following functions to settle those problems and promote utilization in local areas or in personal levels. In addition, the website in English has been released.・It has become possible to focus on the specific areas and inspect enlarged information.・The estimated information can be downloaded in the form of KML.・The estimated information can be updated automatically and be provided as the latest one.・The newest information can be inspected by using RSS readers or browsers corresponding to RSS.・Exclusive pages for smartphones have been prepared.The information estimated

  12. Geophysical Information from Advanced Sounder Infrared Spectral Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Satisfying this type of improvement for inferred geophysical information from these observations requires optimal usage of data from current systems as well as enhancements to future sensors. This presentation addresses the information content present in infrared spectral radiance from advanced atmospheric sounders with an emphasis on knowledge of thermodynamic state and trace species. Results of trade-off studies conducted to evaluate the impact of spectral resolution, spectral coverage, instrument noise, and a priori knowledge on remote sensing system information content will be discussed. A focus is placed on information achievable from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite in orbit since 2002, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) aboard MetOp-A since 2006, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instrument aboard the NPP and JPSS series of satellites which began 28 October 2011.

  13. Advancing Information and Communication Technology Knowledge for Undergraduate Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is a dynamic profession; for registered nurses their role is increasingly requiring greater information process understanding and the effective management of information to ensure high quality safe patient care. This paper outlines the design and implementation of Systems of eCare. This is a course which advances information and communication technology knowledge for undergraduate nursing students within a Faculty of Health and Wellbeing appropriately preparing nurses for their professional careers. Systems of eCare entwines throughout the three year programme mapping to the curriculum giving meaning to learning for the student. In conclusion comments from students convey their appreciation of the provision of this element of the undergraduate programme. PMID:24199114

  14. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  15. Impact of Measurement System Characteristics on Advanced Sounder Information Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global observations of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Achieving such an improvement in geophysical information inferred from these observations requires optimal usage of data from current systems as well as instrument system enhancements for future sensors. This presentation addresses results of tradeoff studies evaluating the impact of spectral resolution, spectral coverage, instrument noise, and a priori knowledge on remote sensing system information content, with a specific emphasis on thermodynamic state and trace species information obtainable from advanced atmospheric sounders. Particular attention will be devoted toward information achievable from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite in orbit since 2002, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) aboard MetOp-A since 2006, and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instrument to fly aboard the NPP and JPSS series of satellites expected to begin in late 2011. While all of these systems cover nearly the same infrared spectral extent, they have very different number of channels, instrument line shapes, coverage continuity, and instrument noise. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 discrete spectral channels ranging from about 0.4 to 2.2/cm resolution; IASI is a Michelson interferometer with 8461 uniformly-spaced spectral channels of 0.5/cm (apodized) resolution; and CrIS is a Michelson interferometer having 1305 spectral channels of 0.625, 1.250, and 2.50/cm (unapodized) spectral resolution, respectively, over its three continuous but non-overlapping bands. Results of tradeoff studies showing information content sensitivity to assumed measurement system characteristics will be presented.

  16. Study of Extra-Solar Planets with the Advanced Fiber Optic Echelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Robert W.; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of NASA Grant NAG5-7505, for 'Study of Extra-solar Planets with the Advanced Fiber Optic Echelle'. This program was funded in response to our proposal submitted under NASA NRA 97-OSS-06, with a total period of performance from June 1, 1998 through Feb 28 2002. Principal Investigator is Robert W. Noyes; co-Investigators are Sylvain G. Korzennik (SAO), Peter Niserison (SAO), and Timothy M. Brown (High Altitude Observatory). Since the start of this program we have carried out more than 30 observing runs, typically of 5 to 7 days duration. We obtained a total of around 2000 usable observations of about 150 stars, where a typical observation consists of 3 exposures of 10 minutes each. Using this data base we detected thc two additional planetary companions to the star Upsilon Andromedae. This detection was made independently of, and essentially simultaneously with, a similar detection by the Berkeley group (Marcy et al): the fact that two data sets were completely independent and gave essentially the same orbital parameters for this three-planet system gave a strong confirmation of this important result. We also extended our previous detection of the planet orbiting Rho Coronae Borealis to get a better determination of its orbital eccentricity: e=0.13 +/- 0.05. We detected a new planet in orbit around the star HD 89744, with orbital period 256 days, semi-major axis 0.88 AU, eccentricity 0.70, and minimum mass m sini = 7.2 m(sub Jup). This discovery is significant because of the very high orbital eccentricity, arid also because HD 89744 has both high metallicity [Fe/H] and at the same time a low [C/Fe] abundance ratio.

  17. Dietary fiber information for individuals with Crohn disease: reports of gastrointestinal effects.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Carol S; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of individuals with Crohn disease before and after receiving dietary fiber information have not been described in the literature. This article offers findings from a study that used four semistructured audiorecorded interviews during a 4-week time period for the purpose of exploring the experiences of 11 individuals before and after receiving dietary fiber information from a healthcare professional. The first and second interviews occurred immediately before and after the presentation of information. Follow-up interviews occurred at 2-week intervals. Thematic analysis of the baseline interviews revealed 2 themes: (a) accepting a redefined (lower expectations) definition of normal quality of life and (b) continuing to look for answers. Three themes emerged from the follow-up interviews at Week 4: (a) reevaluating old diet-related concepts, (b) enjoying a healthier lifestyle at a self-set pace, and (c) enjoying positive physical effects of wheat bran consumption. This article examines the 3rd postintervention theme, "enjoying physical effects of wheat bran consumption." The relevance of this research is that nurses equipped with dietary fiber information may be better able to help some individuals with Crohn disease to explore the potential benefits of a well-rounded nutritious pattern of eating that includes wheat bran cereal. PMID:24084130

  18. Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access and Online Advanced Spatial Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Petersen, G.; Kelly, M.; Day, R.

    2002-05-01

    The Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access system (PASDA) is Pennsylvania's official geospatial information clearinghouse and the Commonwealth's node on the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. The PASDA clearinghouse provides for the widespread sharing of geospatial data, eliminates the creation of redundant data sets, and serves as a resource for locating data throughout the Commonwealth through its comprehensive standardized data storage, online free download, interactive mapping tools, and metadata/documentation efforts. PASDA also serves as a primary member of the Geography Network, a node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure for fisheries and aquatic resources, and provides several WebGIS applications such as Pennsylvania Explorer and Pennsylvania Interactive Watershed Atlas. With PASDA data delivery and access mechanisms in place, we are further building Online Advanced Spatial Information Systems (OASIS) for 1) geospatial data mining and knowledge discovery and 2) intelligent spatial decision support. The OASIS intends to integrate artificial intelligence, spatial modeling, data mining tools, and expert systems into PASDA so that a mechanism for transforming geospatial data into information, synthesizing geospatial knowledge, and supporting spatial decision-making may be developed.

  19. Synthesis of high performance ceramic fibers by chemical vapor deposition for advanced metallics reinforcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revankar, Vithal; Hlavacek, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of fibers capable of effectively reinforcing intermetallic matrices at elevated temperatures which can be used for potential applications in high temperature composite materials is described. This process was used due to its advantage over other fiber synthesis processes. It is extremely important to produce these fibers with good reproducible and controlled growth rates. However, the complex interplay of mass and energy transfer, blended with the fluid dynamics makes this a formidable task. The design and development of CVD reactor assembly and system to synthesize TiB2, CrB, B4C, and TiC fibers was performed. Residual thermal analysis for estimating stresses arising form thermal expansion mismatch were determined. Various techniques to improve the mechanical properties were also performed. Various techniques for improving the fiber properties were elaborated. The crystal structure and its orientation for TiB2 fiber is discussed. An overall view of the CVD process to develop CrB2, TiB2, and other high performance ceramic fibers is presented.

  20. Industrial fiber beam delivery system for ultrafast lasers: applications and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilzer, Sebastian; Funck, Max C.; Wedel, Björn

    2016-03-01

    Fiber based laser beam delivery is the method of choice for high power laser applications whenever great flexibility is required. For cw-lasers fiber beam delivery has long been established but has recently also become available for ultrafast lasers. Using micro-structured hollow core fibers that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion. In addition, the technology opens new possibilities for beam delivery systems as the pulse propagation inside the fiber can be altered on purpose. For example to shorten the pulse duration of picosecond lasers down into the femtosecond regime. We present a modular fiber beam delivery system for micromachining applications with industrial pico- and femtosecond lasers that is flexibly integrated into existing applications. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. Robust and stable beam transport during dynamic operation as in robot or gantry systems will be discussed together with optional pulse compression.

  1. Recent advances in the development of holey optical fibers based on sulphide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smektala, F.; Brilland, L.; Chartier, T.; Nguyen, T. N.; Troles, J.; Niu, Y. F.; Danto, S.; Traynor, N.; Jouan, T.

    2006-02-01

    Microstructured optical fibers as new optical objects have been developed in the recent past years, firstly from silica glass and then from other oxide glasses such as tellurite or different heavy cations oxide glasses. However very few results have been reported concerning non-oxide glasses and more particularly chalcogenide glasses. In a photonic crystal fiber the arrangement of air holes along the transverse section of the fiber around a solid glassy core leads to unique optical properties, such as for example broadband single-mode guidance, adjustable dispersion, nonlinear properties. Since the effective modal area is adjustable thanks to geometrical parameters, chalcogenide microstructured fibers with small mode area are of interest for nonlinear components because of the intrinsic non linearity of chalcogenide glasses, several order of magnitude above these of the reference silica glass (100 to 1000 times the non linearity of silica glass). On the other hand, chalcogenide holey fibers with large mode area are of interest for infrared power transmission, in a wavelength range out of reach of silica fibers, and more particularly in the 3-5 μm atmospheric window. The aim of this paper is to present more specifically the recent results that have been achieved in the elaboration, light guidance and characterization of photonic crystal fibers from the sulfide Ge 20Ga 5Sb 10S 65 glass, which presents a large transparency window from 600 nm to 11 μm.

  2. Adaptive information interchange system of the fiber-optic measuring networks with the computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Igor V.; Drozdov, Roman S.; Sedov, Victor A.

    2005-06-01

    In the present paper the characteristics and opportunities of application of the system of parallel input-output of information from the fiber-optical measuring network into computer are considered. The system consists of two pars: on manframe and several expansion blocks. The first part is internal, is connected directly in the socket of the motherboard of the personal computer. It is designed for buffering system signals and development of cojmands of controlling by the system for input-output of signals into personal computer and signals generation onto expansion blocks. The second part is external, connects to the mainframe by means of cables. It designed for transformation of information from the fiber-optical measuring network into signalsof rthe mainframe and instrument settings adaptation. The analysis of speed of procesing of analog and digital data by system is presented. The possible schemes of use of the system for processing quasistationary and dynamic fields are considered.

  3. High-power fused assemblies enabled by advances in fiber-processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Robert; Clark, Brett

    2011-02-01

    The power handling capabilities of fiber lasers are limited by the technologies available to fabricate and assemble the key optical system components. Previous tools for the assembly, tapering, and fusion of fiber laser elements have had drawbacks with regard to temperature range, alignment capability, assembly flexibility and surface contamination. To provide expanded capabilities for fiber laser assembly, a wide-area electrical plasma heat source was used in conjunction with an optimized image analysis method and a flexible alignment system, integrated according to mechatronic principles. High-resolution imaging and vision-based measurement provided feedback to adjust assembly, fusion, and tapering process parameters. The system was used to perform assembly steps including dissimilar-fiber splicing, tapering, bundling, capillary bundling, and fusion of fibers to bulk optic devices up to several mm in diameter. A wide range of fiber types and diameters were tested, including extremely large diameters and photonic crystal fibers. The assemblies were evaluated for conformation to optical and mechanical design criteria, such as taper geometry and splice loss. The completed assemblies met the performance targets and exhibited reduced surface contamination compared to assemblies prepared on previously existing equipment. The imaging system and image analysis algorithms provided in situ fiber geometry measurement data that agreed well with external measurement. The ability to adjust operating parameters dynamically based on imaging was shown to provide substantial performance benefits, particularly in the tapering of fibers and bundles. The integrated design approach was shown to provide sufficient flexibility to perform all required operations with a minimum of reconfiguration.

  4. Advanced Information Management Services in SCOOP, an IOOS Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Keiser, K.; Graves, S.; Beaumont, B.; Drewry, M.; Maskey, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) represents a national initiative to create a new system for collecting and disseminating information about the oceans. The system will support a variety of practical applications, along with enabling research. A key partner in IOOS design and development, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) is a consortium of over sixty universities across the US. Building on the capabilities of its member universities, SURA seeks to develop a network of sensors and linked computers as part of the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) program, fully integrating several observing systems in the southern US. SCOOP's goal is to create a scalable, modular prediction system for storm surge and wind waves. The system will enable a "transition to operations" of cutting-edge modeling activities from the research community. This network will provide data in real-time and at high speed, for more reliable, accurate and timely information to help guide effective coastal stewardship, plan for extreme events, facilitate safe maritime operations, and support coastal security. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing a suite of advanced technologies to provide core data and information management services for SCOOP. This Scientific Catalog for Open Resource Exchange (SCORE) is built on UAH's information technology research for a variety of projects, including the NASA- funded Global Hydrology Resource Center and DISCOVER REASoN projects, NSF-funded Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) large Information Technology Research project, as well as for SCOOP, which is funded by NOAA and ONR. Key technologies include an extensible database schema and ontology for the target science domain. Web services provide low level catalog access, while an integrated search capability includes semantic searching and browsing, with the potential for specialized, innovative interfaces for specific research

  5. Advanced information science and object-oriented technology for information management applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1996-10-01

    The role of the military has been undergoing rapid change since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The kinds of missions the US military has been asked to participate in have often fallen into the category of {open_quotes}Military Operations Other Than War{close_quotes} and those involving military responses have been more of a surgical nature directed against different kinds of threats, like rogue states or in response to terrorist actions. As a result, the requirements on the military planner and analyst have also had to change dramatically. For example, preparing response options now requires rapid turnaround and a highly flexible simulation capability. This in turn requires that the planner or analyst have access to sophisticated information science and simulation technologies. In this paper, we shall discuss how advanced information science and object-oriented technologies can be used in advanced information management applications. We shall also discuss how these technologies and tools can be applied to DoD applications by presenting examples with a system developed at Argonne, the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS). DIAS has been developed to exploit advanced information science and simulation technologies to provide tools for future planners and analysts.

  6. Basic failure mechanisms in advanced composites. [composed of epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzio, V. F.; Mehan, R. L.; Mullin, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental failure mechanisms which result from the interaction of thermal cycling and mechanical loading of carbon-epoxy composites were studied. This work was confined to epoxy resin uniderictionally reinforced with HTS carbon fibers, and consists of first identifying local fiber, matrix and interface failure mechanisms using the model composite specimen containing a small number of fibers so that optical techniques can be used for characterization. After the local fracture process has been established for both mechanical loading and thermal cycling, engineering composite properties and gross fracture modes are then examined to determine how the local events contribute to real composite performance. Flexural strength in high fiber content specimens shows an increase in strength with increased thermal cycling. Similar behavior is noted for 25 v/o material up to 200 cycles; however, there is a drastic reduction after 200 cycles indicating a major loss of integrity probably through the accumulation of local cleavage cracks in the tensile region.

  7. Advanced in situ multi-scale characterization of hardness of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxin; Masuda, Hideki; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Onishi, Keiko; Kawai, Masamichi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    In situ multi-scale characterization of hardness of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is demonstrated by a traditional hardness tester, instrumented indentation tester and atomic-force-microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation. In particular, due to the large residual indentation and nonuniform distribution of the microscale carbon fibers, the Vickers hardness could not be calculated by the traditional hardness tester. In addition, the clear residual microindentation could not be formed on the CFRP by instrumented indentation tester because of the large tip half angle of the Berkovich indenter. Therefore, an efficient technique for characterizing the true nanoscale hardness of CFRP was proposed and evaluated. The local hardness of the carbon fibers or plastic matrix on the nanoscale did not vary with nanoindentation location. The Vickers hardnesses of the carbon fiber and plastic matrix determined by AFM-based nanoindentation were 340 ± 30 and 40 ± 2 kgf/mm2, respectively.

  8. Damage detection in composite materials using optical fibers: recent advances in signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Read, Ian J.; Foote, Peter D.

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the passive impact detection system based on fiber Bragg grating sensors which can be either embedded or surface mounted on a composite structure. The focus of the paper is the methodology of the intelligent signal processing for the optical fiber sensor data. This methodology is briefly discussed and illustrated using simple examples which utilize the experimental data. The experimental study involves a series of simple impact tests. The composite panel is installed in a loading fame. An instrumented impactor is used to damage the panel at different positions with different energy levels. For each impact the data from optical fiber sensors is digitized, logged and used for signal processing. The paper shows the importance of the intelligent signal processing for impact damage detection based on optical fiber sensors.

  9. Heatshield material selection for advanced ballistic reentry vehicles. [rayon fiber cloth impregnated with phenolic resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legendre, P. J.; Holtz, T.; Sikra, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Performance of staple rayon fiber and AVTEX continuous rayon fiber was evaluated as precursor materials for heatshields. The materials studied were referenced to the IRC FM5055A heatshield materials flown during the past decade. Three different arc jet facilities were used to simulate portions of the reentry environment. The IRC FM5055A and the AVTEX FM5055G, both continuous rayon fiber woven materials having the phenolic impregnant filled with carbon particles were compared. The AVTEX continuous fiber, unfilled material FM5822A was also examined to a limited extent. Test results show that the AVTEX FM5055G material provided a close substitute for the IRC FM5055A material both in terms of thermal protection and roll torque performance.

  10. Advances in Using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Identify the Mixing of Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Voytek, E. B.; Buckley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) provides thermal data through space and time along linear cables. When installed along a streambed, FO-DTS can capture the influence of upwelling groundwater (GW) as thermal anomalies. The planning of labor-intensive physical measurements can make use of FO-DTS data to target areas of focused GW discharge that can disproportionately affect surface-water (SW) quality and temperature. Typical longitudinal FO-DTS spatial resolution ranges 0.25 to1.0 m, and cannot resolve small-scale water-column mixing or sub-surface diurnal fluctuations. However, configurations where the cable is wrapped around rods can improve the effective vertical resolution to sub-centimeter scales, and the pipes can be actively heated to induce a thermal tracer. Longitudinal streambed and high-resolution vertical arrays were deployed at the upper Delaware River (PA, USA) and the Quashnet River (MA, USA) for aquatic habitat studies. The resultant datasets exemplify the varied uses of FO-DTS. Cold anomalies found along the Delaware River steambed coincide with zones of known mussel populations, and high-resolution vertical array data showed relatively stable in-channel thermal refugia. Cold anomalies at the Quashnet River identified in 2013 were found to persist in 2014, and seepage measurements and water samples at these locations showed high GW flux with distinctive chemistry. Cable location is paramount to seepage identification, particularly in faster flowing deep streams such as the Quashnet and Delaware Rivers where steambed FO-DTS identified many seepage zones with no surface expression. The temporal characterization of seepage dynamics are unique to FO-DTS. However, data from Tidmarsh Farms, a cranberry bog restoration site in MA, USA indicate that in slower flowing shallow steams GW inflow affects surface temperature; therefore infrared imaging can provide seepage location information similar to FO-DTS with substantially less effort.

  11. Methods and systems for advanced spaceport information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fussell, Ronald M. (Inventor); Ely, Donald W. (Inventor); Meier, Gary M. (Inventor); Halpin, Paul C. (Inventor); Meade, Phillip T. (Inventor); Jacobson, Craig A. (Inventor); Blackwell-Thompson, Charlie (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced spaceport information management methods and systems are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes coupling a test system to the payload and transmitting one or more test signals that emulate an anticipated condition from the test system to the payload. One or more responsive signals are received from the payload into the test system and are analyzed to determine whether one or more of the responsive signals comprises an anomalous signal. At least one of the steps of transmitting, receiving, analyzing and determining includes transmitting at least one of the test signals and the responsive signals via a communications link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility. In one particular embodiment, the communications link is an Internet link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility (e.g. a launch facility, university, etc.).

  12. Methods and Systems for Advanced Spaceport Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fussell, Ronald M. (Inventor); Ely, Donald W. (Inventor); Meier, Gary M. (Inventor); Halpin, Paul C. (Inventor); Meade, Phillip T. (Inventor); Jacobson, Craig A. (Inventor); Blackwell-Thompson, Charlie (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced spaceport information management methods and systems are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes coupling a test system to the payload and transmitting one or more test signals that emulate an anticipated condition from the test system to the payload. One or more responsive signals are received from the payload into the test system and are analyzed to determine whether one or more of the responsive signals comprises an anomalous signal. At least one of the steps of transmitting, receiving, analyzing and determining includes transmitting at least one of the test signals and the responsive signals via a communications link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility. In one particular embodiment, the communications link is an Internet link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility (e.g. a launch facility, university, etc.).

  13. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  14. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  16. Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, Daniel W.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Bedoya, Carlos A.; Mattes, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for application to advanced aircraft flight and propulsion control. This development included the design and production of 10 passive optical sensors and associated multiplexed EOA hardware based on wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology. A variety of sensor types (rotary position, linear position, temperature, and pressure) incorporating a broad range of sensor technologies (WDM analog, WDM digital, analog microbend, and fluorescent time rate of decay) were obtained from different manufacturers and functionally integrated with an independently designed EOA. The sensors were built for installation in a variety of aircraft locations, placing the sensors in a variety of harsh environments. The sensors and EOA were designed and built to have the resulting devices be as close as practical to a production system. The integrated system was delivered to NASA for flight testing on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. Development and integration testing of the system provided valuable information as to which sensor types were simplest to design and build for a military aircraft environment and which types were simplest to operate with a multiplexed EOA. Not all sensor types met the full range of performance and environmental requirements. EOA development problems provided information on directions to pursue in future fly-by-light flight control development programs. Lessons learned in the development of the EOA and sensor hardware are summarized.

  17. Recent advancements in transparent ceramics and crystal fibers for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Baker, C.; Villalobos, G.; Florea, C.; Gibson, D.; Shaw, L. B.; Bowman, S.; Bayya, S.; Sadowski, B.; Hunt, M.; Askins, C.; Peele, J.; Aggarwal, I. D.; Sanghera, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present our recent progress in the development of rare-earth (Yb3+ or Ho3+) doped Lu2O3 and Y2O3 sesquioxides for high power solid state lasers. We have fabricated high quality transparent ceramics using nano-powders synthesized by a co-precipitation method. This was accomplished by developments in high purity powder synthesis and low temperature scalable sintering technology developed at NRL. The optical, spectral and morphological properties as well as the lasing performance from our highly transparent ceramics are presented. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our recent research effort in developing cladded-single crystal fibers for high power single frequency fiber lasers has the potential to significantly exceed the capabilities of existing silica fiber based lasers. Single crystal fiber cores with diameters as small as 35μm have been drawn using high purity rare earth doped ceramic or single crystal feed rods by the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG) process. Our recent results on the development of suitable claddings on the crystal fiber core are discussed.

  18. Creep and Rupture Strength of an Advanced CVD SiC Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the as-produced condition the room temperature strength (approx. 6 GPa) of Textron Specialty Materials' 50 microns CVD SiC fiber represents the highest value thus far obtained for commercially produced polycrystalline SiC fibers. To understand whether this strength can be maintained after composite processing conditions, high temperature studies were performed on the effects of time, stress, and environment on 1400 deg. C tensile creep strain and stress rupture on as-produced, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Creep strain results were consistent, allowing an evaluation of time and stress effects. Test environment had no influence on creep strain but I hour annealing at 1600 deg. C in argon gas significantly reduced the total creep strain and increased the stress dependence. This is attributed to changes in the free carbon morphology and its distribution within the CVD SiC fiber. For the as-produced and annealed fibers, strength at 1400 deg. C was found to decrease from a fast fracture value of 2 GPa to a 100-hr rupture strength value of 0. 8 GPa. In addition a loss of fast fracture strength from 6 GPa is attributed to thermally induced changes in the outer carbon coating and microstructure. Scatter in rupture times made a definitive analysis of environmental and annealing effects on creep strength difficult.

  19. Advances in fibers and transmission line technology for long haul submarine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, David W.; Kim, Jinkee; Sun, Yi; Lingle, Robert L., Jr.; Levring, Ole

    2007-11-01

    The 7.1-magnitude earthquake on December 26, 2006 in the Strait of Luzon resulted in the failure of several submarine cable systems. Seven of the nine cables that pass through the strait were damaged, disrupting communications to China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Singapore. This recent event highlighted the dependence of international communications on submarine fiber optic transmission systems. This paper will review the evolution of optical fiber transmission line technology that has been deployed in the long haul undersea telecommunications network. It will start with a discussion of the chronological evolution of the optical fiber transmission line architecture in section one, then give more detail regarding the technology that is still being deployed today.

  20. Recent advances in very highly nonlinear chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchin, David; Brilland, Laurent; Troles, Johann; Chartier, Thierry; Besnard, Pascal; Canat, Guillaume; Renversez, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Perfos and the laboratory Glasses and Ceramics Group of University of Rennes 1 have worked together to develop a new fabrication technique for chalcogenide preforms based on the glass-casting process. Various fiber profiles have been designed by the Fresnel Institute and fiber losses have been significantly improved, approaching those of the material losses. Using this technology, we have manufactured an AsSe CPCF exhibiting a nonlinear coefficient γ of 46 000 W-1km-1. Self-phase modulation, Raman effect, Brillouin effect, Four-Wave Mixing have been observed leading to the demonstration of various optical functions such four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion at 1.55 μm by FOTON, the demonstration of Raman Shifts and the generation of a mid-IR supercontinuum source by ONERA and the demonstration of a Brillouin fiber laser by FOTON.

  1. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-10-29

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding.

  2. Advances in high-power 9XXnm laser diodes for pumping fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jay; Peters, Matthew; Rossin, Victor; Guo, James; Xiao, Yan; Cheng, Jane; Shieh, Allen; Srinivasan, Raman; Singh, Jaspreet; Wei, Cailin; Duesterberg, Richard; Morehead, James J.; Zucker, Erik

    2016-03-01

    A multi-mode 9XXnm-wavelength laser diode was developed to optimize the divergence angle and reliable ex-facet power. Lasers diodes were assembled into a multi-emitter pump package that is fiber coupled via spatial and polarization multiplexing. The pump package has a 135μm diameter output fiber that leverages the same optical train and mechanical design qualified previously. Up to ~ 270W CW power at 22A is achieved at a case temperature ~ 30ºC. Power conversion efficiency is 60% (peak) that drops to 53% at 22A with little thermal roll over. Greater than 90% of the light is collected at < 0.12NA at 16A drive current that produces 3.0W/(mm-mr)2 radiance from the output fiber.

  3. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  4. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  5. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  6. Advanced Fiber-optic Monitoring System for Space-flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, M. S.; VanTassell, R. L.; Pennington, C. D.; Roman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at Luna Innovations Inc. and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) have developed an integrated fiber-optic sensor system for real-time monitoring of chemical contaminants and whole-cell bacterial pathogens in water. The system integrates interferometric and evanescent-wave optical fiber-based sensing methodologies with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and long-period grating (LPG) technology to provide versatile measurement capability for both micro- and nano-scale analytes. Sensors can be multiplexed in an array format and embedded in a totally self-contained laboratory card for use with an automated microfluidics platform.

  7. [Advanced information technologies for financial services industry]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The project scope is to develop an advanced user interface utilizing speech and/or handwriting recognition technology that will improve the accuracy and speed of recording transactions in the dynamic environment of a foreign exchange (FX) trading floor. The project`s desired result is to improve the base technology for trader`s workstations on FX trading floors. Improved workstation effectiveness will allow vast amounts of complex information and events to be presented and analyzed, thus increasing the volume of money and other assets to be exchanged at an accelerated rate. The project scope is to develop and demonstrate technologies that advance interbank check imaging and paper check truncation. The following describes the tasks to be completed: (1) Identify the economics value case, the legal and regulatory issues, the business practices that are affected, and the effects upon settlement. (2) Familiarization with existing imaging technology. Develop requirements for image quality, security, and interoperability. Adapt existing technologies to meet requirements. (3) Define requirements for the imaging laboratory and design its architecture. Integrate and test technology from task 2 with equipment in the laboratory. (4) Develop and/or integrate and test remaining components; includes security, storage, and communications. (5) Build a prototype system and test in a laboratory. Install and run in two or more banks. Develop documentation. Conduct training. The project`s desired result is to enable a proof-of-concept trial in which multiple banks will exchange check images, exhibiting operating conditions which a check experiences as it travels through the payments/clearing system. The trial should demonstrate the adequacy of digital check images instead of paper checks.

  8. National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing. Program summary report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing focused on manufacturing research and development for flat panel displays, advanced lithography, microelectronics, and optoelectronics. This report provides an overview of the program, summaries of the technical projects, and key program accomplishments.

  9. 78 FR 34346 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST MEP Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC) Client Impact Survey AGENCY... information collection. The purpose of the Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge... to support job creation, encourage economic development, and enhance the competitiveness of...

  10. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  11. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  12. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  13. Recent advances in electron-beam curing of carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coqueret, Xavier; Krzeminski, Mickael; Ponsaud, Philippe; Defoort, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    Cross-linking polymerization initiated by high-energy radiation is a very attractive technique for the fabrication of high-performance composite materials. The method offers many advantages compared to conventional energy- and time-consuming thermal curing processes. Free radical and cationic poly-addition chemistries have been investigated in some details by various research groups along the previous years. A high degree of control over curing kinetics and material properties can be exerted by adjusting the composition of matrix precursors as well as by acting on process parameters. However, the comparison with state-of-the-art thermally cured composites revealed the lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured composites and the higher brittleness of the radiation-cured matrix. Improving fiber-matrix adhesion and upgrading polymer network toughness are thus two major challenges in this area. We have investigated several points related to these issues, and particularly the reduction of the matrix shrinkage on curing, the wettability of carbon fibers, the design of fiber-matrix interface and the use of thermoplastic toughening agents. Significant improvements were achieved on transverse strain at break by applying original surface treatments on the fibers so as to induce covalent coupling with the matrix. A drastic enhancement of the K IC value exceeding 2 MPa m 1/2 was also obtained for acrylate-based matrices toughened with high T g thermoplastics.

  14. Recent advances in the field of ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naslain, R.

    2005-03-01

    Progress achieved during the last decade in the field of ceramic fibers and related ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. Both SiC-based and alumina-based fine fibers have been improved in terms of thermal stability and creep resistance with temperature limit of about 1400 and 1200 ° C, respectively. Two concepts for achieving damage-tolerant ceramic matrix composites have been identified : (i) that of non-oxide composites with a dense matrix in which matrix cracks formed under load are deflected and arrested in a weak fiber coating referred to as the interphase and (ii) that of all-oxide composites with a highly porous matrix with no need of any fiber coating. The lifetime under load of non-oxide composites in oxidizing atmospheres, is improved through the use of multilayered self-healing interphases and matrices deposited from gaseous precursors by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Lifetime ranging from 1000 to 10,000 hours at 1200 ° C under cyclic loading in air are foreseen. Alumina-based composites although attractive for long term exposures in oxidizing atmospheres up to ≈1200 ° C, are still experimental materials.

  15. 47 CFR 51.231 - Provision of information on advanced services deployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of information on advanced services... of information on advanced services deployment. (a) An incumbent LEC must provide to requesting...) Uses in determining which services can be deployed; and information with respect to the...

  16. Informative Top-k Retrieval for Advanced Skill Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simona; di Noia, Tommaso; Ragone, Azzurra; Ruta, Michele; Straccia, Umberto; Tinelli, Eufemia

    The paper presents a knowledge-based framework for skills and talent management based on an advanced matchmaking between profiles of candidates and available job positions. Interestingly, informative content of top-k retrieval is enriched through semantic capabilities. The proposed approach allows to: (1) express a requested profile in terms of both hard constraints and soft ones; (2) provide a ranking function based also on qualitative attributes of a profile; (3) explain the resulting outcomes (given a job request, a motivation for the obtained score of each selected profile is provided). Top-k retrieval allows to select most promising candidates according to an ontology formalizing the domain knowledge. Such a knowledge is further exploited to provide a semantic-based explanation of missing or conflicting features in retrieved profiles. They also indicate additional profile characteristics emerging by the retrieval procedure for a further request refinement. A concrete case study followed by an exhaustive experimental campaign is reported to prove the approach effectiveness.

  17. The Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Parsons, Mark; Yarmey, Lynn; Truslove, Ian; Pearlman, Jay; Boldrini, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) is a joint effort by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), UNIDATA, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Its purpose is to provide data support, preservation and access services for all projects funded by NSF's Arctic Science Program (ARC). ACADIS is also being eyed for its potential to support the multi-agency SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) effort. The challenge for ACADIS is the large number of projects (over 400) and diverse, multidisciplinary datasets (currently numbering over 900) that it must provide services for. ACADIS is evolving from three separate data management systems having Arctic data which includes field data, model output, global weather observations, remote sensing and social science data. These systems evolved independently and were originally designed for different purposes. Furthermore, the communities accessing these data have different needs and follow different standards and protocols. To meet the challenge of providing a common discovery mechanism for all these data a metadata brokering solution was implemented. This presentation will describe the installation and customization of GI-Cat, a brokering service developed at the Italian National Research Council. The integration of the CISL, EOL and NSIDC catalogs, as well as the THREDDS server provided by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (NMI), was accomplished using GI-Cat. Search results are accessed via the OpenSearch interface of GI-Cat and presented with rankings based on keyword matches. This creation of this system was accomplished on a timescale of months instead of the years of developer time that would have been required if it had been built from scratch.

  18. Advanced Fire Information System - A real time fire information system for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, P. E.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) lead by the Meraka Institute and supported by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) developed the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) to provide near real time fire information to a variety of operational and science fire users including disaster managers, fire fighters, farmers and forest managers located across Southern and Eastern Africa. The AFIS combines satellite data with ground based observations and statistics and distributes the information via mobile phone technology. The system was launched in 2004, and Eskom (South Africa' and Africa's largest power utility) quickly became the biggest user and today more than 300 Eskom line managers and support staff receive cell phone and email fire alert messages whenever a wildfire is within 2km of any of the 28 000km of Eskom electricity transmission lines. The AFIS uses Earth observation satellites from NASA and Europe to detect possible actively burning fires and their fire radiative power (FRP). The polar orbiting MODIS Terra and Aqua satellites provide data at around 10am, 15pm, 22am and 3am daily, while the European Geostationary MSG satellite provides 15 minute updates at lower spatial resolution. The AFIS processing system ingests the raw satellite data and within minutes of the satellite overpass generates fire location and FRP based fire intensity information. The AFIS and new functionality are presented including an incident report and permiting system that can be used to differentiate between prescribed burns and uncontrolled wild fires, and the provision of other information including 5-day fire danger forecasts, vegetation curing information and historical burned area maps. A new AFIS mobile application for IOS and Android devices as well as a fire reporting tool are showcased that enable both the dissemination and alerting of fire information and enable user upload of geo tagged photographs and on the fly creation of fire reports

  19. Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

  20. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  1. Plasma and laser kinetics and field emission from carbon nanotube fibers for an Advanced Noble Gas Laser (ANGL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Paul J.; Lockwood, Nathaniel P.; Lange, Matthew A.; Hostutler, David A.; Guild, Eric M.; Guy, Matthew R.; McCord, John E.; Pitz, Greg A.

    2016-03-01

    A metastable argon laser operating at 912 nm has been demonstrated by optically pumping with a pulsed titanium sapphire laser to investigate the temporal dynamics of an Advanced Noble Gas Laser (ANGL). Metastable argon concentrations on the order of 1011 cm-3 were maintained with the use of a radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled discharge. The end-pumped laser produced output powers under 2 mW of average power with pulse lengths on the order of 100 ns. A comparison between empirical results and a four level laser model using longitudinally average pump and inter-cavity intensities is made. An alternative, highly-efficient method of argon metastable production for ANGL was explored using carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers.

  2. 77 FR 53210 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request for Approval of Advance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Advance of Escrow Funds AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing, HUD. ACTION: Notice... techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Request for Approval of Advance...

  3. 47 CFR 54.621 - Access to advanced telecommunications and information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information services. 54.621 Section 54.621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... § 54.621 Access to advanced telecommunications and information services. (a) Twenty-five percent of the... service support equal to 50 percent of the monthly cost of advanced telecommunications and...

  4. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  5. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  6. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  7. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  8. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Tao; Shi, Zhining; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Shanshan; Smale, Nicholas; Wang, Juan

    2015-04-28

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×10(5) counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  9. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Tao; Shi, Zhining; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Shanshan; Smale, Nicholas; Wang, Juan

    2015-04-28

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×10(5) counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. PMID:25681716

  10. Ultra-low-loss optical fiber cavities for applications in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Single atoms strongly coupled to optical cavities are well suited as light-matter interfaces at the single photon level. The strength of the coupling is inversely proportional to the square root of the mode volume of the cavity, which depends on the radius of curvature of the mirrors. We report on the fabrication of near-spherical surfaces with small radii of curvature on the end facets of optical fibers using a CO2 laser at 9.3 μm wavelength. The surfaces are coated with a commercial, highly reflective, dielectric coating. Cavities built from two of these fibers show a finesse of up to 190000. Due to the small radii of curvature and the high finesse of these cavities, deviations from the paraxial approximation become relevant. This results in a frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes depending on the eccentricity of the mirrors. Our analytic model that explains this effect is in excellent agreement with our measurements. This allows for the control of the frequency splitting by the geometry of the mirror surfaces. Our results confirm the great prospects of laser-machined cavities for experiments in quantum information processing. The possibility of implementing a quantum repeater node based on our cavity technologies will also be discussed.

  11. Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Settles, Joseph; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew; Vonau, Walt

    2010-01-01

    Grant Bue and Matthew Vogel presented the two types of Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporators (SWME) that were developed based on hydrophobic microporous membranes. One type, the Sheet Membrane (SaM) SWME, is composed of six concentric Teflon sheet membranes fixed on cylindrical-supporting screens to form three concentric annular water channels. Those water channels are surrounded by vacuum passages to draw off the water vapor that passes through the membrane. The other type, the Hollow Fiber (HoFi) SWME, is composed of more than 14,000 tubes. Water flows through the tubes and water vapor passes through the tube wall to the shell side that vents to the vacuum of space. Both SWME types have undergone testing to baseline the performance at predicted operating temperatures and flow rates; the units also have been subjected to contamination testing and other conditions to test resiliency.

  12. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment, phase 1. [simulating vulnerability to airports and communities from fibers released during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L. S.; Kaplan, L. D.; Cornell, M. E.; Greenstone, R.

    1979-01-01

    A model was developed to generate quantitative estimates of the risk associated with the release of graphite fibers during fires involving commercial aircraft constructed with graphite fiber composite materials. The model was used to estimate the risk associated with accidents at several U.S. airports. These results were then combined to provide an estimate of the total risk to the nation.

  13. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  14. Photoneuron: dynamically reconfigurable information processing control element utilizing embedded-fiber waveguide interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glista, Andrew S., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The term `photoneuron' describes an electro-optic hardware element that permits an optical implementation of the postulated information transfer processes of the neurons in the human brain. The photoneuron provides a dynamic activation and control mechanism for highly parallel computers and permits immediate implementation of reconfigurable high speed optical interconnects. The suggested method for interconnecting processors in a photoneuronic network consists of embedded optical fibers in composite materials to form optical backplanes utilizing `smart skin' technology. This method eliminates the environmental concerns and technological barriers posed by free space optics and integrated optics, while providing a sound engineering approach leading to the all optical computer. This paper briefly reviews the physiological activity of neurons in the human brain. Optical analogies for processor activation in neural networks corresponding to the nerve impulse activation in the brain are then described. The paper then suggests the utilization of optical signal parameters and encoding to emulate the information exchange of neurotransmitters provided by first and second messenger molecular activity across the synaptic `connections' of neurons in the brain. This represents a departure from most neural networks which dwell on threshold processor activation and ignore the exceedingly complex molecular information exchange mechanisms of the brain. Digital, analog, and combinatorial alternatives are described.

  15. Information technology security at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. V.; McDowell, W.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of 'botnets,' phishing schemes, denial-of-service attacks, root kits, and other cyber attack schemes designed to capture a system or network creates a climate of concern for system administrators, especially for those managing accelerator and large experimental-physics facilities, as they are very public targets. This paper will describe the steps being taken at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to protect the infrastructure of the overall network with emphasis on security for the APS control system.

  16. Upgrading the Association for the Advancement of Health Education's Health Resources Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education (AAHE) and Academic Programs for Health Science, George Mason University (Virginia), have collaborated in upgrading AAHE's Health Resources Information System. The process involved updating the health resources information on file. This information, which represents addresses and telephone…

  17. New advancements in 793 nm fiber-coupled modules for Th fiber laser pumping, including packages optimized for low SWaP applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Chris; Guiney, Tina; Irwin, David; Patterson, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Targeted at the 793nm absorption band, DILAS Diode Laser, Inc. offers a range of products specifically designed for Thulium fiber laser pumping, spanning from 12 W to <300W of pump power and coupled into fiber sizes starting at 105um and upwards. A variety of different diode architectures are utilized, ranging from single-emitters, conduction-cooled bars, and DILAS's T-bar structure extended to the 793nm range, resulting in a wide variety of power levels and packaging options to support different applications. As IRCM for airborne platforms is a major application for Tm fiber lasers, packages optimized for low SWaP will be presented, which utilize a combination of the T-bar structure and macrochannel coolers specifically designed for compact, lightweight applications. Examples and results of Tm fiber lasers pumped using DILAS diodes will also be presented and discussed.

  18. 78 FR 14793 - Advancing Interoperability and Health Information Exchange

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... of the National Coordinator (ONC) for Health IT (HIT) Certification Program are increasing standards..., laboratories, nursing homes, home health agencies, hospices, rural health clinics, ambulatory surgical centers... Interoperability and Health Information Exchange AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  19. National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing. Program summary report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing focused on manufacturing research and development for flat panel displays, advanced lithography, microelectronics, and optoelectronics. This report provides an overview of the program, program history, summaries of the technical projects, and key program accomplishments.

  20. Operation of the power information center: Performance of secretariat functions and information exchange activities in the advanced power field of the interagency advanced power group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of activities conducted during the reporting period to facilitate the exchange of technical information among scientists and engineers both within the federal government and within industry are cited. Interagency Advanced Power Group meetings and special efforts, project briefs, and organization development are considered.

  1. Advanced system functions for the office information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    First, author describes the functions needed for information management system in office. Next, he mentions the requisites for the enhancement of system functions. In order to make enhancement of system functions, he states, it is necessary to examine them comprehensively from every point of view including processing hour and cost. In this paper, he concentrates on the enhancement of man-machine interface (= human interface), that is, how to make system easy to use for the office workers.

  2. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  3. Advanced man-machine interface systems and advanced information management systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Gray, S.; Machiels, A.

    1997-12-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program started in the early 1980`s. This work involves the development and NRC review of the ALWR Utility Requirements Documents, the development and design certification of ALWR designs, the analysis of the Early Site Permit process, and the First-of-a-Kind Engineering for two of the ALWR plant designs. ALWRs will embody modern proven technology. However, technologies expected to be used in these plants are changing very rapidly so that additional capabilities will become available that will be beneficial for future plants. To remain competitive on a life-cycle basis in the future, the ALWR must take advantage of the best and most modem technologies available. 1 ref.

  4. Advancing Information Technology in the Waste Management World

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, B.; Smylie, G.; Thompson, S.; Bruemmer, H.

    2008-07-01

    The development and utilization of software for the waste management world is critical, yet complex. Numerous and sometimes conflicting regulations, coupled with demands for streamlined efficiency and high standards of safety, require innovative information technology solutions and closely-managed processes. The primary goal of this paper is to demonstrate how this challenge can be met by applying software engineering best practices to the waste management domain. This paper presents two case studies highlighting how IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) software engineering standards have proven to be effective within the CH-TRU and RH-TRU waste management arena. These examples show how adherence to best practices has enabled software to meet institutional expectations for usability, consistency, reusability, documentation, quality assurance, and adherence to regulations. Specific techniques, such as the use of customisable software life-cycle management software, and the integration of subject matter experts and the information technology specialists through the change control board, will be presented in detail. With an eye to the future, we will show the software resulting from a best practices approach can be further enhanced with the use of artificial intelligence techniques to tackle problems such as accounting for unexpected user inputs, analyzing the relationship between data fields, and recognizing aberrant patterns in the data. (authors)

  5. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in... Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.91 Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of..., Customs and Border Protection (CBP) must electronically receive from the rail carrier certain...

  6. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in... Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.91 Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of..., Customs and Border Protection (CBP) must electronically receive from the rail carrier certain...

  7. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in... Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.91 Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of..., Customs and Border Protection (CBP) must electronically receive from the rail carrier certain...

  8. 47 CFR 51.231 - Provision of information on advanced services deployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provision of information on advanced services deployment. 51.231 Section 51.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... spectral density (PSD) mask, it also must provide Spectrum Class information for the technology. (2)...

  9. 47 CFR 51.231 - Provision of information on advanced services deployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Provision of information on advanced services deployment. 51.231 Section 51.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... spectral density (PSD) mask, it also must provide Spectrum Class information for the technology. (2)...

  10. A semantic-based kernel for advanced health information systems.

    PubMed

    Kanoui, H; Joubert, M; Maury, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and development of an infrastructure allowing one to share and exchange multimedia data in the context of a health network. A single technology exploiting a semantic model of the hospital universe provides users with information and data of diverse origins, generated by the various actors or departments of the health organization. Functions provided include act management and patient record management governed by domain semantics. The functionality has been validated through laboratory experiments against the requirements of protocol directed care and health networks. The functionality is integrated into a clinician workstation exploited in the Internet/Intranet environment thanks to a commercial browser. These results have been obtained with the support of several projects in the frame of the Health-Care Telematics Applications Programme of the European Community and of the Eurêka Programme.

  11. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  12. Reef sharks: recent advances in ecological understanding to inform conservation.

    PubMed

    Osgood, G J; Baum, J K

    2015-12-01

    Sharks are increasingly being recognized as important members of coral-reef communities, but their overall conservation status remains uncertain. Nine of the 29 reef-shark species are designated as data deficient in the IUCN Red List, and three-fourths of reef sharks had unknown population trends at the time of their assessment. Fortunately, reef-shark research is on the rise. This new body of research demonstrates reef sharks' high site restriction, fidelity and residency on coral reefs, their broad trophic roles connecting reef communities and their high population genetic structure, all information that should be useful for their management and conservation. Importantly, recent studies on the abundance and population trends of the three classic carcharhinid reef sharks (grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus and whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) may contribute to reassessments identifying them as more vulnerable than currently realized. Because over half of the research effort has focused on only these three reef sharks and the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum in only a few locales, there remain large taxonomic and geographic gaps in reef-shark knowledge. As such, a large portion of reef-shark biodiversity remains uncharacterized despite needs for targeted research identified in their red list assessments. A research agenda for the future should integrate abundance, life history, trophic ecology, genetics, habitat use and movement studies, and expand the breadth of such research to understudied species and localities, in order to better understand the conservation requirements of these species and to motivate effective conservation solutions.

  13. Reef sharks: recent advances in ecological understanding to inform conservation.

    PubMed

    Osgood, G J; Baum, J K

    2015-12-01

    Sharks are increasingly being recognized as important members of coral-reef communities, but their overall conservation status remains uncertain. Nine of the 29 reef-shark species are designated as data deficient in the IUCN Red List, and three-fourths of reef sharks had unknown population trends at the time of their assessment. Fortunately, reef-shark research is on the rise. This new body of research demonstrates reef sharks' high site restriction, fidelity and residency on coral reefs, their broad trophic roles connecting reef communities and their high population genetic structure, all information that should be useful for their management and conservation. Importantly, recent studies on the abundance and population trends of the three classic carcharhinid reef sharks (grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus and whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) may contribute to reassessments identifying them as more vulnerable than currently realized. Because over half of the research effort has focused on only these three reef sharks and the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum in only a few locales, there remain large taxonomic and geographic gaps in reef-shark knowledge. As such, a large portion of reef-shark biodiversity remains uncharacterized despite needs for targeted research identified in their red list assessments. A research agenda for the future should integrate abundance, life history, trophic ecology, genetics, habitat use and movement studies, and expand the breadth of such research to understudied species and localities, in order to better understand the conservation requirements of these species and to motivate effective conservation solutions. PMID:26709218

  14. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    In this period of performance a conference (The 1994 Conference on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology) was organized and implemented by the University of Alabama in Huntsville and held May 15-17 to assemble and disseminate the current information on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology. The results were assembled for publication as NASA-CP-3282, Volume 1 and 2 and NASA-CP-3287.

  15. Method for combining information from white matter fiber tracking and gray matter parcellation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Talos, Ion-Florin; Brun, Anders; Peiper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ference A; McCarley, Robert W; Shenton, Martha E

    2004-09-01

    We introduce a method for combining fiber tracking from diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging with cortical gray matter parcellation from structural high-spatial-resolution 3D spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state images. We applied this method to a tumor case to determine the impact of the tumor on white matter architecture. We conclude that this new method for combining structural and DT imaging data is useful for understanding cortical connectivity and the localization of fiber tracts and their relationship with cortical anatomy and brain abnormalities.

  16. Investigation of possibility of creation of radiation resistance sensors for physical information based on fiber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskov, P. B.; Chebyshov, S. B.; Kadilin, V. V.; Sakharov, V. V.; Mosyagina, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    The results of physical and material science and technological development of new materials of radiation photonics - nano- and microstructure of radiation-sensitive and radiation- resistant optical glass and fibers based on quartz are presented in the report. The possibility of their application in neutron diagnostics devices of nuclear power objects are considered. Component and construction options for the radiation-sensitive fiber and glass materials (with isotopes 10B, 6Li, Gd, ions of Nd3+, Ce3+ etc.), in which radiation resistance is achieved through the organization of areas of "drain" and annihilation of radiation-induced defects are considered.

  17. 78 FR 49061 - Valuation of Federal Coal for Advance Royalty Purposes and Information Collection Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Applicable to All Solid Minerals Leases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 155 / Monday... Purposes and Information Collection Applicable to All Solid Minerals Leases AGENCY: Office of Natural... solid minerals leases and also are necessary to implement the EPAct Federal coal advance...

  18. 47 CFR 51.231 - Provision of information on advanced services deployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deployment. 51.231 Section 51.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... rejection; and (3) Information with respect to the number of loops using advanced services technology within the binder and type of technology deployed on those loops. (b) A requesting carrier that seeks...

  19. 47 CFR 51.231 - Provision of information on advanced services deployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... deployment. 51.231 Section 51.231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... rejection; and (3) Information with respect to the number of loops using advanced services technology within the binder and type of technology deployed on those loops. (b) A requesting carrier that seeks...

  20. 77 FR 59669 - Comment Request for Information Collection; Unemployment Insurance (UI) Title XII Advances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection; Unemployment Insurance (UI..., Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200...) provides for advances to states from the Federal Unemployment Account (FUA). The law further sets...

  1. 77 FR 19610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Advance Monthly Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... requests sales and e-commerce sales for the month just ending. If reporting data for a period other than...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Advance Monthly Retail Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  2. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  3. Fiber Optics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  4. Development of internal components for M38999 type connectors, for use in advanced photonic applications and with specialty optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitebook, Alan; Caloz, Francois

    2014-09-01

    This presentation outlines development work performed to produce internal components (connector insert assemblies & optical terminus assemblies) to be fit into MIL-DTL-38999, or commercial off the shelf (COTS) equivalent, connector housings. Connectors modified with these internal components are then suitable for optical termination and transmission through specialty fibers such as polarization maintaining, small core single-mode, and others, with the ability to achieve high levels of performance in the areas of insertion loss, return loss, polarization extinction ratio (as applicable) and power handling capability (as applicable.) Technical details are presented to illustrate features within the optical terminus, and its insert cavity, which serves to allow for fiber/ferrule polar orientation, concentricity of mated termini ferrules and fibers terminated within, and other attributes designed to support optical performance goals. Finally, optical performance data is given and discussed to illustrate results achieved by production of evaluation cable assemblies. emblies.

  5. Advanced Information Technology Investments at the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) regularly makes investments for nurturing advanced concepts in information technology to enable rapid, low-cost acquisition, processing and visualization of Earth science data in support of future NASA missions and climate change research. In 2012, the National Research Council published a mid-term assessment of the 2007 decadal survey for future spacemissions supporting Earth science and applications [1]. The report stated, "Earth sciences have advanced significantly because of existing observational capabilities and the fruit of past investments, along with advances in data and information systems, computer science, and enabling technologies." The report found that NASA had responded favorably and aggressively to the decadal survey and noted the role of the recent ESTO solicitation for information systems technologies that partnered with the NASA Applied Sciences Program to support the transition into operations. NASA's future missions are key stakeholders for the ESTO technology investments. Also driving these investments is the need for the Agency to properly address questions regarding the prediction, adaptation, and eventual mitigation of climate change. The Earth Science Division has championed interdisciplinary research, recognizing that the Earth must be studied as a complete system in order toaddress key science questions [2]. Information technology investments in the low-mid technology readiness level (TRL) range play a key role in meeting these challenges. ESTO's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program invests in higher risk / higher reward technologies that solve the most challenging problems of the information processing chain. This includes the space segment, where the information pipeline begins, to the end user, where knowledge is ultimatelyadvanced. The objectives of the program are to reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of Earth Science space-based and ground

  6. Characterization of the stress and refractive-index distributions in optical fibers and fiber-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutsel, Michael R.

    2011-07-01

    Optical fiber technology continues to advance rapidly as a result of the increasing demands on communication systems and the expanding use of fiber-based sensing. New optical fiber types and fiber-based communications components are required to permit higher data rates, an increased number of channels, and more flexible installation requirements. Fiber-based sensors are continually being developed for a broad range of sensing applications, including environmental, medical, structural, industrial, and military. As optical fibers and fiber-based devices continue to advance, the need to understand their fundamental physical properties increases. The residual-stress distribution (RSD) and the refractive-index distribution (RID) play fundamental roles in the operation and performance of optical fibers. Custom RIDs are used to tailor the transmission properties of fibers used for long-distance transmission and to enable fiber-based devices such as long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs). The introduction and modification of RSDs enable specialty fibers, such as polarization-maintaining fiber, and contribute to the operation of fiber-based devices. Furthermore, the RSD and the RID are inherently linked through the photoelastic effect. Therefore, both the RSD and the RID need to be characterized because these fundamental properties are coupled and affect the fabrication, operation, and performance of fibers and fiber-based devices. To characterize effectively the physical properties of optical fibers, the RSD and the RID must be measured without perturbing or destroying the optical fiber. Furthermore, the techniques used must not be limited in detecting small variations and asymmetries in all directions through the fiber. Finally, the RSD and the RID must be characterized concurrently without moving the fiber to enable the analysis of the relationship between the RSD and the RID. Although many techniques exist for characterizing the residual stress and the refractive index in

  7. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  8. Use of an advanced shear-lag model to obtain the optimum internal damping in short-fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hajela, P.; Shih, C.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The present paper examines a modified shear-lag model for predicting the stress distribution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The model assumes perfect bonding between the fiber and the matrix materials, and allows for the matrix material to partially sustain axial loads. The stress distribution obtained on the basis of this model is used to predict the internal damping characteristics of the composite materials. These characteristics are a function of both the material properties and the geometrical layout of the composite, and are optimized by combining the analytical model with a nonlinear programming optimization algorithm. Representative numerical results are obtained for glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composites.

  9. Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Ajoy; Thyagarajan, K.

    With the development of extremely low-loss optical fibers and their application to communication systems, a revolution has taken fiber glass place during the last 40 years. In 2001, using glass fibers as the transmission medium and lightwaves as carrier wave waves, information was transmitted at a rate more than 1 Tbit/s (which is roughly equivalent to transmission of about 15 million simultaneous telephone conversations) through one hair thin optical fiber. Experimental demonstration of transmission at the rate of 14 Tbit/s over a 160 km long single fiber was demonstrated in 2006, which is equivalent to sending 140 digital high definition movies in 1 s. Very recently record transmission of more than 100 Tbit/s over 165 km single mode fiber has been reported. These can be considered as extremely important technological achievements. In this chapter we will discuss the propagation characteristics of optical fibers with special applications to optical communication systems and also present some of the noncommunication applications such as sensing.

  10. CIP Training Manual: Collaborative Information Portal Advance Training Information for Field Test Participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Collaborative Information Portal (CIP) is a web-based information management and retrieval system. Its purpose is to provide users at MER (Mars Exploration Rover) mission operations with easy access to a broad range of mission data and products and contextual information such as the current operations schedule. The CIP web-server provides this content in a user customizable web-portal environment. Since CIP is still under development, only a subset of the full feature set will be available for the EDO field test. The CIP web-portal will be accessed through a standard web browser. CIP is intended to be intuitive and simple to use, however, at the training session, users will receive a one to two page reference guide, which should aid them in using CIP. Users must provide their own computers for accessing CIP during the field test. These computers should be configured with Java 1.3 and a Java 2 enabled browser. Macintosh computers should be running OS 10.1.3 or later. Classic Mac OS (OS 9) is not supported. For more information please read section 7.3 in the FIASCO Rover Science Operations Test Mission Plan. Several screen shots of the Beta Release of CIP are shown on the following pages.

  11. Epoxy/Glass Fiber Laminated Composites Integrated with Amino Functionalized ZrO2 for Advanced Structural Applications.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sudipta; Ahemad, Soyeb; Das, Subhankar; Wang, Jialai

    2016-01-27

    This work demonstrates the successful silanization of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZN) and their incorporation in glass fiber/epoxy composites. Microscopic investigation under transmission electron microscope elucidates antiaggregation and size enhancement of silanized ZrO2 nanoparticles (SZNs). FTIR spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate the chemical nature of the SZNs prepared. EDX results reveal the presence of Si onto SZNs. Incorporation of SZNs shows a strong influence on tensile and flexural properties of hybrid multiscale glass fiber composite (SZGFRP) compared to that of the neat epoxy glass fiber composite (GFRP). A significant variation of tensile strength, stiffness, and toughness of ∼27%, 62%, and 110% is observed with respect to GFRP. Strength and modulus under bending are also enhanced to ∼22% and ∼38%, respectively. Failure mechanisms obtained from macroscopic and microscopic investigation demonstrate reduced interfacial delamination for SZGFRP. Additionally, increased roughness of the fiber surface in SZGFRP laminates produces better interfacial bonding arising from SZN incorporation in laminates. This symptomatic behavior exposes the espousal of organically modified ZrO2 to enhance the interfacial bonding for their use in next generation hybrid laminates. PMID:26714570

  12. Characterization of the stress and refractive-index distributions in optical fibers and fiber-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutsel, Michael R.

    2011-07-01

    Optical fiber technology continues to advance rapidly as a result of the increasing demands on communication systems and the expanding use of fiber-based sensing. New optical fiber types and fiber-based communications components are required to permit higher data rates, an increased number of channels, and more flexible installation requirements. Fiber-based sensors are continually being developed for a broad range of sensing applications, including environmental, medical, structural, industrial, and military. As optical fibers and fiber-based devices continue to advance, the need to understand their fundamental physical properties increases. The residual-stress distribution (RSD) and the refractive-index distribution (RID) play fundamental roles in the operation and performance of optical fibers. Custom RIDs are used to tailor the transmission properties of fibers used for long-distance transmission and to enable fiber-based devices such as long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs). The introduction and modification of RSDs enable specialty fibers, such as polarization-maintaining fiber, and contribute to the operation of fiber-based devices. Furthermore, the RSD and the RID are inherently linked through the photoelastic effect. Therefore, both the RSD and the RID need to be characterized because these fundamental properties are coupled and affect the fabrication, operation, and performance of fibers and fiber-based devices. To characterize effectively the physical properties of optical fibers, the RSD and the RID must be measured without perturbing or destroying the optical fiber. Furthermore, the techniques used must not be limited in detecting small variations and asymmetries in all directions through the fiber. Finally, the RSD and the RID must be characterized concurrently without moving the fiber to enable the analysis of the relationship between the RSD and the RID. Although many techniques exist for characterizing the residual stress and the refractive index in

  13. (De)synchronization of advanced visual information and ball flight characteristics constrains emergent information-movement couplings during one-handed catching.

    PubMed

    Stone, J A; Maynard, I W; North, J S; Panchuk, D; Davids, K

    2015-02-01

    Advance visual information of a projection action and ball flight information is important for organizing dynamic interceptive actions like catching. However, how the central nervous system (CNS) manages the relationship between advance visual information and emerging ball flight information in regulating behavior is less well understood. Here, we sought to examine the extent that advance visual information to the CNS constrains regulation of catching actions by synchronizing and desynchronizing its relationship with ball trajectory characteristics. Novel technology was used to present video footage of an actor throwing a ball at three different speeds, integrated with information from a real ball projected by a machine set to the three speeds. The technology enabled three synchronized and six desynchronized conditions between advance visual information and subsequent ball flight trajectories. Catching performance, kinematic data from the catching hand and gaze behaviors were recorded. Findings revealed that desynchronization of video images of ball projection shaped emergent catching behaviors. Footage of slower throws, paired with faster ball projection speeds, caused catching performance decrements. Timing in early phases of action was organized by the CNS to match the advance visual information presented. In later phases, like the grasp, ball flight information constraints adapted and regulated behaviors. Gaze behaviors showed increased ball projection speed resulted in participants tracking the ball for a smaller percentage of ball flight. Findings highlighted the role of the two visual systems in perception and action, implicating the importance of coupling advanced visual information and ball flight to regulate emergent movement coordination tendencies during interceptive behaviors.

  14. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    A conference was held at MSFC in May 1992 describing the research achievements of the NASA-wide research and technology programs dealing with advanced oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/hydrocarbon earth-to-orbit propulsion. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for the timely dissemination to the propulsion community of the results emerging from this program with particular emphasis on the transfer of information from the scientific/research to the designer.

  15. An On-Line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hoganm John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) is currently being developed for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. This paper describes the preliminary development of OTIS, which is a system designed to provide centralized collection and organization of technology information. The lack of thorough, reliable and easily understood technology information is a major obstacle in effective assessment of technology development progress, trade studies, metric calculations, and technology selection for integrated testing. OTIS will provide a formalized, well-organized protocol to communicate thorough, accurate, current and relevant technology information between the hands-on technology developer and the ALS Community. The need for this type of information transfer system within the Solid Waste Management (SWM) element was recently identified and addressed. A SWM Technology Information Form (TIF) was developed specifically for collecting detailed technology information in the area of SWM. In the TIF, information is requested from SWM technology developers, based upon the Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Basic information is requested for low-TRL technologies, and more detailed information is requested as the TRL of the technology increases. A comparable form is also being developed for the wastewater processing element. In the future, similar forms will also be developed for the ALS elements of air revitalization, food processing, biomass production and thermal control. These ALS element-specific forms will be implemented in OTIS via a web-accessible interface,with the data stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQLTM) located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center. With OTIS, ALS element leads and managers will be able to carry out informed research and development investment, thereby promoting technology through the TRL scale. OTIS will also allow analysts to make accurate evaluations of technology options. Additionally, the range

  16. Advances in performance and beam quality of 9xx-nm laser diodes tailored for efficient fiber coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Christian; König, Harald; Grönninger, Günther; Hein, Sebastian; Gomez-Iglesias, Alvaro; Furitsch, Michael; Maric, Josip; Kissel, Heiko; Wolf, Paul; Biesenbach, Jens; Strauss, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    The impact of new direct-diode and fiber laser systems on industrial manufacturing drives the demand for highbrightness diode laser pump sources suitable for simple fiber coupling with high efficiency. Within the German funded project HEMILAS laser mini-bars with different bar geometries and small fill factors were investigated. We present results on 9xx nm bars with tailored beam parameter products for simplified coupling to fibers with core diameters of 200μm and 300μm with a numerical aperture of 0.22 and compare beam quality parameters, brightness, conversion efficiency, and thermal performance of different bar designs. Optimized epitaxy structures yield conversion efficiency maxima above 66%. The slow axis divergence angle of mini-bars with a fill factor of 10% featuring five 100μm wide and 4mm long emitters based on this epitaxy structure stays below 7°, which corresponds to a beam parameter product of 15mm mrad, up to very high output power of over 45W. This result was achieved for mounting on actively cooled submounts using hard solder. A similar bar with 5mm cavity length and using soft soldering reached an output power of 60W at the same beam parameter product. At 4mm cavity length, no COMD failures were observed up to currents exceeding the thermal rollover and the maximum output cw power was 95W.

  17. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  18. Efficient collection of single photons emitted from a trapped ion into a single-mode fiber for scalable quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2011-12-01

    Interference and coincidence detection of two photons emitted by two remote ions can lead to an entangled state, which is a critical resource for scalable quantum-information processing. Currently the success probabilities of experimental realizations of this protocol are mainly limited by low coupling efficiency of a photon emitted by an ion into a single-mode fiber. Here we consider two strategies to enhance the collection probability of a photon emitted from a trapped Yb+ ion, using analytic methods that can be easily applied to other types of ions or neutral atoms. Our analysis shows that we can achieve fiber coupling efficiency of over 30% with an optical cavity made of a flat fiber tip and a spherical mirror. We also investigate ways to increase the fiber coupling efficiency using high-numerical-aperture optics, and show that collection probability of over 15% is possible with proper control of aberration.

  19. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  20. Uncovering brain–heart information through advanced signal and image processing

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain–heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  1. PRL advanced radial-velocity all-sky search (PARAS): an efficient fiber-fed spectrograph for planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Richardson, Eric Harvey; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2008-07-01

    We present here the optical design of an efficient Fiber-fed, Prism Cross-dispersed, Echelle Spectrograph (Resolution ~70,000 @seeing limited ~2arcsecs conditions) which will operate in the wavelength region of 3700A to 8100A. It will be used for extra-solar planets searches down to the precision of 3m/s and as well as for follow-up observations for new transit discoveries. The spectrograph design is such that with a beam size of 100mm (4inch) it should suit the existing 1 to 2m class of telescopes available in India. The fiber-fed spectrograph will be installed with a 1.2m telescope, which is situated at Mt. Abu (5800feet), Rajasthan, India. We estimate the spectrograph to be >30% efficient from the slit to the CCD detector, and up to 15% efficient including sky, telescope, fiber-fed optics etc. We expect to reach the S/N ratio of 70 on a 10mag star for an integration time of 40mins. We aim to achieve 5m/s to 3m/s Radial Velocity accuracies on such a star using the simultaneous ThAr referencing method. Since thermal stability is absolutely necessary to achieve <5m/s RV accuracies, the whole spectrograph is planned to be kept inside a vibration free isolated tank under low vacuum (0.001 mbar) in a thermally isolated room at 28C +/- 0.01C. It should see the first light by the summer of 2009. We are guaranteed at least 120 nights per year for the planet search program, more nights are possible.

  2. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System (OPIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriquez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Amcs Research Center (ARC) tu develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(Trademark) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an R&TD status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed research and technology development investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, and Control). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  3. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed R&TD investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, Controls and Systems Analysis). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  4. An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hogan, John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    OTIS is an on-line communication platform designed for smooth flow of technology information between advanced life support (ALS) technology developers, researchers, system analysts, and managers. With pathways for efficient transfer of information, several improvements in the ALS Program will result. With OTIS, it will be possible to provide programmatic information for technology developers and researchers, technical information for analysts, and managerial decision support. OTIS is a platform that enables the effective research, development, and delivery of complex systems for life support. An electronic data collection form has been developed for the solid waste element, drafted by the Solid Waste Working Group. Forms for other elements (air revitalization, water recovery, food processing, biomass production and thermal control) will also be developed, based on lessons learned from the development of the solid waste form. All forms will be developed by consultation with other working groups, comprised of experts in the area of interest. Forms will be converted to an on-line data collection interface that technology developers will use to transfer information into OTIS. Funded technology developers will log in to OTIS annually to complete the element- specific forms for their technology. The type and amount of information requested expands as the technology readiness level (TRL) increases. The completed forms will feed into a regularly updated and maintained database that will store technology information and allow for database searching. To ensure confidentiality of proprietary information, security permissions will be customized for each user. Principal investigators of a project will be able to designate certain data as proprietary and only technical monitors of a task, ALS Management, and the principal investigator will have the ability to view this information. The typical OTIS user will be able to read all non-proprietary information about all projects

  5. Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhenyu; Lours, Michel; Boudot, Rodolphe; Kersalé, Yann; Luiten, Andre N; Le Coq, Yann; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2011-05-01

    We report what we believe to be the lowest phase noise optical-to-microwave frequency division using fiber-based femtosecond optical frequency combs: a residual phase noise of -120 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset from an 11.55 GHz carrier frequency. Furthermore, we report a detailed investigation into the fundamental noise sources which affect the division process itself. Two frequency combs with quasi-identical configurations are referenced to a common ultrastable cavity laser source. To identify each of the limiting effects, we implement an ultra-low noise carrier-suppression measurement system, which avoids the detection and amplification noise of more conventional techniques. This technique suppresses these unwanted sources of noise to very low levels. In the Fourier frequency range of ∼200 Hz to 100 kHz, a feed-forward technique based on a voltage-controlled phase shifter delivers a further noise reduction of 10 dB. For lower Fourier frequencies, optical power stabilization is implemented to reduce the relative intensity noise which causes unwanted phase noise through power-to-phase conversion in the detector. We implement and compare two possible control schemes based on an acousto-optical modulator and comb pump current. We also present wideband measurements of the relative intensity noise of the fiber comb. PMID:21622045

  6. DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Subcommittee Report on Scientific and Technical Information

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, Tony; Agarwal, Deborah; Borgman, Christine; Cartaro, Concetta; Crivelli, Silvia; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese; Luce, Richard; Arjun, Shankar; Trefethen, Anne; Wade, Alex; Williams, Dean

    2015-09-04

    The Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged to form a standing subcommittee to review the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and to begin by assessing the quality and effectiveness of OSTI’s recent and current products and services and to comment on its mission and future directions in the rapidly changing environment for scientific publication and data. The Committee met with OSTI staff and reviewed available products, services and other materials. This report summaries their initial findings and recommendations.

  7. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the nuclear power plant operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation's energy and environmental security.

  8. Development Status of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael; Kaehms, Bob; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. The core functionality of OPIS will launch in October of 2005. This paper presents the current OPIS development status. OPIS core functionality involves a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIS) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(R)) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. Upon launch, OPIS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPIS to obtain.

  9. New Frontiers AO: Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) Engine Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry C.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Material Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine is a high performance (I(sub sp)), higher thrust, radiation cooled, storable bi-propellant space engine of the same physical envelope as the High Performance Apogee Thruster (HiPAT(TradeMark)). To provide further information about the AMBR engine, this document provides details on performance, development, mission implementation, key spacecraft integration considerations, project participants and approach, contact information, system specifications, and a list of references. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) leads the technology development of the AMBR engine. Their NASA partners were Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Aerojet leads the industrial partners selected competitively for the technology development via the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process.

  10. [Advances in researches on hyperspectral remote sensing forestry information-extracting technology].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Dao-Li

    2011-09-01

    The hyperspectral remote sensing technology has become one of the leading technologies in forestry remote sensing domain. In the present review paper, the advances in researches on hyperspectral remote sensing technology in forestry information extraction both at home and abroad were reviewed, and the five main research aspects including the hyperspectral classification and recognition of forest tree species, the hyperspectral inversion and extraction of forest ecological physical parameters, the hyperspectral monitoring and diagnosis of forest nutrient element, the forest crown density information extraction and the hyperspectral monitoring of forest disasters were summarized. The unresolved problems of hyperspectral technology in the forestry remote sensing applications were pointed out and the possible ways to solve these problems were expounded. Finally, the application prospect of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in forestry was analyzed.

  11. Development Approach of the Advanced Life Support On-line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael C.; Kaehms, Bob; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina A.; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. There has been significant advancement in the On-line Project Information System (OPIS) over the past year (Hogan et al, 2004). This paper presents the resultant OPIS development approach. OPIS is being built as an application framework consisting of an uderlying Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP (LAMP) stack, and supporting class libraries that provides database abstraction and automatic code generation, simplifying the ongoing development and maintenance process. Such a development approach allows for quick adaptation to serve multiple Programs, although initial deployment is for an ALS module. OPIS core functionality will involve a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIs) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. Such Annual Reports will be permanent, citable references within OPIS. OPlS core functionality will also include Project Home Sites, which will allow PIS to provide updated technology information to the Community in between Annual Report updates. All data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database, created in MySQL(Reistered Trademark) and located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Upon launch, OPlS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development (R&TD) gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPlS to obtain the current, comprehensive, accurate information about advanced technologies that is required to perform trade studies of various life support system options. ALS researchers and technology developers can use OPlS to achieve an improved understanding of the NASA

  12. [Respecting patient's end of life wishes: feasibility study of an information on surrogate and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Vinant, Pascale; Rousseau, Isabelle; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Guillard, Marie-Yvonne; Colombet, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This prospective interventional study aims to show the feasibility and impact of information procedure on surrogate and advance directives (AD), for patients with incurable lung or gastrointestinal cancer. The intervention consisted of two semi-structured interviews. The first included: collection of preferences for prognostic information and involvement in decision-making, initial assessment of knowledge, information and surrogate and DA. The second assessed the impact of the first interview on knowledge, surrogate designation and DA writing, the assessment procedure by the patient and assessment of anxiety generated. Among 77 eligible patients, 23 (30 %) were included, 6/29 (21 %) refused to participate, 20/23 (87 %) completed both interviews. Patients not included had a higher 4-month death rate than included ones (39 % vs. 4 %, P=0.002). Patients included had high expectations of information and appreciated it be delivered early, by someone not involved in their care. The study shows the feasibility of the procedure and its impact on the use of surrogate and DA by patients, however, revealing the complexity of approaching end-of-life wills and the importance of a process of anticipated discussion.

  13. [Respecting patient's end of life wishes: feasibility study of an information on surrogate and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Vinant, Pascale; Rousseau, Isabelle; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Guillard, Marie-Yvonne; Colombet, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This prospective interventional study aims to show the feasibility and impact of information procedure on surrogate and advance directives (AD), for patients with incurable lung or gastrointestinal cancer. The intervention consisted of two semi-structured interviews. The first included: collection of preferences for prognostic information and involvement in decision-making, initial assessment of knowledge, information and surrogate and DA. The second assessed the impact of the first interview on knowledge, surrogate designation and DA writing, the assessment procedure by the patient and assessment of anxiety generated. Among 77 eligible patients, 23 (30 %) were included, 6/29 (21 %) refused to participate, 20/23 (87 %) completed both interviews. Patients not included had a higher 4-month death rate than included ones (39 % vs. 4 %, P=0.002). Patients included had high expectations of information and appreciated it be delivered early, by someone not involved in their care. The study shows the feasibility of the procedure and its impact on the use of surrogate and DA by patients, however, revealing the complexity of approaching end-of-life wills and the importance of a process of anticipated discussion. PMID:25732047

  14. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Samborsky, J.K.

    1993-10-05

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information. 4 figures.

  15. Investigations Into the Influence of Weld Zone on Formability of Fiber Laser-Welded Advanced High Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Panda, S. K.; Saha, P.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two different dual phase steel grades DP980 and DP600, and IFHS steel sheets were laser welded by a 2-kW fiber laser. The weld quality of these three different LWBs was assessed with the help of microstructure, micro-hardness and transverse tensile tests. Tensile testing of longitudinal and miniature samples was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the weld zone. Formability of parent materials and LWBs were assessed in bi-axial stretch forming condition by Erichsen cupping test. To validate the weld zone properties, 3-D finite element models of Erichsen cupping test of LWBs was developed, and the failures in the deformed cups were predicted using two theoretical forming limit diagrams. It was observed that hardness of the fusion zone and HAZ in laser welded DP600 and IFHS steels was more compared to the respective parent metal. However, 29% reduction in hardness was observed at the outer HAZ of DP980 steel weldments due to tempering of martensite. Reduction of formability was observed for all the LWBs with two distinct failure patterns, and the maximum reduction in formability was observed in the case of DP980 LWBs. The presence of the soft zone is detrimental in forming of welded DP steels.

  16. Obtaining Helpful Information From the Internet About Prognosis in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chik, Ivan; Smith, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Prognostic awareness, or knowing that one has a life-ending disease, is associated with a better end-of-life experience, including less depression and anxiety. We sought to determine whether reliable sources on the Internet contained helpful prognostic information about advanced cancer. Methods: We played the role of a 62-year-old person with stage IV incurable cancer and accessed four commonly used Web sites for the 10 most common causes of cancer death (American Cancer Society, ASCO, National Cancer Institute, Up To Date), as well as disease-specific Web sites. Results: Approximately half the Web sites (26 of 50; 52%) had some notation of 5-year survival. Only four of 50 (8%) gave any average or median survival. Only 13 of 50 (26%) noted that stage IV cancer was a serious and usually life-ending illness. Nearly all had some information about hospice and palliative care. Conclusion: Information that can help with patient prognostic awareness is not currently found on cancer-related Web sites. Oncologists should be aware that their patients will not find estimates of survival or treatment effect on the Internet. This may contribute to overoptimistic estimates of survival and subsequent aggressive end-of-life care. PMID:26188047

  17. Benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information System - San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Johnson, L. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in monitoring and prediction of precipitation and severe storms can provide significant benefits for water resource managers, allowing them to mitigate flood damage risks, capture additional water supplies and offset drought impacts, and enhance ecosystem services. A case study for the San Francisco Bay area provides the context for quantification of the benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) system. The AQPI builds off more than a decade of NOAA research and applications of advanced precipitation sensors, data assimilation, numerical models of storms and storm runoff, and systems integration for real-time operations. An AQPI would dovetail with the current National Weather Service forecast operations to provide higher resolution monitoring of rainfall events and longer lead time forecasts. A regional resource accounting approach has been developed to quantify the incremental benefits assignable to the AQPI system; these benefits total to $35 M/yr in the 9 county Bay region. Depending on the jurisdiction large benefits for flood damage avoidance may accrue for locations having dense development in flood plains. In other locations forecst=based reservoir operations can increase reservoir storage for water supplies. Ecosystem services benefits for fisheries may be obtained from increased reservoir storage and downstream releases. Benefits in the transporation sectors are associated with increased safety and avoided delays. Compared to AQPI system implementation and O&M costs over a 10 year operations period, a benefit - cost (B/C) ratio is computed which ranges between 2.8 to 4. It is important to acknowledge that many of the benefits are dependent on appropriate and adequate response by the hazards and water resources management agencies and citizens.

  18. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  19. A highly reliable, autonomous data communication subsystem for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Masotto, Thomas; Alger, Linda

    1990-01-01

    The need to meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements of advanced avionics systems has frequently led to implementations which are tailored to a specific application and are therefore difficult to modify or extend. Furthermore, many integrated flight critical systems are input/output intensive. By using a design methodology which customizes the input/output mechanism for each new application, the cost of implementing new systems becomes prohibitively expensive. One solution to this dilemma is to design computer systems and input/output subsystems which are general purpose, but which can be easily configured to support the needs of a specific application. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), currently under development has these characteristics. The design and implementation of the prototype I/O communication system for AIPS is described. AIPS addresses reliability issues related to data communications by the use of reconfigurable I/O networks. When a fault or damage event occurs, communication is restored to functioning parts of the network and the failed or damage components are isolated. Performance issues are addressed by using a parallelized computer architecture which decouples Input/Output (I/O) redundancy management and I/O processing from the computational stream of an application. The autonomous nature of the system derives from the highly automated and independent manner in which I/O transactions are conducted for the application as well as from the fact that the hardware redundancy management is entirely transparent to the application.

  20. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1990-01-01

    An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

  1. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

  2. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, D. A.; Nakamura, T.; Sadler, P.; Cuello, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  3. Using an Informed Advocacy Framework to Advance the Practice of Family-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora; MacKinnon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The philosophical framework of family-centered care (FCC) has been promoted consistently since the 1980s in perinatal and neonatal settings as a gold standard approach for developing programs and providing care that supports the meaningful involvement of parents in the care of their infants and children. Recent literature suggests that despite years of promotion, FCC remains an elusive practice. Sources frequently state that FCC is based on principles of communication and empowerment, but the literature overall does not suggest substantial underlying philosophical or theoretical underpinnings. There have been theoretical advances in nursing and other disciplines that hold potential for moving our practice of FCC forward. In this article, we describe the informed advocacy framework and apply the framework to FCC. PMID:27465458

  4. Work Productivity and Health of Informal Caregivers of Persons With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Barbara J.; Douglas, Sara L.; Lipson, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe health promotion behaviors and work productivity loss in informal caregivers of individuals with advanced stage cancer. Using a cross-sectional, correlational design, 70 caregivers completed measures of health behaviors, mood, social support, and burden. Absenteeism and presenteeism were evaluated in employed caregivers (n = 40). Caregivers reported low levels of physical activity. The mean percentage of work productivity loss due to caregiving was 22.9%. Greater work productivity loss was associated with greater number of caregiving hours, higher cancer stage, married status, and greater anxiety, depression, and burden related to financial problems, disrupted schedule, and health. Nurses should assess caregivers and provide health promotion interventions, which may ultimately reduce the economic impact of caregiving. PMID:21953274

  5. A Two Stage Solution Procedure for Production Planning System with Advance Demand Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Hasuike, Takashi; Okuhara, Koji

    We model for ‘Naiji System’ which is a unique corporation technique between a manufacturer and suppliers in Japan. We propose a two stage solution procedure for a production planning problem with advance demand information, which is called ‘Naiji’. Under demand uncertainty, this model is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic programming problem which minimizes the sum of production cost and inventory holding cost subject to a probabilistic constraint and some linear production constraints. By the convexity and the special structure of correlation matrix in the problem where inventory for different periods is not independent, we propose a solution procedure with two stages which are named Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) and Variable Mesh Neighborhood Search (VMNS) based on meta-heuristics. It is shown that the proposed solution procedure is available to get a near optimal solution efficiently and practical for making a good master production schedule in the suppliers.

  6. Mass Customization Production Planning System by Advance Demand Information Based on Unfulfilled-order-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Masaya; Okuhara, Koji

    In this paper, we try to model for ‘Naiji System’ which is a unique corporation between a maker and suppliers in Japan. We propose Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) based on unfulfilled-order-rate by using Advance Demand Information, which is called ‘Naiji’. This model is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic programming problem which minimizes the sum of production cost and inventory holding cost subject to the set of probabilistic constraint and some linear production constraints. We propose the new upper bound SOn (ρmin) to estimate the unfulfilled-order-rate more strictly. The procedure to find a good solution is developed by solving the linear programming problem repeatedly on the basic solution strategy that is ‘relaxation’. A computational load to obtain a solution by the proposed indicator is shown to be very small. Finally, an availability of the procedure is shown.

  7. Sensor-model prediction, monitoring and in-situ control of liquid RTM advanced fiber architecture composite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Kingsley, P.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Hasko, G.; Dexter, B.

    In-situ frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) and the Loos resin transfer model have been used to select and control the processing properties of an epoxy resin during liquid pressure RTM impregnation and cure. Once correlated with viscosity and degree of cure the FDEMS sensor monitors and the RTM processing model predicts the reaction advancement of the resin, viscosity and the impregnation of the fabric. This provides a direct means for predicting, monitoring, and controlling the liquid RTM process in-situ in the mold throughout the fabrication process and the effects of time, temperature, vacuum and pressure. Most importantly, the FDEMS-sensor model system has been developed to make intelligent decisions, thereby automating the liquid RTM process and removing the need for operator direction.

  8. Sensor-model prediction, monitoring and in-situ control of liquid RTM advanced fiber architecture composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Kingsley, P.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Hasko, G.; Dexter, B.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) and the Loos resin transfer model have been used to select and control the processing properties of an epoxy resin during liquid pressure RTM impregnation and cure. Once correlated with viscosity and degree of cure the FDEMS sensor monitors and the RTM processing model predicts the reaction advancement of the resin, viscosity and the impregnation of the fabric. This provides a direct means for predicting, monitoring, and controlling the liquid RTM process in-situ in the mold throughout the fabrication process and the effects of time, temperature, vacuum and pressure. Most importantly, the FDEMS-sensor model system has been developed to make intelligent decisions, thereby automating the liquid RTM process and removing the need for operator direction.

  9. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  10. Globalization and advances in information and communication technologies: the impact on nursing and health.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Patricia A; Coenen, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and information and communication technology (ICT) continue to change us and the world we live in. Nursing stands at an opportunity intersection where challenging global health issues, an international workforce shortage, and massive growth of ICT combine to create a very unique space for nursing leadership and nursing intervention. Learning from prior successes in the field can assist nurse leaders in planning and advancing strategies for global health using ICT. Attention to lessons learned will assist in combating the technological apartheid that is already present in many areas of the globe and will highlight opportunities for innovative applications in health. ICT has opened new channels of communication, creating the beginnings of a global information society that will facilitate access to isolated areas where health needs are extreme and where nursing can contribute significantly to the achievement of "Health for All." The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationships between globalization, health, and ICT, and to illuminate opportunities for nursing in this flattening and increasingly interconnected world. PMID:18922277

  11. Indianapolis I3: the third generation Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Julie J; Overhage, J Marc; Barnes, Mike; McDonald, Clement J

    2004-04-01

    In 2001, the Regenstrief Institute for Health Care and the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) began an IAIMS planning effort to create a vision and a tactical plan for the first Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) implementation to cross a large area and include unaffiliated institutions. A number of elements made this planning effort unique. Among these elements were the existence of a network infrastructure that supported the Indianapolis Network for Patient Care, the existence of a mature medical informatics program at the Regenstrief Institute, and the existence of a wide-area knowledge network fostered by the IUSM libraries. However, the leadership for a strong information technology role in the IUSM that could promote collaboration in support of education and research across the diverse Indianapolis hospital systems had been lacking. By bringing together various groups, each with a commitment to improve health care quality and public health across the Indianapolis metropolitan area, regardless of individual institutional affiliation, the strategic directions for I3-Indianapolis IAIMS Initiative have been defined and the foundations for a third generation IAIMS construct have been laid in Indianapolis, Indiana.

  12. Assimilation of thermodynamic information from advanced infrared sounders under partially cloudy skies for regional NWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Jun; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Schmit, Timothy J.; Lim, Agnes H. N.; Li, Zhenglong; Han, Hyojin; Li, Jinlong; Ackerman, Steve A.

    2015-06-01

    Generally, only clear-infrared spectral radiances (not affected by clouds) are assimilated in weather analysis systems. This is due to difficulties in modeling cloudy radiances as well as in observing their vertical structure from space. To take full advantage of the thermodynamic information in advanced infrared (IR) sounder observations requires assimilating radiances from cloud-contaminated regions. An optimal imager/sounder cloud-clearing technique has been developed by the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This technique can be used to retrieve clear column radiances through combining collocated multiband imager IR clear radiances and the sounder cloudy radiances; no background information is needed in this method. The imager/sounder cloud-clearing technique is similar to that of the microwave/IR cloud clearing in the derivation of the clear-sky equivalent radiances. However, it retains the original IR sounder resolution, which is critical for regional numerical weather prediction applications. In this study, we have investigated the assimilation of cloud-cleared IR sounder radiances using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for three hurricanes, Sandy (2012), Irene (2011), and Ike (2008). Results show that assimilating additional cloud-cleared AIRS radiances reduces the 48 and 72 h temperature forecast root-mean-square error by 0.1-0.3 K between 300 and 850 hPa. Substantial improvement in reducing track forecasts errors in the range of 10 km to 50 km was achieved.

  13. Advancing standards for bioinformatics activities: persistence, reproducibility, disambiguation and Minimum Information About a Bioinformatics investigation (MIABi).

    PubMed

    Tan, Tin Wee; Tong, Joo Chuan; Khan, Asif M; de Silva, Mark; Lim, Kuan Siong; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2010-12-02

    The 2010 International Conference on Bioinformatics, InCoB2010, which is the annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet) has agreed to publish conference papers in compliance with the proposed Minimum Information about a Bioinformatics investigation (MIABi), proposed in June 2009. Authors of the conference supplements in BMC Bioinformatics, BMC Genomics and Immunome Research have consented to cooperate in this process, which will include the procedures described herein, where appropriate, to ensure data and software persistence and perpetuity, database and resource re-instantiability and reproducibility of results, author and contributor identity disambiguation and MIABi-compliance. Wherever possible, datasets and databases will be submitted to depositories with standardized terminologies. As standards are evolving, this process is intended as a prelude to the 100 BioDatabases (BioDB100) initiative whereby APBioNet collaborators will contribute exemplar databases to demonstrate the feasibility of standards-compliance and participate in refining the process for peer-review of such publications and validation of scientific claims and standards compliance. This testbed represents another step in advancing standards-based processes in the bioinformatics community which is essential to the growing interoperability of biological data, information, knowledge and computational resources.

  14. Quality Information--Informed Choices: Advancing the Workforce Information System. Secretary of Labor's Workforce Information System Plan for Federal Fiscal Years 2001-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Information Council (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 emphasizes the importance of high quality, accessible, and relevant information about the labor market for making sound decisions. In order to help both workers and employers, as well as the government agencies that serve them, the Workforce Information System was created and is being improved. The action plan…

  15. Reactivity Initiated Accident Simulation to Inform Transient Testing of Candidate Advanced Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas R; Wysocki, Aaron J; Terrani, Kurt A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light water reactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others will be driven by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current zirconium-based cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor core simulation capabilities to inform on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control rod ejection event. These test conditions are using three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon carbide based (SiC-SiC) cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus reference zirconium cladding is predominantly due to differences in: (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the

  16. Advanced information technologies for assessing nonpoint source pollution in the vadose zone: Conference overview

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, D.L.; Loague, K.; Ellsworth, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    The information age has ushered in an awareness of and concern for global environmental problems such as climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Nonpoint source pollution is the single greatest threat to surface and subsurface drinking water resources. Nonpoint source pollutants also pose a threat to sustainable agriculture, which is viewed as the most viable means of meeting the food demands of a world population that is expected to reach 9.4 billion by the middle of the next century. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales would provide a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities. Assessing NPS pollutant is a multidisciplinary problem. To address the problem, advanced information technologies and methodologies are needed that draw from all areas of science and are applied in a spatial context. It was from this setting that the 1997 Joint AGU Chapman/SSSA Outreach Conference Application of GIS, Remote Sensing, Geostatistics, and Solute Transport Modeling for Assessing Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone (19--24 Oct. 1997, Riverside, CA) materialized. The objective of the conference was to examine current multidisciplinary technologies and methodologies for assessing NPS pollutants in the vadose zone, and to explore new conceptual approaches. It was the conference`s goal to provide a forum to stimulate multidisciplinary interaction to enhance the development of techniques for the real-time measurement and modeling of NPS pollution in the vadose zone and subsurface waters.

  17. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  18. Recent advances in mathematical modeling of developmental abnormalities using mechanistic information.

    PubMed

    Kavlock, R J

    1997-01-01

    During the last several years, significant changes in the risk assessment process for developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants have begun to emerge. The first of these changes is the development and beginning use of statistically based dose-response models [the benchmark dose (BMD) approach] that better utilize data derived from existing testing approaches. Accompanying this change is the greater emphasis placed on understanding and using mechanistic information to yield more accurate, reliable, and less uncertain risk assessments. The next stage in the evolution of risk assessment will be the use of biologically based dose-response (BBDR) models that begin to build into the statistically based models factors related to the underlying kinetic, biochemical, and/or physiologic processes perturbed by a toxicant. Such models are now emerging from several research laboratories. The introduction of quantitative models and the incorporation of biologic information into them has pointed to the need for even more sophisticated modifications for which we offer the term embryologically based dose-response (EBDR) models. Because these models would be based upon the understanding of normal morphogenesis, they represent a quantum leap in our thinking, but their complexity presents daunting challenges both to the developmental biologist and the developmental toxicologist. Implementation of these models will require extensive communication between developmental toxicologists, molecular embryologists, and biomathematicians. The remarkable progress in the understanding of mammalian embryonic development at the molecular level that has occurred over the last decade combined with advances in computing power and computational models should eventually enable these as yet hypothetical models to be brought into use.

  19. Advanced information processing system: The Army Fault-Tolerant Architecture detailed design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clasen, Robert J.; Harris, Chris H.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Nagle, Gail A.; Prizant, Mark J.; Treadwell, Steven

    1994-01-01

    The Army Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) is pursuing programs that would enable effective and efficient management of large amounts of situational data that occurs during tactical rotorcraft missions. The Computer Aided Low Altitude Night Helicopter Flight Program has identified automated Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance, Nap of the Earth (TF/TA, NOE) operation as key enabling technology for advanced tactical rotorcraft to enhance mission survivability and mission effectiveness. The processing of critical information at low altitudes with short reaction times is life-critical and mission-critical necessitating an ultra-reliable/high throughput computing platform for dependable service for flight control, fusion of sensor data, route planning, near-field/far-field navigation, and obstacle avoidance operations. To address these needs the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) is being designed and developed. This computer system is based upon the Fault Tolerant Parallel Processor (FTPP) developed by Charles Stark Draper Labs (CSDL). AFTA is hard real-time, Byzantine, fault-tolerant parallel processor which is programmed in the ADA language. This document describes the results of the Detailed Design (Phase 2 and 3 of a 3-year project) of the AFTA development. This document contains detailed descriptions of the program objectives, the TF/TA NOE application requirements, architecture, hardware design, operating systems design, systems performance measurements and analytical models.

  20. Sensitivity and information content of aerosol retrievals from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer: radiometric factors.

    PubMed

    Ignatov, Alexander

    2002-02-20

    The sensitivity of aerosol optical depths tau1 and tau2 derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) channels 1 and 2, centered at lambda1 = 0.63 and lambda2 = 0.83 microm, respectively, and of an effective Angstrom exponent alpha, derived therefrom as alpha = -ln(tau1/tau2)/ln(lambda1/lambda2), to calibration uncertainties, radiometric noise, and digitization is estimated. Analyses are made both empirically (by introduction of perturbations into the measured radiances and estimation of the respective partial derivatives) and theoretically (by use of a decoupled form of the single-scattering approximation of the radiative transfer equation). The two results are in close agreement. The errors, deltataui and deltaalphai, are parameterized empirically as functions of taui, radiometric errors, and Sun and view geometry. In particular, the alpha errors change in approximately inverse proportion to tau and are comparable with, or even exceed, typical alpha signals over oceans when tau < 0.25. Their detrimental effect on the information content of the AVHRR-derived size parameter gradually weakens as tau increases.

  1. Mass Customization Production Planning System by Advance Demand Information Based on Unfulfilled-order-rate II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Okuhara, Koji

    In the previous paper, we proposed Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) based on unfulfilled-order-rate by using Advance Demand Information which is called ‘Naiji System’ as an unique corporation between a maker and suppliers in Japan, and 3 indicators to estimate the unfulfilled-order-rate. Applying these indicators to the model, we investigated the behavior of unfulfilled-order-rate at the final period in the planning horizon. In this paper, we propose a new model for purchasing, and investigate the unfulfilled-order-rate at each period and the impact to the total inventory. We find that the total inventories become 5.9%-20.0% decreases by using SOn rather than by using SOn(0). And we enhance a base-stock policy to a new one with multi-period. We prove that the MCPS model for purchasing by using SOn(0) is equivalent to the base-stock policy with multi-period under the specified condition. Under this condition, the proposed model by using SOn decreases inventories more than the base-stock policy with multi-period.

  2. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems: a twenty-year history at the University of Cincinnati*

    PubMed Central

    Guard, J. Roger; Brueggemann, Ralph F.; Fant, William K.; Hutton, John J.; Kues, John R.; Marine, Stephen A.; Rouan, Gregory W.; Schick, Leslie C.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Cincinnati (UC) has been active in the National Library of Medicine's Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) program since IAIMS' inception in 1984. UC received IAIMS planning and modeling grants in the 1980s, spent the 1990s practicing its own form of “iaims” and refining its vision, and, in May 2003, received an IAIMS operations grant in the first round of awards under “the next generation” program. This paper discusses the history of IAIMS at UC and describes the goals, methods, and strategies of the current IAIMS program. The goals of UC's IAIMS program are to: improve teaching effectiveness by improving the assessment of health professional students and residents in laboratory and clinical teaching and learning environments; improve the ability of researchers, educators, and students to acquire and apply the knowledge required to be more productive in genomic research and education; and increase the productivity of researchers and administrators in the pre-award, post-award, and compliance phases of the research lifecycle. PMID:15098045

  3. Constructing a prior information base for river mapping from digital images and DEMs by an advanced image interpretation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkesen, Ali Can

    The purpose of this dissertation is to describe the construction of a prior information-base (interpretation of river characteristics) for river mapping from digital representations, such as remotely sensed digital images and DEMs, by an advanced image interpretation system. More reliable prior information availability in an advanced image interpretation system enables GIS and remote sensing facilities to locate rivers in an easier, more accurate and more straightforward way. In this study, the author proposes a prior information-base including some rules and facts for river mapping from the use of both remotely sensed multi-spectral images and DEMs. These rules not only allow water-related applications in both GIS and remote sensing to be more accurate, but also construct the information-base for river mapping by an advanced image interpretation system. These rules were constructed as a synthesis from searching the literature and experiments with both digital images and DEMs. These rules are employed in an advanced image interpretation system which requires (1) a prior information-base; (2) a working memory; (3) an inference module (Caelli and Bischof, 1997; Schenk and Zilberstein, 1990). A prior information-base is formed by a set of rules (qualitative or quantitative or relationships). A working memory has the basic function of holding features in the form of spatial data and their attribute values. These spatial and attribute data are used by interpreters to activate the rules. Inference module refers to software and hardware that connect the user's questions to the prior information-base and instruct the user (interpreter) about the process. In this dissertation, a prior information-based river mapping was implemented and the proposed rules were tested studying both images and DEMs in IDRISI, as well as RiverTools.

  4. Optimization of two-stage production/inventory systems under order base stock policy with advance demand information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakade, Koichi; Yokozawa, Shiori

    2016-08-01

    It is important to share demand information among the members in supply chains. In recent years, production and inventory systems with advance demand information (ADI) have been discussed, where advance demand information means the information of demand which the decision maker obtains before the corresponding actual demand arrives. Appropriate production and inventory control using demand information leads to the decrease of inventory and backlog costs. For a single stage system, the optimal base stock and release lead time have been discussed in the literature. In practical production systems the manufacturing system has multiple processes. The multiple stage production and inventory system with ADI, however, has been analyzed by simulation or assuming exponential processing time. That is, their theoretical analysis and optimization of release lead time and base stock level have little been obtained because of its difficulty. In this paper, theoretical analysis of a two-stage production inventory system with advance demand information is developed, where the processing time is assumed deterministic and identical; demand arrival process is Poisson, and an order base stock policy is adopted. Using the analytical results, optimal release lead time and optimal base stock levels for minimizing the average cost on the holding and backlog costs are explicitly derived.

  5. 76 FR 80832 - Fire Pots and Gel Fuel; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for Comments and Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part Chapter II Fire Pots and Gel Fuel; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rohit Khanna, Fire Program Area Team Leader, Office of... firepots and gel fuel are used together, they can present serious burn and fire hazards. Firepots and...

  6. Information Needs Perceived as Important by Leaders in Advanced Technological Education: Alignment with Community College Program Improvement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badway, Norena Norton; Somerville, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze what leaders of Advanced Technological Education (ATE) programs funded by the National Science Foundation believe are their most important needs for research information. Data was collected through a Delphi process, and results were analyzed through frameworks associated with program improvement initiatives…

  7. ISAAC: An Introduction to IBM's Information System for Advanced Academic Computing at the University of Washington-Seattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Nicolas, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the origin of ISAAC (Information System for Advanced Academic Computing) and the development of a languages and linguistics "room" at the University of Washington-Seattle. ISAAC, a free, valuable resource, consists of two databases and an electronic bulletin board spanning broad areas of pedagogical and research fields. (Author/CB)

  8. Biomechanical fatigue analysis of an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy plate for bone fracture repair using conventional fatigue tests and thermography.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-07-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing research program to develop an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite with a “sandwich structure” as a substitute for metallic materials for orthopedic long bone fracture plate applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue properties of this composite, since cyclic loading is one of the main types of loads carried by a femur fracture plate during normal daily activities. Conventional fatigue testing, thermographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the damage progress that occurred during fatigue loading. Fatigue strength obtained using thermography analysis (51% of ultimate tensile strength) was confirmed using the conventional fatigue test (50–55% of ultimate tensile strength). The dynamic modulus (E⁎) was found to stay almost constant at 47 GPa versus the number of cycles, which can be related to the contribution of both flax/epoxy and CF/epoxy laminae to the stiffness of the composite. SEM images showed solid bonding at the CF/epoxy and flax/epoxy laminae, with a crack density of only 0.48% for the plate loaded for 2 million cycles. The current composite plate showed much higher fatigue strength than the main loads experienced by a typical patient during cyclic activities; thus, it may be a potential candidate for bone fracture plate applications. Moreover, the fatigue strength from thermographic analysis was the same as that obtained by the conventional fatigue tests, thus demonstrating its potential use as an alternate tool to rapidly evaluate fatigue strength of composite biomaterials.

  9. Biomechanical fatigue analysis of an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy plate for bone fracture repair using conventional fatigue tests and thermography.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-07-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing research program to develop an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite with a "sandwich structure" as a substitute for metallic materials for orthopedic long bone fracture plate applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue properties of this composite, since cyclic loading is one of the main types of loads carried by a femur fracture plate during normal daily activities. Conventional fatigue testing, thermographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the damage progress that occurred during fatigue loading. Fatigue strength obtained using thermography analysis (51% of ultimate tensile strength) was confirmed using the conventional fatigue test (50-55% of ultimate tensile strength). The dynamic modulus (E(⁎)) was found to stay almost constant at 47GPa versus the number of cycles, which can be related to the contribution of both flax/epoxy and CF/epoxy laminae to the stiffness of the composite. SEM images showed solid bonding at the CF/epoxy and flax/epoxy laminae, with a crack density of only 0.48% for the plate loaded for 2 million cycles. The current composite plate showed much higher fatigue strength than the main loads experienced by a typical patient during cyclic activities; thus, it may be a potential candidate for bone fracture plate applications. Moreover, the fatigue strength from thermographic analysis was the same as that obtained by the conventional fatigue tests, thus demonstrating its potential use as an alternate tool to rapidly evaluate fatigue strength of composite biomaterials.

  10. Biomechanical fatigue analysis of an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy plate for bone fracture repair using conventional fatigue tests and thermography.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Bougherara, Habiba; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-07-01

    The current study is part of an ongoing research program to develop an advanced new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite with a “sandwich structure” as a substitute for metallic materials for orthopedic long bone fracture plate applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue properties of this composite, since cyclic loading is one of the main types of loads carried by a femur fracture plate during normal daily activities. Conventional fatigue testing, thermographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the damage progress that occurred during fatigue loading. Fatigue strength obtained using thermography analysis (51% of ultimate tensile strength) was confirmed using the conventional fatigue test (50–55% of ultimate tensile strength). The dynamic modulus (E⁎) was found to stay almost constant at 47 GPa versus the number of cycles, which can be related to the contribution of both flax/epoxy and CF/epoxy laminae to the stiffness of the composite. SEM images showed solid bonding at the CF/epoxy and flax/epoxy laminae, with a crack density of only 0.48% for the plate loaded for 2 million cycles. The current composite plate showed much higher fatigue strength than the main loads experienced by a typical patient during cyclic activities; thus, it may be a potential candidate for bone fracture plate applications. Moreover, the fatigue strength from thermographic analysis was the same as that obtained by the conventional fatigue tests, thus demonstrating its potential use as an alternate tool to rapidly evaluate fatigue strength of composite biomaterials. PMID:24918250

  11. Applications of optical fiber assemblies in harsh environments: the journey past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomes, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-08-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies, including: qualification information, lessons learned, and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  12. Applications of Optical Fiber Assemblies in Harsh Environments, the Journey Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies including; qualification information, lessons learned and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  13. Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) Program Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will employ fiber-optic interconnection components to transmit information from airframe and propulsion sensors to the flight control computers. Although these optical interconnects have been rigorously tested under laboratory conditions to determine their operating and environmental limits, there is concern as to their repairability and maintainability when placed in actual service. The Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) flight test program will provide data to enable designers to improve these fiber-optic interconnection systems for the next generation of aircraft. FORM is identifying critical problems in installing, maintaining, testing, and repairing fiber-optic interconnection systems in an operational avionics environment. This program is a cooperative Government/industry effort to evaluate optical component acceptability and installation techniques for aircraft.

  14. Strong fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Che-Yu.

    1991-03-01

    This program was directed to a new and generic approach to the development of new materials with novel and interesting properties, and to the precision fabrication of these materials in one and two-dimensional forms. Advanced deposition processes and microfabrication technology were used to produce fibers and grids of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and mixtures of controlled composition and structure, and with new and interesting mechanical and physical properties. Deposition processes included electron beam evaporation, co-deposition of mixtures by dual electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, sputtering of a single element or compound, sputtering of a single element in a gaseous atmosphere to produce compounds, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and selective tungsten chemical vapor deposition (W-CVD). The approach was to use the deposition processes in coordination with patterns generated by optical lithography to produce fibers with transverse dimensions in the micron range, and lengths from less than a millimeter to several centimeters. The approach is also applicable to the production of two-dimensional grids and particulates of controlled sizes and geometries.

  15. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  16. Librarian-lead tutorial for enhancement of pharmacy students' information-searching skills in advanced experiential rotations.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Mariana; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana

    2009-10-01

    Pharmacy schools across the United States expose students to literature searching and evaluation mostly during required didactic drug information courses. The majority of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students do not utilize library-available electronic resources on a regular basis, and their didactic experience alone is not sufficient to make them successful in their advanced experiential drug information (DI) rotations. This pilot study demonstrates an improvement of students' perceptions regarding information searching and evaluating abilities as the result of their participation in a small group tutorial with a reference librarian, thus indicating effectiveness of the tutorial in refreshing and enhancing database knowledge skills.

  17. Energy Therapies in Advanced Practice Oncology: An Evidence-Informed Practice Approach

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced practitioners in oncology want patients to receive state-of-the-art care and support for their healing process. Evidence-informed practice (EIP), an approach to evaluating evidence for clinical practice, considers the varieties of evidence in the context of patient preference and condition as well as practitioner knowledge and experience. This article offers an EIP approach to energy therapies, namely, Therapeutic Touch (TT), Healing Touch (HT), and Reiki, as supportive interventions in cancer care; a description of the author’s professional experience with TT, HT, and Reiki in practice and research; an overview of the three energy healing modalities; a review of nine clinical studies related to oncology; and recommendations for EIP. These studies demonstrate a response to previous research design critiques. Findings indicate a positive benefit for oncology patients in the realms of pain, quality of life, fatigue, health function, and mood. Directionality of healing in immune response and cell line studies affirms the usual explanation that these therapies bring harmony and balance to the system in the direction of health. Foremost, the research literature demonstrates the safety of these therapies. In order to consider the varieties of evidence for TT, HT, and Reiki, EIP requires a qualitative examination of patient experiences with these modalities, exploration of where these modalities have been integrated into cancer care and how the practice works in the oncology setting, and discovery of the impact of implementation on provider practice and self-care. Next steps toward EIP require fleshing out the experience of these modalities by patients and health-care providers in the oncology care setting. PMID:25031994

  18. Energy therapies in advanced practice oncology: an evidence-informed practice approach.

    PubMed

    Potter, Pamela J

    2013-05-01

    Advanced practitioners in oncology want patients to receive state-of-the-art care and support for their healing process. Evidence-informed practice (EIP), an approach to evaluating evidence for clinical practice, considers the varieties of evidence in the context of patient preference and condition as well as practitioner knowledge and experience. This article offers an EIP approach to energy therapies, namely, Therapeutic Touch (TT), Healing Touch (HT), and Reiki, as supportive interventions in cancer care; a description of the author's professional experience with TT, HT, and Reiki in practice and research; an overview of the three energy healing modalities; a review of nine clinical studies related to oncology; and recommendations for EIP. These studies demonstrate a response to previous research design critiques. Findings indicate a positive benefit for oncology patients in the realms of pain, quality of life, fatigue, health function, and mood. Directionality of healing in immune response and cell line studies affirms the usual explanation that these therapies bring harmony and balance to the system in the direction of health. Foremost, the research literature demonstrates the safety of these therapies. In order to consider the varieties of evidence for TT, HT, and Reiki, EIP requires a qualitative examination of patient experiences with these modalities, exploration of where these modalities have been integrated into cancer care and how the practice works in the oncology setting, and discovery of the impact of implementation on provider practice and self-care. Next steps toward EIP require fleshing out the experience of these modalities by patients and health-care providers in the oncology care setting. PMID:25031994

  19. Fiber biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  20. Actuating Fibers: Design and Applications.

    PubMed

    Stoychev, Georgi V; Ionov, Leonid

    2016-09-21

    Actuators are devices capable of moving or controlling objects and systems by applying mechanical force on them. Among all kinds of actuators with different shapes, fibrous ones deserve particular attention. In spite of their apparent simplicity, actuating fibers allow for very complex actuation behavior. This review discusses different approaches for the design of actuating fibers, and their advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss the prospects for the design of fibers with advanced architectures and complex actuation behavior. PMID:27571481

  1. Justice-involved health information: policy and practice advances in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L; Aseltine, Rob H

    2014-01-01

    Sharing health information across correctional boundaries presents many challenges. Three such projects in Connecticut may be of value in informing other jurisdictions of similar opportunities. This article describes the development and implementation of an interagency release of information (ROI) document and process, a voucher program to provide discharge medications at the time of release, and a statewide research-oriented health information network.

  2. How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

  3. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof-of-concept system functional design I/O network system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The function design of the Input/Output (I/O) services for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof of concept system is described. The data flow diagrams, which show the functional processes in I/O services and the data that flows among them, are contained. A complete list of the data identified on the data flow diagrams and in the process descriptions are provided.

  4. Fiber Optic Microphone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  5. Python fiber optic seal

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  6. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-10-04

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  7. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  8. Advanced approach to information security management system model for industrial control system.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Kyungho

    2014-01-01

    Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS.

  9. From the Office of the National Coordinator: the strategy for advancing the exchange of health information.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claudia; Mostashari, Farzad; Mertz, Kory; Hogin, Emily; Atwal, Parmeeth

    2012-03-01

    Electronic health information exchange addresses a critical need in the US health care system to have information follow patients to support patient care. Today little information is shared electronically, leaving doctors without the information they need to provide the best care. With payment reforms providing a strong business driver, the demand for health information exchange is poised to grow. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, Department of Health and Human Services, has led the process of establishing the essential building blocks that will support health information exchange. Over the coming year, this office will develop additional policies and standards that will make information exchange easier and cheaper and facilitate its use on a broader scale.

  10. From the Office of the National Coordinator: the strategy for advancing the exchange of health information.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claudia; Mostashari, Farzad; Mertz, Kory; Hogin, Emily; Atwal, Parmeeth

    2012-03-01

    Electronic health information exchange addresses a critical need in the US health care system to have information follow patients to support patient care. Today little information is shared electronically, leaving doctors without the information they need to provide the best care. With payment reforms providing a strong business driver, the demand for health information exchange is poised to grow. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, Department of Health and Human Services, has led the process of establishing the essential building blocks that will support health information exchange. Over the coming year, this office will develop additional policies and standards that will make information exchange easier and cheaper and facilitate its use on a broader scale. PMID:22392663

  11. Advanced Approach to Information Security Management System Model for Industrial Control System

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS. PMID:25136659

  12. Justice-involved health information: policy and practice advances in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L; Aseltine, Rob H

    2014-01-01

    Sharing health information across correctional boundaries presents many challenges. Three such projects in Connecticut may be of value in informing other jurisdictions of similar opportunities. This article describes the development and implementation of an interagency release of information (ROI) document and process, a voucher program to provide discharge medications at the time of release, and a statewide research-oriented health information network. PMID:24808812

  13. Justice-Involved Health Information: Policy and Practice Advances in Connecticut

    PubMed Central

    Trestman, Robert L.; Aseltine, Rob H.

    2014-01-01

    Sharing health information across correctional boundaries presents many challenges. Three such projects in Connecticut may be of value in informing other jurisdictions of similar opportunities. This article describes the development and implementation of an interagency release of information (ROI) document and process, a voucher program to provide discharge medications at the time of release, and a statewide research-oriented health information network. PMID:24808812

  14. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shipped. The proof of electronic filing citation, low-risk exporter citation, or exemption statement, will... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for outward cargo required... Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.14 Electronic information for outward...

  15. Adapting Advanced Information Technology Network Training for Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Helen L.; Murray, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an accessible e-learning environment that was designed to deliver advanced IT skills to legally blind students in preparation for employment. The aim was to convert industry-standard training materials in print into accessible formats and to deliver the learning materials in ways that are more suited to adult students with…

  16. 38 CFR 17.32 - Informed consent and advance care planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions: Advance Directive. Specific written statements made by a patient who has decision-making capacity regarding future health care decisions in any of the following: (i) VA Living Will. A written statement made.... (ii) VA Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care. A written instruction on a VA form which...

  17. Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides a brief description of postearthquake tools and products provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products specifically aimed at providing situational awareness in the period immediately following significant earthquake events.

  18. The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology

    PubMed Central

    Rose, C.; Parker, A.; Jefferson, B.; Cartmell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The safe disposal of human excreta is of paramount importance for the health and welfare of populations living in low income countries as well as the prevention of pollution to the surrounding environment. On-site sanitation (OSS) systems are the most numerous means of treating excreta in low income countries, these facilities aim at treating human waste at source and can provide a hygienic and affordable method of waste disposal. However, current OSS systems need improvement and require further research and development. Development of OSS facilities that treat excreta at, or close to, its source require knowledge of the waste stream entering the system. Data regarding the generation rate and the chemical and physical composition of fresh feces and urine was collected from the medical literature as well as the treatability sector. The data were summarized and statistical analysis was used to quantify the major factors that were a significant cause of variability. The impact of this data on biological processes, thermal processes, physical separators, and chemical processes was then assessed. Results showed that the median fecal wet mass production was 128 g/cap/day, with a median dry mass of 29 g/cap/day. Fecal output in healthy individuals was 1.20 defecations per 24 hr period and the main factor affecting fecal mass was the fiber intake of the population. Fecal wet mass values were increased by a factor of 2 in low income countries (high fiber intakes) in comparison to values found in high income countries (low fiber intakes). Feces had a median pH of 6.64 and were composed of 74.6% water. Bacterial biomass is the major component (25–54% of dry solids) of the organic fraction of the feces. Undigested carbohydrate, fiber, protein, and fat comprise the remainder and the amounts depend on diet and diarrhea prevalence in the population. The inorganic component of the feces is primarily undigested dietary elements that also depend on dietary supply. Median urine

  19. Fiber Optics: A Bright Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of the impact of fiber optics on telecommunications and its application to information processing and library services, including information retrieval, news services, remote transmission of library services, and library networking. (RAA)

  20. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  1. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  2. Career Directions--Fiber Optic Installer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber that is roughly the diameter of a human hair. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Each optical fiber is capable of carrying an enormous amount of…

  3. Specialty fiber optic applications for harsh and high radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Brian G.

    2015-05-01

    Since the first commercial introduction in the 1980s, optical fiber technology has undergone an almost exponential growth. Currently over 2 billion fiber kilometers are deployed globally with 2014 global optical fiber production exceeding 300 million fiber kilometers. 1 Along with the staggering growth in optical fiber production and deployment, an increase in optical fiber technologies and applications has also followed. Although the main use of optical fibers by far has been for traditional data transmission and communications, numerous new applications are introduced each year. Initially the practical application of optical fibers was limited by cost and sensitivity of the optical fibers to stress, radiation, and other environmental factors. Tremendous advances have taken place in optical fiber design and materials allowing optical fibers to be deployed in increasingly harsh environments with exposure to increased mechanical and environmental stresses while maintaining high reliability. With the increased reliability, lower cost, and greatly expanded range of optical fiber types now available, new optical fiber deployments in harsh and high radiation environments is seeing a tremendous increase for data, communications, and sensing applications. An overview of key optical fiber applications in data, communications, and sensing for harsh environments in industrial, energy exploration, energy generation, energy transmission, and high radiation applications will be presented. Specific recent advances in new radiation resistant optical fiber types, other specialty optical fibers, optical fiber coatings, and optical fiber cable materials will be discussed to illustrate long term reliability for deployment of optical fibers in harsh and high radiation environments.

  4. Measuring shear modulus of individual fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlow, Herbert; Saini, Deepika; Oliviera, Luciana; Skove, Malcolm; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Fiber technology has advanced to new heights enabling tailored mechanical properties. For reliable fiber applications their mechanical properties must be well characterized at the individual fiber level. Unlike the tensile modulus, which can be well studied in a single fiber, the present indirect and dynamic methods of measuring the shear properties of fibers suffer from various disadvantages such as the interaction between fibers and the influence of damping. In this talk, we introduce a quasi-static method to directly measure the shear modulus of a single micron-sized fiber. Our simple and inexpensive setup yields a shear modulus of 16 and 2 GPa for a single IM7 carbon fiber and a Kevlar fiber, respectively. Furthermore, our setup is also capable of measuring the creep, hysteresis and the torsion coefficient, and examples of these will be presented.

  5. 78 FR 4424 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Advance of Escrow Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... staff, Mortgage Credit Examiner, Inspector, and Architect, must use information collected to approve the..._Submission@omb.eop.gov fax: 202-395-5806. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Colette Pollard., Reports... toll-free number. Copies of available documents submitted to OMB may be obtained from Ms....

  6. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rail carrier must use a CBP-approved electronic data interchange system. (1) Through cargo in transit... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for rail cargo required in... for Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.91 Electronic information for rail cargo required in...

  7. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for Cargo Arriving by Rail or Truck § 123.92 Electronic information for truck cargo required in... upon the CBP-approved system employed to present the information. (1) Through cargo in transit to a foreign country. Cargo arriving by truck in transit through the United States from one foreign country...

  8. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information…

  9. 78 FR 14585 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Advance Permission to Enter as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Register on December 18, 2012, at 77 FR 74861, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS received... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection...

  10. 77 FR 74861 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Advance Permission To Enter as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S...), the estimated cost to the respondent, and the actual information collection instruments....

  11. Partnership for the Advancement of Information Literacy in a Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sheila; Blake-Campbell, Barbara; McKay, Devin

    2012-01-01

    Nursing educators know that healthcare stakeholders expect nursing graduates to be able to manage information. Consequently, many nursing education programs are exploring ways of integrating information literacy across the curriculum not only to bolster evidence-based practice, but also to enhance professional development and encourage lifelong…

  12. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

  13. The Present Conditions of the Advances in Modernizing Scientific and Technical Information Processing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Written By Tongbao; Li, Translated By Guohua

    The trends of modernization (computerization) in information activities were outlined in focussing on the national computer-based information retrieval system, which was pushed by the State Science and Technology Commission in the 6th National Five-Year Plan. Secondary, the Plan to be promoted by the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC) as a central and integrated information center in China was also described for the 7th National Five-Year Plan on the occasion of the movement to the new ISTIC building. Finally, author's views on information programs to be further stressed were introduced, which include the production of reference and fact databases in Chinese and English, the consolidation of online network, standardization, etc.

  14. Chromatin Fiber Dynamics under Tension and Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Christophe; Victor, Jean-Marc; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic information in eukaryotic cells is carried on chromosomes, basically consisting of large compact supercoiled chromatin fibers. Micromanipulations have recently led to great advances in the knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of DNA transaction events by nucleosome and chromatin structural changes. Indeed, magnetic and optical tweezers have allowed opportunities to handle single nucleosomal particles or nucleosomal arrays and measure their response to forces and torques, mimicking the molecular constraints imposed in vivo by various molecular motors acting on the DNA. These challenging technical approaches provide us with deeper understanding of the way chromatin dynamically packages our genome and participates in the regulation of cellular metabolism. PMID:20480035

  15. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  16. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-11-01

    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  17. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The challenge of those involved in control-system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is the area of fiber optics for controls. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors, and optically controlled actuators are weight and volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, superior bandwidth capabilities, and freedom from short circuits and sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has performed in-house, contract, and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high-temperature electro-optic switches, and fly-by-light control-system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control-system technology, known as the Fiber-Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber-optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2, yet to be initiated, will provide subcomponent and system development, and a system engine test. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program will be discussed.

  18. Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, Todd

    2012-12-13

    efficiency and carbon footprint reduction for our nation's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) infrastructure. The specific objectives of the ARCTIC project focused in the following three areas: i) advanced research innovations that dramatically enhance the ability to deal with ever-increasing device heat densities and footprint reduction by bringing the liquid cooling much closer to the actual heat sources; ii) manufacturing optimization of key components; and iii) ensuring rapid market acceptance by reducing cost, thoroughly understanding system-level performance, and developing viable commercialization strategies. The project involved participants with expertise in all aspects of commercialization, including research & development, manufacturing, sales & marketing and end users. The team was lead by Alcatel-Lucent, and included subcontractors Modine and USHose.

  19. Advancing the evolution of healthcare: information technology in a person-focused population health model.

    PubMed

    Velianoff, George D

    2014-01-01

    The current changes introduced into the healthcare delivery system through the Affordable Care Act require more than the isolated, quality/cost process solutions utilized to date. Robust information systems with capabilities to push information and provide valid analytics and decision support utilizing point-of-care data input are required to achieve a complex, person-centered, lifetime-focused model. This article presents a review of the current state of population health, a model identifying components within population health, and an example of information technology integration.

  20. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  1. An approach to knowledge structuring for advanced phases of the Technical and Management Information System (TMIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goranson, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) must employ on enlightened approach to its object structure, but basic issues in conceptual structuring remain to be resolved. Sirius outlines the necessary agenda and reports on progress toward solutions.

  2. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... packaging unit; containers and pallets do not constitute acceptable information; for example, a container holding 10 pallets with 200 cartons should be described as 200 cartons); (8) The weight of the cargo,...

  3. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.

  4. Freud Said--or Simon Says? Informed consent and the advancement of psychoanalysis as a science.

    PubMed

    Kochiras, Hylarie

    2006-01-01

    Is it ever permissible to publish a patient's confidences without permission? I investigate this question for the field of psychoanalysis. Whereas most medical fields adopted a 1995 recommendation for consent requirements, psychoanalysis continues to defend the traditional practice of nonconsensual publication. Both the hermeneutic and the scientific branches of the field justify the practice, arguing that it provides data needed to help future patients, and both branches advance generalizations and causal claims. However the hermeneutic branch embraces methods tending to undermine the reliability of such claims, while the scientific branch aims to improve the field's empirical base - in their words, to advance psychoanalysis as a science. The scientific branch therefore has the stronger claim to the traditional practice, and it their claim that I consider. An immediate concern arises. We seem unable to answer the applied ethical question without first determining which ethical theory is correct; for defenders of the practice appeal variously to therapeutic privilege, principlism, and utilitarianism, while opponents wage autonomy-based arguments. The concern turns out to be unfounded, however, because all of these ethical approaches fail to justify the traditional practice. The more promising defenses fail partly because even the scientific branch of the field lacks empirically sound methods for establishing its causal claims and generalizations, often appealing to authority instead. I conclude that it is currently unethical for analysts to continue publishing their patients' confidences without permission, and I suggest that the field help future patients by attending to its methodological problems.

  5. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review ofAdvanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and InformationSystems

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-08-01

    In this article, the fourth in a series, we provide a review of advanced applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the Federal sector. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second article [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. The third article [3] evaluated several products that exemplify the current state of practice in EMCIS. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of articles provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  6. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  7. Advanced feature extraction in remote sensing using artificial intelligence and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Friedl, Mark A.; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Traditional computer-assisted image-analysis techniques in remote sensing lag well behind human abilities in terms of both speed and accuracy. A fundamental limitation of computer-assisted techniques is their inability to assimilate a variety of different data types leading to an interpretation in a manner similar to human image interpretation. Expert systems and computer-vision techniques are proposed as a potential solution to these limitations. Some aspects of human expertise in image analysis may be codified into expert systems. Image understanding and symbolic reasoning provide a means of assimilating spatial information and spatial reasoning into the analysis procedure. Knowledge-based image-analysis systems incorporate many of these concepts and have been implemented for some well defined problem domains. Geographic information systems represent an excellent environment for this type of analysis, providing both analytic tools and contextual information to the analysis procedure.

  8. Consenting of the vulnerable: the informed consent procedure in advanced cancer patients in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Verástegui, Emma L

    2006-01-01

    Background A topic of great concern in bioethics is the medical research conducted in poor countries sponsored by wealthy nations. Western drug companies increasingly view Latin America as a proper place for clinical research trials. The region combines a large population, modern medical facilities, and low per capita incomes. Participants from developing countries may have little or non alternative means of treatment other than that offered through clinical trials. Therefore, the provision of a valid informed consent is important. Methods To gain insight about some aspects of the informed consent procedure in a major cancer centre in Mexico, we conducted a three-step evaluation process: 1) a ten point multiple choice survey questionnaires, was used to explore some aspects of the patients' experiences during the informed consent process, 2) researchers' knowledge about specific aspects of the informed consent was evaluated in this study using survey questionnaires; and 3) the comprehensibility, readability and number of pages of the consent forms were analysed. The socioeconomic and educational level of the patients, were also considered. Results were reported using a numerical scale. Results Thirty five patients, 20 doctors, and 10 individuals working at the hospital agreed to participate in the study. Eighty three percent of the patients in the study were classified as living in poverty; education level was poor or non existent, and 31% of the patients were illiterate. The consent forms were difficult to understand according to 49% of the patients, most doctors agreed that the forms were not comprehensible to the patients. The average length of the IC documents analysed was 14 pages, and the readability average score was equivalent to 8TH Grade. Conclusion The results presented in this work describe some relevant characteristics of the population seen at public health care institutions in Mexico. Poverty, limited or no education, and the complexity of the

  9. The combination of specimen tracking with an advanced AutoLog in a laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, K A; Quam, E F; Bowers, K L; Eggert, A A

    1998-06-01

    The ability to provide timely laboratory results is an important aspect of quality which must be continually monitored. In order to complete all testing before the maximum turnaround time requirements are exceeded, laboratorians need to have immediate and automatic access to the location of specimens and the status of tests ordered on each specimen. Any such automated approach must be able to monitor continually the status of work in progress, while simultaneously linking it to a specimen tracking (history) system that allows real-time tracing of the path of specimens through all laboratory operations. The authors have greatly advanced the capabilities of the AutoLog technology and have added to it a tracking system that captures specimen movement with minimum user assistance. This has been accomplished without the need to implement total process automation.

  10. Advanced Magnetic Materials and Transducers: Enabling Information Explosion and Magnetic Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan

    2003-03-01

    Advanced magnetic materials and transducers are critical building blocks in numerous engineering devices such as bio-magnetic sensors, magnetic hard disk drives, magnetic inductors, electronic article survrence, and magnetic levitation trains. They are essential for the explosive growth in the storage capacity of hard drives at least by two orders of magnitude in the 1990s. The use of magnetic media with ever higher coercivities requires write heads to deliver more intense magnetic field, which in turn requires higher saturation magnetization of the soft magnetic material used in write heads. As an example, the talk will describe films of a new soft magnetic material based on Fe-Co-N with a saturation magnetization of 24 kG, exceeding that of any currently available soft magnetic material, with a superior permeability of over 1000 up to 1.2 GHz. They are very promising for extending the superparamagnetic limit in magnetic recording while achieving a data rate of over 2.4 Gbit/s, as well as for applications in gigahertz integrated inductors and other electromagnetic devices. Rapid development in giant magnetoresistive materials and novel spin-dependent devices has enabled read heads to detect ever-smaller bits written in hard disk drives. In search of new magnetoresistive materials, we encounter many interesting scientific questions. The talk will describe work on electron specular reflection and specular spin valves using an in-situ resistance and magnetoresistance probe. The challenges in utilizing spin valves and spin-dependent tunnel junctions for future generations of hard disk drives will also be discussed. Finally, new applications of advanced magnetic materials and transducers are emerging in magnetic nanotechnologies and magnetoelectronics. As an example, bio-magnetic sensing and DNA detection based on spin valve sensors and magnetic nanoparticle labels will be described.

  11. FACE-IT: Framework to Advance Climate, Economics, and Impact Investigations with Information Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J. W.; Jones, J.; Montella, R.

    2013-12-01

    Issues relating to climate change and food security require an understanding of the interaction between the natural world and human society over long time scales. Understanding climate change, its impacts on the natural world and society, and the tradeoffs inherent in societal responses demands an unprecedented degree of cooperation across academic fields. New data sources on expected future climate, soil characteristics, economic activity, historical weather, population, and land cover, provide a potential basis for this cooperation. New methods are needed for sharing within and across communities not only data but the software used to generate, synthesize, and analyze it. Progress on these research challenges is hindered by the extreme difficulties that researchers, collaborators, and the community experiences when they collaborate around data. Multiplicity of data formats; inadequate computational tools; difficulty in sharing data and programs, lack of incentives for pro-social behavior and large data volumes are among the technology barriers. The FACE-IT project at the University of Chicago, NASA, and University of Florida employs an integrated approach to cyberinfrastructure to advance the characterization of vulnerabilities, impacts, mitigation, and adaptation to climate change in human and environmental systems. Leveraging existing research cyberinfrastructure the project is creating a full-featured FACE-IT Platform prototype with new capabilities for ingesting, organizing, managing, analyzing and using large quantities of diverse data. The project team collaborates with two distinct interdisciplinary communities to create community specific FACE-IT Instances to both advance their research and enable at-scale evaluation of the utility of the FACE-IT approach. In this talk I will introduce the FACE-IT system and discuss early applications.

  12. Influence of fiber packing structure on permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Berdichevsky, Alexander L.

    1993-01-01

    The study on the permeability of an aligned fiber bundle is the key building block in modeling the permeability of advanced woven and braided preforms. Available results on the permeability of fiber bundles in the literature show that a substantial difference exists between numerical and analytical calculations on idealized fiber packing structures, such as square and hexagonal packing, and experimental measurements on practical fiber bundles. The present study focuses on the variation of the permeability of a fiber bundle under practical process conditions. Fiber bundles are considered as containing openings and fiber clusters within the bundle. Numerical simulations on the influence of various openings on the permeability were conducted. Idealized packing structures are used, but with introduced openings distributed in different patterns. Both longitudinal and transverse flow are considered. The results show that openings within the fiber bundle have substantial effect on the permeability. In the longitudinal flow case, the openings become the dominant flow path. In the transverse flow case, the fiber clusters reduce the gap sizes among fibers. Therefore the permeability is greatly influenced by these openings and clusters, respectively. In addition to the porosity or fiber volume fraction, which is commonly used in the permeability expression, another fiber bundle status parameter, the ultimate fiber volume fraction, is introduced to capture the disturbance within a fiber bundle.

  13. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... refer to the relevant titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for pre-filing requirements of...) (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). (3) System verification of data acceptance. Once the USPPI or its... Regulations (15 CFR 30.63). (2) Transportation data. Reporting of the following transportation information...

  14. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Regulations (15 CFR 30.63). (2) Transportation data. Reporting of the following transportation information is... refer to the relevant titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for pre-filing requirements of...) (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). (3) System verification of data acceptance. Once the USPPI or...

  15. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Freight Station/deconsolidator as identified by its FIRMS (Facilities Information and Resources Management... air carrier as identified by its carrier IATA (International Air Transport Association) code, that...) of this chapter), the party must possess a Customs international carrier bond containing all...

  16. 78 FR 16519 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Advance Permission To Return to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) invites the general public and other....S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. BILLING CODE 9111-97-P...

  17. 78 FR 30320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Advance Permission To Return to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Federal Register on March 15, 2013, at 78 FR 16519, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following...

  18. Advances in the integration of transcriptional regulatory information into genome-scale metabolic models.

    PubMed

    Vivek-Ananth, R P; Samal, Areejit

    2016-09-01

    A major goal of systems biology is to build predictive computational models of cellular metabolism. Availability of complete genome sequences and wealth of legacy biochemical information has led to the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks in the last 15 years for several organisms across the three domains of life. Due to paucity of information on kinetic parameters associated with metabolic reactions, the constraint-based modelling approach, flux balance analysis (FBA), has proved to be a vital alternative to investigate the capabilities of reconstructed metabolic networks. In parallel, advent of high-throughput technologies has led to the generation of massive amounts of omics data on transcriptional regulation comprising mRNA transcript levels and genome-wide binding profile of transcriptional regulators. A frontier area in metabolic systems biology has been the development of methods to integrate the available transcriptional regulatory information into constraint-based models of reconstructed metabolic networks in order to increase the predictive capabilities of computational models and understand the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here, we review the existing methods to integrate transcriptional regulatory information into constraint-based models of metabolic networks.

  19. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 4: Data processing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The computation and logical functions which are performed by the data processing assembly of the modular space station are defined. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements analysis, (2) baseline data processing assembly configuration, (3) information flow study, (4) throughput simulation, (5) redundancy study, (6) memory studies, and (7) design requirements specification.

  20. 75 FR 51437 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... delegated the authority to exercise the functions of the Secretary as specified in the Federal Meat... used for the systems do not contain brain, trigeminal ganglia, or spinal cord and, if the... proper performance of FSIS's functions, including whether the information will have practical utility;...

  1. Enormous Changes in Scholarly Publishing Expected as Result of Advances in Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1990-01-01

    The combination of the nascent National Education and Research Network and new imaging technology that could turn data into books in minutes would irreversibly change scholarly publishing. The Coalition for Networked Information is working to remove scholarly publishing from the commercial publishing industry. (MSE)

  2. Advanced image collection, information extraction, and change detection in support of NN-20 broad area search and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Perry, E.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Slator, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Research and Development (NN-20). The work supports the NN-20 Broad Area Search and Analysis, a program initiated by NN-20 to improve the detection and classification of undeclared weapons facilities. Ongoing PNNL research activities are described in three main components: image collection, information processing, and change analysis. The Multispectral Airborne Imaging System, which was developed to collect georeferenced imagery in the visible through infrared regions of the spectrum, and flown on a light aircraft platform, will supply current land use conditions. The image information extraction software (dynamic clustering and end-member extraction) uses imagery, like the multispectral data collected by the PNNL multispectral system, to efficiently generate landcover information. The advanced change detection uses a priori (benchmark) information, current landcover conditions, and user-supplied rules to rank suspect areas by probable risk of undeclared facilities or proliferation activities. These components, both separately and combined, provide important tools for improving the detection of undeclared facilities.

  3. Facilitating the use of online visual feedback: advance information and the inter-trial interval?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Darian T; Manson, Gerome A; Kennedy, Andrew; Tremblay, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Cheng et al. (2008) showed that when goal-directed reaching movements are performed with a 2.5 s inter-trial interval (ITI) under a randomized visual feedback schedule, individuals use online visual information on trial n to perform efficient online corrections on trial n + 1 (i.e., "reminiscence" effect). These results persisted even when participants were given knowledge of the up-coming vision condition. In this study, the ITI was extended to 5 s in an attempt to negate any effects of the preceding trial. Results from this study revealed that trials with vision were always more accurate than trials performed without vision, suggesting that individuals relied significantly on online information. Furthermore, aiming precision improved when participants knew the vision condition before each trial. It is thus suggested that the reminiscence effects are not longer evident with a 5 s ITI, which in turn allows prior knowledge of visual feedback to influence the use of online vision.

  4. Optical fiber interferometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Yufeng; Wang, An

    2006-02-01

    We design an optical fiber spectrometer based on optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer spectra information is obtained by Fourier transform of interferogram, which recording intensity change vs. optical path difference. Optical path difference is generated by stretching one fiber arm which wound around fiber stretch drive by high power supply. Information from detector is linear with time rather than with optical path difference. In order to obtain high accuracy wavenumber, reference beam is used to control the optical path difference. Optical path difference is measured by reference laser interference fringe. Interferogram vs. optical path difference is resampled by Brault algorithm with information from reference beam and test beam. In the same condition, one-sided interferogram has higher resolution than that of two-sided interferogram. For one-sided interferogram, zero path difference position must be determined as accurately as possible, small shift will result in phase error. For practical experiment in laboratory, position shift is inevitable, so phase error correction must be considered. Zero order fringe is determined by curve fitting. Spectrum of light source is obtained from one-sided interferogram by Fourier cosine transform. A spectral resolution of about ~3.1 cm -1 is achieved. In practice, higher resolution is needed. This compact equipment will be used in emission spectra and absorption spectra, especially in infrared region.

  5. Potential impact of advanced clinical information technology on cancer care in 2015.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F

    2006-08-01

    New clinical information technologies now sporadically available will soon be in routine clinical use, bringing many changes to all phases of the cancer care continuum. For example, new technologies such as: (1) The next generation Internet; (2) Real-time clinical decision support systems; (3) Off-line, population-based systems; (4) Large, integrated, individual patient-level phenotypic and genotypic databases with intelligent data mining capabilities; (5) Wireless, invasive and non-invasive physiologic monitoring devices; (6) Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems; and (7) Mathematical models of complex biological systems all have the potential to impact significantly the provision of cancer care throughout its continuum. While new information management and communication techniques and technologies will reduce many of the inefficiencies and inaccuracies of our present systems, there will be an equal, and potentially far more dangerous, set of unintended consequences. Informatics investigators, cancer specialists, and health system administrators must focus on the study of what is working and what is not, as well as, on development and testing of the new clinical information management and communication technologies, if we are to be ready for the future. PMID:16783609

  6. Potential impact of advanced clinical information technology on healthcare in 2015.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F

    2004-01-01

    Clinical information technologies now sporadically available will soon be in routine clinical use, bringing many changes to healthcare. For example, 1) The next generation Internet; 2) Real-time clinical decision support systems; 3) Off-line, population-based systems; 4) Large, integrated, individual patient-level phenotypic and genotypic databases with intelligent data mining capabilities; 5) Wireless, invasive and non-invasive physiologic monitoring devices; 6) Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems; and 7) Mathematical models of complex biological systems have the potential to impact significantly the future healthcare delivery system. While new information management and communication techniques and technologies will reduce many of the inefficiencies and inaccuracies of our present systems, there will be an equal, and potentially far more dangerous, set of unintended consequences. Informatics investigators and health system administrators must focus on the study of what is working and what is not, as well as, on development and testing of the new clinical information management and communication technologies, if we are to be ready for the future. PMID:15361041

  7. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described. Students research the chosen topic using paper and electronic resources, generate a list of relevant articles, prepare abstracts based on papers read, and, finally, prepare a “state-of-the-art” paper on the topic. This approach, which extends over most of one semester, has resulted in a number of well-researched and well-written papers that incorporate some of the latest research in cell biology. The steps in this project have also led to students who are prepared to address future projects on new and complex topics. The project is part of an undergraduate course in cell biology, but parts of the assignments can be modified to fit a variety of subject areas and levels. PMID:16341261

  8. Fiber optics for controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of a fiber optic integrated propulsion/flight control system for an advanced supersonic dash aircraft (flies at supersonic speeds for short periods of time) is the goal of the joint NASA/DOD Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. Phase 1 provided a comparison of electronic and optical control systems, identified the status of current optical sensor technology, defined the aircraft sensor/actuator environment, proposed architectures for fully optical control systems, and provided schedules for development. Overall, it was determined that there are sufficient continued efforts to develop such a system. It was also determined that it is feasible to build a fiber optic control system for the development of a data base for this technology, but that further work is necessary in sensors, actuators, and components to develop an optimum design, fully fiber optic integrated control system compatible with advanced aircraft environments. Phase 2 is to design, construct, and ground test a fly by light control system. Its first task is to provide a detailed design of the electro-optic architecture.

  9. Quantum cryptography using optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Franson, J D; Lives, H

    1994-05-10

    Quantum cryptography permits the transmission of secret information whose security is guaranteed by the uncertainty principle. An experimental system for quantum crytography is implemented based on the linear polarization of single photons transmitted by an optical fiber. Polarization-preserving optical fiber and a feedback loop are employed to maintain the state of polarization. Error rates of less than 0.5% are obtained.

  10. Fiber waveguide sensors for intelligent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flax, A. R.; Claus, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    This report, an addendum to the six month report submitted to NASA Langley Research Center in December 1987, covers research performed by the Fiber and Electro-Optics Research Center (FEORC) at Virginia Tech for the NASA Langley Research Center, Grant NAG1-780, for the period from December 1987 to June 1988. This final report discusses the research performed in the following four areas as described in the proposal: Fabrication of Sensor Fibers Optimized for Embedding in Advanced Composites; Fabrication of Sensor Fiber with In-Line Splices and Evaluation via OTR methods; Modal Domain Optical Fiber Sensor Analysis; and Acoustic Fiber Waveguide Implementation.

  11. Fiber optic interconnects: physical design for reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    2010-02-01

    The paper deals with the application of methods and approaches of the engineering mechanics to fiber optics systems. The emphasis is on fiber optics interconnects. We address traditional problems of the mechanical behavior of optical fiber interconnects subjected to mechanical and/or thermally induced loading, as well as the application of nanotechnology in optical fiber engineering. Particularly, we elaborate on the application of a newly developed advanced nano-particle material (NPM) as an attractive substitute for the existing optical fiber coatings and perhaps even claddings. The solutions to the majority of the examined problems were obtained using analytical ("mathematical") modeling, i.e., methods of classical structural analysis.

  12. The road to kilowatt fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Adrian; Samson, Bryce N.; Tankala, Kanishka; Machewirth, David P.; Manyam, Upendra H.; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Farroni, Julia; Guertin, Douglas P.; Jacobson, Nils

    2004-06-01

    Although fiber amplifiers have been employed in communications systems for many years, until very recently the fiber laser was little more than a scientific curiosity. However the fiber laser format has a number of intrinsic advantages over lamp and diode pumped YAG lasers including size, reliability, wavelength selectivity, heat dissipation, wallplug efficiency and operational cost; and with kiloWatt output powers now possible fiber lasers are beginning to replace lamp and diode pumped YAG lasers in many industrial applications. In this paper we review the recent and ongoing advances in fiber design that have facilitated this revolution.

  13. Development of silica glass microstructured optical fibers technology in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, J.; Janoszczyk, B.; Poturaj, K.; Makara, M.; Walewski, A.; Mergo, P.; Klimek, J.; Skorupski, K.; Czyżewska, L.

    2007-04-01

    Paper presents the state of advance of the silica glass microstructured optical fibers technology n Poland especially in Department of Optical Fibers Technology Maria Curie Sklodowska University. Only in this Department there are the technological apparatus for advanced investigations on the technology of the silica glass optical fibers. In paper was describe the technology of optical fiber photonic structure manufacturing, high silica glass synthesis from vapor phase with MCVD and OVD methods. Next was describe some kinds of microstructured optical fibers witch technologies elaborated in UMCS in support of own and received from cooperated research teams optical fibers structures, modeling and measurements results.

  14. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  15. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  16. The dynamic information architecture system : an advanced simulation framework for military and civilian applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A. P.; Hummel, J. R.

    1998-01-08

    DIAS, the Dynamic Information Architecture System, is an object-oriented simulation system that was designed to provide an integrating framework in which new or legacy software applications can operate in a context-driven frame of reference. DIAS provides a flexible and extensible mechanism to allow disparate, and mixed language, software applications to interoperate. DIAS captures the dynamic interplay between different processes or phenomena in the same frame of reference. Finally, DIAS accommodates a broad range of analysis contexts, with widely varying spatial and temporal resolutions and fidelity.

  17. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  18. Direct spinning of fiber supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tong; Ding, Xiaoteng; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-06-01

    A direct wet spinning approach is demonstrated for facile and continuous fabrication of a whole fiber supercapacitor using a microfluidic spinneret. The resulting fiber supercapacitor shows good electrochemical properties and possesses high flexibility and mechanical stability. This strategy paves the way for large-scale continuous production of fiber supercapacitors for weavable electronics.A direct wet spinning approach is demonstrated for facile and continuous fabrication of a whole fiber supercapacitor using a microfluidic spinneret. The resulting fiber supercapacitor shows good electrochemical properties and possesses high flexibility and mechanical stability. This strategy paves the way for large-scale continuous production of fiber supercapacitors for weavable electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Design of the microfluidic spinneret and operation of the spinneret (movie). See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03116a

  19. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    This poster will highlight on-going research at the Virginia Tech Fiber & Electro-Optics Research Center (FEORC) in the area of thin films on optical fibers. Topics will include the sputter deposition of metals and metal; alloys onto optical fiber and fiber optic sensors for innovative applications. Specific information will be available on thin film fiber optic hydrogen sensors, corrosion sensors, and metal-coated optical fiber for high temperature aerospace applications.

  20. Enhancing Textile Fiber Identification with Detergent Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Campiglia, Andres D

    2015-12-01

    Discovering common origins of trace evidential textile fibers can be a challenging task when fiber structure or dye composition does not provide exclusive identifying information. Introduction of new chemical species after mass production and distribution of a textile may be exploited to trace its history and identify the origin of its fibers. In this article, fluorescence microscopy is used to examine the alteration in the fluorescence spectral fingerprint of single fibers resulting from exposure to commonly used detergents that contain fluorescent whitening agents. Dyed acrylic, cotton, and nylon fibers were laundered and the spectral contribution of the detergent on single fibers was quantified and shown to reach a maximum after five sequential washes; some detergents showed statistically meaningful differences to fiber spectra after only a single wash. Principal component cluster analysis was used to determine that the spectra of laundered fibers are distinct from the spectra of dyed, unwashed cotton or nylon, but not acrylic, fibers. PMID:26647148

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  2. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems - (CASTS). [graphite fiber/polyimide matrix composites and polyimide adhesives for the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The CASTS Project initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K operational capability for aerospace vehicles is described. Near term tasks include screening composites and adhesives for 589K service, developing fabrication procedures and specifications, developing design allowables test methods and data, design and test of structural elements, and construction of a full scale aft body flap for the space shuttle orbiter vehicle for ground testing. Far term tasks include research efforts directed at new materials, manufacturing procedures and design/analysis methodology. Specific results discussed include: (1) identification of four GR/PI composites and three PI adhesives with 589K service potential for periods ranging from 125 to 500 hours; (2) development of an adhesive formulation suitable for bonding reusable surface insulation (RSI) titles to 589K (GR/PI) substructure; (3) the capability to fabricate and nondestructively inspect laminates, hat section shaped stiffeners, honeycomb sandwich panels, and chopped fiber moldings; and (4) test methods for measuring design allowables at 117K.

  3. Optimizing the use of 3D information for Electromagnetic Follow-up of Advanced LIGO-Virgo Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel; LVC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    As Advanced LIGO-Virgo turns on, we are entering the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. One of the most exciting scientific opportunities would be the joint observations of gravitational wave sources and their electromagnetic counterparts. A rapid directionally dependent distance estimation would allow telescopes to adjust the integration time depending on the expected distance along each direction on the sky, thereby saving resources and increasing the chance of detection. We discuss the savings in telescope time resulting from the 3D information from our low-latency gravitational-wave 3D reconstruction algorithm. The use of distance can be optimized for telescopes with different fields-of-view and sensitivities. Combining these distance estimates with galaxy catalogs, we explore the effects of incompleteness of the catalogs, the evolution of the event rates (stellar mass or star formation rate), and the uncertainties in galaxy redshift measurements.

  4. An Advanced Educational Program for Software Design Engineering at Graduate School of Information Science and Technology of Osaka University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Toshimitsu; Inoue, Katsuro; Murakami, Koso; Fujiwara, Toru; Nishio, Shojiro

    This paper gives an overview of an advanced educational program for software design engineering that is currently conducted at Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University under the grant “ Initiatives for Attractive Education in Graduate Schools” from MEXT. Software design engineering is highly expected to play a critical role in winning success in designing the next-generation software systems. The aim of the program is to bring up young researchers with the latest design methodologies and practical design experience, who can pioneer the frontier of software design engineering. The program is conducted with the collaboration of industries that have rich practical experience and are facing the engineering problems to be solved in developing the next-generation software.

  5. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  6. Refractory ceramic fibers

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Refractory ceramic fibers ; CASRN Not found Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. Carbon fiber study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated Federal Government action plan for dealing with the potential problems arising from the increasing use of graphite fiber reinforced composite materials in both military and civilian applications is presented. The required dissemination of declassified information and an outline of government actions to minimize the social and economic consequences of proliferated composite materials applications were included.

  8. Advances in participatory occupational health aimed at good practices in small enterprises and the informal sector.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-01-01

    Participatory programmes for occupational risk reduction are gaining importance particularly in small workplaces in both industrially developing and developed countries. To discuss the types of effective support, participatory steps commonly seen in our "work improvement-Asia" network are reviewed. The review covered training programmes for small enterprises, farmers, home workers and trade union members. Participatory steps commonly focusing on low-cost good practices locally achieved have led to concrete improvements in multiple technical areas including materials handling, workstation ergonomics, physical environment and work organization. These steps take advantage of positive features of small workplaces in two distinct ways. First, local key persons are ready to accept local good practices conveyed through personal, informal approaches. Second, workers and farmers are capable of understanding technical problems affecting routine work and taking flexible actions leading to solving them. This process is facilitated by the use of locally adjusted training tools such as local good examples, action checklists and group work methods. It is suggested that participatory occupational health programmes can work in small workplaces when they utilize low-cost good practices in a flexible manner. Networking of these positive experiences is essential.

  9. Applications of fiber optics in physical protection

    SciTech Connect

    Buckle, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors.

  10. Microstructural analysis of lignocellulosic fiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Terzic, K.; Donath, T.; Meine, H.; Beckmann, F.; Thoemen, H.

    2006-08-01

    The structure of wood based medium density fiberboard (MDF) has been studied using synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SRμCT.) Fully automated 3D segmentation and analysis routines have been developed in order to gain information about individual fibers, the distribution of the fiber material, fiber orientation, fiber surfaces and size and location of contact areas. Representative samples of the analyzed volume data are presented to demonstrate the results of the implemented methods using the VIGRA image processing library.

  11. High performance computing and communications: Advancing the frontiers of information technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report, which supplements the President`s Fiscal Year 1997 Budget, describes the interagency High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The HPCC Program will celebrate its fifth anniversary in October 1996 with an impressive array of accomplishments to its credit. Over its five-year history, the HPCC Program has focused on developing high performance computing and communications technologies that can be applied to computation-intensive applications. Major highlights for FY 1996: (1) High performance computing systems enable practical solutions to complex problems with accuracies not possible five years ago; (2) HPCC-funded research in very large scale networking techniques has been instrumental in the evolution of the Internet, which continues exponential growth in size, speed, and availability of information; (3) The combination of hardware capability measured in gigaflop/s, networking technology measured in gigabit/s, and new computational science techniques for modeling phenomena has demonstrated that very large scale accurate scientific calculations can be executed across heterogeneous parallel processing systems located thousands of miles apart; (4) Federal investments in HPCC software R and D support researchers who pioneered the development of parallel languages and compilers, high performance mathematical, engineering, and scientific libraries, and software tools--technologies that allow scientists to use powerful parallel systems to focus on Federal agency mission applications; and (5) HPCC support for virtual environments has enabled the development of immersive technologies, where researchers can explore and manipulate multi-dimensional scientific and engineering problems. Educational programs fostered by the HPCC Program have brought into classrooms new science and engineering curricula designed to teach computational science. This document contains a small sample of the significant HPCC Program accomplishments in FY 1996.

  12. The Implementation of Modern Information and Documentation Systems and Services with Special Reference to Information Needs in Eastern Africa. Advanced Postgraduate Training Course (3rd, Great Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany, June 22-August 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    The 7-week Advanced Postgraduate Training Course for Information Specialists from Eastern and Southern Africa described in this document was part of a long term training program designed to provide senior librarians, documentalists, and archivists with information on recent developments in methodology and technology in their special field of work.…

  13. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-01-01

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive “binders”. The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors. PMID:26149290

  14. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  15. Using Enabling Technologies to Advance Data Intensive Analysis Tools in the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been supporting specific science field campaigns, such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign, by creating near real-time (NRT) data visualization portals. These portals are intended to assist in mission planning, enhance the understanding of current physical processes, and improve model data by comparing it to satellite and aircraft observations. The TCIS NRT portals allow the user to view plots on a Google Earth interface. To compliment these visualizations, the team has been working on developing data analysis tools to let the user actively interrogate areas of Level 2 swath and two-dimensional plots they see on their screen. As expected, these observation and model data are quite voluminous and bottlenecks in the system architecture can occur when the databases try to run geospatial searches for data files that need to be read by the tools. To improve the responsiveness of the data analysis tools, the TCIS team has been conducting studies on how to best store Level 2 swath footprints and run sub-second geospatial searches to discover data. The first objective was to improve the sampling accuracy of the footprints being stored in the TCIS database by comparing the Java-based NASA PO.DAAC Level 2 Swath Generator with a TCIS Python swath generator. The second objective was to compare the performance of four database implementations - MySQL, MySQL+Solr, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL - to see which database management system would yield the best geospatial query and storage performance. The final objective was to integrate our chosen technologies with our Joint Probability Density Function (Joint PDF), Wave Number Analysis, and

  16. Fiber optics: a communications revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, Donald B.

    1992-05-01

    Optical fiber and photonics technology have dramatically impacted the way in which the world handles information. The ability to effectively manage and transport ever-increasing amounts of information, over broadband networks, will directly affect the economic vitality of nations and corporations. This paper profiles the development of commercially viable optical fiber and discusses some of the aspects of becoming a world-class competitor in optical telecommunications.

  17. Fireblocking Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PBI was originally developed for space suits. In 1980, the need for an alternative to asbestos and stricter government anti-pollution standards led to commercialization of the fire blocking fiber. PBI is used for auto racing driver suits and aircraft seat covers. The fiber does not burn in air, is durable and easily maintained. It has been specified by a number of airliners and is manufactured by Hoechst-Celanese Corporation.

  18. Computerized Testing of Woven Composite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Amy Laurie

    1996-01-01

    The student will utilize the computerized testing center to perform tensile testing of the various woven composite fibers. They will interpret the graphs to provide more advanced testing results and data for stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity.

  19. Containerless glass fiber processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An acoustic levitation furnace system is described that was developed for testing the feasibility of containerless fiber pulling experiments. It is possible to levitate very dense materials such as platinum at room temperature. Levitation at elevated temperatures is much more difficult. Samples of dense heavy metal fluoride glass were levitated at 300 C. It is therefore possible that containerless fiber pulling experiments could be performed. Fiber pulling from the melt at 650 C is not possible at unit gravity but could be possible at reduced gravities. The Acoustic Levitation Furnace is described, including engineering parameters and processing information. It is illustrated that a shaped reflector greatly increases the levitation force aiding the levitation of more dense materials.

  20. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.

  1. 78 FR 39003 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Application for Insurance of Advance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Advance of Mortgage Proceeds AGENCY: Office of Multifamily Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD... Collection: FHA-Application for Insurance of Advance of Mortgage Proceeds. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0097... proposed use: To indicate to the mortgagee amounts approved for advance and mortgage insurance....

  2. Fiber optic and laser sensors VIII; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 17-19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depaula, R.P.; Udd, E. McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., Huntington Beach, CA )

    1991-01-01

    This issue presents topics on the advances in fiber-optic sensor technology, fiber-optic gyroscope, fiber-optic position and pressure sensors, fiber-optic magnetic and temperature sensors, and generic fiber-optic sensors. Papers included are on a novel analog phase tracker for interferometric fiber-optic sensor applications, recent development status of fiber-optic sensors in China, the magnetic-field sensitivity of depolarized fiber-optic gyros, a depolarized fiber-optic gyro for future tactical applications, fiber-optic position transducers for aircraft controls, and a metal embedded optical-fiber pressure sensor. Attention is also given to a fiber-optic magnetic field sensor using spectral modulation encoding, a bare-fiber temperature sensor, an interferometric fiber-optic accelerometer, improvement of specular reflection pyrometer, a theoretical analysis of two-mode elliptical-core optical fiber sensors, and a fiber probe for ring pattern.

  3. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  4. Preferred Orientation in Polymer Fiber Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, C.; Hsiao , B; Chu, B

    2010-01-01

    Fiber symmetry is one of the most important sample geometries encountered in both wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) of polymers, applicable both to natural polymers like collagen or cellulose and to many synthetic polymers that come in fiber form or otherwise exhibit cylindrical rotational symmetry. The structural information to be determined in scattering experiments from such fiber systems includes both the structure of the individual structural unit and qualitative and quantitative information about the preferred orientation state of the ensemble. Existing approaches and new developments to analyze fiber scattering patterns are rigorously reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the calculation of complete SAXS and WAXS fiber scattering patterns, and various practical examples including collagen and cellulose fibers as well as fibers based on copolymers of polyethylene and polypropylene are discussed.

  5. Recent advances in organic one-dimensional composite materials: design, construction, and photonic elements for information processing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yongli; Zhang, Chuang; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2013-07-19

    Many recent activities in the use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photonic elements for optical information processing are explained by huge advantages that photonic circuits possess over traditional silicon-based electronic ones in bandwidth, heat dissipation, and resistance to electromagnetic wave interference. Organic materials are a promising candidate to support these optical-related applications, as they combine the properties of plastics with broad spectral tunability, high optical cross-section, easy fabrication, as well as low cost. Their outstanding compatibility allows organic composite structures which are made of two or more kinds of materials combined together, showing great superiority to single-component materials due to the introduced interactions among multiple constituents, such as energy transfer, electron transfer, exciton coupling, etc. The easy processability of organic 1D crystalline heterostructures enables a fine topological control of both composition and geometry, which offsets the intrinsic deficiencies of individual material. At the same time, the strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton-exciton interaction impart the excellent confinement of photons in organic microstructures, thus light can be manipulated according to our intention to realize specific functions. These collective properties indicate a potential utility of organic heterogeneous material for miniaturized photonic circuitry. Herein, focus is given on recent advances of 1D organic crystalline heterostructures, with special emphasis on the novel design, controllable construction, diverse performance, as well as wide applications in isolated photonic elements for integration. It is proposed that the highly coupled, hybrid optical networks would be an important material basis towards the creation of on-chip optical information processing. PMID:23703829

  6. Recent advances in organic one-dimensional composite materials: design, construction, and photonic elements for information processing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yongli; Zhang, Chuang; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2013-07-19

    Many recent activities in the use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photonic elements for optical information processing are explained by huge advantages that photonic circuits possess over traditional silicon-based electronic ones in bandwidth, heat dissipation, and resistance to electromagnetic wave interference. Organic materials are a promising candidate to support these optical-related applications, as they combine the properties of plastics with broad spectral tunability, high optical cross-section, easy fabrication, as well as low cost. Their outstanding compatibility allows organic composite structures which are made of two or more kinds of materials combined together, showing great superiority to single-component materials due to the introduced interactions among multiple constituents, such as energy transfer, electron transfer, exciton coupling, etc. The easy processability of organic 1D crystalline heterostructures enables a fine topological control of both composition and geometry, which offsets the intrinsic deficiencies of individual material. At the same time, the strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton-exciton interaction impart the excellent confinement of photons in organic microstructures, thus light can be manipulated according to our intention to realize specific functions. These collective properties indicate a potential utility of organic heterogeneous material for miniaturized photonic circuitry. Herein, focus is given on recent advances of 1D organic crystalline heterostructures, with special emphasis on the novel design, controllable construction, diverse performance, as well as wide applications in isolated photonic elements for integration. It is proposed that the highly coupled, hybrid optical networks would be an important material basis towards the creation of on-chip optical information processing.

  7. Fiber Sensor Systems Based on Fiber Laser and Microwave Photonic Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Daru; Cai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors, especially fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are very attractive due to their numerous advantages over traditional sensors, such as light weight, high sensitivity, cost-effectiveness, immunity to electromagnetic interference, ease of multiplexing and so on. Therefore, fiber-optic sensors have been intensively studied during the last several decades. Nowadays, with the development of novel fiber technology, more and more newly invented fiber technologies bring better and superior performance to fiber-optic sensing networks. In this paper, the applications of some advanced photonic technologies including fiber lasers and microwave photonic technologies for fiber sensing applications are reviewed. FBG interrogations based on several kinds of fiber lasers, especially the novel Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser, have been introduced; for the application of microwave photonic technology, examples of microwave photonic filtering utilized as a FBG sensing interrogator and microwave signal generation acting as a transversal loading sensor have been given. Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations have been carried out. The comparison of these advanced photonic technologies for the applications of fiber sensing is carried out and important issues related to the applications have been addressed and the suitable and potential application examples have also been discussed in this paper. PMID:22778591

  8. Advanced degradation of brominated epoxy resin and simultaneous transformation of glass fiber from waste printed circuit boards by improved supercritical water oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-10-01

    This work investigated various supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) systems, i.e. SCWO1 (only water), SCWO2 (water+H2O2) and SCWO3 (water+H2O2/NaOH), for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) detoxification and recycling. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the operating conditions of the optimal SCWO3 systems. The optimal reaction conditions for debromination were found to be the NaOH of 0.21g, the H2O2 volume of 9.04mL, the time of 39.7min, maximum debromination efficiency of 95.14%. Variance analysis indicated that the factors influencing debromination efficiency was in the sequence of NaOH>H2O2>time. Mechanism studies indicated that the dissociated ions from NaOH in supercritical water promoted the debromination of brominated epoxy resins (BERs) through an elimination reaction and nucleophilic substitution. HO2, produced by H2O2 could induce the oxidation of phenol ring to open (intermediates of BERs), which were thoroughly degraded to form hydrocarbons, CO2, H2O and NaBr. In addition, the alkali-silica reaction between OH(-) and SiO2 induced the phase transformation of glass fibers, which were simultaneously converted into anorthite and albite. Waste PCBs in H2O2/NaOH improved SCWO system were fully degraded into useful products and simultaneously transformed into functional materials. These findings are helpful for efficient recycling of waste PCBs.

  9. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to −11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC). PMID:27270381

  10. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications.

    PubMed

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to -11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC). PMID:27270381

  11. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-06-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to ‑11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC).

  12. Fiber lasers and their applications [Invited].

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Fang, Qiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2014-10-01

    Fiber lasers have seen progressive developments in terms of spectral coverage and linewidth, output power, pulse energy, and ultrashort pulse width since the first demonstration of a glass fiber laser in 1964. Their applications have extended into a variety of fields accordingly. In this paper, the milestones of glass fiber laser development are briefly reviewed and recent advances of high-power continuous wave, Q-switched, mode-locked, and single-frequency fiber lasers in the 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μm regions and their applications in such areas as industry, medicine, research, defense, and security are addressed in detail.

  13. The Quest for Item Types Based on Information Processing: An Analysis of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, with a Consideration of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Francois; Bors, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Various taxonomies of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) items have been proposed in the literature to account for performance on the test. In the present article, three such taxonomies based on information processing, namely Carpenter, Just and Shell's [Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., & Shell, P., (1990). What one intelligence test…

  14. METSAT information content: Cloud screening and solar correction investigations on the influence of NOAA-6 advanced very high resolution radiometer derived vegetation assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the cloud indicator index (CII) for use with METSAT's advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) is described. The CII is very effective at identification of clouds. Also, explored are different solar correction and standard techniques and the impact of these corrections have on the information content of AVHRR data.

  15. Photovoltaic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  16. High-Temperature Creep Behavior Of Fiber-Reinforced Niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Titran, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    Study conducted to determine feasibility of using composite materials in advanced space power systems, described in 22-page report. Tungsten fibers reduce creep and mass in advanced power systems. Reinforcing niobium alloys with tungsten fibers increases their resistances to creep by factors of as much as 10.

  17. Microstructural characterization of fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Summerscales, J.

    1998-12-31

    In the past 50 years, great progress has been made in developing artificial fiber-reinforced composite materials, generally using filaments with microscopic diameters. An array of reinforcement forms can be used in commercial applications--with the microstructure being a critical factor in realizing the required properties in a material. This book comprehensively examines the application of advanced microstructural characterization techniques to fiber-reinforced composites. Its contents include: (1) flexible textile composite microstructure; (2) 3-D confocal microscopy of glass fiber-reinforced composites; (3) geometric modeling of yarn and fiber assemblies; (4) characterization of yarn shape in woven fabric composites; (5) quantitative microstructural analysis for continuous fiber composites; (6) electron microscopy of polymer composites; (7) micromechanics of reinforcement using laser raman spectroscopy; and (8) acoustic microscopy of ceramic fiber composites.

  18. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  19. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Wagner

    2002-12-18

    This report summarizes work to develop CFCC's for various applications in the Industries of the Future (IOF) and power generation areas. Performance requirements range from relatively modest for hot gas filters to severe for turbine combustor liners and infrared burners. The McDermott Technology Inc. (MTI) CFCC program focused on oxide/oxide composite systems because they are known to be stable in the application environments of interest. The work is broadly focused on dense and porous composite systems depending on the specific application. Dense composites were targeted at corrosion resistant components, molten aluminum handling components and gas turbine combustor liners. The development work on dense composites led to significant advances in fiber coatings for oxide fibers and matrix densification. Additionally, a one-step fabrication process was developed to produce low cost composite components. The program also supported key developments in advanced oxide fibers that resulted in an improved version of Nextel 610 fiber (commercially available as Nextel 650) and significant progress in the development of a YAG/alumina fiber. Porous composite development focused on the vacuum winding process used to produce hot gas filters and infrared burner components.

  20. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  1. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  2. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  3. The effect of neutron irradiation on silicon carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Nine types of SiC fiber have been exposed to neutron radiation in the Advanced Test Reactor at 250 C for various lengths of time ranging from 83 to 128 days. The effects of these exposures have been initially determined using scanning electron microscopy. The fibers tested were Nicalon{trademark} CG, Tyranno, Hi-Nicalon{trademark}, Dow Corning SiC, Carborundum SiC, Textron SCS-6, polymethysilane (PMS) derived SiC from the University of Michigan, and two types of MER SiC fiber. This covers a range of fibers from widely used commercial fibers to developmental fibers. Consistent with previous radiation experiments, Nicalon fiber was severely degraded by the neutron irradiation. Similarly, Tyranno suffered severe degradation. The more advanced fibers which approach the composition and properties of SiC performed well under irradiation. Of these, the Carborundum SiC fiber appeared to perform the best. The Hi-Nicalon and Dow Corning Fibers exhibited good general stability, but also appear to have some surface roughening. The MER fibers and the Textron SCS-6 fibers both had carbon cores which adversely influenced the overall stability of the fibers.

  4. To improve the flame resistance of spandex elastic elastomeric fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Strength characteristics of fibers were improved to pass the 70% oxygen/30% nitrogen specification. Spinning techniques and information about incorporating these fibers in fabric structures using wrapping materials of Beta Fiberglas, Nomex, and PBI were developed.

  5. Integrated Fiber-Optic Light Probe: Measurement of Static Deflections in Rotating Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1998-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with Integrated Fiber Optic Systems, Inc., an integrated fiber-optic light probe system was designed, fabricated, and tested for monitoring blade tip deflections, vibrations, and to some extent, changes in the blade tip clearances of a turbomachinery fan or a compressor rotor. The system comprises a set of integrated fiber-optic light probes that are positioned to detect the passing blade tip at the leading and trailing edges. In this configuration, measurements of both nonsynchronous blade vibrations and steady-state blade deflections can be made from the timing information provided by each light probe-consisting of an integrated fiber-optic transmitting channel and numerical aperture receiving fibers, all mounted in the same cylindrical housing. With integrated fiber-optic technology, a spatial resolution of 50 mm is possible while the outer diameter is kept below 2.5 mm. To evaluate these probes, we took measurements in a single-stage compressor facility and an advanced fan rig in Lewis' 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel.

  6. Intruder signature analysis from a phase-sensitive distributed fiber-optic perimeter sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. K.; Bae, T.; Snider, T.

    2007-09-01

    Using a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer developed at Texas A&M University, this paper reports on recent advances in intruder detection and classificatoin for long perimeters or borders. The system uses light pulses from a narrow linewidth CW laser with low frequency drift to interrogate an optical fiber. The backscattered light is detected, and real-time processing of the received signal is performed. Signatures from single and multiple humans on foot, nearby vehicle traffic on a road, construction-like vehicle activity, and animals have been obtained. Individual footsteps are clearly identified and the cadence readily observed. Time-frequency plots are used to compare the signatures. The detected signal contains information regarding the weight of the intruder as well. An adult weighing around 60kg may produce several π-radian shifts in the optical phase, which is detected by the system. While distances up to 20km have been monitored in previous remote field tests, we report measurements on a local test site with a total fiber length of 12km. A 3-mm diameter fiber cable is buried at a depth of 20-46 cm over a distance of 44m, with a 2km spool of fiber attached prior to the buried fiber and a 10km fiber spool connected in series after the buried section. Recent advances in data acquisition and signal processing allow us to avoid false alarms due to drifts in the laser center frequency and greatly improve the probability of detection. With these advancements, this technology is prime for low-cost perimeter monitoring of high-value and high-security installations such as nuclear power plants and military bases as well as national borders.

  7. Overview of NASA Studies on High-Temperature Ceramic Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Yun, Hee Mann

    2001-01-01

    NASA, DOD, and DOE are currently looking to the NASA UEET Program to develop ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for hot-section components in advanced power and propulsion systems - Success will depend strongly on developing ceramic fibers with a variety of key thermostructural properties, in particular, high as-produced tensile strength and retention of a large fraction of this strength for long times under the anticipated CMC service conditions. - Current UEET approach centers on selecting the optimum fiber type from commercially available fibers since the costs for development of advanced fibers are high and the markets for high-temperature CMC have yet to be established.

  8. Chemical-assisted femtosecond laser writing of lab-in-fibers.

    PubMed

    Haque, Moez; Lee, Kenneth K C; Ho, Stephen; Fernandes, Luís A; Herman, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The lab-on-chip (LOC) platform has presented a powerful opportunity to improve functionalization, parallelization, and miniaturization on planar or multilevel geometries that has not been possible with fiber optic technology. A migration of such LOC devices into the optical fiber platform would therefore open the revolutionary prospect of creating novel lab-in-fiber (LIF) systems on the basis of an efficient optical transport highway for multifunctional sensing. For the LIF, the core optical waveguide inherently offers a facile means to interconnect numerous types of sensing elements along the optical fiber, presenting a radical opportunity for optimizing the packaging and densification of diverse components in convenient geometries beyond that available with conventional LOCs. In this paper, three-dimensional patterning inside the optical fiber by femtosecond laser writing, together with selective chemical etching, is presented as a powerful tool to form refractive index structures such as optical waveguides and gratings as well as to open buried microfluidic channels and optical resonators inside the flexible and robust glass fiber. In this approach, optically smooth surfaces (~12 nm rms) are introduced for the first time inside the fiber cladding that precisely conform to planar nanograting structures when formed by aberration-free focusing with an oil-immersion lens across the cylindrical fiber wall. This process has enabled optofluidic components to be precisely embedded within the fiber to be probed by either the single-mode fiber core waveguide or the laser-formed optical circuits. We establish cladding waveguides, X-couplers, fiber Bragg gratings, microholes, mirrors, optofluidic resonators, and microfluidic reservoirs that define the building blocks for facile interconnection of inline core-waveguide devices with cladding optofluidics. With these components, more advanced, integrated, and multiplexed fiber microsystems are presented demonstrating

  9. Chemical-assisted femtosecond laser writing of lab-in-fibers.

    PubMed

    Haque, Moez; Lee, Kenneth K C; Ho, Stephen; Fernandes, Luís A; Herman, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The lab-on-chip (LOC) platform has presented a powerful opportunity to improve functionalization, parallelization, and miniaturization on planar or multilevel geometries that has not been possible with fiber optic technology. A migration of such LOC devices into the optical fiber platform would therefore open the revolutionary prospect of creating novel lab-in-fiber (LIF) systems on the basis of an efficient optical transport highway for multifunctional sensing. For the LIF, the core optical waveguide inherently offers a facile means to interconnect numerous types of sensing elements along the optical fiber, presenting a radical opportunity for optimizing the packaging and densification of diverse components in convenient geometries beyond that available with conventional LOCs. In this paper, three-dimensional patterning inside the optical fiber by femtosecond laser writing, together with selective chemical etching, is presented as a powerful tool to form refractive index structures such as optical waveguides and gratings as well as to open buried microfluidic channels and optical resonators inside the flexible and robust glass fiber. In this approach, optically smooth surfaces (~12 nm rms) are introduced for the first time inside the fiber cladding that precisely conform to planar nanograting structures when formed by aberration-free focusing with an oil-immersion lens across the cylindrical fiber wall. This process has enabled optofluidic components to be precisely embedded within the fiber to be probed by either the single-mode fiber core waveguide or the laser-formed optical circuits. We establish cladding waveguides, X-couplers, fiber Bragg gratings, microholes, mirrors, optofluidic resonators, and microfluidic reservoirs that define the building blocks for facile interconnection of inline core-waveguide devices with cladding optofluidics. With these components, more advanced, integrated, and multiplexed fiber microsystems are presented demonstrating

  10. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  11. The Descriptive Challenges of Fiber Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F.

    1990-01-01

    A definition of fiber art, its history, materials and techniques, vocabularies, and creators and users of those vocabularies offer background for understanding the problems in preparing surrogates of this relatively recent art form for text and image databases. Four examples of fiber image information systems are described. (32 references) (EAM)

  12. Low-fiber diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; Surgery - low fiber diet ... of: Irritable bowel syndrome Diverticulitis Crohn disease Ulcerative colitis Sometimes people are put on this diet after ...

  13. Fiber-Optic Discriminator Stabilizes Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    New fiber-optic delay line discriminator enables stabilization of oscillators directly at microwave output frequency, eliminating need for frequency multiplication. Discriminator is wide-band device, capable of stabilizing outputs of frequency-agile microwave sources over multigigahertz tuning ranges. Use of advanced fiber-optic delay line with wider bandwidth and low noise predicted to yield corresponding improvements in phase-noise performance.

  14. Did you see that? Dissociating advanced visual information and ball flight constrains perception and action processes during one-handed catching.

    PubMed

    Panchuk, Derek; Davids, Keith; Sakadjian, Alex; Macmahon, Clare; Parrington, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    The integration of separate, yet complimentary, cortical pathways appears to play a role in visual perception and action when intercepting objects. The ventral system is responsible for object recognition and identification, while the dorsal system facilitates continuous regulation of action. This dual-system model implies that empirically manipulating different visual information sources during performance of an interceptive action might lead to the emergence of distinct gaze and movement pattern profiles. To test this idea, we recorded hand kinematics and eye movements of participants as they attempted to catch balls projected from a novel apparatus that synchronised or de-synchronised accompanying video images of a throwing action and ball trajectory. Results revealed that ball catching performance was less successful when patterns of hand movements and gaze behaviours were constrained by the absence of advanced perceptual information from the thrower's actions. Under these task constraints, participants began tracking the ball later, followed less of its trajectory, and adapted their actions by initiating movements later and moving the hand faster. There were no performance differences when the throwing action image and ball speed were synchronised or de-synchronised since hand movements were closely linked to information from ball trajectory. Results are interpreted relative to the two-visual system hypothesis, demonstrating that accurate interception requires integration of advanced visual information from kinematics of the throwing action and from ball flight trajectory. PMID:23435115

  15. Did you see that? Dissociating advanced visual information and ball flight constrains perception and action processes during one-handed catching.

    PubMed

    Panchuk, Derek; Davids, Keith; Sakadjian, Alex; Macmahon, Clare; Parrington, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    The integration of separate, yet complimentary, cortical pathways appears to play a role in visual perception and action when intercepting objects. The ventral system is responsible for object recognition and identification, while the dorsal system facilitates continuous regulation of action. This dual-system model implies that empirically manipulating different visual information sources during performance of an interceptive action might lead to the emergence of distinct gaze and movement pattern profiles. To test this idea, we recorded hand kinematics and eye movements of participants as they attempted to catch balls projected from a novel apparatus that synchronised or de-synchronised accompanying video images of a throwing action and ball trajectory. Results revealed that ball catching performance was less successful when patterns of hand movements and gaze behaviours were constrained by the absence of advanced perceptual information from the thrower's actions. Under these task constraints, participants began tracking the ball later, followed less of its trajectory, and adapted their actions by initiating movements later and moving the hand faster. There were no performance differences when the throwing action image and ball speed were synchronised or de-synchronised since hand movements were closely linked to information from ball trajectory. Results are interpreted relative to the two-visual system hypothesis, demonstrating that accurate interception requires integration of advanced visual information from kinematics of the throwing action and from ball flight trajectory.

  16. Fiber distributed feedback laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Evans, G. A.; Yeh, C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing round optical fibers as communication channels in optical communication networks presents the problem of obtaining a high efficiency coupling between the optical fiber and the laser. A laser is made an integral part of the optical fiber channel by either diffusing active material into the optical fiber or surrounding the optical fiber with the active material. Oscillation within the active medium to produce lasing action is established by grating the optical fiber so that distributed feedback occurs.

  17. Benefits of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klosterbuer, Abby; Roughead, Zamzam Fariba; Slavin, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    Dietary fiber is widely recognized as an important part of a healthy diet and is a common addition to enteral nutrition (EN) formulas. Fiber sources differ in characteristics such as solubility, fermentability, and viscosity, and it is now well known that different types of fiber exert varying physiological effects in the body. Clinical studies suggest fiber can exert a wide range of benefits in areas such as bowel function, gut health, immunity, blood glucose control, and serum lipid levels. Although early clinical nutrition products contained fiber from a single source, it is now thought that blends of fiber from multiple sources more closely resemble a regular diet and may provide a greater range of benefits for the patient. Current recommendations support the use of dietary fiber in clinical nutrition when no contraindications exist, but little information exists about which types and combinations of fibers provide the relevant benefit in certain patient populations. This article summarizes the different types of fiber commonly added to EN products and reviews the current literature on the use of fiber blends in clinical nutrition.

  18. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  19. Fatigue of continuous fiber reinforced metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mirdamadi, M.; Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The complex damage mechanisms that occur in fiber reinforced advanced metallic materials are discussed. As examples, results for several layups of SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites are presented. Fatigue tests were conducted and analyzed for both notched and unnotched specimens at room and elevated temperatures. Test conditions included isothermal, non-isothermal, and simulated mission profile thermomechanical fatigue. Test results indicated that the stress in the 0 degree fibers is the controlling factor for fatigue life for a given test condition. An effective strain approach is presented for predicting crack initiation at notches. Fiber bridging models were applied to crack growth behavior.

  20. Ultra Small Integrated Optical Fiber Sensing System

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoe, Bram; Lee, Graham; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Kalathimekkad, Sandeep; Maskery, Oliver; Webb, David J.; Sugden, Kate; Van Daele, Peter; Van Steenberge, Geert

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a revolutionary way to interrogate optical fiber sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and to integrate the necessary driving optoelectronic components with the sensor elements. Low-cost optoelectronic chips are used to interrogate the optical fibers, creating a portable dynamic sensing system as an alternative for the traditionally bulky and expensive fiber sensor interrogation units. The possibility to embed these laser and detector chips is demonstrated resulting in an ultra thin flexible optoelectronic package of only 40 μm, provided with an integrated planar fiber pigtail. The result is a fully embedded flexible sensing system with a thickness of only 1 mm, based on a single Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL), fiber sensor and photodetector chip. Temperature, strain and electrodynamic shaking tests have been performed on our system, not limited to static read-out measurements but dynamically reconstructing full spectral information datasets.

  1. High Resolution Multimode Fiber Image Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    The research emphasis is on developing a cost-effective method of recovering image information from small, closely confined spaces using multimode fibers. The state-of-the-art good quality-viewing fiber, which can currently be used for performing this function, is a 0.5 mm diameter bundle containing 6000 pixels at a cost of $10,000 per fiber bundle. However, these fiber bundles are very fragile and can easily break during surgical use, thereby making instrument reliability and replacement cost,a major impediment to their routine use in many applications. The advantage of working with a single multimode fiber is that it is significantly less expensive and mechanically more robust. In addition, careful choice of numerical aperture allows a higher image resolution (roughly 750,000 pixels) with a 0.5 mm diameter multimode fiber.

  2. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  3. Optical fibers for high-resolution in vivo microendoscopic fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gyungseok; Chung, Euiheon; Yun, Seok H.

    2013-12-01

    Optical fiber-based high-resolution fluorescence imaging techniques have promising applications in clinical practice and preclinical research using animals. Here we review the instrumentation and applications of microendoscopy based on various types of optical fibers. Single-mode fibers and double-clad fibers have been widely used for delivering light from light sources to tissues and collecting light from tissues to photodetectors. Coherent fiber bundles, cylindrical graded-index lenses, and multi-mode fibers have been employed in both beam-scanning and non-scanning microscopy. With continuing advances of optical fiber technologies, further innovations in optical microendoscopy are expected.

  4. Advances in laser diodes for pyrotechnic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Richard R.

    1993-01-01

    Background information concerning the use of laser diodes in pyrotechnic applications is provided in viewgraph form. The following topics are discussed: damage limits, temperature stability, fiber coupling issues, and small (100 micron) and large (400 micron) fiber results. The discussions concerning fiber results concentrate on the areas of package geometry and electro-optical properties.

  5. Fiber Optics: Deregulate and Deploy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwinski, Jan H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes fiber optic technology, explains its use in education and commercial settings, and recommends regulations and legislation that will speed its use to create broadband information networks. Topics discussed include distance learning; interactive video; costs; and the roles of policy makers, lawmakers, public advocacy groups, and consumers.…

  6. Strong fibers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Che-Yu

    1991-03-01

    This program was directed to a new and generic approach to the development of new materials with novel and interesting properties, and to the precision fabrication of these materials in one and two-dimensional forms. Advanced deposition processes and microfabrication technology were used to produce fibers and grids of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and mixtures of controlled composition and structure, and with new and interesting mechanical and physical properties. Deposition processes included electron beam evaporation, co-deposition of mixtures by dual electron beam evaporation, thermal evaporation, sputtering of a single element or compound, sputtering of a single element in a gaseous atmosphere to produce compounds, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), and selective tungsten chemical vapor deposition (W-CVD). The approach was to use the deposition processes in coordination with patterns generated by optical lithography to produce fibers with transverse dimensions in the micron range, and lengths from less than a millimeter to several centimeters. The approach is also applicable to the production of two-dimensional grids and particulates of controlled sizes and geometries.

  7. Fly-by-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedoya, Carlos A.

    1995-05-01

    hundreds of MHz are available. Applications of fiber optic buses would then result in the reduction of wires and connections because of reduction in the number of buses needed for information transfer due to the fact that a large number of different signals can be sent across one fiber by multiplexing each signal. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) Fly-by-Light Advanced Systems Hardware (FLASH) program addresses the development of Fly-by-Light Technology in order to apply the benefits of fiber optics to military and commercial aircraft.

  8. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  9. Role of RIS/APC for manufacturing RFG/LSD. [Refinery Information Systems/Advanced Process Control, ReFormulated Gasoline/Low Sulfur Diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R. )

    1994-01-01

    Revolutionary changes in quality specifications (number, complexity, uncertainty, economic sensitivity) for reformulated gasolines (RFG) and low-sulfur diesels (LSD) are being addressed by powerful, new, computer-integrated manufacturing technology for Refinery Information Systems and Advanced Process Control (RIS/APC). This paper shows how the five active RIS/APC functions: performance measurement, optimization, scheduling, control and integration are used to manufacture new, clean fuels competitively. With current industry spending for this field averaging 2 to 3 cents/bbl crude, many refineries can capture 50 to 100 cents/bbl if the technology is properly employed and sustained throughout refining operations, organizations, and businesses.

  10. Fiber modeling and clustering based on neuroanatomical features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yap, Pew-Thian; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    DTI tractography allows unprecedented understanding of brain neural connectivity in-vivo by capturing water diffusion patterns in brain white-matter microstructures. However, tractography algorithms often output hundreds of thousands of fibers, rendering the computation needed for subsequent data analysis intractable. A remedy is to group the fibers into bundles using fiber clustering techniques. Most existing fiber clustering methods, however, rely on fiber geometrical information only by viewing fibers as curves in the 3D Euclidean space. The important neuroanatomical aspect of the fibers is mostly ignored. In this paper, neuroanatomical information is encapsulated in a feature vector called the associativity vector, which functions as the "fingerprint" for each fiber and depicts the connectivity of the fiber with respect to individual anatomies. Using the associativity vectors of fibers, we model the fibers as observations sampled from multivariate Gaussian mixtures in the feature space. An expectation-maximization clustering approach is then employed to group the fibers into 16 major bundles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method groups the fibers into anatomically meaningful bundles, which are highly consistent across subjects. PMID:21995008

  11. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  12. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-06-02

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  13. Future requirements for advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  14. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor); Mattes, Brenton L. (Inventor); Charnetski, Clark J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  15. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  16. Dynamic fiber debonding and push-out in model composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaopeng

    2003-10-01

    When a crack propagates in a fiber-reinforced composite material, a substantial part of energy is dissipated in the debonding and sliding of the bridging fibers located behind the advancing crack front. Because of the important effect they have on the fracture toughness of a composite, these processes have been the subject of extensive experimental, analytical and numerical work. However, the vast majority of existing work on this topic has been limited to quasi-static loading situations. The few investigations performed on various composite systems involving higher loading rates seem to indicate that the fiber sliding process presents some unusual and sometimes contradictory rate-dependent characteristics. To enhance the current understanding of dynamic fiber debonding and push-out in model fiber-reinforced composites, a combined experimental and numerical investigation was carried out. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used to perform high-rate fiber push-out experiments on an aluminum/epoxy model composite system. An axisymmetric cohesive/volumetric finite element scheme was developed to simulate the push-out process. Effects of several important parameters such as interfacial strength, interfacial fracture toughness and fiber/matrix friction coefficient were investigated. Interface cohesive properties were extracted by comparison between experimental and numerical results. The comparison between numerics and experiments was made as close as possible by (a) simulating the entire experimental apparatus; (b) using loading directly measured in the experiments as input to the finite element analysis (FEA) code; (c) using measured material properties in the FEA simulations; and (d) accounting for effects such as large deformations, residual stresses (through a quasi-static pre-loading scheme), spontaneous crack formation (through a cohesive failure formulation) and dynamic frictional sliding. Details of the physical process were discussed by numerically

  17. [Initial management of advanced ovarian cancer: What radiological, pathological and surgical information are important for optimal therapeutic strategy?].

    PubMed

    Heudel, Pierre-Etienne; Selle, Frédéric; Morice, Philippe; Rouzier, Roman; Taieb, Sophie; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Genestie, Catherine; Balleyguier, Corinne; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    Because the majority of patients present advanced disease at diagnosis, the management of epithelial ovarian cancer needs specialist multidisciplinary teamwork. Expertise in surgery, chemotherapy, imaging and histopathology is essential to achieve optimum outcomes. Computed tomography scans are routinely used to determine the extent of disease and to aid in surgical planning. The histologic classification is crucial to plan the best therapeutic strategy and to define the prognosis of disease. Pathological prognostic factors, such as degree of differentiation, FIGO-stage, and histological type have to be described. This report is fundamental to assessing prognosis and selection of appropriate treatment strategy. An adequate staging procedure is an extensive staging by an experienced gynecological oncologist, exploring the entire upper abdomen, and the pelvic and para-aortic lymph node regions to define the Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI). The final assessment is the completeness of cytoreduction (CC) score, which is an assessment of residual disease after a maximal surgical effort. Initial management of advanced ovarian cancer is best provided by a specialist multidisciplinary team, including a radiologist, a pathologist, a gynecologic oncologist and a medical oncologist.

  18. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  19. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside the orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example, can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (less than or equal to 250 microns). Examples of beneficiaries of micro-endoscopes are the treatment of the Eustatian tube of the middle ear, the breast ducts, tear ducts, coronary arteries, fallopian tubes, as well as the treatment of salivary duct parotid disease, and the neuro endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. This work describes an approach for recovering images from tightly confined spaces using multimode. The concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The approach described here also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually inaccessible).

  20. Alumina fiber strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  1. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  2. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.

    2012-03-01

    High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

  3. ISAAC Advanced Composites Research Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication capability to support the Center's advanced research and technology mission. The system introduced in this paper is named ISAAC (Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites). The initial operational capability of ISAAC is automated fiber placement, built around a commercial system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a purpose-built fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of the advanced materials, structures, structural concepts, fabrication processes and technology development that may be enabled using the ISAAC system. The fiber placement end effector may be used directly or with appropriate modifications for these studies, or other end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  4. Advanced data structures for the interpretation of image and cartographic data in geo-based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A growing need to usse geographic information systems (GIS) to improve the flexibility and overall performance of very large, heterogeneous data bases was examined. The Vaster structure and the Topological Grid structure were compared to test whether such hybrid structures represent an improvement in performance. The use of artificial intelligence in a geographic/earth sciences data base context is being explored. The architecture of the Knowledge Based GIS (KBGIS) has a dual object/spatial data base and a three tier hierarchial search subsystem. Quadtree Spatial Spectra (QTSS) are derived, based on the quadtree data structure, to generate and represent spatial distribution information for large volumes of spatial data.

  5. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  6. Advances in the Understanding of the Genetic Causes of Hearing Loss in Children Inform a Rational Approach to Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Carey, John C; Palumbos, Janice C

    2016-10-01

    Hearing loss represents the most common sensory disability of children. Remarkable advances in the identification of genes underlying nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss in just the last 2 decades have led to the ability to determine the specific genetic cause of hearing loss in many children. Surprisingly one gene, GJB2, encoding the protein connexin-26, accounts for about 20 % of sensorineural hearing loss (including in India) and is considered the first tier test in evaluating an infant with unexplained congenital hearing loss. Using the knowledge of the etiology of hearing loss, the authors propose a diagnostic reasoning process for the assessment of a child in the pediatric setting. Second tier testing consists of the multiple gene panels using whole exome sequencing strategies, and is becoming available in some regions of the world including the US. Referral to medical genetics is always a consideration in a child with no explanation for the hearing loss and in families with questions about recurrence risk.

  7. 16 CFR 303.6 - Generic names of fibers to be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.6 Generic names of... weight of the textile fiber product shall be used when naming fibers in the required information; as for example: “cotton,” “rayon,” “silk,” “linen,” “nylon,” etc. (b) Where a textile fiber product contains...

  8. 78 FR 64143 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Application for Insurance of Advance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  9. 76 FR 72022 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4131 Advance Notification Form: Tourist and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...-Governmental Activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area, 1405-0181 ACTION: Notice of request for public comment... Notification Form: Tourist and Other Non-Governmental Activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area. OMB Control... information on tourist and other non- governmental expeditions to the Antarctic Treaty area. The...

  10. 76 FR 33397 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4131 Advance Notification Form: Tourist and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...-Governmental Activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area, 1405-0181 ACTION: Notice of request for public comments...: Tourist and Other Non-Governmental Activities in the Antarctic Treaty Area. OMB Control Number: 1405-0181... with information on tourist and other non-governmental expeditions to the Antarctic Treaty area. The...

  11. Considering Practical Uses of Advanced Placement® Information in College Admission. Research Note 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Marini, Jessica; Mattern, Krista D.

    2014-01-01

    The Study evaluated the predictive validity of various operationalizations of AP® Exam and course information that could be used to make college admission decisions. The incremental validity of different AP variables, above and beyond traditional admission measures such as SAT® and high school grade point average (HSGPA), in predicting first-year…

  12. The Role of Advanced Information System Technology in Remote Sensing for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, Glenn; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA Earth observing satellites will carry high-precision instruments capable of producing large amounts of scientific data. The strategy will be to network these instrument-laden satellites into a web-like array of sensors to facilitate the collection, processing, transmission, storage, and distribution of data and data products - the essential elements of what we refer to as "Information Technology." Many of these Information Technologies will enable the satellite and ground information systems to function effectively in real-time, providing scientists with the capability of customizing data collection activities on a satellite or group of satellites directly from the ground. In future systems, extremely large quantities of data collected by scientific instruments will require the fastest processors, the highest communication channel transfer rates, and the largest data storage capacity to insure that data flows smoothly from the satellite-based instrument to the ground-based archive. Autonomous systems will control all essential processes and play a key role in coordinating the data flow through space-based communication networks. In this paper, we will discuss those critical information technologies for Earth observing satellites that will support the next generation of space-based scientific measurements of planet Earth, and insure that data and data products provided by these systems will be accessible to scientists and the user community in general.

  13. World Key Information Service System Designed For EPCOT Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, J. A.

    1984-03-01

    An advanced Bell Laboratories and Western Electric designed electronic information retrieval system utilizing the latest Information Age technologies, and a fiber optic transmission system is featured at the Walt Disney World Resort's newest theme park - The Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow (EPCOT Center). The project is an interactive audio, video and text information system that is deployed at key locations within the park. The touch sensitive terminals utilizing the ARIEL (Automatic Retrieval of Information Electronically) System is interconnected by a Western Electric designed and manufactured lightwave transmission system.

  14. Surface Properties of Vitreous Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani; Tomatis; Fubini

    2000-04-01

    The surface properties of various vitreous fibers, suspected to be toxic to humans and animals, were investigated by means of paramagnetic labels covalently linked to the surface. Computer-aided analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra provided structural and dynamic information on the label and its environment. Calorimetric measurements provided information on the hydration mechanism. The results were analyzed in terms of (a) different polarity and interaction abilities of surface regions, (b) presence of ions at the surface, (c) silica contents, (d) vicinity of the interacting sites, (e) fiber dimension and morphology of the surfaces, and (f) water hydration. The mobility of the labels decreased due to interaction of the fibers with ions or ionic and polar groups at the surface. Close interacting sites were identified on the basis of spin-spin effects and were distinguished and quantified in strongly and weakly interacting sites. The spin-labeling technique indicated decreased ability of the surface to interact with decreased silicon concentration and in the presence of contaminants at the surface. The interaction with water revealed in all cases a substantial heterogeneity in hydrophilicity of surface sites. The labels were not easily hydrated. Vitreous fibers of various compositions adsorbed much more water than crystalline or amorphous silica; water coordinated to surface cations played a major role in the overall adsorption. The surface reaction mechanisms were the same on fibers of different compositions, but the surface composition affected the extent of adsorption. Glass wool exhibited a much higher adsorption capacity than rock wool under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, the combination of EPR and calorimetric measurements provided insight into the surface properties of silica-based fibers. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirich, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

  16. Multitier specification for NSEP (National Security/Emergency Preparedness) enhancement of fiber-optic long-distance telecommunication networks. Volume 1. The multitier specification - an executive summary. Technical Information Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, D.F.

    1987-12-01

    Fiber optic telecommunication systems are susceptible to both natural and man-made stress. National Security/Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) is a function of how durable these systems are in light of projected levels of stress. Emergency Preparedness in 1987 is not just a matter of--can they deliver food, water, energy and other essentials--but can they deliver the vital information necessary to maintain corporate function of our country. 'Communication stamina' is a function of 'probability of survival' when faced with stress. This report provides an overview of the enhancements to a fiber-optic communication system/installation that will increase durability. These enhancements are grouped, based on their value in protecting the system, such that a Multitier Specification is created that presents multiple levels of hardness. Mitigation of effects due to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and gamma radiation, and protection from vandalism and weather events are discussed in the report. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume I presents the Multitier Specification in a format that is usable for management review. The attributes of specified physical parameters, and the levels of protection stated in Volume I, are discussed in more detail in Volume II.

  17. Advanced composites technology

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J; Groves, S E; Sanchez, R J

    1998-10-01

    The development of fiber composite components in next-generation munitions, such as sabots for kinetic energy penetrators and lightweight cases for advanced artillery projectiles, relies on design trade-off studies using validated computer code simulations. We are developing capabilities to determine the failure of advanced fiber composites under multiaxial stresses to critically evaluate three-dimensional failure models and develop new ones if necessary. The effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on failure of composites are being investigated using a high-pressure testing system that incorporates several unique features. Several improvements were made to the system this year, and we report on the first tests of both isotropic and fiber composite materials. The preliminary results indicate that pressure has little effect on longitudinal compression strength of unidirectional composites, but issues with obtaining reliable failures in these materials still remain to be resolved. The transverse compression strength was found to be significantly enhanced by pressure, and the trends observed for this property and the longitudinal strength are in agreement with recent models for failure of fiber composites.

  18. Fatigue strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. E.; Aziz, M. A. Che Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, green composites provide alternative to synthetic fibers for non-bearing and load-bearing applications. According to literature review, lack of information is available on the fatigue performances especially when the woven fiber is used instead of randomly oriented fibers. In order to overcome this problem, this paper investigates the fatigue strength of different fiber orientations and number of layers of woven kenaf fiber reinforced composites. Four types of fiber orientations are used namely 0°, 15°, 30° and 45°. Additionally, two numbers of layers are also considered. It is revealed that the fatigue life has no strong relationship with the fiber orientations. For identical fiber orientations, the fatigue life can be predicted considerably using the normalized stress. However as expected, the fatigue life enhancement occur when the number of layer is increased.

  19. Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Lu, Min-Shan; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Chinese adults to investigate the effect of fiber intake on colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to examine the associations of dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. A total of 613 cases with colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between July 2010 and October 2012 and frequency matched to 613 controls by age (5-yr interval) and gender. Dietary information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for potential confounders. Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively. In addition, no significant association was found between soy fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

  20. Effects of fiber, matrix, and interphase on carbon fiber composite compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nairn, John A.; Harper, Sheila I.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1994-01-01

    The major goal of this project was to obtain basic information on compression failure properties of carbon fiber composites. To do this, we investigated fiber effects, matrix effects, and fiber/matrix interface effects. Using each of nine fiber types, we prepared embedded single-fiber specimens, single-ply specimens, and full laminates. From the single-fiber specimens, in addition to the standard fragmentation test analysis, we were able to use the low crack density data to provide information about the distribution of fiber flaws. The single-ply specimens provided evidence of a correlation between the size of kink band zones and the quality of the interface. Results of the laminate compression experiments mostly agreed with the results from single-ply experiments, although the ultimate compression strengths of laminates were higher. Generally, these experiments showed a strong effect of interfacial properties. Matrix effects were examined using laminates subjected to precracking under mixed-mode loading conditions. A large effect of precracking conditions on the mode 1 toughness of the laminates was found. In order to control the properties of the fiber/matrix interface, we prepared composites of carbon fiber and polycarbonate and subjected these to annealing. The changes in interfacial properties directly correlated with changes in compression strength.