Numerical simulation of turbomachinery flows with advanced turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, B.; Kunz, R.; Luo, J.; Fan, S.
1992-01-01
A three dimensional full Navier-Stokes (FNS) code is used to simulate complex turbomachinery flows. The code incorporates an explicit multistep scheme and solves a conservative form of the density averaged continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A compressible low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model, and a q-omega model and an algebraic Reynolds stress model have been incorporated in a fully coupled manner to approximate Reynolds stresses. The code is used to predict the viscous flow field in a backswept transonic centrifugal compressor for which laser two focus data is available. The code is also used to simulate the tip clearance flow in a cascade. The code has been extended to include unsteady Euler solutions for predicting the unsteady flow through a cascade due to incoming wakes, simulating rotor-stator interactions.
Advanced Simulator Development for Power Flow and Sources
2006-02-01
specifications for sub-system (primary energy store, water pulse compression/transmission lines, vacuum power flow) design. Using our experience with pulsed ...also enable beneficial upgrades to existing simulator facilities. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 109 Marx Generator Plasma Radiation Source Pulsed ...minimize cost for large dose X area products. Based upon simple scaling from existing pulsed power simulators , we assumed that we could achieve yields
Advanced Methodology for Simulation of Complex Flows Using Structured Grid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David
1995-01-01
Detailed simulations of viscous flows in complicated geometries pose a significant challenge to current capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). To enable routine application of CFD to this class of problems, advanced methodologies are required that employ (a) automated grid generation, (b) adaptivity, (c) accurate discretizations and efficient solvers, and (d) advanced software techniques. Each of these ingredients contributes to increased accuracy, efficiency (in terms of human effort and computer time), and/or reliability of CFD software. In the long run, methodologies employing structured grid systems will remain a viable choice for routine simulation of flows in complex geometries only if genuinely automatic grid generation techniques for structured grids can be developed and if adaptivity is employed more routinely. More research in both these areas is urgently needed.
Some Specific CASL Requirements for Advanced Multiphase Flow Simulation of Light Water Reactors
R. A. Berry
2010-11-01
Because of the diversity of physical phenomena occuring in boiling, flashing, and bubble collapse, and of the length and time scales of LWR systems, it is imperative that the models have the following features: • Both vapor and liquid phases (and noncondensible phases, if present) must be treated as compressible. • Models must be mathematically and numerically well-posed. • The models methodology must be multi-scale. A fundamental derivation of the multiphase governing equation system, that should be used as a basis for advanced multiphase modeling in LWR coolant systems, is given in the Appendix using the ensemble averaging method. The remainder of this work focuses specifically on the compressible, well-posed, and multi-scale requirements of advanced simulation methods for these LWR coolant systems, because without these are the most fundamental aspects, without which widespread advancement cannot be claimed. Because of the expense of developing multiple special-purpose codes and the inherent inability to couple information from the multiple, separate length- and time-scales, efforts within CASL should be focused toward development of a multi-scale approaches to solve those multiphase flow problems relevant to LWR design and safety analysis. Efforts should be aimed at developing well-designed unified physical/mathematical and high-resolution numerical models for compressible, all-speed multiphase flows spanning: (1) Well-posed general mixture level (true multiphase) models for fast transient situations and safety analysis, (2) DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation)-like models to resolve interface level phenmena like flashing and boiling flows, and critical heat flux determination (necessarily including conjugate heat transfer), and (3) Multi-scale methods to resolve both (1) and (2) automatically, depending upon specified mesh resolution, and to couple different flow models (single-phase, multiphase with several velocities and pressures, multiphase with single
Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Finsterle, Stefan A.; Gable, Carl W.; Gorton, Ian; Gosink, Luke J.; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Lansing, Carina S.; Meyer, Joerg; Moeglein, William A.M.; Pau, George S.H.; Porter, Ellen A.; Purohit, Sumit; Rockhold, Mark L.; Shoshani, Arie; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika
2012-04-24
A next generation open source subsurface simulator and user environment for environmental management is being developed through a collaborative effort across Department of Energy National Laboratories. The flow and transport simulator, Amanzi, will be capable of modeling complex subsurface environments and processes using both unstructured and adaptive meshes at very fine spatial resolutions that require supercomputing-scale resources. The user environment, Akuna, provides users with a range of tools to manage environmental and simulator data sets, create models, manage and share simulation data, and visualize results. Underlying the user interface are core toolsets that provide algorithms for sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty quantification. Akuna is open-source, cross platform software that is initially being demonstrated on the Hanford BC Cribs remediation site. In this paper, we describe the emerging capabilities of Akuna and illustrate how these are being applied to the BC Cribs site.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emelyanov, V. N.; Karpenko, A. G.; Volkov, K. N.
2015-06-01
Modern graphics processing units (GPU) provide architectures and new programming models that enable to harness their large processing power and to design computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations at both high performance and low cost. Possibilities of the use of GPUs for the simulation of internal fluid flows are discussed. The finite volume method is applied to solve three-dimensional (3D) unsteady compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Compute Inified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology is used for programming implementation of parallel computational algorithms. Solution of some fluid dynamics problems on GPUs is presented and approaches to optimization of the CFD code related to the use of different types of memory are discussed. Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to the solution on central processor unit (CPU) is compared with the use of different meshes and different methods of distribution of input data into blocks. Performance measurements show that numerical schemes developed achieve 20 to 50 speedup on GPU hardware compared to CPU reference implementation. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for applications in CFD.
Numerical simulation of the reactive flow in advanced (HSR) combustors using KIVA-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winowich, Nicholas S.
1991-01-01
Recent work has been done with the goal of establishing ultralow emission aircraft gas turbine combustors. A significant portion of the effort is the development of three dimensional computational combustor models. The KIVA-II computer code which is based on the Implicit Continuous Eulerian Difference mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ICED-ALE) numerical scheme is one of the codes selected by NASA to achieve these goals. This report involves a simulation of jet injection through slanted slots within the Rich burn/Quick quench/Lean burn (RQL) baseline experimental rig. The RQL combustor distinguishes three regions of combustion. This work specifically focuses on modeling the quick quench mixer region in which secondary injection air is introduced radially through 12 equally spaced slots around the mixer circumference. Steady state solutions are achieved with modifications to the KIVA-II program. Work currently underway will evaluate thermal mixing as a function of injection air velocity and angle of inclination of the slots.
Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centin, Kiris C.; Kwak, Dochan
2001-01-01
The objective of the current effort is two-fold: 1) to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine; and 2) to provide high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis capability to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicle. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to involve liquid propulsion system, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the turbopump components is an important task. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flow are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. Unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available, at least, for real-world engineering applications. Present effort is an attempt to provide this capability so that developers of the vehicle will be able to extract such information as transient flow phenomena for start up, impact of non-uniform inflow, system vibration and impact on the structure. Those quantities are not readily available from simplified design tools. In this presentation, the progress being made toward complete turbo-pump simulation capability for a liquid rocket engine is reported. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for the performance evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. Relative motion of the grid system for rotor-stator interaction was obtained by employing overset grid techniques. Time-accuracy of the scheme has been evaluated by using simple test cases. Unsteady computations for SSME turbopump, which contains 106 zones with 34.5 Million grid points, are currently underway on Origin 2000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability and the performance of the parallel versions of the code will be presented.
Calderer, Antoni; Yang, Xiaolei; Angelidis, Dionysios; Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; Kang, Seokkoo; Gilmanov, Anvar; Ge, Liang; Borazjani, Iman
2015-10-05
Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS) is a state-of-the-art computational fluid mechanics (CFD) package that is capable of simulating multi-physics/multi-phase flows with the most advanced turbulence models (RANS, LES) over complex terrains. The flow solver is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method to handle geometrically complex and moving domains. Different modules of the VFS package can provide different simulation capabilities for specific applications ranging from the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of solid and deformable bodies, the two-phase free surface flow solver based on the level set method for ocean waves, sediment transport models in rivers and the large-scale models of wind farms based on actuator lines and surfaces. All numerical features of VFS package have been validated with known analytical and experimental data as reported in the related journal articles. VFS package is suitable for a broad range of engineering applications within different industries. VFS has been used in different projects with applications in wind and hydrokinetic energy, offshore and near-shore ocean studies, cardiovascular and biological flows, and natural streams and river morphodynamics. Over the last decade, the development of VFS has been supported and assisted with the help of various United States companies and federal agencies that are listed in the sponsor lists. In this version, VFS-Wind contains all the necessary modeling tools for wind energy applications, including land-based and offshore wind farms. VFS is highly scalable to run on either desktop computers or high performance clusters (up to 16,000 CPUs). This released version comes with a detailed user’s manual and a set of case studies designed to facilitate the learning of the various aspects of the code in a comprehensive manner. The included documentation and support material has been elaborated in a collaboration effort with Sandia National Labs under the contract DE-EE0005482. The VFS
Large-Scale Water-Vapor Two-Phase Flow Simulations in Advanced Light Water Reactor Cores
Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Kazuyuki, Takase; Hidesada, Tamai; Hajime, Akimoto; Yasuo, Ose
2004-07-01
Fluid flow characteristics in a fuel bundle of a reduced-moderation light water reactor (RMWR) with a tight-lattice core were analyzed numerically using a newly developed two-phase flow analysis code under the full bundle size condition. Conventional analysis methods such as subchannel codes need composition equations based on the experimental data. In case that there are no experimental data regarding to the thermal-hydraulics in the tight-lattice core, therefore, it is difficult to obtain high prediction accuracy on the thermal design of the RMWR. Then the large-scale direct numerical simulations with a super computer were chosen. The axial velocity distribution in a fuel bundle changed sharply around a spacer. Momentum transfer of vapor in a tight-lattice core is linear along the flow direction. The interface characteristics between water and vapor were clarified quantitatively. (authors)
In, Wang-Kee; Chun, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Hwan; Oh, Dong-Seok
2007-07-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to investigate a flow-mixing and heat-transfer enhancement caused by a mixing-vane spacer in a LWR fuel assembly which is a rod bundle. This paper presents the CFD simulations of a flow mixing and heat transfer in a fully heated 5x5 array of a rod bundle with a split-vane and hybrid-vane spacer. The CFD prediction at a low Reynolds number of 42,000 showed a reasonably good agreement of the initial heat transfer enhancement with the measured one for a partially heated experiment using a similar spacer structure. The CFD simulation also predicted the decay rate of a normalized Nusselt number downstream of the split-vane spacer which agrees fairly well with those of the experiment and the correlation. The CFD calculations for the split vane and hybrid vane at the LWR operating conditions(Re = 500,000) predicted hot fuel spots in a streaky structure downstream of the spacer, which occurs due to the secondary flow occurring in an opposite direction near the fuel rod. However, the split-vane and hybrid-vane spacers are predicted to significantly enhance the overall heat transfer of a LWR nuclear fuel assembly. (authors)
Plume base flow simulation technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, B. B.; Wallace, R. O.; Sims, J. L.
1983-01-01
A combined analytical/empirical approach was studied in an effort to define the plume simulation parameters for base flow. For design purposes, rocket exhaust simulation (i.e., plume simulation) is determined by wind tunnel testing. Cold gas testing was concluded to be a cost and schedule effective data base of substantial scope. The results fell short of the target, although work conducted was conclusive and advanced the state of the art. Comparisons of wind tunnel predictions with Space Transportation System (STS) flight data showed considerable differences. However, a review of the technology program data base has yielded an additional parameter that may correlate flight and cold gas test data. Data from the plume technology program and the NASA test flights are presented to substantiate the proposed simulation parameters.
Successes and Challenges of Incompressible Flow Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2003-01-01
During the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of CFD discipline. Even though incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient, CFD tools become indispensable in fluid engineering for incompressible and low speed flow. This paper is intended to review some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discuss some of the current challenges.
Nonequilibrium radiative hypersonic flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, J. S.; Surzhikov, S. T.
2012-08-01
Nearly all the required scientific disciplines for computational hypersonic flow simulation have been developed on the framework of gas kinetic theory. However when high-temperature physical phenomena occur beneath the molecular and atomic scales, the knowledge of quantum physics and quantum chemical-physics becomes essential. Therefore the most challenging topics in computational simulation probably can be identified as the chemical-physical models for a high-temperature gaseous medium. The thermal radiation is also associated with quantum transitions of molecular and electronic states. The radiative energy exchange is characterized by the mechanisms of emission, absorption, and scattering. In developing a simulation capability for nonequilibrium radiation, an efficient numerical procedure is equally important both for solving the radiative transfer equation and for generating the required optical data via the ab-initio approach. In computational simulation, the initial values and boundary conditions are paramount for physical fidelity. Precise information at the material interface of ablating environment requires more than just a balance of the fluxes across the interface but must also consider the boundary deformation. The foundation of this theoretic development shall be built on the eigenvalue structure of the governing equations which can be described by Reynolds' transport theorem. Recent innovations for possible aerospace vehicle performance enhancement via an electromagnetic effect appear to be very attractive. The effectiveness of this mechanism is dependent strongly on the degree of ionization of the flow medium, the consecutive interactions of fluid dynamics and electrodynamics, as well as an externally applied magnetic field. Some verified research results in this area will be highlighted. An assessment of all these most recent advancements in nonequilibrium modeling of chemical kinetics, chemical-physics kinetics, ablation, radiative exchange
Flow simulation and high performance computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Kalro, V.; Litke, M.
1996-10-01
Flow simulation is a computational tool for exploring science and technology involving flow applications. It can provide cost-effective alternatives or complements to laboratory experiments, field tests and prototyping. Flow simulation relies heavily on high performance computing (HPC). We view HPC as having two major components. One is advanced algorithms capable of accurately simulating complex, real-world problems. The other is advanced computer hardware and networking with sufficient power, memory and bandwidth to execute those simulations. While HPC enables flow simulation, flow simulation motivates development of novel HPC techniques. This paper focuses on demonstrating that flow simulation has come a long way and is being applied to many complex, real-world problems in different fields of engineering and applied sciences, particularly in aerospace engineering and applied fluid mechanics. Flow simulation has come a long way because HPC has come a long way. This paper also provides a brief review of some of the recently-developed HPC methods and tools that has played a major role in bringing flow simulation where it is today. A number of 3D flow simulations are presented in this paper as examples of the level of computational capability reached with recent HPC methods and hardware. These examples are, flow around a fighter aircraft, flow around two trains passing in a tunnel, large ram-air parachutes, flow over hydraulic structures, contaminant dispersion in a model subway station, airflow past an automobile, multiple spheres falling in a liquid-filled tube, and dynamics of a paratrooper jumping from a cargo aircraft.
Advanced electromagnetic gun simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. L.; George, E. B.; Lippert, J. R.; Balius, A. R.
1986-11-01
The architecture, software and application of a simulation system for evaluating electromagnetic gun (EMG) operability, maintainability, test data and performance tradeoffs are described. The system features a generic preprocessor designed for handling the large data rates necessary for EMG simulations. The preprocessor and postprocessor operate independent of the EMG simulation, which is viewed through windows by the user, who can then select the areas of the simulation desired. The simulation considers a homopolar generator, busbars, pulse shaping coils, the barrel, switches, and prime movers. In particular, account is taken of barrel loading by the magnetic field, Lorentz force and plasma pressure.
Simulator for concurrent processing data flow architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.
1992-01-01
A software simulator capability of simulating execution of an algorithm graph on a given system under the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) rules is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large-grained algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. Investigating the behavior and determining the performance of an ATAMM based system requires the aid of software tools. The ATAMM Simulator presented is capable of determining the performance of a system without having to build a hardware prototype. Case studies are performed on four algorithms to demonstrate the capabilities of the ATAMM Simulator. Simulated results are shown to be comparable to the experimental results of the Advanced Development Model System.
Advanced concepts flight simulation facility.
Chappell, S L; Sexton, G A
1986-12-01
The cockpit environment is changing rapidly. New technology allows airborne computerised information, flight automation and data transfer with the ground. By 1995, not only will the pilot's task have changed, but also the tools for doing that task. To provide knowledge and direction for these changes, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lockheed-Georgia Company have completed three identical Advanced Concepts Flight Simulation Facilities. Many advanced features have been incorporated into the simulators - e g, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays of flight and systems information operated via touch-screen or voice, print-outs of clearances, cockpit traffic displays, current databases containing navigational charts, weather and flight plan information, and fuel-efficient autopilot control from take-off to touchdown. More importantly, this cockpit is a versatile test bed for studying displays, controls, procedures and crew management in a full-mission context. The facility also has an air traffic control simulation, with radio and data communications, and an outside visual scene with variable weather conditions. These provide a veridical flight environment to evaluate accurately advanced concepts in flight stations.
Advanced Combustion Modeling for Complex Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ham, Frank Stanford
2005-01-01
The next generation of aircraft engines will need to pass stricter efficiency and emission tests. NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has set an ambitious goal of 70% reduction of NO(x) emissions and a 15% increase in fuel efficiency of aircraft engines. We will demonstrate the state-of-the-art combustion tools developed a t Stanford's Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) as part of this program. In the last decade, CTR has spear-headed a multi-physics-based combustion modeling program. Key technologies have been transferred to the aerospace industry and are currently being used for engine simulations. In this demo, we will showcase the next-generation combustion modeling tools that integrate a very high level of detailed physics into advanced flow simulation codes. Combustor flows involve multi-phase physics with liquid fuel jet breakup, evaporation, and eventual combustion. Individual components of the simulation are verified against complex test cases and show excellent agreement with experimental data.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, A.
1983-01-01
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows is discussed. Computational requirements for the direct simulaton of turbulence, simulation of arbitrary homogeneous flows, an expansion technique for wall bounded flows with application to pipe flow, and possibilities of flow representations or modeling techniques that allow the simulation of high Reynolds number flows with a relatively small number of dependent variables are included.
Advanced simulation of digital filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, G. S.
1980-09-01
An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.
Proskouriakov, K.N.; Moukhine, V.S.
2002-07-01
In addition to investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes on NPP with use of computer codes the new system analysis of flow pulsation is worked out. System analysis shows that properties of heat rejection circuits of NPP as oscillatory system are not equal the sum of properties of its separate elements but gives the new properties which must be taken into account. Methods have been worked out for calculating and identifying the sources of thermal-hydraulic disturbances are intended to improve the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, to forecast their development, to improve the efficiency of overhauling operations and safety in operation, and also to create advanced on-line monitoring and control of NPP. Conception of the control system development presents. Proposal for main topics R and D areas for advanced NPP monitoring, diagnostic and control are identified. (authors)
Simulation of Multistage Turbine Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Celestina, M. L.; Mulac, R. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1985-01-01
The numerical simulation of turbine flows serves to enhance the understanding of the flow phenomena within multistage turbomachinery components. The direct benefit of this activity is improved modeling capability, which can be used to improve component efficiency and durability. A hierarchy of equations was formulated to assess the difficulty in analyzing the flow field within multistage turbomachinery components. The Navier-Stokes equations provides the most complete description. The simplest description is given by a set of equations that govern the quasi-one-dimensional flow. The number of unknowns to be solved for increases monotonically above the number of equations. The development of the additional set of equations needed to mathematically close the system of equations forms the closure problem associated with that level of description. For the Navier-Stokes equation there is no closure problem. For the quasi-one-dimensional equation set random flow fluctuations, unsteady fluctuations, nonaxisymmetric flow variations, and hub-to-shroud variations on the quasi-one-dimensional flow must be accounted for.
Advanced Diagnostics for Reacting Flows.
1984-12-21
exposure which includes 10-20 individual laser pulses (each of which freezes the flow) and accumulated flame emission , while in the case of the...unintensified photodiode array the image is for a single pulse and flame emission is excluded with a filter. The significance of this initial work is to...temperature) and readily separated fluorescence (short-lived) and phosphorescence (long-lived) emission spectra. A schematic diagram of the set-up and
Interactive real time flow simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.
1990-01-01
An interactive real time flow simulation technique is developed for an unsteady channel flow. A finite-volume algorithm in conjunction with a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme was developed for two-dimensional Euler equations. A global time step was used to accelerate convergence of steady-state calculations. A raster image generation routine was developed for high speed image transmission which allows the user to have direct interaction with the solution development. In addition to theory and results, the hardware and software requirements are discussed.
Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow
Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali
2016-11-21
Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, Craig J.
1990-01-01
This research is involved with the implementation of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program to extend the present capabilities of this method was initiated for the treatment of chemically reacting flows. In the DNS efforts, the focus is on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and non-equilibrium kinetics modelings in high speed reacting flows. Emphasis was on the simulations of simple flows, namely homogeneous compressible flows, and temporally developing high speed mixing layers.
Advancing Detached-Eddy Simulation
2007-01-01
predicted using LES. While DES is now relatively well understood in massively separated flows characterized by thin boundary layers prior to separation...version has been tested on the flow over the Aerospatiale A-airfoil. To ensure that the new version does not degrade predictions in massively separated...flows characterised by massive separation using RANS approaches (49). A number of different RANS models have been considered in the past with no
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.
2015-12-01
Reservoir simulators are widely used to constrain uncertainty in the petrophysical properties of subsurface formations by matching the history of injection and production data. However, such measurements may be insufficient to uniquely characterize a reservoir's properties. Monitoring of natural (isotopic) and introduced tracers is a developing technology to further interrogate the subsurface for applications such as enhanced oil recovery from conventional and unconventional resources, and CO2 sequestration. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been piloting this tracer technology during and following CO2 injection at the Cranfield, Mississippi, CO2 sequestration test site. Two campaigns of multiple perfluorocarbon tracers were injected together with CO2 and monitored at two wells at 68 m and 112 m from the injection site. The tracer data suggest that multiple CO2 flow paths developed towards the monitoring wells, indicative of either channeling through high permeability pathways or of fingering. The results demonstrate that tracers provide an important complement to transient pressure data. Numerical modeling is essential to further explain and interpret the observations. To aid the development of tracer technology, we enhanced a compositional multiphase reservoir simulator to account for tracer transport. Our research simulator uses higher-order finite element (FE) methods that can capture the small-scale onset of fingering on the coarse grids required for field-scale modeling, and allows for unstructured grids and anisotropic heterogeneous permeability fields. Mass transfer between fluid phases and phase behavior are modeled with rigorous equation-of-state based phase-split calculations. We present our tracer simulator and preliminary results related to the Cranfield experiments. Applications to noble gas tracers in unconventional resources are presented by Darrah et al.
Aerodynamics of advanced axial-flow turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serovy, G. K.; Kavanagh, P.; Kiishi, T. H.
1980-01-01
A multi-task research program on aerodynamic problems in advanced axial-flow turbomachine configurations was carried out at Iowa State University. The elements of this program were intended to contribute directly to the improvement of compressor, fan, and turbine design methods. Experimental efforts in intra-passage flow pattern measurements, unsteady blade row interaction, and control of secondary flow are included, along with computational work on inviscid-viscous interaction blade passage flow techniques. This final report summarizes the results of this program and indicates directions which might be taken in following up these results in future work. In a separate task a study was made of existing turbomachinery research programs and facilities in universities located in the United States. Some potentially significant research topics are discussed which might be successfully attacked in the university atmosphere.
Advanced Space Shuttle simulation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.
1982-01-01
A non-recursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed. It provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gusts gradients. Based on this model the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes, entitled Shuttle Simulation Turbulence Tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 120,000 meters. A description of the turbulence generation procedure is provided. The results of validating the simulated turbulence are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. One-dimensional von Karman spectra are tabulated, while a discussion of the minimum frequency simulated is provided. The results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are presented.
Higher-level simulations of turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferziger, J. H.
1981-01-01
The fundamentals of large eddy simulation are considered and the approaches to it are compared. Subgrid scale models and the development of models for the Reynolds-averaged equations are discussed as well as the use of full simulation in testing these models. Numerical methods used in simulating large eddies, the simulation of homogeneous flows, and results from full and large scale eddy simulations of such flows are examined. Free shear flows are considered with emphasis on the mixing layer and wake simulation. Wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and recent work on the boundary layer are also discussed. Applications of large eddy simulation and full simulation in meteorological and environmental contexts are included along with a look at the direction in which work is proceeding and what can be expected from higher-level simulation in the future.
Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.
Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K
2016-08-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented.
Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations
Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.
2005-09-01
In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.
Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.
1982-01-01
Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28577
Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.
1982-01-01
Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included.
Advanced Simulator Power Flow Technology/Advanced Radiation Simulation.
2007-11-02
cover and SF 298 provided. ,., •Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information...the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this... collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services Directorate for information Operations
Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH
Finsterle, S.; Doughty, C.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Moridis, G.J.; Pan,L.; Xu, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pruess, K.
2007-02-01
The vadose zone can be characterized as a complex subsurfacesystem in which intricate physical and biogeochemical processes occur inresponse to a variety of natural forcings and human activities. Thismakes it difficult to describe, understand, and predict the behavior ofthis specific subsurface system. The TOUGH nonisothermal multiphase flowsimulators are well-suited to perform advanced vadose zone studies. Theconceptual models underlying the TOUGH simulators are capable ofrepresenting features specific to the vadose zone, and of addressing avariety of coupled phenomena. Moreover, the simulators are integratedinto software tools that enable advanced data analysis, optimization, andsystem-level modeling. We discuss fundamental and computationalchallenges in simulating vadose zone processes, review recent advances inmodeling such systems, and demonstrate some capabilities of the TOUGHsuite of codes using illustrative examples.
Advances in Computational Capabilities for Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Moss, James N.; Drummond, J. Philip
1997-01-01
The paper reviews the growth and advances in computational capabilities for hypersonic applications over the period from the mid-1980's to the present day. The current status of the code development issues such as surface and field grid generation, algorithms, physical and chemical modeling, and validation is provided. A brief description of some of the major codes being used at NASA Langley Research Center for hypersonic continuum and rarefied flows is provided, along with their capabilities and deficiencies. A number of application examples are presented, and future areas of research to enhance accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and robustness of computational codes are discussed.
Numerical Simulation of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; James, S.; Givi, P.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in large eddy simulation (LES) methods for computational analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. We have just completed the first year of Phase 3 of this research.
Towards large eddy and direct simulation of complex turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
Recent advances in the methodology for direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows and some of the current applications are reviewed. It is argued that high-order finite difference schemes yield solutions with comparable accuracy to the spectral methods with the same number of degrees of freedom. The effects of random inflow conditions on the downstream evolution of turbulence are discussed.
Deceleration in advance in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui
2009-05-01
Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we study the impact of deceleration in advance on the dynamics of traffic flow. In the process of deceleration in advance, the effect of reaction delay and the effect of expectation are considered respectively. The traffic flow properties are studied by analyzing the fundamental diagram, spatio-temporal patterns, distance headway distribution and car accidents. The simulation results show that reaction delay brings complex traffic flow patterns and expectation makes the serious car accidents rarely happen.
Advances in atomic oxygen simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Froechtenigt, Joseph F.; Bareiss, Lyle E.
1990-01-01
Atomic oxygen (AO) present in the atmosphere at orbital altitudes of 200 to 700 km has been shown to degrade various exposed materials on Shuttle flights. The relative velocity of the AO with the spacecraft, together with the AO density, combine to yield an environment consisting of a 5 eV beam energy with a flux of 10(exp 14) to 10(exp 15) oxygen atoms/sq cm/s. An AO ion beam apparatus that produces flux levels and energy similar to that encountered by spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been in existence since 1987. Test data was obtained from the interaction of the AO ion beam with materials used in space applications (carbon, silver, kapton) and with several special coatings of interest deposited on various surfaces. The ultimate design goal of the AO beam simulation device is to produce neutral AO at sufficient flux levels to replicate on-orbit conditions. A newly acquired mass spectrometer with energy discrimination has allowed 5 eV neutral oxygen atoms to be separated and detected from the background of thermal oxygen atoms of approx 0.2 eV. Neutralization of the AO ion beam at 5 eV was shown at the Martin Marietta AO facility.
Advanced numerics for multi-dimensional fluid flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanka, S. P.
1984-01-01
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development and use of mathematical models for the simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion processes in engineering equipment. The equations representing the multi-dimensional transport of mass, momenta and species are numerically solved by finite-difference or finite-element techniques. However despite the multiude of differencing schemes and solution algorithms, and the advancement of computing power, the calculation of multi-dimensional flows, especially three-dimensional flows, remains a mammoth task. The following discussion is concerned with the author's recent work on the construction of accurate discretization schemes for the partial derivatives, and the efficient solution of the set of nonlinear algebraic equations resulting after discretization. The present work has been jointly supported by the Ramjet Engine Division of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and the NASA Lewis Research Center.
Advanced numerics for multi-dimensional fluid flow calculations
Vanka, S.P.
1984-04-01
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development and use of mathematical models for the simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion processes in engineering equipment. The equations representing the multi-dimensional transport of mass, momenta and species are numerically solved by finite-difference or finite-element techniques. However despite the multiude of differencing schemes and solution algorithms, and the advancement of computing power, the calculation of multi-dimensional flows, especially three-dimensional flows, remains a mammoth task. The following discussion is concerned with the author's recent work on the construction of accurate discretization schemes for the partial derivatives, and the efficient solution of the set of nonlinear algebraic equations resulting after discretization. The present work has been jointly supported by the Ramjet Engine Division of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and the NASA Lewis Research Center.
Spectral simulations of reacting turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Givi, Peyman
1991-01-01
Spectral methods for simulating flows are reviewed, emphasizing their recent applications to reacting flow problems. Various classifications of spectral methods and their convergence properties are described and the 'spectral element' method is presented, highlighting its flexibility in dealing with complex flow geometries. The applications considered include chemical reactions in homogeneous turbulence, temporally evolving mixing layers, variable-density simulations, nonequilibrium chemistry, and spatially evolving mixing layers.
Center for Advanced Modeling and Simulation Intern
Gertman, Vanessa
2010-01-01
Some interns just copy papers and seal envelopes. Not at INL! Check out how Vanessa Gertman, an INL intern working at the Center for Advanced Modeling and Simulation, spent her summer working with some intense visualization software. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.
Center for Advanced Modeling and Simulation Intern
Gertman, Vanessa
2016-07-12
Some interns just copy papers and seal envelopes. Not at INL! Check out how Vanessa Gertman, an INL intern working at the Center for Advanced Modeling and Simulation, spent her summer working with some intense visualization software. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.
Implications of advanced collision operators for gyrokinetic simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.
2017-04-01
In this work, we explore both the potential improvements and pitfalls that arise when using advanced collision models in gyrokinetic simulations of plasma microinstabilities. Comparisons are made between the simple-but-standard electron Lorentz operator and specific variations of the advanced Sugama operator. The Sugama operator describes multi-species collisions including energy diffusion, momentum and energy conservation terms, and is valid for arbitrary wavelength. We report scans over collision frequency for both low and high {k}θ {ρ }s modes, with relevance for multiscale simulations that couple ion and electron scale physics. The influence of the ion–ion collision terms—not retained in the electron Lorentz model—on the damping of zonal flows is also explored. Collision frequency scans for linear and nonlinear simulations of ion-temperature-gradient instabilities including impurity ions are presented. Finally, implications for modeling turbulence in the highly collisional edge are discussed.
Progress in Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan; Williams, Robert
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses unsteady flow simulations for a turbopump intended for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The simulation process makes use of computational grids and parallel processing. The architecture of the parallel computers used is discussed, as is the scripting of turbopump simulations.
Simulation of flow in the silk gland.
Breslauer, David N; Lee, Luke P; Muller, Susan J
2009-01-12
Spiders and silkworms employ the complex flow of highly concentrated silk solution as part of silk fiber spinning. To understand the role of fluidic forces in this process, the flow of silk solution in the spider major ampullate and silkworm silk glands was investigated using numerical simulation. Our simulations demonstrate significant differences between flow in the spider and silkworm silk glands. In particular, shear flow effects are shown to be much greater in the spider than the silkworm, the silkworm gland exhibits a much different flow extension profile than the spider gland, and the residence time within the spider gland is eight times greater than in the silkworm gland. Lastly, simulations on the effect of spinning speed on the flow of silk solution suggest that a critical extension rate is the initiating factor for fiber formation from silk solution. These results provide new insight into silk spinning processes and will guide the future development of novel fiber spinning technologies.
Supercomputing Aspects for Simulating Incompressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kris, Cetin C.
2000-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to support the design of liquid rocket systems for the Advanced Space Transportation System. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to rely on liquid rocket engines, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the engine components is an important task. One of the major problems in the liquid rocket engine is to understand fluid dynamics of fuel and oxidizer flows from the fuel tank to plume. Understanding the flow through the entire turbo-pump geometry through numerical simulation will be of significant value toward design. One of the milestones of this effort is to develop, apply and demonstrate the capability and accuracy of 3D CFD methods as efficient design analysis tools on high performance computer platforms. The development of the Message Passage Interface (MPI) and Multi Level Parallel (MLP) versions of the INS3D code is currently underway. The serial version of INS3D code is a multidimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on overset grid technology, INS3D-MPI is based on the explicit massage-passing interface across processors and is primarily suited for distributed memory systems. INS3D-MLP is based on multi-level parallel method and is suitable for distributed-shared memory systems. For the entire turbo-pump simulations, moving boundary capability and efficient time-accurate integration methods are built in the flow solver, To handle the geometric complexity and moving boundary problems, an overset grid scheme is incorporated with the solver so that new connectivity data will be obtained at each time step. The Chimera overlapped grid scheme allows subdomains move relative to each other, and provides a great flexibility when the boundary movement creates large displacements. Two numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are outlined for obtaining time-accurate solutions of the incompressible Navier
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Tsai, A.
1991-01-01
This research is involved with the implementations of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program was initiated to extend the present capabilities of this method for the treatment of chemically reacting flows, whereas in the DNS efforts, focus was on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and nonequilibrium kinetics modeling in high speed reacting flows. The efforts to date were primarily focussed on simulations of simple flows, namely, homogeneous compressible flows and temporally developing hign speed mixing layers. A summary of the accomplishments is provided.
Advanced tomographic flow diagnostics for opaque multiphase fluids
Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Jackson, N.B.; Shollenberger, K.A.
1997-05-01
This report documents the work performed for the ``Advanced Tomographic Flow Diagnostics for Opaque Multiphase Fluids`` LDRD (Laboratory-Directed Research and Development) project and is presented as the fulfillment of the LDRD reporting requirement. Dispersed multiphase flows, particularly gas-liquid flows, are industrially important to the chemical and applied-energy industries, where bubble-column reactors are employed for chemical synthesis and waste treatment. Due to the large range of length scales (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup 1}m) inherent in real systems, direct numerical simulation is not possible at present, so computational simulations are forced to use models of subgrid-scale processes, the accuracy of which strongly impacts simulation fidelity. The development and validation of such subgrid-scale models requires data sets at representative conditions. The ideal measurement techniques would provide spatially and temporally resolved full-field measurements of the distributions of all phases, their velocity fields, and additional associated quantities such as pressure and temperature. No technique or set of techniques is known that satisfies this requirement. In this study, efforts are focused on characterizing the spatial distribution of the phases in two-phase gas-liquid flow and in three-phase gas-liquid-solid flow. Due to its industrial importance, the bubble-column geometry is selected for diagnostics development and assessment. Two bubble-column testbeds are utilized: one at laboratory scale and one close to industrial scale. Several techniques for measuring the phase distributions at conditions of industrial interest are examined: level-rise measurements, differential-pressure measurements, bulk electrical impedance measurements, electrical bubble probes, x-ray tomography, gamma-densitometry tomography, and electrical impedance tomography.
SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirk, Brnjamin, S.
2006-01-01
The Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element simulations of compressible flows is presented. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) SUPG Galerkin Finite Element Methods; 3) Applications; and 4) Bibliography.
On numerical simulation of viscous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghia, K. N.; Ghia, U.
Numerical simulation methods for viscous incompressible laminar flows are reviewed, with a focus on finite-difference schemes. The approaches to high/moderate-Reynolds-number flows (strong-viscous-interaction model or single sets of equations) and the factors affecting the versatility, reliability, and accuracy of the analysis algorithms are considered; approximate-factorization implicit solution techniques for low-Reynolds-number flows are discussed; and the procedures used in a number of specific problems are indicated.
Assembly flow simulation of a radar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutherford, W. C.; Biggs, P. M.
1994-01-01
A discrete event simulation model has been developed to predict the assembly flow time of a new radar product. The simulation was the key tool employed to identify flow constraints. The radar, production facility, and equipment complement were designed, arranged, and selected to provide the most manufacturable assembly possible. A goal was to reduce the assembly and testing cycle time from twenty-six weeks. A computer software simulation package (SLAM 2) was utilized as the foundation for simulating the assembly flow time. FORTRAN subroutines were incorporated into the software to deal with unique flow circumstances that were not accommodated by the software. Detailed information relating to the assembly operations was provided by a team selected from the engineering, manufacturing management, inspection, and production assembly staff. The simulation verified that it would be possible to achieve the cycle time goal of six weeks. Equipment and manpower constraints were identified during the simulation process and adjusted as required to achieve the flow with a given monthly production requirement. The simulation is being maintained as a planning tool to be used to identify constraints in the event that monthly output is increased. 'What-if' studies have been conducted to identify the cost of reducing constraints caused by increases in output requirement.
Petascale Flow Simulations Using Particles and Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koumoutsakos, Petros
2014-11-01
How to chose the discretization of flow models in order to harness the power of available computer architectures? Our group explores this question for particle (vortex methods, molecular and dissipative particle dynamics) and grid based (finite difference, finite volume) discretisations for flow simulations across scales. I will discuss methodologies to transition between these methods and their implementation in massively parallel computer architectures. I will present simulations ranging from flows of cells in microfluidic channels to cloud cavitation collapse at 14.5 PFLOP/s. This research was supported by the European Research Council, the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss National Supercomputing Center.
Reactive multiphase flow simulation workshop summary
VanderHeyden, W.B.
1995-09-01
A workshop on computer simulation of reactive multiphase flow was held on May 18 and 19, 1995 in the Computational Testbed for Industry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Approximately 35 to 40 people attended the workshop. This included 21 participants from 12 companies representing the petroleum, chemical, environmental and consumer products industries, two representatives from the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies and several from Los Alamos. The dialog at the meeting suggested that reactive multiphase flow simulation represents an excellent candidate for government/industry/academia collaborative research. A white paper on a potential consortium for reactive multiphase flow with input from workshop participants will be issued separately.
Progress in Unsteady Turbopump Flow Simulations Using Overset Grid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on unsteady flow simulations for the Second Generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) baseline turbopump. Three impeller rotations were simulated by using a 34.3 million grid points model. MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelism and MLP shared memory parallelism has been implemented and benchmarked in INS3D, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. For RLV turbopump simulations a speed up of more than 30 times has been obtained. Moving boundary capability is obtained by using the DCF module. Scripting capability from CAD geometry to solution is developed. Unsteady flow simulations for advanced consortium impeller/diffuser by using a 39 million grid points model are currently underway. 1.2 impeller rotations are completed. The fluid/structure coupling is initiated.
MPSalsa 3D Simulations of Chemically Reacting Flows
Many important scientific and engineering applications require a detailed analysis of complex systems with coupled fluid flow, thermal energy transfer, mass transfer and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. Currently, computer simulations of these complex reacting flow problems are limited to idealized systems in one or two spatial dimensions when coupled with a detailed, fundamental chemistry model. The goal of our research is to develop, analyze and implement advanced MP numerical algorithms that will allow high resolution 3D simulations with an equal emphasis on fluid flow and chemical kinetics modeling. In our research, we focus on the development of new, fully coupled, implicit solution strategies that are based on robust MP iterative solution methods (copied from http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/). These simulations are needed for scientific and technical areas such as: combustion research for transportation, atmospheric chemistry modeling for pollution studies, chemically reacting flow models for analysis and control of manufacturing processes, surface catalytic reactors for methane to methanol conversion and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process modeling for production of advanced semiconductor materials (http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/).
This project website provides six QuickTime videos of these simulations, along with a small image gallery and slideshow animations. A list of related publications and conference presentations is also made available.
Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam
2015-12-01
The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.
Time accurate simulations of compressible shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Steinberger, Craig J.; Vidoni, Thomas J.; Madnia, Cyrus K.
1993-01-01
The objectives of this research are to employ direct numerical simulation (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing (or lack thereof) in compressible free shear flows and to suggest new means of enhancing mixing in such flows. The shear flow configurations under investigation are those of parallel mixing layers and planar jets under both non-reacting and reacting nonpremixed conditions. During the three-years of this research program, several important issues regarding mixing and chemical reactions in compressible shear flows were investigated.
Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Particle Laden Flows in Microfluidic Systems
2003-12-01
wide application and will enable the study of colloidal/macromolecular transport in physiological systems, such as, blood filtration in the kidney... MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA Order No. E117...Jun 00 – Aug 02 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LATTICE BOLTZMANN SIMULATION OF PARTICLE LADEN FLOWS IN MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) David S
Advanced Civil Transport Simulator Cockpit View
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
The Advanced Civil Transport Simulator (ACTS) is a futuristic aircraft cockpit simulator designed to provide full-mission capabilities for researching issues that will affect future transport aircraft flight stations and crews. The objective is to heighten the pilots situation awareness through improved information availability and ease of interpretation in order to reduce the possibility of misinterpreted data. The simulators five 13-inch Cathode Ray Tubes are designed to display flight information in a logical easy-to-see format. Two color flat panel Control Display Units with touch sensitive screens provide monitoring and modification of aircraft parameters, flight plans, flight computers, and aircraft position. Three collimated visual display units have been installed to provide out-the-window scenes via the Computer Generated Image system. The major research objectives are to examine needs for transfer of information to and from the flight crew; study the use of advanced controls and displays for all-weather flying; explore ideas for using computers to help the crew in decision making; study visual scanning and reach behavior under different conditions with various levels of automation and flight deck-arrangements.
Simulation of granular flow and micro-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Xiaobo
2004-11-01
Most flows in mechanical engineering can be described by a set of continuum equations of macroscopic quantities, for example, the Navier-Stokes equations. However there are some flows that cannot properly be described by any continuum descriptions of macroscopic quantities, for example, granular flows and micro-fluid flows. Granular materials are ensembles of macroscopic particles. The energy dissipation and lack of scale separation put serious limitations on the conventional coarse-graining techniques used for writing a macroscopic theory. We use molecular dynamics simulation to study vertically vibrated granular monolayers and show how the system changes from a gas state to a state that the cluster and gas coexist as the excitation strengths decreases. The dynamics of freely cooling granular gases is also studied. We find that the typical kinetic energy decays algebraically with time and velocity statistics are characterized by a universal Gaussian distribution in the late clustering regime. We also show that particles move coherently as typical local velocity fluctuations are small compared with the typical velocity. Furthermore, locally averaged shear modes dominate over acoustic modes. A heuristical argument suggests that the longtime behavior of freely cooling granular gas can be described by Burgers-like equations. The density fluctuation and cluster size are also investigated. In micro- and nano-fluid flows, the mean free path of the fluid molecules could be the same order as the typical geometric dimension and the continuum hypothesis breaks down. It is demonstrated that the lattice-Boltzmann method can capture the fundamental behaviors in micro-channel flow, including velocity slip, nonlinear pressure drop along the channel and mass flow rate variation with Knudsen number. The micro-cavity flows is also studied. In most cases the breakdown of the continuum description occurs in small domain regions, such as fluid-solid interfaces and moving contact lines
Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin
2001-01-01
This paper reports the progress made towards developing complete blood flow simulation capability in humans, especially in the presence of artificial devices such as valves and ventricular assist devices. Devices modeling poses unique challenges different from computing the blood flow in natural hearts and arteries. There are many elements needed to quantify the flow in these devices such as flow solvers, geometry modeling including flexible walls, moving boundary procedures and physiological characterization of blood. As a first step, computational technology developed for aerospace applications was extended to the analysis and development of a ventricular assist device (VAD), i.e., a blood pump. The blood flow in a VAD is practically incompressible and Newtonian, and thus an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure can be applied. A primitive variable formulation is used in conjunction with the overset grid approach to handle complex moving geometry. The primary purpose of developing the incompressible flow analysis capability was to quantify the flow in advanced turbopump for space propulsion system. The same procedure has been extended to the development of NASA-DeBakey VAD that is based on an axial blood pump. Due to massive computing requirements, high-end computing is necessary for simulating three-dimensional flow in these pumps. Computational, experimental, and clinical results are presented.
Onyx-Advanced Aeropropulsion Simulation Framework Created
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, John A.
2001-01-01
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a new software environment for analyzing and designing aircraft engines and, eventually, space transportation systems. Its purpose is to dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines by creating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system (refs. 1 and 2). Through a university grant as part of that effort, researchers at the University of Toledo have developed Onyx, an extensible Java-based (Sun Micro-systems, Inc.), objectoriented simulation framework, to investigate how advanced software design techniques can be successfully applied to aeropropulsion system simulation (refs. 3 and 4). The design of Onyx's architecture enables users to customize and extend the framework to add new functionality or adapt simulation behavior as required. It exploits object-oriented technologies, such as design patterns, domain frameworks, and software components, to develop a modular system in which users can dynamically replace components with others having different functionality.
EGR Distribution in Engine Cylinders Using Advanced Virtual Simulation
Fan, Xuetong
2000-08-20
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a well-known technology for reduction of NOx in diesel engines. With the demand for extremely low engine out NOx emissions, it is important to have a consistently balanced EGR flow to individual engine cylinders. Otherwise, the variation in the cylinders' NOx contribution to the overall engine emissions will produce unacceptable variability. This presentation will demonstrate the effective use of advanced virtual simulation in the development of a balanced EGR distribution in engine cylinders. An initial design is analyzed reflecting the variance in the EGR distribution, quantitatively and visually. Iterative virtual lab tests result in an optimized system.
Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.
1994-01-01
The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows
Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.
2002-07-01
This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.
Simulation methods for advanced scientific computing
Booth, T.E.; Carlson, J.A.; Forster, R.A.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to create effective new algorithms for solving N-body problems by computer simulation. The authors concentrated on developing advanced classical and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. For simulations of phase transitions in classical systems, they produced a framework generalizing the famous Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithms for Ising and Potts models. For spin-glass-like problems, they demonstrated the effectiveness of an extension of the multicanonical method for the two-dimensional, random bond Ising model. For quantum mechanical systems, they generated a new method to compute the ground-state energy of systems of interacting electrons. They also improved methods to compute excited states when the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method is used and to compute longer time dynamics when the stationary phase quantum Monte Carlo method is used.
14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... simulator instructors and check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods... Simulation This appendix provides guidelines and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced... simulator, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or...
14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... simulator instructors and check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods... Simulation This appendix provides guidelines and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced... simulator, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or...
14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... simulator instructors and check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods... Simulation This appendix provides guidelines and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced... simulator, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or...
14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... simulator instructors and check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods... Simulation This appendix provides guidelines and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced... simulator, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or...
Flow simulation and analysis of high-power flow batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, E.; Albertus, P.; Cho, K. T.; Weber, A. Z.; Kojic, A.
2015-12-01
The cost of a flow battery system can be reduced by increasing its power density and thereby reducing its stack area. If per-pass utilizations are held constant, higher battery power densities can only be achieved using higher flow rates. Here, a 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a flow battery flow field and electrode is used to analyze the implications of increasing flow rates to high power density operating conditions. Interdigitated and serpentine designs, and cell sizes ranging from 10 cm2 to 400 cm2, are simulated. The results quantify the dependence of pressure loss on cell size and design, demonstrating that the details of the passages that distribute flow between individual channels and the inlet and outlet have a major impact on pressure losses in larger cells. Additionally, in-cell flow behavior is analyzed as a function of cell size and design. Flow structures are interrogated to show how and where electrode parameters influence pressure drops, and how regions where transport is slow are correlated with the presence of experimentally observed cell degradation.
Large Eddy Simulation of Supersonic Inlet Flows
1998-04-01
SIMULATION OF SUPERSONIC INLET FLOWS 6. AUTHOR(S) PROF. PARVIZ MOIN PROF. SANJIVA K. LELE 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) STANFORD... Parviz Moin and Sanjiva K. Lele Stanford University Mechanical Engineering, Flow Physics & Computation Division Stanford, CA 94305-3030 Prepared...monitor. I am thankful to Professor Sanjiva Lele and Profes- sor Parviz Moin, and Keith Lucas for useful discussions! I am grateful to Professor Peter
Simulator Of Rain In Flowing Air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clayton, Richard M.; Cho, Young I.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Back, Lloyd H.
1989-01-01
Report describes relatively inexpensive apparatus that creates simulated precipitation from drizzle to heavy rain in flowing air. Small, positive-displacement pump and water-injecting device positioned at low-airspeed end of converging section of wind tunnel 10 in. in diameter. Drops injected by array entrained in flow of air as it accelerates toward narrower outlet, 15 in. downstream. Outlet 5 in. in diameter.
Unsteady flow simulation on a parallel computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faden, M.; Pokorny, S.; Engel, K.
For the simulation of the flow through compressor stages, an interactive flow simulation system is set up on an MIMD-type parallel computer. An explicit scheme is used in order to resolve the time-dependent interaction between the blades. The 2D Navier-Stokes equations are transformed into their general moving coordinates. The parallelization of the solver is based on the idea of domain decomposition. Results are presented for a problem of fixed size (4096 grid nodes for the Hakkinen case).
Numerical simulation of real-world flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayase, Toshiyuki
2015-10-01
Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc.
Simulation of free-surface electrohydrodynamic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Kenneth L.; Kaiser, Mark J.; Weeks, Walter L.
1994-04-01
Theoretical and experimental analysis of free-surface electrohydrodynamic flow is fragmented and incomplete. Simulation studies of this phenomenon are further limited by the inherent complexities in the modeling process. In this note a mathematical model is developed to analyze free-surface electrohydrodynamic flow in two dimensions, and preliminary results of the simulation are described. The configurations examined include electrified conducting surfaces, the dielectrophoretic forces, and a conducting jet. The simulation is compared with analytical results in the first two investigations and is shown to be quite accurate. In the last simulation it is demonstrated that in the initial formation of a conducting jet, a 10% increase in applied voltage results in about a 10% increase in fluid velocity.
The numerical simulation of multistage turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, J. J.; Beach, T. A.; Celestina, M. L.; Mulac, R. A.; To, W. M.
1990-01-01
The need to account for momentum and energy transport by the unsteady deterministic flow field in modeling the time-averaged flow state within a blade row passage embedded in a multistage compressor is assessed. It was found that, within the endwall regions, large-scale three-dimensional unsteady structures existed which caused significant transport of momentum and energy across the time-averaged stream surface of a stator flow field. These experiments confirmed that the tranport process is dominated by turbulent diffusion in the midspan region. A model was then proposed for simulating this transport process, and a limited study was undertaken to assess its validity.
Biofluid Flow Simulations of Embryo Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, W. P.; Ding, D. L.
2011-09-01
The investigation of the fluid flow for embryo transfer (ET) procedure may find the way to increase the success rate of the assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, the transferred liquid flow in the uterine cavity during ET procedure is simulated by a two dimensional multiphase flow model, and the discrete phase model is adopted to trace the embryo motion. Through the investigation on the transferred liquid outline and the track of each embryo in ET cases with different parameters, we summarize the effect of transferred liquid viscosity and distance between catheter tip and uterine fundus. According to the numerical results, we recommend the optimizing standard to perform the ET procedure.
Simulations of Flowing Supercritical N-Decane
2000-03-01
Thermal Diagnostic Studies ( STDS ), located in the Air Force Research Laboratory’S Fuels Branch, is used to analyze fuels under supercritical temperatures...and pressures. Computational simulations of the STDS reactor are performed to better understand the heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and chemistry...associated with fuel flow through the STDS reactor. A simplified global chemistry model is incorporated into the computational simulation. Predictions of
Flow visualization in a simulated brush seal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V.; Hendricks, R. C.
1990-01-01
A method to visualize and characterize the complex flow fields in simulated brush seals is presented. The brush seal configuration was tested in a water and then in an oil tunnel. The visualization procedure revealed typical regions that are rivering, jetting, vortical or lateral flows and exist upstream, downstream or within the seal. Such flows are engendered by variations in fiber void that are spatial and temporal and affect changes in seal leakage and stability. While the effects of interface motion for linear or cylindrical configurations have not been considered herein, it is believed that the observed flow fields characterize flow phenomenology in both circular and linear brush seals. The axial pressure profiles upstream, across and downstream of the brush in the oil tunnel have been measured under a variety of inlet pressure conditions and the ensuing pressure maps are presented and discussed.
Vortex simulation of reacting shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
Issues involved in the vortex simulation of reacting shear flow are discussed. It is shown that maintaining accuracy in the vortex methods requires the application of elaborate vorticity-updating schemes as vortex elements are moved along particle trajectories when shear or a strong strain field is represented. Solutions using 2D and 3D methods are discussed to illustrate some of the most common instabilities encountered in nonreacting and reacting shear flows and to reveal the mechanisms by which the maturation of these instabilities enhance mixing and hence burning in a reacting flow. The transport element method is developed and its application to compute scalar mixing in a shear layer is reviewed. The method is then combined with the vortex method to solve the problem of nonuniform-density shear flow. The results of incompressible reacting flow models are used to examine reaction extinction due to the formation of localized regions of strong strains as instabilities grow into their nonlinear range.
Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990
Kim, J.M. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. ); Hashemi, A. )
1990-01-01
Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.
Software Framework for Advanced Power Plant Simulations
John Widmann; Sorin Munteanu; Aseem Jain; Pankaj Gupta; Mark Moales; Erik Ferguson; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Yi-dong Lang; Larry Biegler; Michael Locke; Simon Lingard; Jay Yun
2010-08-01
This report summarizes the work accomplished during the Phase II development effort of the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The objective of the project is to develop the tools to efficiently combine high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with process modeling software. During the course of the project, a robust integration controller was developed that can be used in any CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling environment. The controller mediates the exchange of information between the process modeling software and the CFD software. Several approaches to reducing the time disparity between CFD simulations and process modeling have been investigated and implemented. These include enabling the CFD models to be run on a remote cluster and enabling multiple CFD models to be run simultaneously. Furthermore, computationally fast reduced-order models (ROMs) have been developed that can be 'trained' using the results from CFD simulations and then used directly within flowsheets. Unit operation models (both CFD and ROMs) can be uploaded to a model database and shared between multiple users.
Direct simulation of compressible reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, Thierry J.
1989-01-01
A research program for direct numerical simulations of compressible reacting flows is described. Two main research subjects are proposed: the effect of pressure waves on turbulent combustion and the use of direct simulation methods to validate flamelet models for turbulent combustion. The interest of a compressible code to study turbulent combustion is emphasized through examples of reacting shear layer and combustion instabilities studies. The choice of experimental data to compare with direct simulation results is discussed. A tentative program is given and the computation cases to use are described as well as the code validation runs.
Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells
Durlofsky, Louis J.
2000-08-28
This project targets the development of (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling non-conventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and well index (for use in simulation models), including the effects of wellbore flow; and (3) accurate approaches to account for heterogeneity in the near-well region.
Advanced wellbore thermal simulator GEOTEMP2 research report
Mitchell, R.F.
1982-02-01
The development of the GEOTEMP2 wellbore thermal simulator is described. The major technical features include a general purpose air and mist drilling simulator and a two-phase steam flow simulator that can model either injection or production.
Simulation forecasts complex flow streams from Ekofisk
Arnes, F.C.; Lillejord, H.
1996-10-28
A commercial steady-state process flowsheet simulation program serves as the basis for a rigorous calculation model for predicting produced flow rates from the Ekofisk complex in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The complex is the center of an extensive gathering system that collects oil and gas streams from several producing fields. Prior to running a production forecast, the simulation model is initiated by matching several years of production. Once the simulation model matches historical production data within acceptable limits, it then is driven by production forecasts from reservoir simulations to develop long-term forecasts of gas, NGL, and oil production. The paper describes the Ekofisk field, the process simulation, implementation of the model, and problems encountered.
Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1981-01-01
Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.
Recent advances in superconducting-mixer simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Withington, S.; Kennedy, P. R.
1992-01-01
Over the last few years, considerable progress have been made in the development of techniques for fabricating high-quality superconducting circuits, and this success, together with major advances in the theoretical understanding of quantum detection and mixing at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, has made the development of CAD techniques for superconducting nonlinear circuits an important new enterprise. For example, arrays of quasioptical mixers are now being manufactured, where the antennas, matching networks, filters and superconducting tunnel junctions are all fabricated by depositing niobium and a variety of oxides on a single quartz substrate. There are no adjustable tuning elements on these integrated circuits, and therefore, one must be able to predict their electrical behavior precisely. This requirement, together with a general interest in the generic behavior of devices such as direct detectors and harmonic mixers, has lead us to develop a range of CAD tools for simulating the large-signal, small-signal, and noise behavior of superconducting tunnel junction circuits.
Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows
King, Michael R.; McCready, Mark J.
2000-01-01
The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Numerical Simulation of Complex Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernobrovkin, A. A.; Lakshiminarayana, B.
1999-01-01
An unsteady, multiblock, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes solver based on Runge-Kutta scheme and Pseudo-time step for turbo-machinery applications was developed. The code was validated and assessed against analytical and experimental data. It was used to study a variety of physical mechanisms of unsteady, three-dimensional, turbulent, transitional, and cooling flows in compressors and turbines. Flow over a cylinder has been used to study effects of numerical aspects on accuracy of prediction of wake decay and transition, and to modify K-epsilon models. The following simulations have been performed: (a) Unsteady flow in a compressor cascade: Three low Reynolds number turbulence models have been assessed and data compared with Euler/boundary layer predictions. Major flow features associated with wake induced transition were predicted and studied; (b) Nozzle wake-rotor interaction in a turbine: Results compared to LDV data in design and off-design conditions, and cause and effect of unsteady flow in turbine rotors were analyzed; (c) Flow in the low-pressure turbine: Assessed capability of the code to predict transitional, attached and separated flows at a wide range of low Reynolds numbers and inlet freestream turbulence intensity. Several turbulence and transition models have been employed and comparisons made to experiments; (d) leading edge film cooling at compound angle: Comparisons were made with experiments, and the flow physics of the associated vortical structures were studied; and (e) Tip leakage flow in a turbine. The physics of the secondary flow in a rotor was studied and sources of loss identified.
Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.
2016-11-01
Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.
Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.
Flow chemistry meets advanced functional materials.
Myers, Rebecca M; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Turner, Richard M; Ley, Steven V
2014-09-22
Flow chemistry and continuous processing techniques are beginning to have a profound impact on the production of functional materials ranging from quantum dots, nanoparticles and metal organic frameworks to polymers and dyes. These techniques provide robust procedures which not only enable accurate control of the product material's properties but they are also ideally suited to conducting experiments on scale. The modular nature of flow and continuous processing equipment rapidly facilitates reaction optimisation and variation in function of the products.
Time Dependent Simulation of Turbopump Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Williams, Robert
2001-01-01
The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to enhance incompressible flow simulation capability for developing aerospace vehicle components, especially unsteady flow phenomena associated with high speed turbo pumps. Unsteady Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)-rig1 1 1/2 rotations are completed for the 34.3 million grid points model. The moving boundary capability is obtained by using the DCF module. MLP shared memory parallelism has been implemented and benchmarked in INS3D. The scripting capability from CAD geometry to solution is developed. Data compression is applied to reduce data size in post processing and fluid/structure coupling is initiated.
Advancements in Afterbody Radiative Heating Simulations for Earth Entry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Christopher O.; Panesi, Marco; Brandis, Aaron M.
2016-01-01
Four advancements to the simulation of backshell radiative heating for Earth entry are presented. The first of these is the development of a flow field model that treats electronic levels of the dominant backshell radiator, N, as individual species. This is shown to allow improvements in the modeling of electron-ion recombination and two-temperature modeling, which are shown to increase backshell radiative heating by 10 to 40%. By computing the electronic state populations of N within the flow field solver, instead of through the quasi-steady state approximation in the radiation code, the coupling of radiative transition rates to the species continuity equations for the levels of N, including the impact of non-local absorption, becomes feasible. Implementation of this additional level of coupling between the flow field and radiation codes represents the second advancement presented in this work, which is shown to increase the backshell radiation by another 10 to 50%. The impact of radiative transition rates due to non-local absorption indicates the importance of accurate radiation transport in the relatively complex flow geometry of the backshell. This motivates the third advancement, which is the development of a ray-tracing radiation transport approach to compute the radiative transition rates and divergence of the radiative flux at every point for coupling to the flow field, therefore allowing the accuracy of the commonly applied tangent-slab approximation to be assessed for radiative source terms. For the sphere considered at lunar-return conditions, the tangent-slab approximation is shown to provide a sufficient level of accuracy for the radiative source terms, even for backshell cases. This is in contrast to the agreement between the two approaches for computing the radiative flux to the surface, which differ by up to 40%. The final advancement presented is the development of a nonequilibrium model for NO radiation, which provides significant backshell
Interoperable Technologies for Advanced Petascale Simulations
Li, Xiaolin
2013-01-14
Our final report on the accomplishments of ITAPS at Stony Brook during period covered by the research award includes component service, interface service and applications. On the component service, we have designed and implemented a robust functionality for the Lagrangian tracking of dynamic interface. We have migrated the hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic solver from stage-wise second order toward global second order schemes. We have implemented high order coupling between interface propagation and interior PDE solvers. On the interface service, we have constructed the FronTier application programer's interface (API) and its manual page using doxygen. We installed the FronTier functional interface to conform with the ITAPS specifications, especially the iMesh and iMeshP interfaces. On applications, we have implemented deposition and dissolution models with flow and implemented the two-reactant model for a more realistic precipitation at the pore level and its coupling with Darcy level model. We have continued our support to the study of fluid mixing problem for problems in inertial comfinement fusion. We have continued our support to the MHD model and its application to plasma liner implosion in fusion confinement. We have simulated a step in the reprocessing and separation of spent fuels from nuclear power plant fuel rods. We have implemented the fluid-structure interaction for 3D windmill and parachute simulations. We have continued our collaboration with PNNL, BNL, LANL, ORNL, and other SciDAC institutions.
Molecular Simulation Of Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartzentruber, T. E.; Valentini, P.; Tump, P.
2011-05-01
Large-scale conventional time-driven molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of normal shock waves are performed for monatomic argon and argon-helium mixtures. For pure argon, near perfect agreement between MD and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) results using the variable-hard-sphere model are found for density and temperature profiles as well as for velocity distribution functions throughout the shock. MD simulation results for argon are also in excellent agreement with experimental shock thickness data. Preliminary MD simulation results for argon-helium mixtures are in qualitative agreement with experimental density and temperature profile data, where separation between argon and helium density profiles due to disparate atomic mass is observed. Since conventional time-driven MD simulation of dilute gases is computationally inefficient, a combined Event-Driven/Time-Driven MD algorithm is presented. The ED/TD-MD algorithm computes impending collisions and advances molecules directly to their next collision while evaluating the collision using conventional time-driven MD with an arbitrary interatomic potential. The method timestep thus approaches the mean-collision- time in the gas, while also detecting and simulating multi-body collisions with a small approximation. Extension of the method to diatomic and small polyatomic molecules is detailed, where center-of-mass velocities and extended cutoff radii are used to advance molecules to impend- ing collisions. Only atomic positions are integrated during collisions and molecule sorting algorithms are em- ployed to determine if atoms are bound in a molecule after a collision event. Rotational relaxation to equilibrium for a low density diatomic gas is validated by comparison with large-scale conventional time-driven MD simulation, where the final rotational distribution function is verified to be the correct Boltzmann rotational energy distribution.
Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1991-01-01
The transition process characteristics of flows over swept wings were computationally modelled. The crossflow instability and crossflow/T-S wave interaction are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. The leading-edge region of a swept wing is considered in a three-dimensional spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.
Advanced Modeling, Simulation and Analysis (AMSA) Capability Roadmap Progress Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antonsson, Erik; Gombosi, Tamas
2005-01-01
Contents include the following: NASA capability roadmap activity. Advanced modeling, simulation, and analysis overview. Scientific modeling and simulation. Operations modeling. Multi-special sensing (UV-gamma). System integration. M and S Environments and Infrastructure.
Thermal and Fluid Flow Brazing Simulations
HOSKING, FLOYD MICHAEL; GIANOULAKIS,STEVEN E.; GIVLER,RICHARD C.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL
1999-12-15
The thermal response of fixtured parts in a batch-type brazing furnace can require numerous, time-consuming development runs before an acceptable furnace schedule or joint design is established. Powerful computational simulation tools are being developed to minimize the required number of verification experiments, improve furnace throughput, and increase product yields. Typical furnace simulations are based on thermal, fluid flow, and structural codes that incorporate the fundamental physics of the brazing process. The use of massively parallel computing to predict furnace and joint-level responses is presented. Measured and computed data are compared. Temperature values are within 1-270 of the expected peak brazing temperature for different loading conditions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the thermal response is more sensitive to the thermal boundary conditions of the heating enclosure than variability y in the materials data. Braze flow simulations predict fillet geometry and free surface joint defects. Dynamic wetting conditions, interfacial reactions, and solidification structure add a high degree of uncertainty to the flow results.
Simulation of a flow around biting teeth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio
2008-11-01
We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.
DSMC simulation of ionized rarefied flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartel, Timothy J.; Justiz, Charles R.
1993-01-01
Recently a renewed interest has been exhibited in understanding contamination and space environmental effect in the LEO range of 200 to 600 km as well as in low density microelectronics manufacturing technologies. Realistic simulations must model the physics of the highly coupled effects of neutral and charged particle flows, thermodynamic nonequilibrium, surface charging, and electromagnetic field effects. The computational requirements are enormous for this level of modeling and are almost impossible on current single processor supercomputers. An effort was initiated to develop this capability on a massively parallel MIMD supercomputers. The Wake Shield Facility experiment will be used for test case calculations. Preliminary results indicate that parallel supercomputers may be the only computers capable of simulating the required level of physics and spatial resolution. Calculations which contain from 1 to 8 million simulation particles are presented.
Large Interface Simulation in Multiphase Flow Phenomena
Henriques, Aparicio; Coste, Pierre; Pigny, Sylvain; Magnaudet, Jacques
2006-07-01
An attempt to represent multiphase multi-scale flow, filling the gap between Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and averaged approaches, is the purpose of this paper. We present a kind of Large Interface (LI) simulation formalism obtained after a filtering process on local instantaneous conservation equations of the two-fluid model which distinguishes between small scales and large scales contributions. LI surface tension force is also taken into account. Small scale dynamics call for modelization and large scale for simulation. Joined to this formalism, a criterion to recognize LI's is developed. It is used in an interface recognition algorithm which is qualified on a sloshing case and a bubble oscillation under zero-gravity. This method is applied to a rising bubble in a pool that collapses at a free surface and to a square-base basin experiment where splashing and sloshing at the free surface are the main break-up phenomena. (authors)
Flume simulation of sedimentation in recirculating flow
Schmidt, J.C. ); Rubin, D.M. ); Ikeda, H. )
1990-05-01
A 4-m-wide flume at the University of Tsukuba Environmental Research Center was used to simulate flow conditions near debris fans in bedrock gorges. Flow was constricted to 2 m by a semicircular obstruction. During the authors experiments (discharge = 600 L/sec; Froude number of constricted flow = 1) a zone of recirculating current extended 25-30 m downstream from the separation point at the constriction. The pattern and velocity of surface flow was determined using time-lapse photography; subsurface velocity was measured with a two-dimensional electromagnetic current meter. During 32-hr of run time, a fine, very coarse sand mixture was fed into the flow at a rate between 0.5-1 kg/sec. Oscillation ripples developed beneath the separation surface that bounds the recirculation zone, and upstream-migrating dunes and ripples developed within the recirculation zone upstream from the reattachment point. A mid-channel expansion bar was deposited downstream from the reattachment point. Sedimentation within the recirculation zone continued by vertical aggradation and by upstream migration of dunes and ripples. Sediments within the recirculation zone were areally sorted with the finest sediment deposited near the separation point. These patterns are consistent with field observations of bars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.
Adaptive LES Methodology for Turbulent Flow Simulations
Oleg V. Vasilyev
2008-06-12
Although turbulent flows are common in the world around us, a solution to the fundamental equations that govern turbulence still eludes the scientific community. Turbulence has often been called one of the last unsolved problem in classical physics, yet it is clear that the need to accurately predict the effect of turbulent flows impacts virtually every field of science and engineering. As an example, a critical step in making modern computational tools useful in designing aircraft is to be able to accurately predict the lift, drag, and other aerodynamic characteristics in numerical simulations in a reasonable amount of time. Simulations that take months to years to complete are much less useful to the design cycle. Much work has been done toward this goal (Lee-Rausch et al. 2003, Jameson 2003) and as cost effective accurate tools for simulating turbulent flows evolve, we will all benefit from new scientific and engineering breakthroughs. The problem of simulating high Reynolds number (Re) turbulent flows of engineering and scientific interest would have been solved with the advent of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) techniques if unlimited computing power, memory, and time could be applied to each particular problem. Yet, given the current and near future computational resources that exist and a reasonable limit on the amount of time an engineer or scientist can wait for a result, the DNS technique will not be useful for more than 'unit' problems for the foreseeable future (Moin & Kim 1997, Jimenez & Moin 1991). The high computational cost for the DNS of three dimensional turbulent flows results from the fact that they have eddies of significant energy in a range of scales from the characteristic length scale of the flow all the way down to the Kolmogorov length scale. The actual cost of doing a three dimensional DNS scales as Re{sup 9/4} due to the large disparity in scales that need to be fully resolved. State-of-the-art DNS calculations of isotropic turbulence
Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM): Early Site Demonstration
Meza, Juan; Hubbard, Susan; Freshley, Mark D.; Gorton, Ian; Moulton, David; Denham, Miles E.
2011-03-07
The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, Technology Innovation and Development (EM-32), is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high performance computing tool will facilitate integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. As part of the initial development process, a series of demonstrations were defined to test ASCEM components and provide feedback to developers, engage end users in applications, and lead to an outcome that would benefit the sites. The demonstration was implemented for a sub-region of the Savannah River Site General Separations Area that includes the F-Area Seepage Basins. The physical domain included the unsaturated and saturated zones in the vicinity of the seepage basins and Fourmile Branch, using an unstructured mesh fit to the hydrostratigraphy and topography of the site. The calculations modeled variably saturated flow and the resulting flow field was used in simulations of the advection of non-reactive species and the reactive-transport of uranium. As part of the demonstrations, a new set of data management, visualization, and uncertainty quantification tools were developed to analyze simulation results and existing site data. These new tools can be used to provide summary statistics, including information on which simulation parameters were most important in the prediction of uncertainty and to visualize the relationships between model input and output.
Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitz, Greg A.; Stalnaker, Donald M.; Guild, Eric M.; Oliker, Benjamin Q.; Moran, Paul J.; Townsend, Steven W.; Hostutler, David A.
2016-03-01
Multiple variants of the Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) have recently been demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Highlights of this ongoing research effort include: a) a 571W rubidium (Rb) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) with a gain (2α) of 0.48 cm-1, b) a rubidium-cesium (Cs) Multi-Alkali Multi-Line (MAML) laser that simultaneously lases at both 795 nm and 895 nm, and c) a 1.5 kW resonantly pumped potassium (K) DPAL with a slope efficiency of 50%. The common factor among these experiments is the use of a flowing alkali test bed.
STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph
2016-04-01
The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of
KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Brunner, T.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.
2013-10-01
The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes since the flow is analytically analogous to diffusive free molecular flow in a similar geometry. Experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser utilizing a low-density heated-cylindrical-wall target. The targets consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder inside an 80 μm thick Ta2O5 aerogel tube. The FY13 targets also feature ``light-pipe'' diagnostics to measure the progression of the radiation front inside the foam. Simulations were run with the KULL multi-physics code, employing a new laser ray-tracing package. Comparisons of synthetic diagnostics derived from code results to x-ray measurements of drive temperature and heat front propagation provide a methodology to constrain simulation models. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Direct numerical simulation of incompressible axisymmetric flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loulou, Patrick
1994-01-01
In the present work, we propose to conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible turbulent axisymmetric jets and wakes. The objectives of the study are to understand the fundamental behavior of axisymmetric jets and wakes, which are perhaps the most technologically relevant free shear flows (e.g. combuster injectors, propulsion jet). Among the data to be generated are various statistical quantities of importance in turbulence modeling, like the mean velocity, turbulent stresses, and all the terms in the Reynolds-stress balance equations. In addition, we will be interested in the evolution of large-scale structures that are common in free shear flow. The axisymmetric jet or wake is also a good problem in which to try the newly developed b-spline numerical method. Using b-splines as interpolating functions in the non-periodic direction offers many advantages. B-splines have local support, which leads to sparse matrices that can be efficiently stored and solved. Also, they offer spectral-like accuracy that are C(exp O-1) continuous, where O is the order of the spline used; this means that derivatives of the velocity such as the vorticity are smoothly and accurately represented. For purposes of validation against existing results, the present code will also be able to simulate internal flows (ones that require a no-slip boundary condition). Implementation of no-slip boundary condition is trivial in the context of the b-splines.
Towards quantum simulations of biological information flow.
Dorner, Ross; Goold, John; Vedral, Vlatko
2012-08-06
Recent advances in the spectroscopy of biomolecules have highlighted the possibility of quantum coherence playing an active role in biological energy transport. The revelation that quantum coherence can survive in the hot and wet environment of biology has generated a lively debate across both the physics and biology communities. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent non-trivial quantum effects are used in biology and what advantage, if any, they afford. We propose an analogue quantum simulator, based on currently available techniques in ultra-cold atom physics, to study a model of energy and electron transport based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. By simulating the salient aspects of a biological system in a tunable laboratory set-up, we hope to gain insight into the validity of several theoretical models of biological quantum transport in a variety of relevant parameter regimes.
Simulations of flow interactions near Los Alamos
Costigan, K. R.; Winterkamp, Judy; Bossert, J. E.; Langley, D. L.
2002-01-01
The Pajarito Plateau is located on the eastern flank of the Jemez Mountains and the west side of the Rio Grande Valley, in north-central New Mexico, where the river runs roughly north to south. On the Pajarito Plateau, a network of surface meteorological stations has been routinely maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This network includes five instrumented towers, within an approximately 10 km by 15 km area. The towers stand from 23 m to 92 m tall, with multiple wind measurement heights. Investigation of the station records indicates that the wind fields can be quite complicated and may be the result of interactions of thermally and/or dynamically driven flows of many scales. Slope flows are often found on the plateau during the morning and evening transition times, but it is not unusual to find wind directions that are inconsistent with slope flows at some or all of the stations. It has been speculated that valley circulations, as well as synoptically driven winds, interact with the slope flows, but the mesonet measurements alone, with no measurements in the remainder of the valley, were not sufficient to investigate this hypothesis. Thus, during October of 1995, supplemental meteorological instrumentation was placed in the Rio Grande basin to study the complex interaction of flows in the area. A sodar was added near the 92 m tower and a radar wind profiler was placed in the Rio Grande Valley, just east of the plateau and near the river. Measurements were also added at the top of Pajarito Mountain, just west of the plateau, and across the valley, to the east, on top of Tesuque Peak (in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains). Two surface stations were also added to the north-facing slopes of Pajarito Mountain. This paper will present observations from October 1995 and results of simulations of this area that are used in the study of the complex interaction of dynamically and thermally driven flows on multiple scales.
Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.
KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Amala, P.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.
2012-10-01
The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes, which utilize several mechanisms for determining radiation transport (diffusion, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo). This flow is analogous to free molecular flow in a similar geometry.footnotetextE. Garelis and T.E. Wainwright. Phys. Fluids. 16, 4 (1973) A series of experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser in cases with a low-density heated cylindrical wall. The experiments consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder contained in an 80 μm thick carbon foam tube. Five shots panning three test cases were used: the nominal geometry described above (heated wall), the carbon tube replaced with solid gold, and a gold cap placed on the laser end of the cylinder assembly to block axial radiation flow. Simulations of each experimental target type were run with the KULL radiation code, and were used to compare the different radiation transport packages in KULL by employing synthetic diagnostics to match the experimental DANTE cavity radiation temperature time history and soft x-ray images taken by a streak camera imaging the far end of the hohlraum.
Outcomes from the DOE Workshop on Turbulent Flow Simulation at the Exascale
Sprague, Michael; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Chang, Choong-Seock; Fischer, Paul F.; Grout, Ray; Gustafson, William I.; Hittinger, Jeffrey A.; Merzari, Elia; Moser, Robert
2016-06-17
This paper summarizes the outcomes from the Turbulent Flow Simulation at the Exascale: Opportunities and Challenges Workshop, which was held 4-5 August 2015, and was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research. The workshop objective was to define and describe the challenges and opportunities that computing at the exascale will bring to turbulent-flow simulations in applied science and technology. The need for accurate simulation of turbulent flows is evident across the U.S. Department of Energy applied-science and engineering portfolios, including combustion, plasma physics, nuclear-reactor physics, wind energy, and atmospheric science. The workshop brought together experts in turbulent-flow simulation, computational mathematics, and high-performance computing. Building upon previous ASCR workshops on exascale computing, participants defined a research agenda and path forward that will enable scientists and engineers to continually leverage, engage, and direct advances in computational systems on the path to exascale computing.
Numerical simulation of transonic flows in diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, M.-S.; Coakley, T. J.; Bergmann, M. Y.
1981-01-01
Numerical simulations were made of two-dimensional transonic flows in diffusers, including flow separation induced by a shock or adverse pressure gradient. The mass-averaged, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, simplified by the thin-layer approximation, were solved using MacCormack's hybrid method. The eddy-viscosity formulation was described by the Wilcox-Rubesin's two-equation, k-omega model. Detailed comparison of the computed results with measurements showed good agreement in all cases, including one with massive separation induced by a strong shock. The computation correctly predicted the details of a distinct lambda shock pattern, closely duplicating the configuration observed experimentally in spark-schlieren photographs.
Towards nonhydrostatic simulation of moist global flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurowski, Marcin J.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.
2015-04-01
High-resolution simulation of moist global flows for numerical weather prediction and climate research requires convection-permitting nonhydrostatic flow solvers valid across the entire range of spatial scales, from small-scale dynamics to planetary-scale flows. Fluid flow solvers based on compressible dynamics meet such a requirement, but they need special treatments of acoustic modes to make them computationally efficient. Soundproof (e.g., anelastic) solvers filter out acoustic modes, but their application to the large-scale dynamics has been questioned in the past. In addition, mesoscale and large-scale hydrostatic pressure perturbations are typically excluded from moist thermodynamics in standard anelastic models. This presentation will review these issues and report application of the explicit/implicit compressible and anelastic versions of the finite-difference non-oscillatory forward-in-time EULAG model to the idealized baroclinic instability problem and to the Held-Suarez climate benchmark. All model versions share a common numerical framework and allow confident assessment of the impacts of governing equations mathematical formulations on model solutions. The implicit compressible version allows time steps as large as the anelastic version, typically two orders of magnitude larger than required by the explicit compressible version. We will show an excellent agreement between solutions obtained with the explicit and implicit compressible versions. Systematic differences between compressible and anelastic solutions are present in the baroclinic test case. In contrast, the climate benchmark shows that the compressible and anelastic model versions simulate similar zonally averaged fields, and that the meridional transports of entropy, momentum and moisture agree well between the two model versions.
Time-Dependent Simulations of Turbopump Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Williams, Robert
2002-01-01
Unsteady flow simulations for RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) 2nd Generation baseline turbopump for one and half impeller rotations have been completed by using a 34.3 Million grid points model. MLP (Multi-Level Parallelism) shared memory parallelism has been implemented in INS3D, and benchmarked. Code optimization for cash based platforms will be completed by the end of September 2001. Moving boundary capability is obtained by using DCF module. Scripting capability from CAD (computer aided design) geometry to solution has been developed. Data compression is applied to reduce data size in post processing. Fluid/Structure coupling has been initiated.
Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.
1979-01-01
The conceptual foundation underlying Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is summarized, and the numerical methods developed for simulation of the time-developing turbulent mixing layer and turbulent plane Poiseuille flow are discussed. Computational results show that the average Reynolds stress profile nearly attains the equilibrium shape which balances the downstream mean pressure gradient in the regions away from the walls. In the vicinity of the walls, viscous stresses are shown to be significant; together with the Reynolds stresses, these stresses balance the mean pressure gradient. It is stressed that the subgrid scale contribution to the total Reynolds stress is significant only in the vicinity of the walls. The continued development of LES is urged.
Advanced surface paneling method for subsonic and supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, L. L.; Johnson, F. T.; Ehlers, F. E.
1976-01-01
Numerical results illustrating the capabilities of an advanced aerodynamic surface paneling method are presented. The method is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow, as represented by linearized potential flow theory. The method is based on linearly varying sources and quadratically varying doublets which are distributed over flat or curved panels. These panels are applied to the true surface geometry of arbitrarily shaped three dimensional aerodynamic configurations.
Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M; Rajaraman, Prathish K; Heys, Jeffrey J; Belohlavek, Marek
2013-01-01
The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics.
Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Heys, Jeffrey J.
2013-01-01
The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics. PMID:23690874
Wavelet based Simulation of Reservoir Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddiqi, A. H.; Verma, A. K.; Noor-E-Zahra, Noor-E.-Zahra; Chandiok, Ashish; Hasan, A.
2009-07-01
Petroleum reservoirs consist of hydrocarbons and other chemicals trapped in the pores of a rock. The exploration and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs is still the most important technology to develop natural energy resources. Therefore, fluid flow simulators play a key role in order to help oil companies. In fact, simulation is the most important tool to model changes in a reservoir over the time. The main problem in petroleum reservoir simulation is to model the displacement of one fluid by another within a porous medium. A typical problem is characterized by the injection of a wetting fluid, for example water into the reservoir at a particular location displacing to the non wetting fluid, for example oil, which is extracted or produced at another location. Buckley-Leverett equation [1] models this process and its numerical simulation and visualization is of paramount importance. There are several numerical methods applied for numerical solution of partial differential equations modeling real world problems. We review in this paper the numerical solution of Buckley-Leverett equation for flat and non flat structures with special focus on wavelet method. We also indicate a few new avenues for further research.
A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System
Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai
2008-06-18
In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering
Emulation of an Advanced G-Seat on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training.
1978-04-01
ASPT ) which culminated in the emulation of an advanced approach to G-seat simulation. The development of the software, the design of the advanced seat...components, the implementation of the advanced design on the ASPT , and the results of the study are presented. (Author)
Molecular simulation of small Knudsen number flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Fei; Fan, Jing
2012-11-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is a powerful particle-based method for modeling gas flows. It works well for relatively large Knudsen (Kn) numbers, typically larger than 0.01, but quickly becomes computationally intensive as Kn decreases due to its time step and cell size limitations. An alternative approach was proposed to relax or remove these limitations, based on replacing pairwise collisions with a stochastic model corresponding to the Fokker-Planck equation [J. Comput. Phys., 229, 1077 (2010); J. Fluid Mech., 680, 574 (2011)]. Similar to the DSMC method, the downside of that approach suffers from computationally statistical noise. To solve the problem, a diffusion-based information preservation (D-IP) method has been developed. The main idea is to track the motion of a simulated molecule from the diffusive standpoint, and obtain the flow velocity and temperature through sampling and averaging the IP quantities. To validate the idea and the corresponding model, several benchmark problems with Kn ˜ 10-3-10-4 have been investigated. It is shown that the IP calculations are not only accurate, but also efficient because they make possible using a time step and cell size over an order of magnitude larger than the mean collision time and mean free path, respectively.
Application of advanced diagnostics to airblast injector flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcvey, John B.; Kennedy, Jan B.; Russell, Sid
1987-01-01
This effort is concerned with the application of both conventional laser velocimetry and phase Doppler anemometry to the flow produced by an airblast nozzle. The emphasis is placed on the acquisition of data using actual engine injector/swirler components at (noncombusting) conditions simulating those encountered in the engine. The objective of the effort was to test the applicability of the instrumentation to real injector flows, to develop information on the behavior of injectors at high flow, and to provide data useful in the development of physical models of injector flows.
WinSRFR: Current Advances in Software for Surface Irrigation Simulation and Analysis
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Significant advances have been made over the last decade in the development of software for surface irrigation analysis. WinSRFR is an integrated tool that combines unsteady flow simulation with tools for system evaluation/parameter estimation, system design, and for operational optimization. Ongoi...
Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations of pipe elbow flow.
Homicz, Gregory Francis
2004-08-01
One problem facing today's nuclear power industry is flow-accelerated corrosion and erosion in pipe elbows. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is performing experiments in their Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) test loop to better characterize these phenomena, and develop advanced sensor technologies for the condition monitoring of critical elbows on a continuous basis. In parallel with these experiments, Sandia National Laboratories is performing Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the flow in one elbow of the FAC test loop. The simulations are being performed using the FLUENT commercial software developed and marketed by Fluent, Inc. The model geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software, also from Fluent, Inc. This report documents the results of the simulations that have been made to date; baseline results employing the RNG k-e turbulence model are presented. The predicted value for the diametrical pressure coefficient is in reasonably good agreement with published correlations. Plots of the velocities, pressure field, wall shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy adjacent to the wall are shown within the elbow section. Somewhat to our surprise, these indicate that the maximum values of both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy occur near the elbow entrance, on the inner radius of the bend. Additional simulations were performed for the same conditions, but with the RNG k-e model replaced by either the standard k-{var_epsilon}, or the realizable k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The predictions using the standard k-{var_epsilon} model are quite similar to those obtained in the baseline simulation. However, with the realizable k-{var_epsilon} model, more significant differences are evident. The maximums in both wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy now appear on the outer radius, near the elbow exit, and are {approx}11% and 14% greater, respectively, than those predicted in the baseline calculation
Flow field simulation for a corncob incinerator
Wu, C.H.
1999-02-01
This article utilizes the standard k-{epsilon} turbulent model to simulate a corncob incinerator using the PISO algorithm with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow patterns of the incinerator equipped with secondary air inlets are predicted and compared for the various geometrical layouts. It is demonstrated that a wider recirculation zone can be found while the inclined angles of inlets increased, so a longer residence time and higher combustion efficiency will be expected. The longer distance between primary and secondary inlets will facilitate the formation of recirculation zone in this bigger space. The more the number of the secondary air inlets, the less the resident air in the top recirculation zone near the exit of the furnace. By using the CFD technique, the flow field of the incinerator can be understood more precisely, and it can serve as an excellent design tool. Furthermore, the computational program can be composed with FORTRAN and set up on a PC, and can easily be analyzed to get the flow field of the corncob incinerator.
Review Article: Recent advancements in optofluidic flow cytometer
Cho, Sung Hwan; Godin, Jessica M.; Chen, Chun-Hao; Qiao, Wen; Lee, Hosuk; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2010-01-01
There is an increasing need to develop optofluidic flow cytometers. Optofluidics, where optics and microfluidics work together to create novel functionalities on a small chip, holds great promise for lab-on-a-chip flow cytometry. The development of a low-cost, compact, handheld flow cytometer and microfluorescence-activated cell sorter system could have a significant impact on the field of point-of-care diagnostics, improving health care in, for example, underserved areas of Africa and Asia, that struggle with epidemics such as HIV∕AIDS. In this paper, we review recent advancements in microfluidics, on-chip optics, novel detection architectures, and integrated sorting mechanisms. PMID:21267434
Implementation of Advanced Two Equation Turbulence Models in the USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Qun-Zhen; Massey, Steven J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.
2000-01-01
USM3D is a widely-used unstructured flow solver for simulating inviscid and viscous flows over complex geometries. The current version (version 5.0) of USM3D, however, does not have advanced turbulence models to accurately simulate complicated flow. We have implemented two modified versions of the original Jones and Launder k-epsilon "two-equation" turbulence model and the Girimaji algebraic Reynolds stress model in USM3D. Tests have been conducted for three flat plate boundary layer cases, a RAE2822 airfoil and an ONERA M6 wing. The results are compared with those from direct numerical simulation, empirical formulae, theoretical results, and the existing Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model.
Multiscale Simulation Framework for Coupled Fluid Flow and Mechanical Deformation
Hou, Thomas; Efendiev, Yalchin; Tchelepi, Hamdi; Durlofsky, Louis
2016-05-24
Our work in this project is aimed at making fundamental advances in multiscale methods for flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media. The main thrust of this research is to develop a systematic multiscale analysis and efficient coarse-scale models that can capture global effects and extend existing multiscale approaches to problems with additional physics and uncertainties. A key emphasis is on problems without an apparent scale separation. Multiscale solution methods are currently under active investigation for the simulation of subsurface flow in heterogeneous formations. These procedures capture the effects of fine-scale permeability variations through the calculation of specialized coarse-scale basis functions. Most of the multiscale techniques presented to date employ localization approximations in the calculation of these basis functions. For some highly correlated (e.g., channelized) formations, however, global effects are important and these may need to be incorporated into the multiscale basis functions. Other challenging issues facing multiscale simulations are the extension of existing multiscale techniques to problems with additional physics, such as compressibility, capillary effects, etc. In our project, we explore the improvement of multiscale methods through the incorporation of additional (single-phase flow) information and the development of a general multiscale framework for flows in the presence of uncertainties, compressible flow and heterogeneous transport, and geomechanics. We have considered (1) adaptive local-global multiscale methods, (2) multiscale methods for the transport equation, (3) operator-based multiscale methods and solvers, (4) multiscale methods in the presence of uncertainties and applications, (5) multiscale finite element methods for high contrast porous media and their generalizations, and (6) multiscale methods for geomechanics.
Flow excursion time scales in the advanced neutron source reactor
Sulfredge, C.D.
1995-04-01
Flow excursion transients give rise to a key thermal limit for the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor because its core involves many parallel flow channels with a common pressure drop. Since one can envision certain accident scenarios in which the thermal limits set by flow excursion correlations might be exceeded for brief intervals, a key objective is to determine how long a flow excursion would take to bring about a system failure that could lead to fuel damage. The anticipated time scale for flow excursions has been examined by subdividing the process into its component phenomena: bubble nucleation and growth, deceleration of the resulting two-phase flow, and finally overcoming thermal inertia to heat up the reactor fuel plates. Models were developed to estimate the time required for each individual stage. Accident scenarios involving sudden reduction in core flow or core exit pressure have been examined, and the models compared with RELAP5 output for the ANS geometry. For a high-performance reactor like the ANS, flow excursion time scales were predicted to be in the millisecond range, so that even very brief transients might lead to fuel damage. These results should prove useful whenever one must determine the time involved in any portion of a flow excursion transient.
Continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popadić, A.; Praprotnik, M.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Walther, J. H.
2015-09-01
We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently by continuum flow solvers, allowing for investigations into spatiotemporal scales inaccessible to atomistic simulations.
Large eddy simulation of cavitating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanaskandan, Aswin; Mahesh, Krishnan
2014-11-01
Large eddy simulation on unstructured grids is used to study hydrodynamic cavitation. The multiphase medium is represented using a homogeneous equilibrium model that assumes thermal equilibrium between the liquid and the vapor phase. Surface tension effects are ignored and the governing equations are the compressible Navier Stokes equations for the liquid/vapor mixture along with a transport equation for the vapor mass fraction. A characteristic-based filtering scheme is developed to handle shocks and material discontinuities in non-ideal gases and mixtures. A TVD filter is applied as a corrector step in a predictor-corrector approach with the predictor scheme being non-dissipative and symmetric. The method is validated for canonical one dimensional flows and leading edge cavitation over a hydrofoil, and applied to study sheet to cloud cavitation over a wedge. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malin, Jane T.; Flores, Luis; Fleming, Land; Throop, Daiv
2002-01-01
A hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool, CONFIG, has been developed to support evaluation of the operability life support systems. CON FIG simulates operations scenarios in which flows and pressures change continuously while system reconfigurations occur as discrete events. In simulations, intelligent control software can interact dynamically with hardware system models. CONFIG simulations have been used to evaluate control software and intelligent agents for automating life support systems operations. A CON FIG model of an advanced biological water recovery system has been developed to interact with intelligent control software that is being used in a water system test at NASA Johnson Space Center
Simulations of a Liquid Hydrogen Inducer at Low-Flow Off-Design Flow Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hosangadi, A.; Ahuja, V.; Ungewitter, R. J.
2005-01-01
The ability to accurately model details of inlet back flow for inducers operating a t low-flow, off-design conditions is evaluated. A sub-scale version of a three-bladed liquid hydrogen inducer tested in water with detailed velocity and pressure measurements is used as a numerical test bed. Under low-flow, off-design conditions the length of the separation zone as well as the swirl velocity magnitude was under predicted with a standard k-E model. When the turbulent viscosity coefficient was reduced good comparison was obtained a t all the flow conditions examined with both the magnitude and shape of the profile matching well with the experimental data taken half a diameter upstream of the leading edge. The velocity profiles and incidence angles a t the leading edge itself were less sensitive to the back flow length predictions indicating that single-phase performance predictions may be well predicted even if the details of flow separation modeled are incorrect. However, for cavitating flow situations the prediction of the correct swirl in the back flow and the pressure depression in the core becomes critical since it leads to vapor formation. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD(Registered Trademark) code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework and a n advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids. The framework has been validated rigorously for predictions of temperature and pressure depression in cryogenic fluid cavities and has also been shown to predict the cavitation breakdown point for inducers a t design conditions.
Multimodel simulation of water flow: uncertainty analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; van Genuchten, T. M.; Rowland, R. A.; Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R. E.
2009-04-01
Simulations of soil water flow require measurements of soil hydraulic properties which are particularly difficult at field scale. Laboratory measurements provide hydraulic properties at scales finer than the field scale, whereas pedotransfer functions (PTFs) integrate information on hydraulic properties at larger scales. One way of downscaling large-scale data is to use several PTFs to generate hydraulic properties with each of the PTFs and to obtain the multimodel prediction of soil water flow by using weighted averages of the simulations results obtained with individual PTFs. Since its introduction, the multimodel prediction has been subject to much debates: whether a multimodel prediction is better than the single best forecast and what is the best method to weigh predictions obtained with the different models. The objective of this work was to evaluate errors and uncertainty of different weighting methods in multimodel prediction of soil water content. Data on soil water contents were collected at four locations at the USDA-ARS Beltsville OPE3 field site from January to November 2007. The locations were instrumented with Multisensor Capacitance Probes (SENTEK) to measure soil water content at depths from 10 to 100 cm with 10 cm increment. Standard meteorological data were measured in the vicinity of the site. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from the same depths to measure soil bulk density (BD), organic carbon content (OC) and soil texture in all locations. Fourteen PTFs, that had been developed from relatively large datasets (>200), were used to calculate soil hydraulic properties for each individual depth from measured BD, OC and soil texture. Thus, 14 sets of hydraulic parameters were obtained for each location. Then we solved the Richards equation with each set of hydraulic parameters for each location. The following multimodel prediction methods were compared in our study: (i) using only the best model; (ii) assigning equal weights to all models; (iii
Numerical simulations of drainage flows on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parish, Thomas R.; Howard, Alan D.
1992-01-01
Data collected by Viking Landers have shown that the meteorology of the near surface Martian environment is analogous to desertlike terrestrial conditions. Geological evidence such as dunes and frost streaks indicate that the surface wind is a potentially important factor in scouring of the martian landscape. In particular, the north polar basin shows erosional features that suggest katabatic wind convergence into broad valleys near the margin of the polar cap. The pattern of katabatic wind drainage off the north polar cap is similar to that observed on Earth over Antarctica or Greenland. The sensitivity is explored of Martian drainage flows to variations in terrain slope and diurnal heating using a numerical modeling approach. The model used is a 2-D sigma coordinate primitive equation system that has been used for simulations of Antarctic drainage flows. Prognostic equations include the flux forms of the horizontal scalar momentum equations, temperature, and continuity. Parameterization of both longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation is included. Turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in the Martian atmosphere remains uncertain since relevant measurements are essentially nonexistent.
Simulator design for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepin, Gerald R.
1992-01-01
This simulation design task completion report documents the simulation techniques associated with the network models of both the Interim Service ISDN (integrated services digital network) Satellite (ISIS) and the Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) architectures. The ISIS network model design represents satellite systems like the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) orbiting switch. The FSIS architecture, the ultimate aim of this element of the Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) program, moves all control and switching functions on-board the next generation ISDN communication satellite. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design will be obtained from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models for their major subsystems. Discrete events simulation experiments will be performed with these models using various traffic scenarios, design parameters and operational procedures. The data from these simulations will be used to determine the engineering parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite.
Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales
2011-01-01
The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized. The complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems, the fluid-interface and the physics involved at multiscale and macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-scales have been discussed. The flow and heat transfer simulation is done by various CFD solvers including Navier-Stokes and energy equations, lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics method. Combined continuum-molecular dynamics method is also reviewed. PMID:21711847
Enhanced Capabilities of Advanced Airborne Radar Simulation.
1996-01-01
RCF UNIX-Based Machine 65 BAUHAUS A-l Illustrations to Understand How GTD Files are Read 78 C-l Input File for Sidelobe Jammer Nulling...on the UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS are provided to illustrate the enhancements in run time, as compared to the original version of the simulation [1...Figure 27 presents some CPU run times for executing the enhanced simulation on the RCF UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS . The run times are shown only for
Recent advances of flow cytometry in fundamental and applied microbiology.
Fouchet, P; Jayat, C; Héchard, Y; Ratinaud, M H; Frelat, G
1993-01-01
This review focuses on the recent applications of flow cytometry (FCM) in microbiological research (1987-mid 1992). It tries to give a scope of the important breakthroughs which occurred in this field during this period. The technical difficulties of microorganism analysis by flow cytometry is briefly appraised. The significance and the limits of the different microbial cell parameters attainable by flow analyses are systematically evaluated: light scatter for cell size and structure, fluorescence measurements for quantification of cellular components, microbial antigen detection and cell physiological activity estimation. Emphasis is given on the new technological advances which appeared in the last two years. The second part of the review is devoted to the analysis of the usefulness of flow cytometric approach in the different fields of microbiology: fundamental studies in microbial physiology, differentiation, microbial ecology and aquatic sciences, medical microbiology, parasitology, microbial pharmacology and biotechnology.
Optimal design and uncertainty quantification in blood flow simulations for congenital heart disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsden, Alison
2009-11-01
Recent work has demonstrated substantial progress in capabilities for patient-specific cardiovascular flow simulations. Recent advances include increasingly complex geometries, physiological flow conditions, and fluid structure interaction. However inputs to these simulations, including medical image data, catheter-derived pressures and material properties, can have significant uncertainties associated with them. For simulations to predict clinically useful and reliable output information, it is necessary to quantify the effects of input uncertainties on outputs of interest. In addition, blood flow simulation tools can now be efficiently coupled to shape optimization algorithms for surgery design applications, and these tools should incorporate uncertainty information. We present a unified framework to systematically and efficient account for uncertainties in simulations using adaptive stochastic collocation. In addition, we present a framework for derivative-free optimization of cardiovascular geometries, and layer these tools to perform optimization under uncertainty. These methods are demonstrated using simulations and surgery optimization to improve hemodynamics in pediatric cardiology applications.
Predicting Performance in Technical Preclinical Dental Courses Using Advanced Simulation.
Gottlieb, Riki; Baechle, Mary A; Janus, Charles; Lanning, Sharon K
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced simulation parameters, such as simulation exam scores, number of student self-evaluations, time to complete the simulation, and time to complete self-evaluations, served as predictors of dental students' preclinical performance. Students from three consecutive classes (n=282) at one U.S. dental school completed advanced simulation training and exams within the first four months of their dental curriculum. The students then completed conventional preclinical instruction and exams in operative dentistry (OD) and fixed prosthodontics (FP) courses, taken during the first and second years of dental school, respectively. Two advanced simulation exam scores (ASES1 and ASES2) were tested as predictors of performance in the two preclinical courses based on final course grades. ASES1 and ASES2 were found to be predictors of OD and FP preclinical course grades. Other advanced simulation parameters were not significantly related to grades in the preclinical courses. These results highlight the value of an early psychomotor skills assessment in dentistry. Advanced simulation scores may allow early intervention in students' learning process and assist in efficient allocation of resources such as faculty coverage and tutor assignment.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows
Chen, J.H.
1993-12-01
The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turinsky, Paul J.; Kothe, Douglas B.
2016-05-01
The Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first Energy Innovation Hub of the Department of Energy, was established in 2010 with the goal of providing modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities that support and accelerate the improvement of nuclear energy's economic competitiveness and the reduction of spent nuclear fuel volume per unit energy, and all while assuring nuclear safety. To accomplish this requires advances in M&S capabilities in radiation transport, thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance and corrosion chemistry. To focus CASL's R&D, industry challenge problems have been defined, which equate with long standing issues of the nuclear power industry that M&S can assist in addressing. To date CASL has developed a multi-physics ;core simulator; based upon pin-resolved radiation transport and subchannel (within fuel assembly) thermal-hydraulics, capitalizing on the capabilities of high performance computing. CASL's fuel performance M&S capability can also be optionally integrated into the core simulator, yielding a coupled multi-physics capability with untapped predictive potential. Material models have been developed to enhance predictive capabilities of fuel clad creep and growth, along with deeper understanding of zirconium alloy clad oxidation and hydrogen pickup. Understanding of corrosion chemistry (e.g., CRUD formation) has evolved at all scales: micro, meso and macro. CFD R&D has focused on improvement in closure models for subcooled boiling and bubbly flow, and the formulation of robust numerical solution algorithms. For multiphysics integration, several iterative acceleration methods have been assessed, illuminating areas where further research is needed. Finally, uncertainty quantification and data assimilation techniques, based upon sampling approaches, have been made more feasible for practicing nuclear engineers via R&D on dimensional reduction and biased sampling. Industry adoption of CASL's evolving M
Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.
14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods and techniques... and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced airplane simulators. The requirements in... Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or D training under this appendix all...
Molecular dynamics simulations: advances and applications
Hospital, Adam; Goñi, Josep Ramon; Orozco, Modesto; Gelpí, Josep L
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have evolved into a mature technique that can be used effectively to understand macromolecular structure-to-function relationships. Present simulation times are close to biologically relevant ones. Information gathered about the dynamic properties of macromolecules is rich enough to shift the usual paradigm of structural bioinformatics from studying single structures to analyze conformational ensembles. Here, we describe the foundations of molecular dynamics and the improvements made in the direction of getting such ensemble. Specific application of the technique to three main issues (allosteric regulation, docking, and structure refinement) is discussed. PMID:26604800
Flow Simulation and Optimization of Plasma Reactors for Coal Gasification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Chunjun; Zhang, Yingzi; Ma, Tengcai
2003-10-01
This paper reports a 3-d numerical simulation system to analyze the complicated flow in plasma reactors for coal gasification, which involve complex chemical reaction, two-phase flow and plasma effect. On the basis of analytic results, the distribution of the density, temperature and components' concentration are obtained and a different plasma reactor configuration is proposed to optimize the flow parameters. The numerical simulation results show an improved conversion ratio of the coal gasification. Different kinds of chemical reaction models are used to simulate the complex flow inside the reactor. It can be concluded that the numerical simulation system can be very useful for the design and optimization of the plasma reactor.
Advanced Simulation and Computing Business Plan
Rummel, E.
2015-07-09
To maintain a credible nuclear weapons program, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA’s) Office of Defense Programs (DP) needs to make certain that the capabilities, tools, and expert staff are in place and are able to deliver validated assessments. This requires a complete and robust simulation environment backed by an experimental program to test ASC Program models. This ASC Business Plan document encapsulates a complex set of elements, each of which is essential to the success of the simulation component of the Nuclear Security Enterprise. The ASC Business Plan addresses the hiring, mentoring, and retaining of programmatic technical staff responsible for building the simulation tools of the nuclear security complex. The ASC Business Plan describes how the ASC Program engages with industry partners—partners upon whom the ASC Program relies on for today’s and tomorrow’s high performance architectures. Each piece in this chain is essential to assure policymakers, who must make decisions based on the results of simulations, that they are receiving all the actionable information they need.
Interactive visualization to advance earthquake simulation
Kellogg, L.H.; Bawden, G.W.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kreylos, O.; Staadt, O.; Sumner, D.
2008-01-01
The geological sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing volumes of data as observations and simulations increase in size and complexity. For example, simulations of earthquake-related processes typically generate complex, time-varying data sets in two or more dimensions. To facilitate interpretation and analysis of these data sets, evaluate the underlying models, and to drive future calculations, we have developed methods of interactive visualization with a special focus on using immersive virtual reality (VR) environments to interact with models of Earth's surface and interior. Virtual mapping tools allow virtual "field studies" in inaccessible regions. Interactive tools allow us to manipulate shapes in order to construct models of geological features for geodynamic models, while feature extraction tools support quantitative measurement of structures that emerge from numerical simulation or field observations, thereby enabling us to improve our interpretation of the dynamical processes that drive earthquakes. VR has traditionally been used primarily as a presentation tool, albeit with active navigation through data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR as a tool for scientific analysis requires building on the method's strengths, that is, using both 3D perception and interaction with observed or simulated data. This approach also takes advantage of the specialized skills of geological scientists who are trained to interpret, the often limited, geological and geophysical data available from field observations. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.
Multiscale Simulation Framework for Coupled Fluid Flow and Mechanical Deformation
Tchelepi, Hamdi
2014-11-14
A multiscale linear-solver framework for the pressure equation associated with flow in highly heterogeneous porous formations was developed. The multiscale based approach is cast in a general algebraic form, which facilitates integration of the new scalable linear solver in existing flow simulators. The Algebraic Multiscale Solver (AMS) is employed as a preconditioner within a multi-stage strategy. The formulations investigated include the standard MultiScale Finite-Element (MSFE) andMultiScale Finite-Volume (MSFV) methods. The local-stage solvers include incomplete factorization and the so-called Correction Functions (CF) associated with the MSFV approach. Extensive testing of AMS, as an iterative linear solver, indicate excellent convergence rates and computational scalability. AMS compares favorably with advanced Algebraic MultiGrid (AMG) solvers for highly detailed three-dimensional heterogeneous models. Moreover, AMS is expected to be especially beneficial in solving time-dependent problems of coupled multiphase flow and transport in large-scale subsurface formations.
Advances in the analysis and prediction of turbulent viscoelastic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gatski, T. B.; Thais, L.; Mompean, G.
2014-08-01
It has been well-known for over six decades that the addition of minute amounts of long polymer chains to organic solvents, or water, can lead to significant turbulent drag reduction. This discovery has had many practical applications such as in pipeline fluid transport, oil well operations, vehicle design and submersible vehicle projectiles, and more recently arteriosclerosis treatment. However, it has only been the last twenty-five years that the full utilization of direct numerical simulation of such turbulent viscoelastic flows has been achieved. The unique characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow are dictated by the nonlinear differential relationship between the flow strain rate field and the extra-stress induced by the additive polymer. A primary motivation for the analysis of these turbulent fluid flows is the understanding of the effect on the dynamic transfer of energy in the turbulent flow due to the presence of the extra-stress field induced by the presence of the viscoelastic polymer chain. Such analyses now utilize direct numerical simulation data of fully developed channel flow for the FENE-P (Finite Extendable Nonlinear Elastic - Peterlin) fluid model. Such multi-scale dynamics suggests an analysis of the transfer of energy between the various component motions that include the turbulent kinetic energy, and the mean polymeric and elastic potential energies. It is shown that the primary effect of the interaction between the turbulent and polymeric fields is to transfer energy from the turbulence to the polymer.
Simulation Credibility: Advances in Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, Unmeel B. (Editor); Eklund, Dean R.; Romero, Vicente J.; Pearce, Jeffrey A.; Keim, Nicholas S.
2016-01-01
Decision makers and other users of simulations need to know quantified simulation credibility to make simulation-based critical decisions and effectively use simulations, respectively. The credibility of a simulation is quantified by its accuracy in terms of uncertainty, and the responsibility of establishing credibility lies with the creator of the simulation. In this volume, we present some state-of-the-art philosophies, principles, and frameworks. The contributing authors involved in this publication have been dedicated to advancing simulation credibility. They detail and provide examples of key advances over the last 10 years in the processes used to quantify simulation credibility: verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification. The philosophies and assessment methods presented here are anticipated to be useful to other technical communities conducting continuum physics-based simulations; for example, issues related to the establishment of simulation credibility in the discipline of propulsion are discussed. We envision that simulation creators will find this volume very useful to guide and assist them in quantitatively conveying the credibility of their simulations.
Simulation Toolkit for Renewable Energy Advanced Materials Modeling
Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter
2013-11-13
STREAMM is a collection of python classes and scripts that enables and eases the setup of input files and configuration files for simulations of advanced energy materials. The core STREAMM python classes provide a general framework for storing, manipulating and analyzing atomic/molecular coordinates to be used in quantum chemistry and classical molecular dynamics simulations of soft materials systems. The design focuses on enabling the interoperability of materials simulation codes such as GROMACS, LAMMPS and Gaussian.
Numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells
Tachimori, M.
1982-01-01
A numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells is presented. The model consists of equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, for thermodynamic state of water, for friction losses, for slip velocity relations, and of the criteria for various flow regimes. A new set of correlations and criteria is presented for two-phase flow to improve the accuracy of predictions; bubbly flow - Griffith and Wallis correlation, slug flow - Nicklin et al. one, annular-mist flow - Inoue and Aoki and modified by the author. The simulation method was verified by data from actual wells.
Modified Numerical Simulation Model of Blood Flow in Bend
Liu, X; Zhou, X; Hao, X; Sang, X
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT The numerical simulation model of blood flow in bend is studied in this paper. The curvature modification is conducted for the blood flow model in bend to obtain the modified blood flow model in bend. The modified model is verified by U tube. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results obtained by measuring the flow data in U tube, it was found that the modified blood flow model in bend can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of blood flow data affected by the curvature effect. PMID:27398727
Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad
2013-12-01
Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective.
Advances in NLTE Modeling for Integrated Simulations
Scott, H A; Hansen, S B
2009-07-08
The last few years have seen significant progress in constructing the atomic models required for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) simulations. Along with this has come an increased understanding of the requirements for accurately modeling the ionization balance, energy content and radiative properties of different elements for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Much of this progress is the result of a series of workshops dedicated to comparing the results from different codes and computational approaches applied to a series of test problems. The results of these workshops emphasized the importance of atomic model completeness, especially in doubly excited states and autoionization transitions, to calculating ionization balance, and the importance of accurate, detailed atomic data to producing reliable spectra. We describe a simple screened-hydrogenic model that calculates NLTE ionization balance with surprising accuracy, at a low enough computational cost for routine use in radiation-hydrodynamics codes. The model incorporates term splitting, {Delta}n = 0 transitions, and approximate UTA widths for spectral calculations, with results comparable to those of much more detailed codes. Simulations done with this model have been increasingly successful at matching experimental data for laser-driven systems and hohlraums. Accurate and efficient atomic models are just one requirement for integrated NLTE simulations. Coupling the atomic kinetics to hydrodynamics and radiation transport constrains both discretizations and algorithms to retain energy conservation, accuracy and stability. In particular, the strong coupling between radiation and populations can require either very short timesteps or significantly modified radiation transport algorithms to account for NLTE material response. Considerations such as these continue to provide challenges for NLTE simulations.
Understanding casing flow in Pelton turbines by numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rentschler, M.; Neuhauser, M.; Marongiu, J. C.; Parkinson, E.
2016-11-01
For rehabilitation projects of Pelton turbines, the flow in the casing may have an important influence on the overall performance of the machine. Water sheets returning on the jets or on the runner significantly reduce efficiency, and run-away speed depends on the flow in the casing. CFD simulations can provide a detailed insight into this type of flow, but these simulations are computationally intensive. As in general the volume of water in a Pelton turbine is small compared to the complete volume of the turbine housing, a single phase simulation greatly reduces the complexity of the simulation. In the present work a numerical tool based on the SPH-ALE meshless method is used to simulate the casing flow in a Pelton turbine. Using improved order schemes reduces the numerical viscosity. This is necessary to resolve the flow in the jet and on the casing wall, where the velocity differs by two orders of magnitude. The results are compared to flow visualizations and measurement in a hydraulic laboratory. Several rehabilitation projects proved the added value of understanding the flow in the Pelton casing. The flow simulation helps designing casing insert, not only to see their influence on the flow, but also to calculate the stress in the inserts. In some projects, the casing simulation leads to the understanding of unexpected behavior of the flow. One such example is presented where the backsplash of a deflector hit the runner, creating a reversed rotation of the runner.
Simulating Subsurface Reactive Flows on Ultrascale Computers with PFLOTRAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, R. T.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Lu, C.; Smith, B. F.; Philip, B.
2009-12-01
To provide true predictive utility, subsurface simulations often must accurately resolve--in three dimensions--complicated, multi-phase flow fields in highly heterogeneous geology with numerous chemical species and complex chemistry. This task is especially daunting because of the wide range of spatial scales involved--from the pore scale to the field scale--ranging over six orders of magnitude, and the wide range of time scales ranging from seconds or less to millions of years. This represents a true "Grand Challenge" computational problem, requiring not only the largest-scale ("ultrascale") supercomputers, but accompanying advances in algorithms for the efficient numerical solution of systems of PDEs using these machines, and in mathematical modeling techniques that can adequately capture the truly multi-scale nature of these problems. We describe some of the specific challenges involved and present the software and algorithmic approaches that are being using in the computer code PFLOTRAN to provide scalable performance for such simulations on tens of thousands of processors. We focus particularly on scalable techniques for solving the large (up to billions of total degrees of freedom), sparse algebraic systems that arise. We also describe ongoing work to address disparate time and spatial scales by both the development of adaptive mesh refinement methods and the use of multiple continuum formulations. Finally, we present some examples from recent simulations conducted on Jaguar, the 150152 processor core Cray XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is currently one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world.
Process simulation for advanced composites production
Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.
1997-04-01
The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.
Approximating hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms with steady flow simulations.
Geers, A J; Larrabide, I; Morales, H G; Frangi, A F
2014-01-03
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can be employed to gain a better understanding of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms and improve diagnosis and treatment. However, introduction of CFD techniques into clinical practice would require faster simulation times. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of computationally inexpensive steady flow simulations to approximate the aneurysm's wall shear stress (WSS) field. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 compared for two cases the time-averaged (TA), peak systole (PS) and end diastole (ED) WSS field between steady and pulsatile flow simulations. The flow rate waveform imposed at the inlet was varied to account for variations in heart rate, pulsatility index, and TA flow rate. Consistently across all flow rate waveforms, steady flow simulations accurately approximated the TA, but not the PS and ED, WSS field. Following up on experiment 1, experiment 2 tested the result for the TA WSS field in a larger population of 20 cases covering a wide range of aneurysm volumes and shapes. Steady flow simulations approximated the space-averaged WSS with a mean error of 4.3%. WSS fields were locally compared by calculating the absolute error per node of the surface mesh. The coefficient of variation of the root-mean-square error over these nodes was on average 7.1%. In conclusion, steady flow simulations can accurately approximate the TA WSS field of an aneurysm. The fast computation time of 6 min per simulation (on 64 processors) could help facilitate the introduction of CFD into clinical practice.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanZante, Dale E.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R,; Hathaway, Michael D.; Okiishi, Theodore H.
2000-01-01
The tip clearance flows of transonic compressor rotors are important because they have a significant impact on rotor and stage performance. While numerical simulations of these flows are quite sophisticated. they are seldom verified through rigorous comparisons of numerical and measured data because these kinds of measurements are rare in the detail necessary to be useful in high-speed machines. In this paper we compare measured tip clearance flow details (e.g. trajectory and radial extent) with corresponding data obtained from a numerical simulation. Recommendations for achieving accurate numerical simulation of tip clearance flows are presented based on this comparison. Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements acquired in a transonic compressor rotor, NASA Rotor 35, are used. The tip clearance flow field of this transonic rotor was simulated using a Navier-Stokes turbomachinery solver that incorporates an advanced k-epsilon turbulence model derived for flows that are not in local equilibrium. Comparison between measured and simulated results indicates that simulation accuracy is primarily dependent upon the ability of the numerical code to resolve important details of a wall-bounded shear layer formed by the relative motion between the over-tip leakage flow and the shroud wall. A simple method is presented for determining the strength of this shear layer.
Lyapunov Exponents and Covariant Vectors for Turbulent Flow Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blonigan, Patrick; Murman, Scott; Fernandez, Pablo; Wang, Qiqi
2016-11-01
As computational power increases, engineers are beginning to use scale-resolving turbulent flow simulations for applications in which jets, wakes, and separation dominate. However, the chaotic dynamics exhibited by scale-resolving simulations poses problems for the conventional sensitivity analysis and stability analysis approaches that are vital for design and control. Lyapunov analysis is used to study the chaotic behavior of dynamical systems, including flow simulations. Lyapunov exponents are the growth or a decay rate of specific flow field perturbations called the Lyapunov covariant vectors. Recently, the authors have used Lyapunov analysis to study the breakdown in conventional sensitivity analysis and the cost of new shadowing-based sensitivity analysis. The current work reviews Lyapunov analysis and presents new results for a DNS of turbulent channel flow, wall-modeled channel flow, and a DNS of a low pressure turbine blade. Additionally, the implications of these Lyapunov analyses for computing sensitivities of these flow simulations will be discussed.
Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment
Ramsey, C.T.
1995-08-01
The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool.
Two-phase flows simulation in closed volume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedorov, A. V.; Lavruk, S. A.
2016-10-01
In this paper gas flow field was considered in the model volumes that correspond to real experimental ones. During simulation flow fields were defined in volumes, matching of the flow fields in different volumes and comparison of the velocity values along the plate that models fuel tank element was done.
Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage
Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo
2012-03-19
This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.
Simulation of Flow Around Cylinder Actuated by DBD Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuling; Gao, Chao; Wu, Bin; Hu, Xu
2016-07-01
The electric-static body force model is obtained by solving Maxwell's electromagnetic equations. Based on the electro-static model, numerical modeling of flow around a cylinder with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma effect is also presented. The flow streamlines between the numerical simulation and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment are consistent. According to the numerical simulation, DBD plasma can reduce the drag coefficient and change the vortex shedding frequencies of flow around the cylinder.
Time parallelization of advanced operation scenario simulations of ITER plasma
Samaddar, D.; Casper, T. A.; Kim, S. H.; Berry, Lee A; Elwasif, Wael R; Batchelor, Donald B; Houlberg, Wayne A
2013-01-01
This work demonstrates that simulations of advanced burning plasma operation scenarios can be successfully parallelized in time using the parareal algorithm. CORSICA - an advanced operation scenario code for tokamak plasmas is used as a test case. This is a unique application since the parareal algorithm has so far been applied to relatively much simpler systems except for the case of turbulence. In the present application, a computational gain of an order of magnitude has been achieved which is extremely promising. A successful implementation of the Parareal algorithm to codes like CORSICA ushers in the possibility of time efficient simulations of ITER plasmas.
Simulation research on pedestrian counter flow subconscious behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yongxing; Jia, Hongfei; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Yang, Lili
Analyzing the pedestrian subconscious behavior and walking environment in the passage, right-moving preference subconscious strength and overtaking subconscious strength are introduced into the pedestrian simulation model which is based on lattice gas model. Two pedestrian subconscious behavior simulation models, which are distinguished by whether considering pedestrian flow ratio of two directions or not, are established respectively. With the platform of MATLAB software, the simulations of pedestrian counter flow subconscious behavior are realized. The simulations indicate that compared with the pedestrian subconscious behavior simulation model without considering the pedestrian flow ratio of two directions, the model that considers the pedestrian flow ratio of two directions is better in simulating the pedestrian subconscious behavior.
ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS
Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz
2004-08-20
Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow in the wellbore
Successes and Challenges for Flow Control Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2008-01-01
A survey is made of recent computations published for synthetic jet flow control cases from a CFD workshop held in 2004. The three workshop cases were originally chosen to represent different aspects of flow control physics: nominally 2-D synthetic jet into quiescent air, 3-D circular synthetic jet into turbulent boundary-layer crossflow, and nominally 2-D flow-control (both steady suction and oscillatory zero-net-mass-flow) for separation control on a simple wall-mounted aerodynamic hump shape. The purpose of this survey is to summarize the progress as related to these workshop cases, particularly noting successes and remaining challenges for computational methods. It is hoped that this summary will also by extension serve as an overview of the state-of-the-art of CFD for these types of flow-controlled flow fields in general.
Successes and Challenges for Flow Control Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2008-01-01
A survey is made of recent computations published for synthetic jet flow control cases from a CFD workshop held in 2004. The three workshop cases were originally chosen to represent different aspects of flow control physics: nominally 2-D synthetic jet into quiescent air, 3-D circular synthetic jet into turbulent boundarylayer crossflow, and nominally 2-D flow-control (both steady suction and oscillatory zero-net-mass-flow) for separation control on a simple wall-mounted aerodynamic hump shape. The purpose of this survey is to summarize the progress as related to these workshop cases, particularly noting successes and remaining challenges for computational methods. It is hoped that this summary will also by extension serve as an overview of the state-of-the-art of CFD for these types of flow-controlled flow fields in general.
Visualizing Hyporheic Flow Through Bedforms Using Dye Experiments and Simulation.
Stonedahl, Susa H; Roche, Kevin R; Stonedahl, Forrest; Packman, Aaron I
2015-11-18
Advective exchange between the pore space of sediments and the overlying water column, called hyporheic exchange in fluvial environments, drives solute transport in rivers and many important biogeochemical processes. To improve understanding of these processes through visual demonstration, we created a hyporheic flow simulation in the multi-agent computer modeling platform NetLogo. The simulation shows virtual tracer flowing through a streambed covered with two-dimensional bedforms. Sediment, flow, and bedform characteristics are used as input variables for the model. We illustrate how these simulations match experimental observations from laboratory flume experiments based on measured input parameters. Dye is injected into the flume sediments to visualize the porewater flow. For comparison virtual tracer particles are placed at the same locations in the simulation. This coupled simulation and lab experiment has been used successfully in undergraduate and graduate laboratories to directly visualize river-porewater interactions and show how physically-based flow simulations can reproduce environmental phenomena. Students took photographs of the bed through the transparent flume walls and compared them to shapes of the dye at the same times in the simulation. This resulted in very similar trends, which allowed the students to better understand both the flow patterns and the mathematical model. The simulations also allow the user to quickly visualize the impact of each input parameter by running multiple simulations. This process can also be used in research applications to illustrate basic processes, relate interfacial fluxes and porewater transport, and support quantitative process-based modeling.
Traffic flow theory and traffic flow simulation models. Transportation research record
1996-12-31
;Contents: Comparison of Simulation Modules of TRANSYT and INTEGRATION Models; Evaluation of SCATSIM-RTA Adaptive Traffic Network Simulation Model; Comparison NETSIM, NETFLO I, and NETFLO II Traffic Simulation Models for Fixed-Time Signal Control; Traffic Flow Simulation Through Parallel Processing; Cluster Analysis as Tool in Traffic Engineering; Traffic Platoon Dispersion Modeling on Arterial Streets; Hybrid Model for Estimating Permitted Left-Turn Saturations Flow Rate; and Passing Sight Distance and Overtaking Dilemma on Two-Lane Roads.
Numerical Simulation of Flow in a Whirling Annular Seal and Comparison with Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athavale, M. M.; Hendricks, R. C.; Steinetz, B. M.
1995-01-01
The turbulent flow field in a simulated annular seal with a large clearance/radius ratio (0.015) and a whirling rotor was simulated using an advanced 3D CFD code SCISEAL. A circular whirl orbit with synchronous whirl was imposed on the rotor center. The flow field was rendered quasi-steady by making a transformation to a totaling frame. Standard k-epsilon model with wall functions was used to treat the turbulence. Experimentally measured values of flow parameters were used to specify the seal inlet and exit boundary conditions. The computed flow-field in terms of the velocity and pressure is compared with the experimental measurements inside the seal. The agreement between the numerical results and experimental data with correction is fair to good. The capability of current advanced CFD methodology to analyze this complex flow field is demonstrated. The methodology can also be extended to other whirl frequencies. Half- (or sub-) synchronous (fluid film unstable motion) and synchronous (rotor centrifugal force unbalance) whirls are the most unstable whirl modes in turbomachinery seals, and the flow code capability of simulating the flows in steady as well as whirling seals will prove to be extremely useful in the design, analyses, and performance predictions of annular as well as other types of seals.
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.
MHD Simulation of Plasma Flow through the VASIMR Magnetic Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarditi, A. G.; Shebalin, J. V.
2003-10-01
The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, [1]) concept is currently in the experimental development phase at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. The current experimental effort is mainly focused on the demonstration of the efficient plasma production (light ion helicon source, [2]) and energy boosting (ion cyclotron resonance heating section). Two other critical issues, the plasma detachment process and the collimation of the plasma plume in the magnetic nozzle, are essential for the near term experimental development and are being addressed through an MHD simulation modeling effort with the NIMROD code [3,4]. The model follows the plasma flow up to few meters from the nozzle throat: at that distance the plasma exhaust parameters reach values comparable with the ionospheric plasma background [5]. Results from two-dimensional simulation runs (cylindrical geometry, assuming azimuthal symmetry) aimed in particular at testing the effectiveness of different open-end boundary condition schemes are presented. [1] F. R. Chang-Diaz, Scientific American, p. 90, Nov. 2000 [2] M. D. Carter, et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 5097-5110, 2002 [3] http://www.nimrodteam.org [4] A. Tarditi et al., 28th Int. Electric Propulsion Conf., IEPC 2003, Toulouse, France, March 2003 [5] A. V. Ilin et al., Proc. 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, Jan. 2002
Model-free simulations of turbulent reactive flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman
1989-01-01
The current computational methods for solving transport equations of turbulent reacting single-phase flows are critically reviewed, with primary attention given to those methods that lead to model-free simulations. In particular, consideration is given to direct numerical simulations using spectral (Galerkin) and pseudospectral (collocation) methods, spectral element methods, and Lagrangian methods. The discussion also covers large eddy simulations and turbulence modeling.
Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...
Simulating ice layer formation under the presence of preferential flow in layered snowpacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wever, Nander; Würzer, Sebastian; Fierz, Charles; Lehning, Michael
2016-11-01
For physics-based snow cover models, simulating the formation of dense ice layers inside the snowpack has been a long-time challenge. Their formation is considered to be tightly coupled to the presence of preferential flow, which is assumed to happen through flow fingering. Recent laboratory experiments and modelling techniques of liquid water flow in snow have advanced the understanding of conditions under which preferential flow paths or flow fingers form. We propose a modelling approach in the one-dimensional, multilayer snow cover model SNOWPACK for preferential flow that is based on a dual domain approach. The pore space is divided into a part that represents matrix flow and a part that represents preferential flow. Richards' equation is then solved for both domains and only water in matrix flow is subjected to phase changes. We found that preferential flow paths arriving at a layer transition in the snowpack may lead to ponding conditions, which we used to trigger a water flow from the preferential flow domain to the matrix domain. Subsequent refreezing then can form dense layers in the snowpack that regularly exceed 700 kg m-3. A comparison of simulated density profiles with biweekly snow profiles made at the Weissfluhjoch measurement site at 2536 m altitude in the Eastern Swiss Alps for 16 snow seasons showed that several ice layers that were observed in the field could be reproduced. However, many profiles remain challenging to simulate. The prediction of the early snowpack runoff also improved under the consideration of preferential flow. Our study suggests that a dual domain approach is able to describe the net effect of preferential flow on ice layer formation and liquid water flow in snow in one-dimensional, detailed, physics-based snowpack models, without the need for a full multidimensional model.
The numerical simulation of multistage turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.; Beach, T. A.; Celestina, M. L.; Mulac, R. A.; To, W. M.
1996-01-01
The effect of the unsteady flow field in a multistage compressor on the time-averaged performance was assessed. The energy transport by the unsteady deterministic flow field was taken into account. The magnitude of the body force resulting from the aerodynamic loading on a blade row was compared to the gradient of the stress tensor associated with the unsteady time-resolved flow field generated by the blade row. The magnitude of the work performed by these forces was compared to the divergence of the energy correlations produced by the unsteady time-resolved flow field. The stress tensor and the energy correlations are non-negligible in the end wall regions. The results suggest that the turbulence is the primary source of flow mixing in the midspan region.
Simulating flow and segregation of cylindrical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yongzhi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Lueptow, Richard M.
2015-11-01
Efficient and accurate simulation of cylindrical particles using discrete element method (DEM) is a challenge. Typical approaches to simulating cylindrical particle systems are based on the glued spheres method, which has low accuracy, or real shape models, which have high computational cost. In this work we utilize super-ellipsoids, which belong to super-quadrics, to model cylindrical particles in DEM simulations. Simulations of a single cylinder impacting a flat wall indicate that super-ellipsoids provide the same accuracy as real shape models and much better accuracy than the glued sphere method. Simulations of super-ellipsoid cylindrical particles in rotating tumblers result in nearly the same angle of repose as experiments and real shape simulations, demonstrating the accuracy of super-ellipsoid DEM simulations for multi-particle systems. The segregation of bidisperse cylindrical particles differing in length in a bounded heap was simulated by super-ellipsoid DEM, and the results are similar to the experiment. In spite of these advantages of using super-ellipsoid cylindrical particles, simulations of filling a box with particles indicate that the simulation times for super-ellipsoid cylinders is about an order of magnitude longer than that for the same number of spherical particles.
Turinsky, Paul J.; Kothe, Douglas B.
2016-05-15
The Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first Energy Innovation Hub of the Department of Energy, was established in 2010 with the goal of providing modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities that support and accelerate the improvement of nuclear energy's economic competitiveness and the reduction of spent nuclear fuel volume per unit energy, and all while assuring nuclear safety. To accomplish this requires advances in M&S capabilities in radiation transport, thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance and corrosion chemistry. To focus CASL's R&D, industry challenge problems have been defined, which equate with long standing issues of the nuclear power industry that M&S can assist in addressing. To date CASL has developed a multi-physics “core simulator” based upon pin-resolved radiation transport and subchannel (within fuel assembly) thermal-hydraulics, capitalizing on the capabilities of high performance computing. CASL's fuel performance M&S capability can also be optionally integrated into the core simulator, yielding a coupled multi-physics capability with untapped predictive potential. Material models have been developed to enhance predictive capabilities of fuel clad creep and growth, along with deeper understanding of zirconium alloy clad oxidation and hydrogen pickup. Understanding of corrosion chemistry (e.g., CRUD formation) has evolved at all scales: micro, meso and macro. CFD R&D has focused on improvement in closure models for subcooled boiling and bubbly flow, and the formulation of robust numerical solution algorithms. For multiphysics integration, several iterative acceleration methods have been assessed, illuminating areas where further research is needed. Finally, uncertainty quantification and data assimilation techniques, based upon sampling approaches, have been made more feasible for practicing nuclear engineers via R&D on dimensional reduction and biased sampling. Industry adoption of CASL's evolving M
The very local Hubble flow: Computer simulations of dynamical history
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Makarov, D. I.
2004-02-01
The phenomenon of the very local (≤3 Mpc) Hubble flow is studied on the basis of the data of recent precision observations. A set of computer simulations is performed to trace the trajectories of the flow galaxies back in time to the epoch of the formation of the Local Group. It is found that the ``initial conditions'' of the flow are drastically different from the linear velocity-distance relation. The simulations enable one also to recognize the major trends of the flow evolution and identify the dynamical role of universal antigravity produced by the cosmic vacuum.
Grid Sensitivity Analysis of Simulations of a Flow around a Single Rotating Wind Turbine Blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Bryan E.; Snider, Michael A.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Hovsapian, Rob O.
2012-11-01
Design of a wind farm layout with the purpose of optimizing the power outcome requires accurate and reliable simulations of a flow around and behind wind turbines. Such computations are expensive even for a single turbine. To find an optimal set of simulation parameters that satisfies both requirements in simulation accuracy and cost in an acceptable degree, a sensitivity study on how the parameters' variation influences results of simulations should be conducted at the early stage of computations. In the current study, the impact of a grid refinement, grid stretching, and cell shape on simulation results is analyzed in a flow around a single rotating blade utilized in a mid-sized Rim Driven Wind Turbine design (U.S. Patent #7399162) developed by Keuka Energy LLC, and in its near wake. Simulation results obtained with structured and unstructured grids are compared. Industry relies on commercial software for conducting fluid flow simulations. Therefore, STAR-CCM+ software was used in our study. A choice of a turbulence model was made based on our previous sensitivity study of flow simulations over a rotating disk (see M. A. Snider, S. V. Poroseva, AIAA-2012-3146). Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University.
Advanced Multi-Phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liaw, Paul; Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Doran, Denise
1993-01-01
It is known that the simulations of solid rocket motor internal flow field with AL-based propellants require complex multi-phase turbulent flow model. The objective of this study is to develop an advanced particulate multi-phase flow model which includes the effects of particle dynamics, chemical reaction and hot gas flow turbulence. The inclusion of particle agglomeration, particle/gas reaction and mass transfer, particle collision, coalescence and breakup mechanisms in modeling the particle dynamics will allow the proposed model to realistically simulate the flowfield inside a solid rocket motor. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes numerical code FDNS is used to simulate the steady-state multi-phase particulate flow field for a 3-zone 2-D axisymmetric ASRM model and a 6-zone 3-D ASRM model at launch conditions. The 2-D model includes aft-end cavity and submerged nozzle. The 3-D model represents the whole ASRM geometry, including additional grain port area in the gas cavity and two inhibitors. FDNS is a pressure based finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver with time-accurate adaptive second-order upwind schemes, standard and extended k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections, multi zone body-fitted formulations, and turbulence particle interaction model. Eulerian/Lagrangian multi-phase solution method is applied for multi-zone mesh. To simulate the chemical reaction, penalty function corrected efficient finite-rate chemistry integration method is used in FDNS. For the AL particle combustion rate, the Hermsen correlation is employed. To simulate the turbulent dispersion of particles, the Gaussian probability distribution with standard deviation equal to (2k/3)(exp 1/2) is used for the random turbulent velocity components. The computational results reveal that the flow field near the juncture of aft-end cavity and the submerged nozzle is very complex. The effects of the turbulent particles affect the flow field significantly and provide better
Toward large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Haecheon
1993-01-01
The flow field over an airfoil contains several distinct flow characteristics, e.g. laminar, transitional, turbulent boundary layer flow, flow separation, unstable free shear layers, and a wake. This diversity of flow regimes taxes the presently available Reynolds averaged turbulence models. Such models are generally tuned to predict a particular flow regime, and adjustments are necessary for the prediction of a different flow regime. Similar difficulties are likely to emerge when the large eddy simulation technique is applied with the widely used Smagorinsky model. This model has not been successful in correctly representing different turbulent flow fields with a single universal constant and has an incorrect near-wall behavior. Germano et al. (1991) and Ghosal, Lund & Moin have developed a new subgrid-scale model, the dynamic model, which is very promising in alleviating many of the persistent inadequacies of the Smagorinsky model: the model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model has been remarkably successful in prediction of several turbulent and transitional flows. We plan to simulate turbulent flow over a '2D' airfoil using the large eddy simulation technique. Our primary objective is to assess the performance of the newly developed dynamic subgrid-scale model for computation of complex flows about aircraft components and to compare the results with those obtained using the Reynolds average approach and experiments. The present computation represents the first application of large eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest and a key demonstration of the capabilities of the large eddy simulation technique.
ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS
WALTZ RE; CANDY J; HINTON FL; ESTRADA-MILA C; KINSEY JE
2004-10-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite {beta}, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius ({rho}{sub *}) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or a globally with physical profile variation. Rohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, plasma pinches and impurity flow, and simulations at fixed flow rather than fixed gradient are illustrated and discussed.
Advanced adaptive computational methods for Navier-Stokes simulations in rotorcraft aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stowers, S. T.; Bass, J. M.; Oden, J. T.
1993-01-01
A phase 2 research and development effort was conducted in area transonic, compressible, inviscid flows with an ultimate goal of numerically modeling complex flows inherent in advanced helicopter blade designs. The algorithms and methodologies therefore are classified as adaptive methods, which are error estimation techniques for approximating the local numerical error, and automatically refine or unrefine the mesh so as to deliver a given level of accuracy. The result is a scheme which attempts to produce the best possible results with the least number of grid points, degrees of freedom, and operations. These types of schemes automatically locate and resolve shocks, shear layers, and other flow details to an accuracy level specified by the user of the code. The phase 1 work involved a feasibility study of h-adaptive methods for steady viscous flows, with emphasis on accurate simulation of vortex initiation, migration, and interaction. Phase 2 effort focused on extending these algorithms and methodologies to a three-dimensional topology.
Digital Rock Simulation of Flow in Carbonate Samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klemin, D.; Andersen, M.
2014-12-01
Reservoir engineering has becomes more complex to deal with current challenges, so core analysts must understand and model pore geometries and fluid behaviors at pores scales more rapidly and realistically. We introduce an industry-unique direct hydrodynamic pore flow simulator that operates on pore geometries from digital rock models obtained using microCT or 3D scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The PVT and rheological models used in the simulator represent real reservoir fluids. Fluid-solid interactions are introduced using distributed micro-scale wetting properties. The simulator uses density functional approach applied for hydrodynamics of complex systems. This talk covers selected applications of the simulator. We performed microCT scanning of six different carbonate rock samples from homogeneous limestones to vuggy carbonates. From these, we constructed digital rock models representing pore geometries for the simulator. We simulated nonreactive tracer flow in all six digital models using a digital fluid description that included a passive tracer solution. During the simulation, we evaluated the composition of the effluent. Results of tracer flow simulations corresponded well with experimental data of nonreactive tracer floods for the same carbonate rock types. This simulation data of the non-reactive tracer flow can be used to calculate the volume of the rock accessible by the fluid, which can be further used to predict response of a porous medium to a reactive fluid. The described digital core analysis workflow provides a basis for a wide variety of activities, including input to design acidizing jobs and evaluating treatment efficiency and EOR economics. Digital rock multiphase flow simulations of a scanned carbonate rock evaluated the effect of wettability on flow properties. Various wetting properties were tested: slightly oil wet, slightly water wet, and water wet. Steady-state relative permeability simulations yielded curves for all three
Numerical simulation of scramjet inlet flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Ajay
1986-01-01
A computer program was developed to analyze supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) inlet flow fields. The program solves the three-dimensional Euler or Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in full conservation form by either the fully explicit or explicit-implicit, predictor-corrector method of MacCormack. Turbulence is modeled by an algebraic eddy-viscosity model. The analysis allows inclusion of end effects which can significantly affect the inlet flow field. Detailed laminar and turbulent flow results are presented for a symmetric-wedge corner, and comparisons are made with the available experimental results to allow assessment of the program. Results are then presented for two inlet configurations for which experimental results exist at the NASA Langley Research Center.
Simulations of artificial swimmers in confined flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Luca; Zhu, Lailai; Gjølberg, Eerik
2012-11-01
Miniature swimmming robots are potentially powerful for microobject manipulation, such as flow control in lab-on-a-chip, localized drug delivery and screening for diseases. Magnetically driven artificial bacterial flagella (ABF) performing helical motion is advantegous due to high swimming speed and accurate control. Using boundary element method, we numerically investigate the propulsion of ABF in free space and near solid boundaries. Step-out at high actuation frequencies, wobbling and near-wall drifting are documented, in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. We aim to explore the effect of swimmer shape on the performance, thus benefiting design of efficient microswimmers. Propulsion of ABF confined by a solid wall with and without background shear flow is also studied, with a focus on wall-induced hydrodynamic interaction and its influence on the stability of the motion. Funding by VR (the Swedish Research Council) and Linne flow centre at KTH is acknowledged.
Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows
2008-09-01
Technology, 160:119– 150, 2000. [32] W.-W. Kim, S. Menon, and H. C. Mongia . Large eddy simulations of a gas turbine combustor flow. Combustion Science and...structures and shock induced heating can trigger ignition, combustion and turbulent flame propagation. In this research, a new and an efficient...Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows Suresh Menon and Franklin Génin Computational Combustion Laboratory School of Aerospace
Chimaera simulation of complex states of flowing matter.
Succi, S
2016-11-13
We discuss a unified mesoscale framework (chimaera) for the simulation of complex states of flowing matter across scales of motion. The chimaera framework can deal with each of the three macro-meso-micro levels through suitable 'mutations' of the basic mesoscale formulation. The idea is illustrated through selected simulations of complex micro- and nanoscale flows.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.
Chimaera simulation of complex states of flowing matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Succi, S.
2016-11-01
We discuss a unified mesoscale framework (chimaera) for the simulation of complex states of flowing matter across scales of motion. The chimaera framework can deal with each of the three macro-meso-micro levels through suitable `mutations' of the basic mesoscale formulation. The idea is illustrated through selected simulations of complex micro- and nanoscale flows. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.
Simulation Study of Traffic Flow At a Three Way Intersection
1988-09-01
INTERSECTION by Chong Chul Song September 1988 Thesis Advisor: Peter A. W. Lewis Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited i~ K...II Title (Include security classification) SIMULATION STUDY OF TRAFFIC FLOW AT A THREE WAY INTERSECTION 12 Personal Author(s) Chong Chul Song 13a...distribution is unlimited. Simulation Study of Traffic Flow at a Three Way Intersection by Chong Chul Song Major, Republic Of Korea Army B.S., Korea
Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles
Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire
2009-04-01
Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.
Flow blockage analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor
Stovall, T.K.; Crabtree, J.A.; Felde, D.K.; Park, J.E.
1996-01-01
The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor was designed to provide a research tool with capabilities beyond those of any existing reactors. One portion of its state-of-the-art design required high-speed fluid flow through narrow channels between the fuel plates in the core. Experience with previous reactors has shown that fuel plate damage can occur when debris becomes lodged at the entrance to these channels. Such debris disrupts the fluid flow to the plate surfaces and can prevent adequate cooling of the fuel. Preliminary ANS designs addressed this issue by providing an unheated entrance length for each fuel plate so that any flow disruption would recover, thus providing adequate heat removal from the downstream, heated portions of the fuel plates. As part of the safety analysis, the adequacy of this unheated entrance length was assessed using both analytical models and experimental measurements. The Flow Blockage Test Facility (FBTF) was designed and built to conduct experiments in an environment closely matching the ANS channel geometry. The FBTF permitted careful measurements of both heat transfer and hydraulic parameters. In addition to these experimental efforts, a thin, rectangular channel was modeled using the Fluent computational fluid dynamics computer code. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data to benchmark the hydrodynamics of the model. After this comparison, the model was extended to include those elements of the safety analysis that were difficult to measure experimentally. These elements included the high wall heat flux pattern and variable fluid properties. The results were used to determine the relationship between potential blockage sizes and the unheated entrance length required.
Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.
2005-01-01
A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.
Numerical solutions of atmospheric flow over semielliptical simulated hills
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shieh, C. F.; Frost, W.
1981-01-01
Atmospheric motion over obstacles on plane surfaces to compute simulated wind fields over terrain features was studied. Semielliptical, two dimensional geometry and numerical simulation of flow over rectangular geometries is also discussed. The partial differential equations for the vorticity, stream function, turbulence kinetic energy, and turbulence length scale were solved by a finite difference technique. The mechanism of flow separation induced by a semiellipse is the same as flow over a gradually sloping surface for which the flow separation is caused by the interaction between the viscous force, the pressure force, and the turbulence level. For flow over bluff bodies, a downstream recirculation bubble is created which increases the aspect ratio and/or the turbulence level results in flow reattachment close behind the obstacle.
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of rarefied gas flows in microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yonghao; Qin, Rongshan; Emerson, David R.
2005-04-01
For gas flows in microchannels, slip motion at the solid surface can occur even if the Mach number is negligibly small. Since the Knudsen number of the gas flow in a long microchannel can vary widely and the Navier-Stokes equations are not valid for Knudsen numbers beyond 0.1, an alternative method that can be applicable to continuum, slip and transition flow regimes is highly desirable. The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) approach has recently been expected to have such potential. However, some hurdles need to be overcome before it can be applied to simulate rarefied gas flows. The first major hurdle is to accurately model the gas molecule and wall surface interactions. In addition, the Knudsen number needs to be clearly defined in terms of LBE properties to ensure that the LBE simulation results can be checked against experimental measurements and other simulation results. In this paper, the Maxwellian scattering kernel is adopted to address the gas molecule and surface interactions with an accommodation coefficient (in addition to the Knudsen number) controlling the amount of slip motion. The Knudsen number is derived consistently with the macroscopic property based definition. The simulation results of the present LBE model are in quantitative agreement with the established theory in the slip flow regime. In the transition flow regime, the model captures the Knudsen minimum phenomenon qualitatively. Therefore, the LBE can be a competitive method for simulation of rarefied gas flows in microdevices.
Simulation of phase contrast MRI of turbulent flow.
Petersson, Sven; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Gårdhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts; Ebbers, Tino
2010-10-01
Phase contrast MRI is a powerful tool for the assessment of blood flow. However, especially in the highly complex and turbulent flow that accompanies many cardiovascular diseases, phase contrast MRI may suffer from artifacts. Simulation of phase contrast MRI of turbulent flow could increase our understanding of phase contrast MRI artifacts in turbulent flows and facilitate the development of phase contrast MRI methods for the assessment of turbulent blood flow. We present a method for the simulation of phase contrast MRI measurements of turbulent flow. The method uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which spin particle trajectories are computed from time-resolved large eddy simulations. The Bloch equations are solved for each spin for a frame of reference moving along the spins trajectory. The method was validated by comparison with phase contrast MRI measurements of velocity and intravoxel velocity standard deviation (IVSD) on a flow phantom consisting of a straight rigid pipe with a stenosis. Turbulence related artifacts, such as signal drop and ghosting, could be recognized in the measurements as well as in the simulations. The velocity and the IVSD obtained from the magnitude of the phase contrast MRI simulations agreed well with the measurements.
Numerical Simulation of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Taulbee, D. B.; Madnia, C. K.; Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Adumitroaie, V.; James, S.
1999-01-01
The objectives of this research are: (1) to develop and implement a new methodology for large eddy simulation of (LES) of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. (2) To develop algebraic turbulence closures for statistical description of chemically reacting turbulent flows.
Constrained Large Eddy Simulation of Separated Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zhenhua; Shi, Yipeng; Wang, Jianchun; Xiao, Zuoli; Yang, Yantao; Chen, Shiyi
2011-11-01
Constrained Large-eddy Simulation (CLES) has been recently proposed to simulate turbulent flows with massive separation. Different from traditional large eddy simulation (LES) and hybrid RANS/LES approaches, the CLES simulates the whole flow domain by large eddy simulation while enforcing a RANS Reynolds stress constraint on the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress models in the near-wall region. Algebraic eddy-viscosity models and one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) model have been used to constrain the Reynolds stress. The CLES approach is validated a posteriori through simulation of flow past a circular cylinder and periodic hill flow at high Reynolds numbers. The simulation results are compared with those from RANS, DES, DDES and other available hybrid RANS/LES methods. It is shown that the capability of the CLES method in predicting separated flows is comparable to that of DES. Detailed discussions are also presented about the effects of the RANS models as constraint in the near-wall layers. Our results demonstrate that the CLES method is a promising alternative towards engineering applications.
Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin
2016-05-01
The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.
Advanced Simulation and Computing FY17 Implementation Plan, Version 0
McCoy, Michel; Archer, Bill; Hendrickson, Bruce; Wade, Doug; Hoang, Thuc
2016-08-29
The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is an integrated technical program for maintaining the safety, surety, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of experimental facilities and programs, and the computational capabilities to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources that support annual stockpile assessment and certification, study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balance of resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. ASC is now focused on increasing predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (sufficient resolution, dimensionality, and scientific details), and quantifying critical margins and uncertainties. Resolving each issue requires increasingly difficult analyses because the aging process has progressively moved the stockpile further away from the original test base. Where possible, the program also enables the use of high performance computing (HPC) and simulation tools to address broader national security needs, such as foreign nuclear weapon assessments and counter nuclear terrorism.
Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.
Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.
2006-12-11
This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.
Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.
1981-01-01
A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.
Preface to advances in numerical simulation of plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Scott E.; Chacon, Luis
2016-10-01
This Journal of Computational Physics Special Issue, titled "Advances in Numerical Simulation of Plasmas," presents a snapshot of the international state of the art in the field of computational plasma physics. The articles herein are a subset of the topics presented as invited talks at the 24th International Conference on the Numerical Simulation of Plasmas (ICNSP), August 12-14, 2015 in Golden, Colorado. The choice of papers was highly selective. The ICNSP is held every other year and is the premier scientific meeting in the field of computational plasma physics.
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interaction with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B; Abla, Gheni; D'Azevedo, Ed F; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, Joshua; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Foley, S.; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Jenkins, T; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; Lynch, Vickie E; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, D.; Schnack,; Wright, J.
2009-01-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena
Batchelor, Donald B; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, Randall B; Breslau, Joshua; Elwasif, Wael R; Foley, S.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott E; Ku, Long-Poe; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, David P; Schnack, Dalton D
2009-01-01
The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: (1) recent improvements to the IPS, (2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, (3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamak discharges using IPS facilities, and (4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.
Sprague, Michael A.; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Fischer, Paul; Grout, Ray; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Moser, Robert
2017-01-01
This report details the impact exascale will bring to turbulent-flow simulations in applied science and technology. The need for accurate simulation of turbulent flows is evident across the DOE applied-science and engineering portfolios, including combustion, plasma physics, nuclear-reactor physics, wind energy, and atmospheric science. The workshop brought together experts in turbulent-flow simulation, computational mathematics, and high-performance computing. Building upon previous ASCR workshops on exascale computing, participants defined a research agenda and path forward that will enable scientists and engineers to continually leverage, engage, and direct advances in computational systems on the path to exascale computing.
Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.
Time-reversed, flow-reversed ballistics simulations
Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E. J.; Scheffler, D. R.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of planar sheet jet formation are studied to examine the hydrodynamic issues involved when simulations are carried out in the inverse direction, that is, with reversed time and flow. Both a realistic copper equation of state and a shockless equation of state were used. These studies are an initial step in evaluating this technique as a ballistics design tool.
Numerical Simulations of Asymmetric Mixing in Planar Shear Flows.
2014-09-26
unsteady shear flows with periodic boundary conditions (Riley & Metcalfe 1980), or in previous simulations of the splitter-plate geometry using either...Soloukhin, AIMA. Riley, 3.3. & Metcalfe , R.W. 1980, Direct Numerical simulation or a Perturbed, Turbulent Mixing Layer, AIAA paper 80-02741, Pasadena
Interactive grid generation for turbomachinery flow field simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choo, Yung K.; Reno, Charles; Eiseman, Peter R.
1988-01-01
The control point form of algebraic grid generation presented provides the means that are needed to generate well structured grids of turbomachinery flow simulations. It uses a sparse collection of control points distributed over the flow domain. The shape and position of coordinate curves can be adjusted from these control points while the grid conforms precisely to all boundaries. An interactive program called TURBO, which uses the control point form, is being developed. Basic features of the code are discussed and sample grids are presented. A finite volume LU implicit scheme is used to simulate flow in a turbine cascade on the grid generated by the program.
Numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleiser, Leonhard; Zang, Thomas A.
1991-01-01
The current status of numerical simulation techniques for the transition to turbulence in incompressible channel and boundary-layer flows is surveyed, and typical results are presented graphically. The focus is on direct numerical simulations based on the full nonlinear time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations without empirical closure assumptions for prescribed initial and boundary conditions. Topics addressed include the vibrating ribbon problem, space and time discretization, initial and boundary conditions, alternative methods based on the triple-deck approximation, two-dimensional channel and boundary-layer flows, three-dimensional boundary layers, wave packets and turbulent spots, compressible flows, transition control, and transition modeling.
Global gyrokinetic simulations with strong flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collier, J. D.; McMillan, B. F.; Robinson, J. R.
2016-11-01
We report on the investigation of strong toroidal rotation effects in a global tokamak code, ORB5. This includes the implementation of a strong flow gyrokinetic Lagrangian, allowing a complete treatment of centrifugal and Coriolis effects in the laboratory frame. In order to consistently perform the linear analysis in this system, an axisymmetric gyrokinetic equilibrium distribution function is defined using the constants of motion: we show it corresponds to the standard choice in the local limit and is close to the neoclassical solution in the banana regime. The energy and momentum transport equations are presented in an analogous form to those for the weak flow system. Linear studies of Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes in rotating plasmas are performed to determine how the global effects interact with the effects of strong rotation. We also determine the geodesic acoustic mode dispersion with respect to plasma rotation rate in this gyrokinetic model and compare it to MHD theory.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Flows in Complex Terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, K. A.
2011-12-01
Large-eddy simulation as a methodology for numerical simulation of turbulent flows was first developed to study turbulent flows in atmospheric by Lilly (1967). The first LES were carried by Deardorff (1970) who used these simulations to study atmospheric boundary layers. Ever since, LES has been extensively used to study canonical atmospheric boundary layers, in most cases flat plate boundary layers under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. Carefully designed LES of canonical convective and neutrally stratified and more recently stably stratified atmospheric boundary layers have contributed significantly to development of better understanding of these flows and their parameterizations in large scale models. These simulations were often carried out using codes specifically designed and developed for large-eddy simulations of horizontally homogeneous flows with periodic lateral boundary conditions. Recent developments in multi-scale numerical simulations of atmospheric flows enable numerical weather prediction (NWP) codes such as ARPS (Chow and Street, 2009), COAMPS (Golaz et al., 2009) and Weather Research and Forecasting model, to be used nearly seamlessly across a wide range of atmospheric scales from synoptic down to turbulent scales in atmospheric boundary layers. Before we can with confidence carry out multi-scale simulations of atmospheric flows, NWP codes must be validated for accurate performance in simulating flows over complex or inhomogeneous terrain. We therefore carry out validation of WRF-LES for simulations of flows over complex terrain using data from Askervein Hill (Taylor and Teunissen, 1985, 1987) and METCRAX (Whiteman et al., 2008) field experiments. WRF's nesting capability is employed with a one-way nested inner domain that includes complex terrain representation while the coarser outer nest is used to spin up fully developed atmospheric boundary layer turbulence and thus represent accurately inflow to the inner domain. LES of a
Two critical issues in Langevin simulation of gas flows
Zhang, Jun; Fan, Jing
2014-12-09
A stochastic algorithm based on the Langevin equation has been recently proposed to simulate rarefied gas flows. Compared with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the Langevin method is more efficient in simulating small Knudsen number flows. While it is well-known that the cell sizes and time steps should be smaller than the mean free path and the mean collision time, respectively, in DSMC simulations, the Langevin equation uses a drift term and a diffusion term to describe molecule movements, so no direct molecular collisions have to be modeled. This enables the Langevin simulation to proceed with a much larger time step than that in the DSMC method. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation are addressed in this paper. The first issue is how to reproduce the transport properties as that described by kinetic theory. Transport coefficients predicted by Langevin equation are obtained by using Green-Kubo formulae. The second issue is numerical scheme with boundary conditions. We present two schemes corresponding to small time step and large time step, respectively. For small time step, the scheme is similar to DSMC method as the update of positions and velocities are uncoupled; for large time step, we present an analytical solution of the hitting time, which is the crucial factor for accurate simulation. Velocity-Couette flow, thermal-Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard flow and wall-confined problem are simulated by using these two schemes. Our study shows that Langevin simulation is a promising tool to investigate small Knudsen number flows.
Flow-accelerated corrosion monitoring through advanced sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung T.; Seong, Seung H.; Lee, Cheol K.; Hur, Sub; Lee, Na Y.; Lee, Sang J.
2005-02-01
In order to successfully implement the extended-life operation plan of the nuclear power plant (NPP), predictive maintenance based on on-line monitoring of deteriorated components becomes highly important. Pipe wall-thinning is usually caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) under the undesirable combination of water chemistry, flow velocity and material composition. In order to increase the confidence of understanding on underlying process, a multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted in this work. Here, we apply a combination of several advanced sensors, ranging from chemical electrodes to mechanical vibration sensors to monitor the thickness change of the elbow, which can be still economical option. Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) and pH are chosen as electrochemical parameters, the change of vibration mode, displacement, and etc. are chosen as mechanical parameters to monitor the wall thinning phenomena. Electrodes are developed for the on-line monitoring of pH and ECP. Vibration is considered as a promising candidate as a mechanical parameter. Various sensors are surveyed and some are chosen based on FEM analysis result, which shows the approximate vibration range according to the thickness change. Mechanical sensors need to be sensitive enough to detect small thickness change with adequate safety margin to a pipe rupture. A few sensors are suggested to detect vibration or displacement quantitatively. Fiber optic sensors are chosen for their non-contacting property, which is appropriate for the high temperature application. Accelerometer and capacitance gage are suggested for their applicability fit to the test purpose.
Flow induced migration in polymer melts – Theory and simulation
Dorgan, John Robert Rorrer, Nicholas Andrew
2015-04-28
Flow induced migration, whereby polymer melts are fractionated by molecular weight across a flow field, represents a significant complication in the processing of polymer melts. Despite its long history, such phenomena remain relatively poorly understood. Here a simple analytical theory is presented which predicts the phenomena based on well-established principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is unambiguously shown that for purely viscous materials, a gradient in shear rate is needed to drive migration; for purely viscometric flows no migration is expected. Molecular scale simulations of flow migration effects in dense polymer melts are also presented. In shear flow the melts exhibit similar behavior as the quiescent case; a constant shear rate across the gap does not induce chain length based migration. In comparison, parabolic flow causes profound migration for both unentangled and entangled melts. These findings are consistent with the analytical theory. The picture that emerges is consistent with flow induced migration mechanisms predominating over competing chain degradation mechanisms.
Unsteady Flow Simulation of High-speed Turbopumps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey A.
2006-01-01
Computation of high-speed hydrodynamics requires high-fidelity simulation to resolve flow features involving transient flow, cavitation, tip vortex and multiple scales of unsteady fluctuations. One example of this type in aerospace is related to liquid-fueled rocket turbopump. Rocket turbopumps operate under severe conditions at very high rotational speeds typically at thousands of rpm. For example, the Shuttle orbiter low-pressure-fuel-turbopump creates transient flow features associated with reverse flows, tip clearance effects, secondary flows, vortex shedding, junction flows, and cavitation effects. Flow unsteadiness originating from the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the flow liners just upstream of the LPFTP. The reverse flow generated at the tip of the inducer blades travels upstream and interacts with the bellows cavity. Simulation procedure for this type high-speed hydrodynamic problems requires a method for quantifying multi-scale and multi-phase flow as well as an efficient high-end computing strategy. The current paper presents a high-fidelity computational procedure for unsteady hydrodynamic problems using a high-speed liquid-fueled rocket turbopump.
Robustness of de Saint Venant equations for simulating unsteady flows
Baltzer, Robert A.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Lai, Chintu; ,
1995-01-01
Long-wave motion in open channels can be expressed mathematically by the one-dimensional de Saint Venant equations describing conservation of fluid mass and momentum. Numerical simulation models, based on either depth/velocity or water-level/discharge dependent-variable formulations of these equations, are typically used to simulate unsteady open-channel flow. However, the implications and significance of selecting either dependent-variable form - on model development, discretization and numerical solution processes, and ultimately on the range-of-application and simulation utility of resulting models - are not well known. Results obtained from a set of numerical experiments employing two models - one based on depth/velocity and the other on water-level/discharge equation formulations - reveal the sensitivity of the two equation sets to various channel properties and dynamic flow conditions. In particular, the effects of channel gradient, channel width-to-depth ratio, flow-resistance coefficient, and flow unsteadiness are analyzed and discussed.
Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from simulated maximum daily flow using the HBV model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe
2014-05-01
Instantaneous peak flow (IPF) data are the foundation of the design of hydraulic structures and flood frequency analysis. However, the long discharge records published by hydrological agencies contain usually only average daily flows which are of little value for design in small catchments. In former research, statistical analysis using observed peak and daily flow data was carried out to explore the link between instantaneous peak flow (IPF) and maximum daily flow (MDF) where the multiple regression model is proved to have the best performance. The objective of this study is to further investigate the acceptability of the multiple regression model for post-processing simulated daily flows from hydrological modeling. The model based flood frequency analysis allows to consider change in the condition of the catchments and in climate for design. Here, the HBV model is calibrated on peak flow distributions and flow duration curves using two approaches. In a two -step approach the simulated MDF are corrected with a priory established regressions. In a one-step procedure the regression coefficients are calibrated together with the parameters of the model. For the analysis data from 18 mesoscale catchments in the Aller-Leine river basin in Northern Germany are used. The results show that: (1) the multiple regression model is capable to predict the peak flows with the simulated MDF data; (2) the calibrated hydrological model reproduces well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows; (3) the one-step procedure outperforms the two-step procedure regarding the estimation of peak flows.
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Behavior and Breakthrough Phenomenon in Co-Injection Molding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilinca, Florin; Hétu, Jean-François
2007-05-01
A study of the flow behavior during sequential co-injection molding is shown using a three-dimensional finite element flow analysis code. Solutions of the non-Newtonian, non-isothermal melt flow are obtained by solving the momentum, continuity and energy equations. Two additional transport equations are solved for tracking polymer/air and skin/core polymers interfaces. The co-injection model is integrated into the NRC's 3D injection molding software. Solutions are shown for the filling of a spiral-flow mould for which experimental measurements are available. The numerical approach predicts the core advance stage during which the core flow front catches up on the skin flow front and the core expansion phase when the flow fronts of core and skin materials advance together without breakthrough. The breakthrough phenomenon is also predicted. The predicted flow front behavior is compared to the experimental observations for various skin/core melt temperature and skin/core viscosity ratio. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data and indicate correctly the trends in solution change when processing parameters are changing.
The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors
Ronaldo Szilard; Hongbin Zhang; Doug Kothe; Paul Turinsky
2011-10-01
The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.
Large-Eddy simulation of pulsatile blood flow.
Paul, Manosh C; Mamun Molla, Md; Roditi, Giles
2009-01-01
Large-Eddy simulation (LES) is performed to study pulsatile blood flow through a 3D model of arterial stenosis. The model is chosen as a simple channel with a biological type stenosis formed on the top wall. A sinusoidal non-additive type pulsation is assumed at the inlet of the model to generate time dependent oscillating flow in the channel and the Reynolds number of 1200, based on the channel height and the bulk velocity, is chosen in the simulations. We investigate in detail the transition-to-turbulent phenomena of the non-additive pulsatile blood flow downstream of the stenosis. Results show that the high level of flow recirculation associated with complex patterns of transient blood flow have a significant contribution to the generation of the turbulent fluctuations found in the post-stenosis region. The importance of using LES in modelling pulsatile blood flow is also assessed in the paper through the prediction of its sub-grid scale contributions. In addition, some important results of the flow physics are achieved from the simulations, these are presented in the paper in terms of blood flow velocity, pressure distribution, vortices, shear stress, turbulent fluctuations and energy spectra, along with their importance to the relevant medical pathophysiology.
Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow in rough pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Cheng; Monty, Jason; Ooi, Andrew; Illingworth, Simon; Marusic, Ivan; Skvortsov, Alex
2016-11-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of pulsatile turbulent pipe flow is carried out over three-dimensional sinusoidal surfaces mimicking surface roughness. The simulations are performed at a mean Reynolds number of Reτ 540 (based on friction velocity, uτ, and pipe radii, δ) and at various roughness profiles following the study of Chan et al., where the size of the roughness (roughness semi-amplitude height h+ and wavelength λ+) is increased geometrically while maintaining the height-to-wavelength ratio of the sinusoidal roughness element. Results from the pulsatile simulations are compared with non-pulsatile simulations to investigate the effects of pulsation on the Hama roughness function, ΔU+ . Other turbulence statistics including mean turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses and energy spectra are analysed. In addition, instantaneous phase (eg. at maximum and minimum flow velocities) and phase-averaged flow structures are presented and discussed.
Reducing spurious flow in simulations of electrokinetic phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rempfer, Georg; Davies, Gary B.; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost
2016-07-01
Electrokinetic transport phenomena can strongly influence the behaviour of macromolecules and colloidal particles in solution, with applications in, e.g., DNA translocation through nanopores, electro-osmotic flow in nanocapillaries, and electrophoresis of charged macromolecules. Numerical simulations are an important tool to investigate these electrokinetic phenomena, but are often plagued by spurious fluxes and spurious flows that can easily exceed physical fluxes and flows. Here, we present a method that reduces one of these spurious currents, spurious flow, by several orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of our method for both the electrokinetic lattice-Boltzmann and finite-element-method based algorithms by simulating a charged sphere in an electrolyte solution and flow through a nanopore. We also show that previous attempts to suppress these spurious currents introduce other sources of error.
A review on continuous-flow microfluidic PCR in droplets: Advances, challenges and future.
Zhang, Yonghao; Jiang, Hui-Rong
2016-03-31
Significant advances have been made in developing microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices in the last two decades. More recently, microfluidic microdroplet technology has been exploited to perform PCR in droplets because of its unique features. For example, it can prevent crossover contamination and PCR inhibition, is suitable for single-cell and single-molecule analyses, and has the potential for system integration and automation. This review will therefore focus on recent developments on droplet-based continuous-flow microfluidic PCR, and the major research challenges. This paper will also discuss a new way of on-chip flow control and a rational design simulation tool, which are required to underpin fully integrated and automated droplet-based microfluidic systems. We will conclude with a scientific speculation of future autonomous scientific discoveries enabled by microfluidic microdroplet technologies.
Numerical simulation of shear flows over wavy boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orszag, S. A.
1980-01-01
The full time-dependent two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved using spectral methods to achieve high spatial accuracy and high order time-splitting methods together with conformal mapping methods to allow simulation of flow over steep waves, including general turbulent Reynolds stresses. The programs are used to study the properties of laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate and in various wavy geometries. Results are compared with both available theory and experiment. For laminar flow, good agreement is achieved. For turbulent flow, the agreement is less satisfactory and may be explained by the simplified turbulent modelling use in the calculations.
Simulation of dust streaming in toroidal traps: Stationary flows
Reichstein, Torben; Piel, Alexander
2011-08-15
Molecular-dynamic simulations were performed to study dust motion in a toroidal trap under the influence of the ion drag force driven by a Hall motion of the ions in E x B direction, gravity, inter-particle forces, and friction with the neutral gas. This article is focused on the inhomogeneous stationary streaming motion. Depending on the strength of friction, the spontaneous formation of a stationary shock or a spatial bifurcation into a fast flow and a slow vortex flow is observed. In the quiescent streaming region, the particle flow features a shell structure which undergoes a structural phase transition along the flow direction.
GASFLOW Simulations of Flow in Buildings
Muller, C.; Liles, D.R.; Spore, J.W.; Niederauer, G.F.
1998-09-01
The goal of these simulation studies was to demonstrate the capability of the GASFLOW computer code to predict detailed concentration distributions of toxic gases released in a subway station and in an airplane hangar, which represents an open building like a gymnasium. GASFLOW is a finite-volume computer code for solving transient, three-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations for multiple gas species. It calculates the transport, mixing, and combustion of flammable gases and aerosols in geometrically complex domains.
Local-Scale Atmospheric Reactive Flow Simulations
Westbrook, C K; Lee, R L
2005-03-29
A computer model was developed to simulate the spatial and chemical evolution of gaseous and aerosol chemicals released into the atmosphere. The evolution is followed over the range of a few kilometers, in environments including terrain variability, urban features including buildings, and variable winds. Submodels for both gas phase chemicals and the chemical composition of liquid and particulate aerosols are included, and preliminary tests of the model are described.
Statistically accurate simulations for atmospheric flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubinkina, S.
2009-04-01
A Hamiltonian particle-mesh method for quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity flow is proposed. The microscopic vorticity field at any time is an area- and energy-conserving rearrangement of the initial field. We construct a statistical mechanics theory to explain the long-time behavior of the numerical solution. The statistical theory correctly predicts the spatial distribution of particles as a function of their point vorticity. A nonlinear relation between the coarse grained mean stream function and mean vorticity fields is predicted, consistent with the preservation of higher moments of potential vorticity reported in [R. V. Abramov, A. J. Majda 2003, PNAS 100 3841--3846].
Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wugalter, S.
1974-01-01
Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.
Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barile, Ronald G.
1986-01-01
Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.
Numerical Simulation of Two Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
2001-01-01
Two phase flows can be found in broad situations in nature, biology, and industry devices and can involve diverse and complex mechanisms. While the physical models may be specific for certain situations, the mathematical formulation and numerical treatment for solving the governing equations can be general. Hence, we will require information concerning each individual phase as needed in a single phase. but also the interactions between them. These interaction terms, however, pose additional numerical challenges because they are beyond the basis that we use to construct modern numerical schemes, namely the hyperbolicity of equations. Moreover, due to disparate differences in time scales, fluid compressibility and nonlinearity become acute, further complicating the numerical procedures. In this paper, we will show the ideas and procedure how the AUSM-family schemes are extended for solving two phase flows problems. Specifically, both phases are assumed in thermodynamic equilibrium, namely, the time scales involved in phase interactions are extremely short in comparison with those in fluid speeds and pressure fluctuations. Details of the numerical formulation and issues involved are discussed and the effectiveness of the method are demonstrated for several industrial examples.
Copepod Behavioral Response to Simulated Frontal Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.; Genin, A.
2015-11-01
When presented with a fine-scale upwelling or downwelling shear flow in a laboratory flume, two tropical copepods from the Red Sea, Acartia negligens and Clausocalanus furcatus, performed a set of behaviors that resulted in apparent depth-keeping and the potential for producing patchiness. Analyses of free-swimming trajectories revealed a behavioral threshold shear deformation rate value of 0.05 s-1 for both species. This threshold triggered statistically significant changes in path kinematics (i.e., relative swimming speed and turn frequency) in the shear layer versus out-of-layer. Gross path characteristics (i.e., net-to-gross displacement ratio, NGDR, and proportional vicinity time, PVT) were also significantly different in the shear layer treatments compared to controls. The vertical net-to-gross displacement ratio (VNGDR) was introduced here to explain a spectrum of depth-keeping behaviors. The mean value of VNGDR significantly increased in the shear layer treatments and, coupled with excited relative swimming speeds, suggested the potential to induce large vertical transport (at the 10 cm scale of the observation). However, histograms of VNGDR revealed a bimodality, which indicated a sizable portion of the population was also displaying depth-keeping behavior. Those copepod trajectories displaying large VNGDR predominately consisted of copepods swimming against the flow, thereby resisting vertical advection, which is another potential depth-keeping mechanism.
Numerical Simulation of Fluidic Actuators for Flow Control Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vasta, Veer N.; Koklu, Mehti; Wygnanski, Israel L.; Fares, Ehab
2012-01-01
Active flow control technology is finding increasing use in aerospace applications to control flow separation and improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper we examine the characteristics of a class of fluidic actuators that are being considered for active flow control applications for a variety of practical problems. Based on recent experimental work, such actuators have been found to be more efficient for controlling flow separation in terms of mass flow requirements compared to constant blowing and suction or even synthetic jet actuators. The fluidic actuators produce spanwise oscillating jets, and therefore are also known as sweeping jets. The frequency and spanwise sweeping extent depend on the geometric parameters and mass flow rate entering the actuators through the inlet section. The flow physics associated with these actuators is quite complex and not fully understood at this time. The unsteady flow generated by such actuators is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann based solver PowerFLOW R . Computed mean and standard deviation of velocity profiles generated by a family of fluidic actuators in quiescent air are compared with experimental data. Simulated results replicate the experimentally observed trends with parametric variation of geometry and inflow conditions.
A flexible open-source toolkit for lava flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mossoux, Sophie; Feltz, Adelin; Poppe, Sam; Canters, Frank; Kervyn, Matthieu
2014-05-01
Lava flow hazard modeling is a useful tool for scientists and stakeholders confronted with imminent or long term hazard from basaltic volcanoes. It can improve their understanding of the spatial distribution of volcanic hazard, influence their land use decisions and improve the city evacuation during a volcanic crisis. Although a range of empirical, stochastic and physically-based lava flow models exists, these models are rarely available or require a large amount of physical constraints. We present a GIS toolkit which models lava flow propagation from one or multiple eruptive vents, defined interactively on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). It combines existing probabilistic (VORIS) and deterministic (FLOWGO) models in order to improve the simulation of lava flow spatial spread and terminal length. Not only is this toolkit open-source, running in Python, which allows users to adapt the code to their needs, but it also allows users to combine the models included in different ways. The lava flow paths are determined based on the probabilistic steepest slope (VORIS model - Felpeto et al., 2001) which can be constrained in order to favour concentrated or dispersed flow fields. Moreover, the toolkit allows including a corrective factor in order for the lava to overcome small topographical obstacles or pits. The lava flow terminal length can be constrained using a fixed length value, a Gaussian probability density function or can be calculated based on the thermo-rheological properties of the open-channel lava flow (FLOWGO model - Harris and Rowland, 2001). These slope-constrained properties allow estimating the velocity of the flow and its heat losses. The lava flow stops when its velocity is zero or the lava temperature reaches the solidus. Recent lava flows of Karthala volcano (Comoros islands) are here used to demonstrate the quality of lava flow simulations with the toolkit, using a quantitative assessment of the match of the simulation with the real lava flows. The
Advanced simulation study on bunch gap transient effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Akai, Kazunori
2016-06-01
Bunch phase shift along the train due to a bunch gap transient is a concern in high-current colliders. In KEKB operation, the measured phase shift along the train agreed well with a simulation and a simple analytical form in most part of the train. However, a rapid phase change was observed at the leading part of the train, which was not predicted by the simulation or by the analytical form. In order to understand the cause of this observation, we have developed an advanced simulation, which treats the transient loading in each of the cavities of the three-cavity system of the accelerator resonantly coupled with energy storage (ARES) instead of the equivalent single cavities used in the previous simulation, operating in the accelerating mode. In this paper, we show that the new simulation reproduces the observation, and clarify that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is caused by a transient loading in the three-cavity system of ARES. KEKB is being upgraded to SuperKEKB, which is aiming at 40 times higher luminosity than KEKB. The gap transient in SuperKEKB is investigated using the new simulation, and the result shows that the rapid phase change at the leading part of the train is much larger due to higher beam currents. We will also present measures to mitigate possible luminosity reduction or beam performance deterioration due to the rapid phase change caused by the gap transient.
Multiscale Simulation of Moist Global Atmospheric Flows
Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.
2015-04-13
The overarching goal of this award was to include phase changes of the water substance and accompanying latent heating and precipitation processes into the all-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamics EUlerian/LAGrangian (EULAG) model. The model includes fluid flow solver that is based on either an unabbreviated set of the governing equations (i.e., compressible dynamics) or a simplified set of equations without sound waves (i.e., sound-proof, either anelastic or pseudo-incompressible). The latter set has been used in small-scale dynamics for decades, but its application to the all-scale dynamics (from small-scale to planetary) has never been studied in practical implementations. The highlight of the project is the development of the moist implicit compressible model that can be run by applying time steps, as long as the anelastic model is limited only by the computational stability of the fluid flow and not by the speed of sound waves that limit the stability of explicit compressible models. Applying various versions of the EULAG model within the same numerical framework allows for an unprecedented comparison of solutions obtained with various sets of the governing equations and straightforward evaluation of the impact of various physical parameterizations on the model solutions. The main outcomes of this study are reported in three papers, two published and one currently under review. These papers include comparisons between model solutions for idealized moist problems across the range of scales from small to planetary. These tests include: moist thermals rising in the stable-stratified environment (following Grabowski and Clark, J. Atmos. Sci. 1991) and in the moist-neutral environment (after Bryan and Fritsch, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), moist flows over a mesoscale topography (as in Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), deep convection in a sheared environment (following Weisman and Klemp, Mon. Wea. Rev. 1982), moist extension of the baroclinic wave on
Numerical Flow Simulation for Complete Vehicle Configurations
1993-09-01
TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. •uNOING NUMBERS Numerical Field Simulation around complete configuration F49620-90-C- 6. AUTHOR(S) 0027PO006 Bharat K. Soni...2_3 d 71 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING CRGANIZATION NSF/Engineering Research Center f•r . 5 j 5 ( F i REPORT NUMBER P...AVAILABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. TABLE OF CONTENTS A bstract
Detached Eddy Simulation of Flap Side-Edge Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, Shankar K.; Shariff, Karim R.
2016-01-01
Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of flap side-edge flow was performed with a wing and half-span flap configuration used in previous experimental and numerical studies. The focus of the study is the unsteady flow features responsible for the production of far-field noise. The simulation was performed at a Reynolds number (based on the main wing chord) of 3.7 million. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed as a precursor to the DES. The results of these precursor simulations match previous experimental and RANS results closely. Although the present DES simulations have not reached statistical stationary yet, some unsteady features of the developing flap side-edge flowfield are presented. In the final paper it is expected that statistically stationary results will be presented including comparisons of surface pressure spectra with experimental data.
Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations
Zhong, Xiaolin
2012-12-13
In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.
Continuum simulations of water flow in carbon nanotube membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popadić, A.; Walther, J. H.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Praprotnik, M.
2014-08-01
We propose the use of the Navier-Stokes equations subject to partial-slip boundary conditions to simulate water flows in Carbon NanoTube (CNT) membranes. The finite volume discretizations of the Navier-Stokes equations are combined with slip lengths extracted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to predict the pressure losses at the CNT entrance as well as the enhancement of the flow rate in the CNT. The flow quantities calculated from the present hybrid approach are in excellent agreement with pure MD results while they are obtained at a fraction of the computational cost. The method enables simulations of system sizes and times well beyond the present capabilities of MD simulations. Our simulations provide an asymptotic flow rate enhancement and indicate that the pressure losses at the CNT ends can be reduced by reducing their curvature. More importantly, our results suggest that flows at nanoscale channels can be described by continuum solvers with proper boundary conditions that reflect the molecular interactions of the liquid with the walls of the nanochannel.
Continuum Simulations of Water Flow in Carbon Nanotube Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walther, J. H.; Popadic, A.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Praprotnik, M.
2014-11-01
We propose the use of the Navier-Stokes equations subject to partial-slip boundary conditions to simulate water flows in Carbon NanoTube (CNT) membranes. The finite volume discretisations of the Navier-Stokes equations are combined with slip lengths extracted from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to predict the pressure losses at the CNT entrance as well as the enhancement of the flow rate in the CNT. The flow quantities calculated from the present hybrid approach are in excellent agreement with pure MD results while they are obtained at a fraction of the computational cost. The method enables simulations of system sizes and times well beyond the present capabilities of MD simulations. Our simulations provide an asymptotic flow rate enhancement and indicate that the pressure losses at the CNT ends can be reduced by reducing their curvature. More importantly, our results suggest that flows at nanoscale channels can be described by continuum solvers with proper boundary conditions that reflect the molecular interactions of the liquid with the walls of the nanochannel.
A general kinetic-flow coupling model for FCC riser flow simulation.
Chang, S. L.
1998-05-18
A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code has been developed for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) riser flow simulation. Depending on the application of interest, a specific kinetic model is needed for the FCC flow simulation. This paper describes a method to determine a kinetic model based on limited pilot-scale test data. The kinetic model can then be used with the CFD code as a tool to investigate optimum operating condition ranges for a specific FCC unit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Weizhong; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ose, Yasuo; Ohnuki, Akira; Akimoto, Hajime; Hotta, Akitoshi; Fujimura, Ken
In relation to the design of an innovative FLexible-fuel-cycle Water Reactor (FLWR), investigation of thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles of the FLWR is being carried out at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The FLWR core adopts a tight triangular lattice arrangement with about 1 mm gap clearance between adjacent fuel rods. In view of importance of accurate prediction of cross flow between subchannels in the evaluation of the boiling transition (BT) in the FLWR core, this study presents a statistical evaluation of numerical simulation results obtained by a detailed two-phase flow simulation code, TPFIT, which employs an advanced interface tracking method. In order to clarify mechanisms of cross flow in such tight lattice rod bundles, the TPFIT is applied to simulate water-steam two-phase flow in two modeled subchannels. Attention is focused on instantaneous fluctuation characteristics of cross flow. With the calculation of correlation coefficients between differential pressure and gas/liquid mixing coefficients, time scales of cross flow are evaluated, and effects of mixing section length, flow pattern and gap spacing on correlation coefficients are investigated. Differences in mechanism between gas and liquid cross flows are pointed out.
Numerical simulation of the SOFIA flow field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klotz, Stephen P.
1995-01-01
This report provides a concise summary of the contribution of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project at NASA Ames and presents results obtained from closed- and open-cavity SOFIA simulations. The aircraft platform is a Boeing 747SP and these are the first SOFIA simulations run with the aircraft empennage included in the geometry database. In the open-cavity runs the telescope is mounted behind the wings. Results suggest that the cavity markedly influences the mean pressure distribution on empennage surfaces and that 110-140 decibel (db) sound pressure levels are typical in the cavity and on the horizontal and vertical stabilizers. A strong source of sound was found to exist on the rim of the open telescope cavity. The presence of this source suggests that additional design work needs to be performed in order to minimize the sound emanating from that location. A fluid dynamic analysis of the engine plumes is also contained in this report. The analysis was part of an effort to quantify the degradation of telescope performance resulting from the proximity of the port engine exhaust plumes to the open telescope bay.
Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Within Parallel Plate Plastometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antar, Basil N.
2002-01-01
Parallel Plate Plastometer (PPP) is a device commonly used for measuring the viscosity of high polymers at low rates of shear in the range 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) poises. This device is being validated for use in measuring the viscosity of liquid glasses at high temperatures having similar ranges for the viscosity values. PPP instrument consists of two similar parallel plates, both in the range of 1 inch in diameter with the upper plate being movable while the lower one is kept stationary. Load is applied to the upper plate by means of a beam connected to shaft attached to the upper plate. The viscosity of the fluid is deduced from measuring the variation of the plate separation, h, as a function of time when a specified fixed load is applied on the beam. Operating plate speeds measured with the PPP is usually in the range of 10.3 cm/s or lower. The flow field within the PPP can be simulated using the equations of motion of fluid flow for this configuration. With flow speeds in the range quoted above the flow field between the two plates is certainly incompressible and laminar. Such flows can be easily simulated using numerical modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. We present below the mathematical model used to simulate this flow field and also the solutions obtained for the flow using a commercially available finite element CFD code.
Numerical Simulation of Sickle Cell Blood Flow in the Microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Stanley A.; Carlson, Brian E.
2001-11-01
A numerical simulation of normal and sickle cell blood flow through the transverse arteriole-capillary microcirculation is carried out to model the dominant mechanisms involved in the onset of vascular stasis in sickle cell disease. The transverse arteriole-capillary network is described by Strahler's network branching method, and the oxygen and blood transport in the capillaries is modeled by a Krogh cylinder analysis utilizing Lighthill's lubrication theory, as developed by Berger and King. Poiseuille's law is used to represent blood flow in the arterioles. Applying this flow and transport model and utilizing volumetric flow continuity at each network bifurcation, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained, which is solved iteratively using a steepest descent algorithm coupled with a Newton solver. Ten different networks are generated and flow results are calculated for normal blood and sickle cell blood without and with precapillary oxygen loss. We find that total volumetric blood flow through the network is greater in the two sickle cell blood simulations than for normal blood owing to the anemia associated with sickle cell disease. The percentage of capillary blockage in the network increases dramatically with decreasing pressure drop across the network in the sickle cell cases while there is no blockage when normal blood flows through simulated networks. It is concluded that, in sickle cell disease, without any vasomotor dilation response to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the blood, capillary blockage will occur in the microvasculature even at average pressure drops across the transverse arteriole-capillary networks.
Two inviscid computational simulations of separated flow about airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnwell, R. W.
1976-01-01
Two inviscid computational simulations of separated flow about airfoils are described. The basic computational method is the line relaxation finite-difference method. Viscous separation is approximated with inviscid free-streamline separation. The point of separation is specified, and the pressure in the separation region is calculated. In the first simulation, the empiricism of constant pressure in the separation region is employed. This empiricism is easier to implement with the present method than with singularity methods. In the second simulation, acoustic theory is used to determine the pressure in the separation region. The results of both simulations are compared with experiment.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.
1992-01-01
The basic objective of this research is to extend the capabilities of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. In the efforts related to LES, we were primarily involved with assessing the performance of the various modern methods based on the Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for providing closures for treating the subgrid fluctuation correlations of scalar quantities in reacting turbulent flows. In the work on DNS, we concentrated on understanding some of the relevant physics of compressible reacting flows by means of statistical analysis of the data generated by DNS of such flows. In the research conducted in the second year of this program, our efforts focused on the modeling of homogeneous compressible turbulent flows by PDF methods, and on DNS of non-equilibrium reacting high speed mixing layers. Some preliminary work is also in progress on PDF modeling of shear flows, and also on LES of such flows.
Hydrodynamic performance and cavitation of an open propeller in a simulated ice-blocked flow
Walker, D.; Bose, N.; Yamaguchi, H. )
1994-08-01
Experiments were done on a 200-mm-dia open propeller behind a simulated ice blockage in a cavitation tunnel. The propeller performance in uniform flow and blocked flow is contrasted over a range of advance coefficients and at different cavitation numbers. Mean thrust and torque coefficients are presented. The types of cavitation, and its intermittent nature over a cycle of operation, are reported. The experiments indicate the likelihood of cavitation at full scale for blocked conditions and illustrate the effects of cavitation on mean values of thrust and torque.
Experimental Validation of Numerical Simulations for an Acoustic Liner in Grazing Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Pastouchenko, Nikolai N.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.
2013-01-01
A coordinated experimental and numerical simulation effort is carried out to improve our understanding of the physics of acoustic liners in a grazing flow as well our computational aeroacoustics (CAA) method prediction capability. A numerical simulation code based on advanced CAA methods is developed. In a parallel effort, experiments are performed using the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube at the NASA Langley Research Center. In the experiment, a liner is installed in the upper wall of a rectangular flow duct with a 2 inch by 2.5 inch cross section. Spatial distribution of sound pressure levels and relative phases are measured on the wall opposite the liner in the presence of a Mach 0.3 grazing flow. The computer code is validated by comparing computed results with experimental measurements. Good agreements are found. The numerical simulation code is then used to investigate the physical properties of the acoustic liner. It is shown that an acoustic liner can produce self-noise in the presence of a grazing flow and that a feedback acoustic resonance mechanism is responsible for the generation of this liner self-noise. In addition, the same mechanism also creates additional liner drag. An estimate, based on numerical simulation data, indicates that for a resonant liner with a 10% open area ratio, the drag increase would be about 4% of the turbulent boundary layer drag over a flat wall.
Flow and transport simulation models for prediction of chlorine contact tank flow-through curves.
Wang, Hong; Shao, Xuejun; Falconer, Roger A
2003-01-01
Turbulent flow, solute transport, and chemical and biological decay are some of the basic processes encountered in water treatment plants. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical simulation of turbulent flow and disinfection processes in disinfection contact tanks. Simulation runs have been conducted for various tank design alternatives and in different grid resolutions. The accuracy of simulated contact tank flow and the disinfection process depends largely on calculations of the hydrodynamic and solute transport characteristics in the tanks. A key factor of this is the accuracy of advection and shear stress term computations, which can be affected by the use of different hydrodynamic submodels and numerical schemes. The performance of a simulation model relies to a great extent on the right combination of such submodels and numerical schemes. In this study, a number of simulation models were tested against realistic tank configurations and measurements to evaluate the various combinations of turbulence models and difference schemes by analyzing predicted flow and solute transport patterns, as well as the corresponding flow-through curves. Models for disinfection tank simulations are recommended based on comparisons of simulation results with measurements. These models may also be applied to other water treatment processes such as wastewater treatment.
Simulation of Flow Fluid in the BOF Steelmaking Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Ming; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Ya-Guang; Wang, Yong-Wei
2013-12-01
The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) smelting process consists of different chemical reactions among oxygen, slag, and molten steel, which engenders a vigorous stirring process to promote slagging, dephosphorization, decarbonization, heating of molten steel, and homogenization of steel composition and temperature. Therefore, the oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness vary during the smelting process. This simulation demonstrated a three-dimensional mathematical model for a 100 t converter applying four-hole supersonic oxygen lance and simulated the effect of oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness on the flow of molten bath. It is found that as the oxygen flow rate increases, the impact area and depth increases, which increases the flow speed in the molten bath and decreases the area of dead zone. Low oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact depth and accelerates the flow speed of liquid steel on the surface of the bath, while high oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact area, thereafter enhances the uniform distribution of radial velocity in the molten steel and increases the flow velocity of molten steel at the bottom of furnace hearth. As the slag thickness increases, the diameter of impinging cavity on the slag and steel surface decreases. The radial velocity of liquid steel in the molten bath is well distributed when the jet flow impact on the slag layer increases.
Simulation of two-dimensional flows in micropores
Din, X.; Michaelides, E.E.
1994-12-31
An approach based on the Molecular Dynamics is used to simulate liquid flows in two-dimensional micropores and to obtain the steady-state characteristics of the flow. The mass flux of the liquid is taken as a constraint condition. Therefore, the driving force is introduced according to the Gauss least-constraint principle. The liquid molecules are considered as spheres with the same mass and density as water molecules. The interaction between the liquid molecules is of the Lennard-Jones type. Pure liquid flows and solid-liquid flows are simulated numerically. It is found that the velocity profile of the pure liquid flow matches very well the analytical solution of the plane Poiseuille flows. It was observed that larger particles will tend to flow closer to the walls. Also that the existence of the large particle makes the liquid flow somewhat faster in the center of the pore. Significant velocity slip was observed between the larger particle and the liquid.
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gap Flow
Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo
2015-01-01
Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles. PMID:25635395
Blood flow in the cerebral venous system: modeling and simulation.
Miraucourt, Olivia; Salmon, Stéphanie; Szopos, Marcela; Thiriet, Marc
2017-04-01
The development of a software platform incorporating all aspects, from medical imaging data, through three-dimensional reconstruction and suitable meshing, up to simulation of blood flow in patient-specific geometries, is a crucial challenge in biomedical engineering. In the present study, a fully three-dimensional blood flow simulation is carried out through a complete rigid macrovascular circuit, namely the intracranial venous network, instead of a reduced order simulation and partial vascular network. The biomechanical modeling step is carefully analyzed and leads to the description of the flow governed by the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible viscous fluid. The equations are then numerically solved with a free finite element software using five meshes of a realistic geometry obtained from medical images to prove the feasibility of the pipeline. Some features of the intracranial venous circuit in the supine position such as asymmetric behavior in merging regions are discussed.
Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatami, F.; van der Weide, E.; Hoeijmakers, H.
2015-12-01
For an elliptic Arndt's hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the thermodynamic state of the system, precomputed multiphase thermodynamic tables containing data for the appropriate equations of state for each of the phases are used and a fast, accurate, and efficient look-up approach is employed for interpolating the data. The numerical simulations are carried out using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations for compressible flow. The URANS equations of motion are discretized using an finite volume method for unstructured grids. The numerical simulations clearly show the formation of the tip vortex cavitation in the flow about the elliptic hydrofoil.
Large eddy simulation of a wing-body junction flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Sungmin; Emory, Michael; Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2014-11-01
We present numerical simulations of the wing-body junction flow experimentally investigated by Devenport & Simpson (1990). Wall-junction flows are common in engineering applications but relevant flow physics close to the corner region is not well understood. Moreover, performance of turbulence models for the body-junction case is not well characterized. Motivated by the insufficient investigations, we have numerically investigated the case with Reynolds-averaged Naiver-Stokes equation (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The Vreman model applied for the LES and SST k- ω model for the RANS simulation are validated focusing on the ability to predict turbulence statistics near the junction region. Moreover, a sensitivity study of the form of the Vreman model will also be presented. This work is funded under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX11AI41A (Technical Monitor Dr. Stephen Woodruff)
Toward the improved simulation of microscale gas flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNenly, Matthew James
2007-12-01
Recent interest in fluidic micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in gaseous environments has increased the need for accurate simulation techniques to aid in their design process. Many fluidic MEMS operate in a low-speed non-equilibrium gas flow regime that is challenging to simulate both accurately and efficiently. Classic computational fluid dynamics techniques (e.g. Navier-Stokes simulation) are based on the assumption that the fluid behaves as a continuum. This assumption, however, becomes increasingly less accurate as the local flow conditions deviate further from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Alternatively, it is possible to achieve an accurate approximation of non-equilibrium gas flows using particle-based methods (e.g. DSMC), but the resulting simulations are much more computationally expensive than the continuum-based method. In fact, for the very low speeds commonly found in fluidic MEMS, the slow convergence of the DSMC solution can lead to intractably long computation times on all but the largest supercomputers. Two different approaches are pursued in this investigation, in an effort to design a physically accurate and computationally efficient simulation of low-speed, non-equilibrium flows. The first approach constructs new empirical models to correct the error in the Navier-Stokes simulation in the transition regime due to the appreciable deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. The empirically corrected Navier-Stokes simulation is not actually predicting strongly non-equilibrium gas flows; however, it is shown to be a useful analysis tool in certain design situations. The second more novel approach develops an original quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) particle simulation that retains the physical accuracy of the DSMC method while at the same time achieving a faster (near-linear) convergence rate. The design of a QMC method is far more complex in general than a Monte Carlo method for the same problem. Further, no known QMC particle simulation has
Macroscopic parameters from simulations of pore scale flow
Blunt, M.; King, P. )
1990-10-15
We simulate two-phase flow in a porous medium, which is represented by random, isotropic two- and three-dimensional networks containing up to 80 000 interconnected pore spaces. The simulations are sufficiently large that macroscopic properties of the flow may be determined. For unstable viscous floods, we show that the displacements are compact with a fractal interface between the fluids. The fractal dimension is found as a function of viscosity ratio. For invasion percolation, where the displacement is controlled by capillary forces, and for viscous fingering, we calculate relative permeabilities in an averaged two-phase Darcy equation, which we show are functions of mean saturation. The relative permeabilities also depend on flow rate, which means that the two-phase Darcy equation is nonlinear, even with microscopic linear Poiseuille flow.
Numerical simulation of transient hypervelocity flow in an expansion tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. A.
1992-01-01
Several numerical simulations of the transient flow of helium in an expansion tube are presented. The aim of the exercise is to provide further information on the operational problems of the NASA Langley expansion tube. The calculations were performed with an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code based on a finite-volume formulation and upwinding techniques. Although laminar flow and ideal bursting of the diaphragms was assumed, the simulations showed some of the important features seen in the experiments. In particular, the discontinuity in the tube diameter at the primary diaphragm station introduced a transverse perturbation to the expanding driver gas, and this perturbation was seen to propagate into the test gas under some flow conditions. The disturbances seen in the test flow can be characterized as either 'small-amplitude' noise possibly introduced during shock compression or 'large-amplitude' noise associated with the passage of the reflected head of the unsteady expansion.
Advanced Virtual Reality Simulations in Aerospace Education and Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plotnikova, L.; Trivailo, P.
2002-01-01
Recent research developments at Aerospace Engineering, RMIT University have demonstrated great potential for using Virtual Reality simulations as a very effective tool in advanced structures and dynamics applications. They have also been extremely successful in teaching of various undergraduate and postgraduate courses for presenting complex concepts in structural and dynamics designs. Characteristic examples are related to the classical orbital mechanics, spacecraft attitude and structural dynamics. Advanced simulations, reflecting current research by the authors, are mainly related to the implementation of various non-linear dynamic techniques, including using Kane's equations to study dynamics of space tethered satellite systems and the Co-rotational Finite Element method to study reconfigurable robotic systems undergoing large rotations and large translations. The current article will describe the numerical implementation of the modern methods of dynamics, and will concentrate on the post-processing stage of the dynamic simulations. Numerous examples of building Virtual Reality stand-alone animations, designed by the authors, will be discussed in detail. These virtual reality examples will include: The striking feature of the developed technology is the use of the standard mathematical packages, like MATLAB, as a post-processing tool to generate Virtual Reality Modelling Language files with brilliant interactive, graphics and audio effects. These stand-alone demonstration files can be run under Netscape or Microsoft Explorer and do not require MATLAB. Use of this technology enables scientists to easily share their results with colleagues using the Internet, contributing to the flexible learning development at schools and Universities.
Distortion and flow of nematics simulated by dissipative particle dynamics.
Zhao, Tongyang; Wang, Xiaogong
2014-05-14
In this study, we simulated distortion and flow of nematics by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The nematics were modeled by a binary mixture that contained rigid rods composed of DPD particles as mesogenic units and normal DPD particles as solvent. Elastic distortions were investigated by monitoring director orientation in space under influences of boundary anchoring and external fields. Static distortion demonstrated by the simulation is consistent with the prediction of Frank elastic theory. Spatial distortion profile of the director was examined to obtain static elastic constants. Rotational motions of the director under influence of the external field were simulated to understand the dynamic process. The rules revealed by the simulation are in a good agreement with those obtained from dynamical experiments and classical theories for nematics. Three Miesowicz viscosities were obtained by using external fields to hold the orientation of the rods in shear flows. The simulation showed that the Miesowicz viscosities have the order of ηc > ηa > ηb and the rotational viscosity γ1 is about two orders larger than the Miesowicz viscosity ηb. The DPD simulation correctly reproduced the non-monotonic concentration dependence of viscosity, which is a unique property of lyotropic nematic fluids. By comparing simulation results with classical theories for nematics and experiments, the DPD nematic fluids are proved to be a valid model to investigate the distortion and flow of lyotropic nematics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, R. C.; Athavale, M. M.; Lattime, S. B.; Braun, M. J.
1998-01-01
A videotape presentation of flow in a packed bed of spheres is provided. The flow experiment consisted of three principal elements: (1) an oil tunnel 76.2 mm by 76.2 mm in cross section, (2) a packed bed of spheres in regular and irregular arrays, and (3) a flow characterization methodology, either (a) full flow field tracking (FFFT) or (b) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The refraction indices of the oil and the test array of spheres were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with aluminum oxide particles. Planar laser light provided a two-dimensional projection of the flow field, and a traverse simulated a three-dimensional image of the entire flow field. Light focusing and reflection rendered the spheres black, permitting visualization of the planar circular interfaces in both the axial and transverse directions. Flows were observed near the wall-sphere interface and within the set of spheres. The CFD model required that a representative section of a packed bed be formed and gridded, enclosing and cutting six spheres so that symmetry conditions could be imposed at all cross-boundaries. Simulations had to be made with the flow direction at right angles to that used in the experiments, however, to take advantage of flow symmetry. Careful attention to detail was required for proper gridding. The flow field was three-dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads, as computed in the representative 'cube' of spheres with face symmetry and conclusively demonstrated experimentally herein. Random packing and bed voids tended to disrupt the laminar flow, creating vortices.
A numerical simulation of flows around a deformable gas bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugano, Minoru; Ishii, Ryuji; Morioka, Shigeki
1991-12-01
A numerical simulation of flows around a (deformable) gas bubble rising through an incompressible viscous fluid was carried out on a supercomputer Fujitsu VP2600 at Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. The solution algorithm is a modified Marker And Cell (MAC) method. For the grid generation, an orthogonal mapping proposed by Ryskin and Leal was applied. it is assumed that the shape of the bubble and the flow field are axisymmetric.
Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan
2002-01-01
This viewgraph presentation provides information on the transfer of rocket engine flow simulation technology to work involving the development of blood pumps. Details are offered regarding the design and requirements of mechanical heart assist devices, or VADs (ventricular assist device). There are various computational fluid dynamics issues involved in the visualization of flow in such devices, and these are highlighted and compared to those of rocket turbopumps.
Numerical Simulation of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Taulbee, D. B.; Madnia, C. K.; Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Adumitroaie, V.; James, S.
1999-01-01
The objectives of this research are: (1) to develop and implement a new methodology for large eddy simulation of (LES) of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. (2) To develop algebraic turbulence closures for statistical description of chemically reacting turbulent flows. We have just completed the third year of Phase III of this research. This is the Final Report of our activities on this research sponsored by the NASA LaRC.
Simulation of the Flow Over a Flat Dimpled Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mode, Jeffrey Michael
Passive flow control achieved by surface dimpling can be an effective strategy for reducing drag around bluff bodies - an example of substantial popular interest being the flow around a golf ball. While the general effect of dimples causing a delay of boundary layer separation is well known, the mechanisms contributing to this phenomena are subtle and not thoroughly understood. Numerical models offer a powerful approach for studying drag reduction, however simulation strategies are challenged by complex geometries, and in applications the introduction of ad hoc turbulence models which introduce additional uncertainty. These and other factors provide much of the motivation for the current study, which focused on the numerical simulations of the flow over a simplified configuration consisting of a dimpled flat plate. The principal goals of the work are to understand the performance of the numerical methodology, and gain insight into the underlying physics of the flow. Direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a fractional step method was employed, with the dimpled flat plate represented using an immersed boundary method. The dimple geometry utilizes a fixed dimple aspect ratio, with dimples arranged in a single spanwise row. The grid sizes considered ranged from approximately 3 to 99 million grid points. Reynolds numbers of 3000 and 4000 based on the inlet laminar boundary layer thickness were simulated. A turbulent boundary layer was induced downstream of the dimples for Reynolds numbers which did not transition for the flow over an undimpled flat plate. First and second order statistics of the boundary layer that develops agree reasonably well with those for turbulent channel flow and flat plate boundary layers in the sublayer and buffer layers, but differ in the outer layer. Inspection of flow visualizations suggest that early transition is promoted by thinning of the boundary layer, initiation of shear layer instabilities
Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow in Solid Rocket Motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attili, A.; Favini, B.; Di Giacinto, M.; Serraglia, F.
2009-01-01
In the paper a general mathematical description of the flow in the internal chamber of solid rocket motors is presented. The formulation adopted take into account the multi-species and multiphase, reactive, multidimensional characteristics of the flow. The grain combustion is described by a pressure dependent law; aluminum droplet are modelled by a Lagrangian approach, coupled with the Eulerian formulation adopted for the gas phase. The mathematical model has been implemented in a simulation code and several simulations have been performed; in particular in the paper the re- sults for two geometries are described: a simple cylindrical port-area rocket and the Zefiro 9 SRM.
Laminar flow transition: A large-eddy simulation approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, S.
1982-01-01
A vectorized, semi-implicit code was developed for the solution of the time-dependent, three dimensional equations of motion in plane Poiseuille flow by the large-eddy simulation technique. The code is tested by comparing results with those obtained from the solutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Comparisons indicate that finite-differences employed along the cross-stream direction act as an implicit filter. This removes the necessity of explicit filtering along this direction (where a nonhomogeneous mesh is used) for the simulation of laminar flow transition into turbulence in which small scale turbulence will be accounted for by a subgrid scale turbulence model.
Simulation of Inviscid Compressible Multi-Phase Flow with Condensation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelleners, Philip
2003-01-01
Condensation of vapours in rapid expansions of compressible gases is investigated. In the case of high temperature gradients the condensation will start at conditions well away from thermodynamic equilibrium of the fluid. In those cases homogeneous condensation is dominant over heterogeneous condensation. The present work is concerned with development of a simulation tool for computation of high speed compressible flows with homogeneous condensation. The resulting ow solver should preferably be accurate and robust to be used for simulation of industrial flows in general geometries.
Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum.
Forkner, Rebecca E
2014-05-01
To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple (Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ∼7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ~16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.
Prediction of cavitating flow noise by direct numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Jung H.; Moon, Young J.; Shin, Byeong Rog
2008-06-01
In this study, a direct numerical simulation procedure for the cavitating flow noise is presented. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are written for the two-phase fluid, employing a density-based homogeneous equilibrium model with a linearly-combined equation of state. To resolve the linear and non-linear waves in the cavitating flow, a sixth-order compact central scheme is utilized with the selective spatial filtering technique. The present cavitation model and numerical methods are validated for two benchmark problems: linear wave convection and acoustic saturation in a bubbly flow. The cavitating flow noise is then computed for a 2D circular cylinder flow at Reynolds number based on a cylinder diameter, 200 and cavitation numbers, σ=0.7-2. It is observed that, at cavitation numbers σ=1 and 0.7, the cavitating flow and noise characteristics are significantly changed by the shock waves due to the coherent collapse of the cloud cavitation in the wake. To verify the present direct simulation and further analyze the sources of cavitation noise, an acoustic analogy based on a classical theory of Fitzpatrik and Strasberg is derived. The far-field noise predicted by direct simulation is well compared with that of acoustic analogy, and it also confirms the f-2 decaying rate in the spectrum, as predicted by the model of Fitzpatrik and Strasberg with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation.
Unsteady, viscous, cavitating simulation of injector internal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunnell, Robert Allen
Unsteady 2-D viscous cavitating flows are numerically modeled by solution of the two phase Navier-Stokes Equations formulated with a pseudo-density model. Results are obtained for high L/D slots with chamfered orifices of various dimensions and compared to recent experiments. The model is used to study the effects of orifice size, pressure drop, and the site density (a free variable arising in the pseudo-density formulation relating to the number of nucleation sites in the flow field) on the length and periodicity of the cavitation region. A three dimensional, unsteady, viscous, two-phase Navier- Stokes solver has been developed for simulation of single or two phase flow within the complex geometries of liquid rocket engine and diesel injectors. The solver has been developed to run in parallel over a network of computers to decrease the amount of computation time required for simulations. The solver makes use of a pseudo-density model derived from the Rayleigh-Plesset relation for bubble dynamics. The model accounts for both pressure and inertial effects in the flow field. Simulations of manifold cross-flow over sharp edged orifice and diesel injector internal flows have been made and compared with available experimental results.
A heterogeneous computing environment for simulating astrophysical fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cazes, J.
1994-01-01
In the Concurrent Computing Laboratory in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Louisiana State University we have constructed a heterogeneous computing environment that permits us to routinely simulate complicated three-dimensional fluid flows and to readily visualize the results of each simulation via three-dimensional animation sequences. An 8192-node MasPar MP-1 computer with 0.5 GBytes of RAM provides 250 MFlops of execution speed for our fluid flow simulations. Utilizing the parallel virtual machine (PVM) language, at periodic intervals data is automatically transferred from the MP-1 to a cluster of workstations where individual three-dimensional images are rendered for inclusion in a single animation sequence. Work is underway to replace executions on the MP-1 with simulations performed on the 512-node CM-5 at NCSA and to simultaneously gain access to more potent volume rendering workstations.
Toward Automatic Verification of Goal-Oriented Flow Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate the power of adaptive mesh refinement with adjoint-based error estimates in verification of simulations governed by the steady Euler equations. The flow equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a Cartesian mesh with cut cells at the wall boundaries. The discretization error in selected simulation outputs is estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals. Practical aspects of the implementation are emphasized, particularly in the formulation of the refinement criterion and the mesh adaptation strategy. Following a thorough code verification example, we demonstrate simulation verification of two- and three-dimensional problems. These involve an airfoil performance database, a pressure signature of a body in supersonic flow and a launch abort with strong jet interactions. The results show reliable estimates and automatic control of discretization error in all simulations at an affordable computational cost. Moreover, the approach remains effective even when theoretical assumptions, e.g., steady-state and solution smoothness, are relaxed.
ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS
WALTZ,R.E; CANDY,J; HINTON,F.L; ESTRADA-MILA,C; KINSEY,J.E
2004-10-01
A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite {beta}, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius ({rho}{sub *}) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated.
The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies
Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA
2011-06-14
The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.
The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies
Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.
2008-12-24
The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.
A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.
2015-02-01
A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.
Glass, C Richard; Walters, Keith F A; Gaskell, Philip H; Lee, Yeaw C; Thompson, Harvey M; Emerson, David R; Gu, Xiao-Jun
2010-01-01
Increasing societal and governmental concern about the worldwide use of chemical pesticides is now providing strong drivers towards maximising the efficiency of pesticide utilisation and the development of alternative control techniques. There is growing recognition that the ultimate goal of achieving efficient and sustainable pesticide usage will require greater understanding of the fluid mechanical mechanisms governing the delivery to, and spreading of, pesticide droplets on target surfaces such as leaves. This has led to increasing use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an important component of efficient process design with regard to pesticide delivery to the leaf surface. This perspective highlights recent advances in CFD methods for droplet spreading and film flows, which have the potential to provide accurate, predictive models for pesticide flow on leaf surfaces, and which can take account of each of the key influences of surface topography and chemistry, initial spray deposition conditions, evaporation and multiple droplet spreading interactions. The mathematical framework of these CFD methods is described briefly, and a series of new flow simulation results relevant to pesticide flows over foliage is provided. The potential benefits of employing CFD for practical process design are also discussed briefly.
A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak
Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.
2015-02-15
A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.
A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.
Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X
2015-02-01
A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.
Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method
Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel
2004-09-30
Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.
Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.
1988-01-01
Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.
Numerical simulation of lava flows: Applications to the terrestrial planets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zimbelman, James R.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Kousoum, Juliana; Lampkin, Derrick J.
1993-01-01
Lava flows are the visible expression of the extrusion of volcanic materials on a variety of planetary surfaces. A computer program described by Ishihara et al. appears to be well suited for application to different environments, and we have undertaken tests to evaluate their approach. Our results are somewhat mixed; the program does reproduce reasonable lava flow behavior in many situations, but we have encountered some conditions common to planetary environments for which the current program is inadequate. Here we present our initial efforts to identify the 'parameter space' for reasonable numerical simulations of lava flows.
Direct simulations of turbulent flow using finite-difference schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Moin, Parviz
1989-01-01
A high-order accurate finite-difference approach is presented for calculating incompressible turbulent flow. The methods used include a kinetic energy conserving central difference scheme and an upwind difference scheme. The methods are evaluated in test cases for the evolution of small-amplitude disturbances and fully developed turbulent channel flow. It is suggested that the finite-difference approach can be applied to complex geometries more easilty than highly accurate spectral methods. It is concluded that the upwind scheme is a good candidate for direct simulations of turbulent flows over complex geometries.
Numerical simulation of low Mach number reacting flows
Bell, John B.; Aspden, Andrew J.; Day, Marcus S.; Lijewski,Michael J.
2007-06-20
Using examples from active research areas in combustion andastrophysics, we demonstrate a computationally efficient numericalapproach for simulating multiscale low Mach number reacting flows. Themethod enables simulations that incorporate an unprecedented range oftemporal and spatial scales, while at the same time, allows an extremelyhigh degree of reaction fidelity. Sample applications demonstrate theefficiency of the approach with respect to a traditional time-explicitintegration method, and the utility of the methodology for studying theinteraction of turbulence with terrestrial and astrophysical flamestructures.
Numerical Simulation of the turbulent flow around a wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auerswald, Torsten; Bange, Jens
2014-05-01
In this talk the simulation of turbulent flow around a 3D-wing will be presented. For the simulations the compressible flow model TAU is used which is developed by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The model domain consists of two grids which are communicating with each other by using the chimera technique. The primary grid is the unstructured body-fitted grid that contains the wing and the secondary grid is a cartesian grid upstream of the wing on which the turbulent flow is simulated. During the simulation the cartesian grid is moved towards the wing and in a short distance in front of the wing the grid is stopped and the turbulent flow is passed to the primary grid where it can interact with the wing. Since, the earth surface is not simulated there is no source for atmospheric turbulence in the model. That means that the simulation has to be initialised with an already turbulent wind field. For this purpose a synthetic turbulence generator is used that takes the statistics of measurement data from the atmospheric boundary layer and generates a three-dimensional wind field with the same statistics. The statistics used as input comprise the energy spectrum, the correlation matrix and the variances. In the future it is planned to improve the turbulence generator to also consider coherent structures of the turbulent flow. With this simulation strategy it is possible to simulate the flight of a wing through realistic atmospheric boundary layer turbulence in different weather situations and investigate the effects of the turbulence on the wing. Especially during flights with high angle of attack and at low altitudes it is of interest to investigate how the angle of stall is influenced by the turbulent flow and which scales of the turbulence have an significant effect on the lift and drag produced by the wing. The talk will cover the simulation strategy with TAU and the generation of the synthetic turbulent wind fields based on measurements. Furthermore, results from
Synchronized traffic flow simulating with cellular automata model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Jun-fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-gang; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Xiao-mei; Gao, Zi-you
2009-12-01
The synchronized flow traffic phase of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory can be well reproduced by the model proposed by Jiang and Wu [R. Jiang, Q.S. Wu, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 381]. But in the Jiang and Wu model, the rule for brake light-after switching on, the brake light will not set off until the vehicle accelerates-is obviously unrealistic. Thus we improved the model by considering the difference in accelerating and decelerating performance under different driving conditions. The fundamental diagram and spatial-temporal diagrams are analyzed. We confirmed that the new model could reproduce the synchronized flow by two methods, i.e. the traffic flow interruption effect and performing microscopic analysis of time series data. Simulation results show that the decelerating difference is an important factor to reproduce the synchronized flow. We expect that our work could make contributions to understanding the mechanism of the synchronized flow.
Simulation of blood flow through an artificial heart
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan
1991-01-01
A numerical simulation of the incompressible viscous flow through a prosthetic tilting disk heart valve is presented in order to demonstrate the current capability to model unsteady flows with moving boundaries. Both steady state and unsteady flow calculations are done by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in 3-D generalized curvilinear coordinates. In order to handle the moving boundary problems, the chimera grid embedding scheme which decomposes a complex computational domain into several simple subdomains is used. An algebraic turbulence model for internal flows is incorporated to reach the physiological values of Reynolds number. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical results and experimental measurements. It is found that the tilting disk valve causes large regions of separated flow, and regions of high shear.
A Numerical simulation of transition in plane channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goglia, G.; Biringen, S.
1982-08-01
A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow at a Reynolds number of 7500 is described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32 by 33 by 32 grid. Solutions indicate the existence of structures similar to those observed in the laboratory and which are characteristic of various stages of transition that lead to final breakdown. Details of the resulting flow field after breakdown indicate the evolution of streak-like formations found in turbulent flows. Although the flow field does approach a steady state (turbulent channel flow), implementation of subgrid-scale terms are necessary to obtain proper turbulent statistics.
A Numerical simulation of transition in plane channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goglia, G.; Biringen, S.
1982-01-01
A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow at a Reynolds number of 7500 is described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32 by 33 by 32 grid. Solutions indicate the existence of structures similar to those observed in the laboratory and which are characteristic of various stages of transition that lead to final breakdown. Details of the resulting flow field after breakdown indicate the evolution of streak-like formations found in turbulent flows. Although the flow field does approach a steady state (turbulent channel flow), implementation of subgrid-scale terms are necessary to obtain proper turbulent statistics.
New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts
Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Paul, Kevin; Mullowney, Paul J.; Messmer, Peter; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Esarey, Eric; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Leemans, Wim; Vay, Jean-Luc
2009-01-22
Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating >10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of {approx}2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.
Benchmarking of Advanced Control Strategies for a Simulated Hydroelectric System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finotti, S.; Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.
2017-01-01
This paper analyses and develops the design of advanced control strategies for a typical hydroelectric plant during unsteady conditions, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solutions addressed in this work, the proposed methodologies rely on data-driven and model-based approaches applied to the system under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparisons serve to determine the best solution for the development of the most effective, robust and reliable control tool when applied to the considered hydraulic system.
New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts
Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.
2008-09-10
Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating>10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ~;;2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.
Recent advances of strong-strong beam-beam simulation
Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.; Fischer, Wolfram; Ohmi,Kazuhito
2004-09-15
In this paper, we report on recent advances in strong-strong beam-beam simulation. Numerical methods used in the calculation of the beam-beam forces are reviewed. A new computational method to solve the Poisson equation on nonuniform grid is presented. This method reduces the computational cost by a half compared with the standard FFT based method on uniform grid. It is also more accurate than the standard method for a colliding beam with low transverse aspect ratio. In applications, we present the study of coherent modes with multi-bunch, multi-collision beam-beam interactions at RHIC. We also present the strong-strong simulation of the luminosity evolution at KEKB with and without finite crossing angle.
Numerical Simulations of Canted Nozzle and Scarfed Nozzle Flow Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis
2016-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used for the analysis of issues concerning non-conventional (canted and scarfed) nozzle flow fields. Numerical simulations are carried out for the quality of flow in terms of axisymmetric nature at the inlet of canted nozzles of a rocket motor. Two different nozzle geometries are examined. The analysis of these simulation results shows that the flow field at the entry of the nozzles is non axisymmetric at the start of the motor. With time this asymmetry diminishes, also the flow becomes symmetric before the nozzle throat, indicating no misalignment of thrust vector with the nozzle axis. The qualitative flow fields at the inlet of the nozzles are used in selecting the geometry with lesser flow asymmetry. Further CFD methodology is used to analyse flow field of a scarfed nozzle for the evaluation of thrust developed and its direction. This work demonstrates the capability of the CFD based methods for the nozzle analysis problems which were earlier solved only approximately by making simplifying assumptions and semi empirical methods.
Simulation of plasma flow in the DIII-D Tokamak
Porter, G. D., LLNL
1998-06-19
The importance of the parallel flow of primary and impurity ions in the Scrape-Off layer (SOL) of divertor tokamaks has been recognized recently. Impurity accumulation on the closed flux surfaces is determined in part by their parallel flow in the SOL. In turn, the parallel transport of the impurity ions is determined in part by drag from the primary ion flow. Measurement of flow in the DIII-D tokamak has begun recently. We describe initial results of modeling plasma ion flow using the 2-D code UEDGE in this paper. We assume the impurity (carbon) arises from chemical and physical sputtering from the walls surrounding the DIII-D plasma. We include six charge states of carbon in our simulations. We make detailed compaison with a multitude of SOL plasma diagnostics, including the flow measurement, to verify the UEDGE physics model. We begin the paper with a brief description of the plasma and neutral models in the UEDGE code in Section 2. We then present initial results of flow simulations and compare them with experimental measurement in Section 3. We conclude with a discussion of the dominant physics processes identified in the modeling in Section 4.
Numerical simulation of non-Newtonian free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Homsy, G. M.; Azaiez, J.
1993-01-01
Free shear flows, like those of mixing layers, are encountered in aerodynamics, in the atmosphere, and in the ocean as well as in many industrial applications such as flow reactors or combustion chambers. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the mechanisms governing the process of transition to turbulence in order to predict and control the evolution of the flow. Delaying transition to turbulence as far downstream as possible allows a gain in energy expenditure while accelerating the transition can be of interest in processes where high mixing is desired. Various methods, including the use of polymer additives, can be effective in controlling fluid flows. The drag reduction obtained by the addition of small amounts of high polymers has been an active area of research for the last three decades. It is now widely believed that polymer additives can affect the stability of a large variety of flows and that dilute solutions of these polymers have been shown to produce drag reductions of over 80 percent in internal flows and over 60 percent in external flows under a wide range of conditions. The major thrust of this work is to study the effects of polymer additives on the stability of the incompressible mixing layer through large scale numerical simulations. In particular, we focus on the two dimensional flow and examine how the presence of viscoelasticity may affect the typical structures of the flow, namely roll-up and pairing of vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koppol, Anantha Padmanabha Rao
Flows of viscoelastic polymeric fluids are of great fundamental and practical interest as polymeric materials for commodity and value-added products are processed typically in a fluid state. The nonlinear coupling between fluid motion and microstructure, which results in highly non-Newtonian theology, memory/relaxation and normal stress development or tension along streamlines, greatly complicates the analysis, design and control of such flows. This has posed tremendous challenges to researchers engaged in developing first principles models and simulations that can accurately and robustly predict the dynamical behavior of polymeric flows. Despite this, the past two decades have witnessed several significant advances towards accomplishing this goal. Yet a problem of fundamental and great pragmatic interest has defied solution to years of ardent research by several groups, namely the relationship between friction drag and flow rate in inertialess flows of highly elastic polymer solutions in complex kinematics flows. First principles-based solution of this long-standing problem in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics is the goal of this research. To achieve our objective, it is essential to develop the capability to perform large-scale multiscale simulations, which integrate continuum-level finite element solvers for the conservation of mass and momentum with fast integrators of stochastic differential equations that describe the evolution of polymer configuration. Hence, in this research we have focused our attention on development of a parallel, multiscale simulation algorithm that is capable of robustly and efficiently simulating complex kinematics flows of dilute polymeric solutions using the first principles based bead-spring chain description of the polymer molecules. The fidelity and computational efficiency of the algorithm has been demonstrated via three benchmark flow problems, namely, the plane Couette flow, the Poiseuille flow and the 4:1:4 axisymmetric
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macrossan, M. N.
1995-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the established technique for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. In some flows of engineering interest, such as occur for aero-braking spacecraft in the upper atmosphere, DSMC can become prohibitively expensive in CPU time because some regions of the flow, particularly on the windward side of blunt bodies, become collision dominated. As an alternative to using a hybrid DSMC and continuum gas solver (Euler or Navier-Stokes solver) this work is aimed at making the particle simulation method efficient in the high density regions of the flow. A high density, infinite collision rate limit of DSMC, the Equilibrium Particle Simulation method (EPSM) was proposed some 15 years ago. EPSM is developed here for the flow of a gas consisting of many different species of molecules and is shown to be computationally efficient (compared to DSMC) for high collision rate flows. It thus offers great potential as part of a hybrid DSMC/EPSM code which could handle flows in the transition regime between rarefied gas flows and fully continuum flows. As a first step towards this goal a pure EPSM code is described. The next step of combining DSMC and EPSM is not attempted here but should be straightforward. EPSM and DSMC are applied to Taylor-Couette flow with Kn = 0.02 and 0.0133 and S(omega) = 3). Toroidal vortices develop for both methods but some differences are found, as might be expected for the given flow conditions. EPSM appears to be less sensitive to the sequence of random numbers used in the simulation than is DSMC and may also be more dissipative. The question of the origin and the magnitude of the dissipation in EPSM is addressed. It is suggested that this analysis is also relevant to DSMC when the usual accuracy requirements on the cell size and decoupling time step are relaxed in the interests of computational efficiency.
Numerical simulations of high Knudsen number gas flows and microchannel electrokinetic liquid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fang
Low pressure and microchannel gas flows are characterized by high Knudsen numbers. Liquid flows in microchannels are characterized by non-conventional driving potentials like electrokinetic forces. The main thrust of the dissertation is to investigate these two different kinds of flows in gases and liquids respectively. High Knudsen number (Kn) gas flows were characterized by 'rarified' or 'microscale' behavior. Because of significant non-continuum effect, traditional CFD techniques are often inaccurate for analyzing high Kn number gas flows. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method offers an alternative to traditional CFD which retains its validity in slip and transition flow regimes. To validate the DSMC code, comparisons of simulation results with theoretical analysis and experimental data are made. The DSMC method was first applied to compute low pressure, high Kn flow fields in partially heated two dimensional channels. The effects of varying pressure, inlet flow and gas transport properties (Kn, Reynolds number, Re and the Prandtl number, Pr respectively) on the wall heat transfer (Nusselt number, Nu) were examined. The DSMC method was employed to explore mixing gas flows in two dimensional microchannels. Mixing of two gas streams (H2 and O2) was considered within a microchannel. The effect of the inlet-outlet pressure difference, the pressure ratio of the incoming streams and the accommodation coefficient of the solid wall on mixing length were all examined. Parallelization of a three-dimensional DSMC code was implemented using OpenMP procedure on a shared memory multi-processor computer. The parallel code was used to simulate 3D high Kn number Couette flow and the flow characteristics are found to be very different from their continuum counterparts. A mathematical model describing electrokinetically driven mass transport phenomena in microfabricated chip devices will also be presented. The model accounts for the principal physical phenomena affecting
DNSLab: A gateway to turbulent flow simulation in Matlab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuorinen, V.; Keskinen, K.
2016-06-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research is increasingly much focused towards computationally intensive, eddy resolving simulation techniques of turbulent flows such as large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, we present a compact educational software package called DNSLab, tailored for learning partial differential equations of turbulence from the perspective of DNS in Matlab environment. Based on educational experiences and course feedback from tens of engineering post-graduate students and industrial engineers, DNSLab can offer a major gateway to turbulence simulation with minimal prerequisites. Matlab implementation of two common fractional step projection methods is considered: the 2d Fourier pseudo-spectral method, and the 3d finite difference method with 2nd order spatial accuracy. Both methods are based on vectorization in Matlab and the slow for-loops are thus avoided. DNSLab is tested on two basic problems which we have noted to be of high educational value: 2d periodic array of decaying vortices, and 3d turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is possibly the first to investigate efficiency of a 3d turbulent, wall bounded flow in Matlab. The accuracy and efficiency of DNSLab is compared with a customized OpenFOAM solver called rk4projectionFoam. Based on our experiences and course feedback, the main contribution of DNSLab consists of the following features. (i) The very compact Matlab implementation of present Navier-Stokes solvers provides a gateway to efficient learning of both, physics of turbulent flows, and simulation of turbulence. (ii) Only relatively minor prerequisites on fluid dynamics and numerical methods are required for using DNSLab. (iii) In 2d, interactive results for turbulent flow cases can be obtained. Even for a 3d channel flow, the solver is fast enough for nearly interactive educational use. (iv) DNSLab is made openly available and thus contributing to
Technique for simulating peak-flow hydrographs in Maryland
Dillow, Jonathan J.A.
1998-01-01
The efficient design and management of many bridges, culverts, embankments, and flood-protection structures may require the estimation of time-of-inundation and (or) storage of floodwater relating to such structures. These estimates can be made on the basis of information derived from the peak-flow hydrograph. Average peak-flow hydrographs corresponding to a peak discharge of specific recurrence interval can be simulated for drainage basins having drainage areas less than 500 square miles in Maryland, using a direct technique of known accuracy. The technique uses dimensionless hydrographs in conjunction with estimates of basin lagtime and instantaneous peak flow. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was used to develop an equation for estimating basin lagtime in Maryland. Drainage area, main channel slope, forest cover, and impervious area were determined to be the significant explanatory variables necessary to estimate average basin lagtime at the 95-percent confidence interval. Qualitative variables included in the equation adequately correct for geographic bias across the State. The average standard error of prediction associated with the equation is approximated as plus or minus (+/-) 37.6 percent. Volume correction factors may be applied to the basin lagtime on the basis of a comparison between actual and estimated hydrograph volumes prior to hydrograph simulation. Three dimensionless hydrographs were developed and tested using data collected during 278 significant rainfall-runoff events at 81 stream-gaging stations distributed throughout Maryland and Delaware. The data represent a range of drainage area sizes and basin conditions. The technique was verified by applying it to the simulation of 20 peak-flow events and comparing actual and simulated hydrograph widths at 50 and 75 percent of the observed peak-flow levels. The events chosen are considered extreme in that the average recurrence interval of the selected peak flows is 130 years. The average
Simulation of groundwater flow around a pilot waste tire site
Lin, Y.; Chyi, L.L. . Dept. of Geology)
1994-04-01
The groundwater system in the area contains several aquifers divided by underclays as confining layers. The three aquifers addressed under this research include the upper aquifer above the No. 6 underclay, the middle aquifer above the No. 5 underclay and the lower aquifer above the No. 4 underclay. A quasi-3D conceptual model is used in simulating groundwater flow and MODFLOW is used for the actual modeling. The boundary of the model area is defined by a local divide on the north, the Hugle Run on the west and the Temple Ditch on the east and the Sandy Creek on the south. The model consists of three aquifer layers and two confining layers. The upper one is unconfined, the middle one is a hybrid, and the lower one is confined. In the simulation of the upper aquifer, drain boundary condition is defined to include seepage. In the simulation of the middle aquifer, the Hugle Run and the Temple ditch associated with the alluvium represent a drain boundary and the Sand Creek to the south represents a constant head. The lower aquifer does not have a natural hydrogeologic boundary. The equipotential contours are assigned as constant head boundary. Simulation has indicated that minimal groundwater flow existed in the upper aquifer and it is flowing toward the southwest. Groundwater flow in the middle aquifer near the pilot waste site is somewhat divergent to the south. The velocity is slow near the site but increases quickly toward the southwest. Leakage from the upper aquifer appears to be predominant over the regional flow in the recharge of the middle aquifer. The lower aquifer is recharged mainly by the regional flow and is flowing almost due south.
Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.
1993-01-01
Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.
Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.
1993-12-01
Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.
Graphics simulation and training aids for advanced teleoperation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Won S.; Schenker, Paul S.; Bejczy, Antal K.
1993-01-01
Graphics displays can be of significant aid in accomplishing a teleoperation task throughout all three phases of off-line task analysis and planning, operator training, and online operation. In the first phase, graphics displays provide substantial aid to investigate work cell layout, motion planning with collision detection and with possible redundancy resolution, and planning for camera views. In the second phase, graphics displays can serve as very useful tools for introductory training of operators before training them on actual hardware. In the third phase, graphics displays can be used for previewing planned motions and monitoring actual motions in any desired viewing angle, or, when communication time delay prevails, for providing predictive graphics overlay on the actual camera view of the remote site to show the non-time-delayed consequences of commanded motions in real time. This paper addresses potential space applications of graphics displays in all three operational phases of advanced teleoperation. Possible applications are illustrated with techniques developed and demonstrated in the Advanced Teleoperation Laboratory at JPL. The examples described include task analysis and planning of a simulated Solar Maximum Satellite Repair task, a novel force-reflecting teleoperation simulator for operator training, and preview and predictive displays for on-line operations.
Investigation of the Flow Physics Driving Stall-Side Flutter in Advanced Forward Swept Fan Designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, Albert J.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George; Srivastava, Rakesh
2003-01-01
Flutter-free operation of advanced transonic fan designs continues to be a challenging task for the designers of aircraft engines. In order to meet the demands of increased performance and lighter weight, these modern fan designs usually feature low-aspect ratio shroudless rotor blade designs that make the task of achieving adequate flutter margin even more challenging for the aeroelastician. This is especially true for advanced forward swept designs that encompass an entirely new design space compared to previous experience. Fortunately, advances in unsteady computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques over the past decade now provide an analysis capability that can be used to quantitatively assess the aeroelastic characteristics of these next generation fans during the design cycle. For aeroelastic applications, Mississippi State University and NASA Glenn Research Center have developed the CFD code TURBO-AE. This code is a time-accurate three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes unsteady flow solver developed for axial-flow turbomachinery that can model multiple blade rows undergoing harmonic oscillations with arbitrary interblade phase angles, i.e., nodal diameter patterns. Details of the code can be found in Chen et al. (1993, 1994), Bakhle et al. (1997, 1998), and Srivastava et al. (1999). To assess aeroelastic stability, the work-per-cycle from TURBO-AE is converted to the critical damping ratio since this value is more physically meaningful, with both the unsteady normal pressure and viscous shear forces included in the work-per-cycle calculation. If the total damping (aerodynamic plus mechanical) is negative, then the blade is unstable since it extracts energy from the flow field over the vibration cycle. TURBO-AE is an integral part of an aeroelastic design system being developed at Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services for flutter and forced response predictions, with test cases from development rig and engine tests being used to validate its predictive
Mean Line Pump Flow Model in Rocket Engine System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veres, Joseph P.; Lavelle, Thomas M.
2000-01-01
A mean line pump flow modeling method has been developed to provide a fast capability for modeling turbopumps of rocket engines. Based on this method, a mean line pump flow code PUMPA has been written that can predict the performance of pumps at off-design operating conditions, given the loss of the diffusion system at the design point. The pump code can model axial flow inducers, mixed-flow and centrifugal pumps. The code can model multistage pumps in series. The code features rapid input setup and computer run time, and is an effective analysis and conceptual design tool. The map generation capability of the code provides the map information needed for interfacing with a rocket engine system modeling code. The off-design and multistage modeling capabilities of the code permit parametric design space exploration of candidate pump configurations and provide pump performance data for engine system evaluation. The PUMPA code has been integrated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code and an expander rocket engine system has been simulated. The mean line pump flow code runs as an integral part of the NPSS rocket engine system simulation and provides key pump performance information directly to the system model at all operating conditions.
Study on the numerical schemes for hypersonic flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagdewe, S. P.; Shevare, G. R.; Kim, Heuy-Dong
2009-10-01
Hypersonic flow is full of complex physical and chemical processes, hence its investigation needs careful analysis of existing schemes and choosing a suitable scheme or designing a brand new scheme. The present study deals with two numerical schemes Harten, Lax, and van Leer with Contact (HLLC) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) to effectively simulate hypersonic flow fields, and accurately predict shock waves with minimal diffusion. In present computations, hypersonic flows have been modeled as a system of hyperbolic equations with one additional equation for non-equilibrium energy and relaxing source terms. Real gas effects, which appear typically in hypersonic flows, have been simulated through energy relaxation method. HLLC and AUSM methods are modified to incorporate the conservation laws for non-equilibrium energy. Numerical implementation have shown that non-equilibrium energy convect with mass, and hence has no bearing on the basic numerical scheme. The numerical simulation carried out shows good comparison with experimental data available in literature. Both numerical schemes have shown identical results at equilibrium. Present study has demonstrated that real gas effects in hypersonic flows can be modeled through energy relaxation method along with either AUSM or HLLC numerical scheme.
2011-07-28
nonequilibrium. For example, the plasma transport may transition between rarefied and continuum flow , requiring appropriate models for each case through...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0023 Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics 5a
Propulsion Simulations Using Advanced Turbulence Models with the Unstructured Grid CFD Tool, TetrUSS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.; Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohangna J.
2004-01-01
A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of TetrUSS for exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study (1) an axisymmetric supersonic jet, (2) a transonic axisymmetric boattail with solid sting operated at different Reynolds number and Mach number, and (3) an isolated non-axisymmetric nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing experimental data provided a means for measuring the ability of TetrUSS for simulating complex nozzle flows. The main objective of this paper is to validate the implementation of advanced two-equation turbulence models in the unstructured-grid CFD code USM3D for propulsion flow cases. USM3D is the flow solver of the TetrUSS system. Three different turbulence models, namely, Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), basic k epsilon, and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) are used in the present study. The results are generally in agreement with other implementations of these models in structured-grid CFD codes. Results indicate that USM3D provides accurate simulations for complex aerodynamic configurations with propulsion integration.
Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.
2014-01-01
Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.
Pockels-effect cell for gas-flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weimer, D.
1982-01-01
A Pockels effect cell using a 75 cu cm DK*P crystal was developed and used as a gas flow simulator. Index of refraction gradients were produced in the cell by the fringing fields of parallel plate electrodes. Calibration curves for the device were obtained for index of refraction gradients in excess of .00025 m.
Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications
Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.
1997-05-05
Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.
Direct Finite-Difference Simulations Of Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan; Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
Report discusses use of upwind-biased finite-difference numerical-integration scheme to simulate evolution of small disturbances and fully developed turbulence in three-dimensional flow of viscous, incompressible fluid in channel. Involves use of computational grid sufficiently fine to resolve motion of fluid at all relevant length scales.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows around airfoil and wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marx, Yves P.
1990-01-01
During the last years the simulation of compressible viscous flows has received much attention. While the numerical methods were improved drastically, a satisfactory modeling of the Reynolds stresses is still missing. In this paper, after a short description of the numerical procedure used for solving the Reynolds equations, experiments with a promising simple turbulence model are discussed.
Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George
2008-11-01
High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.
Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.
1999-01-01
Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.
Design and Test of Advanced Thermal Simulators for an Alkali Metal-Cooled Reactor Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garber, Anne E.; Dickens, Ricky E.
2011-01-01
The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has as one of its primary missions the development and testing of fission reactor simulators for space applications. A key component in these simulated reactors is the thermal simulator, designed to closely mimic the form and function of a nuclear fuel pin using electric heating. Continuing effort has been made to design simple, robust, inexpensive thermal simulators that closely match the steady-state and transient performance of a nuclear fuel pin. A series of these simulators have been designed, developed, fabricated and tested individually and in a number of simulated reactor systems at the EFF-TF. The purpose of the thermal simulators developed under the Fission Surface Power (FSP) task is to ensure that non-nuclear testing can be performed at sufficiently high fidelity to allow a cost-effective qualification and acceptance strategy to be used. Prototype thermal simulator design is founded on the baseline Fission Surface Power reactor design. Recent efforts have been focused on the design, fabrication and test of a prototype thermal simulator appropriate for use in the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). While designing the thermal simulators described in this paper, effort were made to improve the axial power profile matching of the thermal simulators. Simultaneously, a search was conducted for graphite materials with higher resistivities than had been employed in the past. The combination of these two efforts resulted in the creation of thermal simulators with power capacities of 2300-3300 W per unit. Six of these elements were installed in a simulated core and tested in the alkali metal-cooled Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC) at a variety of liquid metal flow rates and temperatures. This paper documents the design of the thermal simulators, test program, and test results.
Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow.
Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S
1997-01-01
A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.
Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Hot Aquifers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Leslie
2004-02-01
In recent years, there has been a significant expansion in our ability to model systems that involve the interaction of fluid flow, mass transport, heat transfer, and geochemical reaction in porous media. Such scenarios arise in studies of both fundamental science, such as the effects of thermohaline flow and heat transfer in rift basins, and in the solution of applied problems, such as the response of a geothermal reservoir to the re-injection of cool water. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow in Hot Aquifers presents the simulation tools that were developed by a team of researchers based in Germany. This group has a long history in analyzing geothermal systems, but the methods presented can be applied far beyond the study of geothermal reservoirs. The heart of the book is a description of the model SHEMAT. The executable code and a graphical user interface are included with the book.
Numerical simulation of transitional flows with heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kožíšek, Martin; Příhoda, Jaromír; Fürst, Jiří; Straka, Petr
2016-06-01
The contribution deals with simulation of internal flows with the laminar/turbulent transition and heat transfer. The numerical modeling of incompressible flow on a heated flat plate was carried out partly by the k-kL-ω model of Walters and Cokljat [1] and partly by the algebraic transition model of Straka and Příhoda [2] connected with the EARSM turbulence model of Hellsten [3]. Transition models were tested by means of the skin friction and the Stanton number distribution. Used models of turbulent heat transfer were compared with the simplest model based on the constant turbulent Prandtl number. The k-kL-ω model is applied for the simulation of compressible flow through the VKI turbine blade cascade with heat transfer.
Simulation of erythrocyte deformation in a high shear flow.
Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo
2009-01-01
Deformation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a high-shear flow was investigated. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The simulation of RBC in a parallel shear flow showed deformation parameters of RBC were well agreed with experimental results. The simulation of RBC behavior in various flow fields demonstrated that the shape was determined not only by instantaneous fluid force acting on it but also its deformation history. No consistency was found between the maximum of the first principal strain and conventionally used hemolysis index. Those results addressed the importance of considering an RBC deformation for accurately predicting hemolysis.
Three dimensional direct numerical simulation of complex jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Seungwon; Kahouadji, Lyes; Juric, Damir; Chergui, Jalel; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar
2016-11-01
We present three-dimensional simulations of two types of very challenging jet flow configurations. The first consists of a liquid jet surrounded by a faster coaxial air flow and the second consists of a global rotational motion. These computations require a high spatial resolution and are performed with a newly developed high performance parallel code, called BLUE, for the simulation of two-phase, multi-physics and multi-scale incompressible flows, tested on up to 131072 threads with excellent scalability performance. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique that defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. Coriolis forces are taken into account and solved via an exact time-integration method that ensures numerical accuracy and stability. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.
Flow Simulation of N2B Hybrid Wing Body Configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, Meng-Sing
2012-01-01
The N2B hybrid wing body aircraft was conceptually designed to meet environmental and performance goals for the N+2 generation transport set by the subsonic fixed wing project. In this study, flow fields around the N2B configuration is simulated using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver using unstructured meshes. Boundary conditions at engine fan face and nozzle exhaust planes are provided by response surfaces of the NPSS thermodynamic engine cycle model. The present flow simulations reveal challenging design issues arising from boundary layer ingestion offset inlet and nacelle-airframe interference. The N2B configuration can be a good test bed for application of multidisciplinary design optimization technology.
Numerical simulations of unsteady reactive flows in a combustion chamber
Kailasanath, K.; Gardner, J.H.; Oran, E.S.; Boris, J.P. )
1991-07-01
This paper reports on a potentially important source of large-pressure oscillations in combustors that is an instability induced by the interactions between large-scale vortex structures, acoustic waves, and chemical energy release. To study these interactions, we have performed time-dependent, compressible numerical simulations of the flow field in an idealized ramjet consisting of an axisymmetric inlet and combustor and a choked nozzle. Both reactive and nonreactive flows have been simulated. The nonreactive flow calculations show complex interactions among the natural instability frequency of the shear layer at the inlet-combustor junction and the acoustics of both the inlet and the combustor. Vortex shedding occurs at the natural instability frequency of the shear layer but vortex mergings are affected by the acoustic frequencies of the system. The entire flow oscillates at a low frequency that corresponds to that of a quarter-wave mode in the inlet. For the particular reactive flow case studies, energy release alters the flow field substantially.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Seonghyeon; Je, Jongdoo; Choi, Haecheon
2002-01-01
The main objectives of this study are to suggest a proper boundary condition at the interface between a permeable block and turbulent channel flow and to investigate the characteristics of turbulent channel flow with permeable walls. The boundary condition suggested is an extended version of that applied to laminar channel flow by Beavers & Joseph (1967) and describes the behaviour of slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the permeable block and turbulent channel flow. With the proposed boundary condition, direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow that is bounded by the permeable wall are performed and significant skin-friction reductions at the permeable wall are obtained with modification of overall flow structures. The viscous sublayer thickness is decreased and the near-wall vortical structures are significantly weakened by the permeable wall. The permeable wall also reduces the turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress, and pressure and vorticity fluctuations throughout the channel except very near the wall. The increase of some turbulence quantities there is due to the slip-velocity fluctuations at the wall. The boundary condition proposed for the permeable wall is validated by comparing solutions with those obtained from a separate direct numerical simulation using both the Brinkman equation for the interior of a permeable block and the Navier Stokes equation for the main channel bounded by a permeable block.
The Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) develops and applies advanced computational methodologies to solve large-scale scientific and engineering problems arising in the Department of Energy (DOE) mission areas involving energy, environmental, and industrial technology. The primary focus is in the application of structured-grid finite difference methods on adaptive grid hierarchies for compressible, incompressible, and low Mach number flows. The diverse range of scientific applications that drive the research typically involve a large range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g. turbulent reacting flows) and require the use of extremely large computing hardware, such as the 153,000-core computer, Hopper, at NERSC. The CCSE approach to these problems centers on the development and application of advanced algorithms that exploit known separations in scale; for many of the application areas this results in algorithms are several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional simulation approaches.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flows with Unstable Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schillaci, Eugenio; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Antepara, Oscar; Oliva, Assensi
2016-09-01
This paper presents a numerical model that intends to simulate efficiently the surface instability that arise in multiphase flows, typically liquid-gas, both for laminar or turbulent regimes. The model is developed on the in-house computing platform TermoFluids, and operates the finite-volume, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multiphase flows by means of a conservative level-set method for the interface-capturing. The mesh size is optimized by means of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy, that allows the dynamic re-concentration of the mesh in the vicinity of the interfaces between fluids, in order to correctly represent the diverse structures (as ligaments and droplets) that may rise from unstable phenomena. In addition, special attention is given to the discretization of the various terms of the momentum equations, to ensure stability of the flow and correct representation of turbulent vortices. As shown, the method is capable of truthfully simulate the interface phenomena as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Plateau-Rayleigh instability, both in the case of 2-D and 3-D configurations. Therefore it is suitable for the simulation of complex phenomena such as simulation of air-blast atomization, with several important application in the field of automotive and aerospace engines. A prove is given by our preliminary study of the 3-D coaxial liquid-gas jet.
Sensitivity and variability redux in hot-Jupiter flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, J. Y.-K.; Polichtchouk, I.; Thrastarson, H. Th.
2015-12-01
We revisit the issues of sensitivity to initial flow and intrinsic variability in hot-Jupiter atmospheric flow simulations, issues originally investigated by Cho et al. and Thrastarson & Cho. The flow in the lower region (˜1 to 20 MPa) `dragged' to immobility and uniform temperature on a very short time-scale, as in Liu & Showman, leads to effectively a complete cessation of variability as well as sensitivity in three-dimensional (3D) simulations with traditional primitive equations. Such momentum (Rayleigh) and thermal (Newtonian) drags are, however, ad hoc for 3D giant planet simulations. For 3D hot-Jupiter simulations, which typically already employ a strong Newtonian drag in the upper region, sensitivity is not quenched if only the Newtonian drag is applied in the lower region, without the strong Rayleigh drag: in general, both sensitivity and variability persist if the two drags are not applied concurrently in the lower region. However, even when the drags are applied concurrently, vertically propagating planetary waves give rise to significant variability in the ˜0.05-0.5 MPa region, if the vertical resolution of the lower region is increased (e.g. here with 1000 layers for the entire domain). New observations on the effects of the physical setup and model convergence in `deep' atmosphere simulations are also presented.
Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.
2017-01-01
The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.
Direct numerical simulation of inertial flows in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apte, S.; Finn, J.; Wood, B. D.
2010-12-01
At modest flow rates (10 ≤ Re ≤ 300) through porous media and packed beds, fluid inertia can result in complex steady and unsteady recirculation regions, dependent on the local pore geometry. Body fitted CFD is a broadly used design and analysis tool for flows in porous media and packed bed type reactors. Unfortunately, the inherent complexities of porous media make unstructured mesh generation a difficult and time consuming step in the simulation process. To accurately capture the inertial dynamics using high-fidelity direct simulations, body fitted meshes must be high quality and sufficiently refined. We present methods to parameterize and simplify mesh generation for packed beds, with an eye toward obtaining efficient mesh independence for Reynolds numbers in the inertial and unsteady regimes. The crux of mesh generation for packed beds is dealing with sphere-sphere or sphere-wall contact points, where a geometric singularity exists. To handle the sphere-sphere and sphere-wall contact points, we use a fillet bridge model, in which every pair of contacting entities are bridged by a fillet, eliminating a small fluid region near the contact point. This results in a continuous surface mesh which does not require resizing of the spheres and can accommodate prism cells for improved boundary layer resolution. A second order accurate, parallel, incompressible flow solver [Moin and Apte, AIAA J. 2006] is used to simulate flow through three different sphere packings: a periodic simple cubic packing, a wall bounded hexagonal close packing, and a randomly packed tube. Mesh independence is assessed using several measures including Ergun pressure drop coefficients, viscous and pressure components of drag force, kinetic energy, kinetic energy dissipation and interstitial velocity profiles. The results of these test cases are used to determine the feasibility of accurate and very large scale simulations of flow through a randomly packed bed of 103 pores. Preliminary results
Density Weighted FDF Equations for Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey
2011-01-01
In this report, we briefly revisit the formulation of density weighted filtered density function (DW-FDF) for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent reacting flows, which was proposed by Jaberi et al. (Jaberi, F.A., Colucci, P.J., James, S., Givi, P. and Pope, S.B., Filtered mass density function for Large-eddy simulation of turbulent reacting flows, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 401, pp. 85-121, 1999). At first, we proceed the traditional derivation of the DW-FDF equations by using the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF), then we explore another way of constructing the DW-FDF equations by starting directly from the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We observe that the terms which are unclosed in the traditional DW-FDF equations are now closed in the newly constructed DW-FDF equations. This significant difference and its practical impact on the computational simulations may deserve further studies.
Toward the large-eddy simulations of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1987-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model (in terms of Favre-filtered fields) is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The three dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96 to the third power grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of supersonic aerodynamic flows are discussed briefly.
Large-eddy simulation of unidirectional turbulent flow over dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidyeganeh, Mohammad
We performed large eddy simulation of the flow over a series of two- and three-dimensional dune geometries at laboratory scale using the Lagrangian dynamic eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model. First, we studied the flow over a standard 2D transverse dune geometry, then bedform three-dimensionality was imposed. Finally, we investigated the turbulent flow over barchan dunes. The results are validated by comparison with simulations and experiments for the 2D dune case, while the results of the 3D dunes are validated qualitatively against experiments. The flow over transverse dunes separates at the dune crest, generating a shear layer that plays a crucial role in the transport of momentum and energy, as well as the generation of coherent structures. Spanwise vortices are generated in the separated shear; as they are advected, they undergo lateral instabilities and develop into horseshoe-like structures and finally reach the surface. The ejection that occurs between the legs of the vortex creates the upwelling and downdrafting events on the free surface known as "boils". The three-dimensional separation of flow at the crestline alters the distribution of wall pressure, which may cause secondary flow across the stream. The mean flow is characterized by a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, with core radii of the order of the flow depth. Staggering the crestlines alters the secondary motion; two pairs of streamwise vortices appear (a strong one, centred about the lobe, and a weaker one, coming from the previous dune, centred around the saddle). The flow over barchan dunes presents significant differences to that over transverse dunes. The flow near the bed, upstream of the dune, diverges from the centerline plane; the flow close to the centerline plane separates at the crest and reattaches on the bed. Away from the centerline plane and along the horns, flow separation occurs intermittently. The flow in the separation bubble is routed towards the horns and leaves
Development of an advanced actuator disk model for Large-Eddy Simulation of wind farms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe
2015-11-01
This work aims at improving the fidelity of the wind turbine modelling for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind farms, in order to accurately predict the loads, the production, and the wake dynamics. In those simulations, the wind turbines are accounted for through actuator disks. i.e. a body-force term acting over the regularised disk swept by the rotor. These forces are computed using the Blade Element theory to estimate the normal and tangential components (based on the local simulated flow and the blade characteristics). The local velocities are modified using the Glauert tip-loss factor in order to account for the finite number of blades; the computation of this correction is here improved thanks to a local estimation of the effective upstream velocity at every point of the disk. These advanced actuator disks are implemented in a 4th order finite difference LES solver and are compared to a classical Blade Element Momentum method and to high fidelity wake simulations performed using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method in uniform and turbulent flows.
Numerical simulation of flow characteristics in micro shock tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guang; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong
2015-06-01
Recently micro shock tubes have been widely used in many engineering and industrial fields, but the characteristics of unsteady flow are not well known to date in micro shock tubes. Compared to conventional shock tubes with macro scales, flows related to shock waves in micro shock tubes are highly complicated. Stronger viscous and dissipative interactions make shock wave dynamic behaviors significantly different from theoretical predictions. In the present study, a CFD work was applied to the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations which were solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. The diaphragm pressure ratio and shock tube diameter were varied to investigate their effects on micro shock tube flows. Different wall boundary conditions were also performed to observe shock wave and contact surface propagation with no slip and slip walls. Detailed flow characteristics at the foot of shock wave and contact surface propagation were known from the present numerical simulations.
Titov, Gene; Lustbader, Jason; Leighton, Daniel; Kiss, Tibor
2016-04-05
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was extended by including a newly developed coolant loop solution method aimed at reducing the simulation effort for arbitrarily complex thermal management systems. The new approach does not require the user to identify specific coolant loops and their flow. The user only needs to connect the fluid network elements in a manner consistent with the desired schematic. Using the new solution method, a model of NREL's advanced combined coolant loop system for electric vehicles was created that reflected the test system architecture. This system was built using components provided by the MAHLE Group and included both air conditioning and heat pump modes. Validation with test bench data and verification with the previous solution method were performed for 10 operating points spanning a range of ambient temperatures between -2 degrees C and 43 degrees C. The largest root mean square difference between pressure, temperature, energy and mass flow rate data and simulation results was less than 7%.
Experiments and simulations of flow noise inside a cylinder aligned with the flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elboth, Thomas; Andreassen, Øyvind; Reif, Bjørn Anders
2008-11-01
This work uses Lighthill's acoustic analogy to investigate noise generated by a turbulent boundary layer surrounding a cylinder aligned with the flow direction. Based on a DNS of channel flow with a Reynolds number Reτ=180, both the direct and the acoustic pressure fluctuations (self-noise) from the turbulent boundary layer surrounding the cylinder are computed. The computational domain is surrounded by a Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions. The result from the simulation is compared with noise data recorded on a purpose built experimental seismic streamer towed in the ocean. We do this to gain knowledge about how turbulent flow noise in a ``towed'' cylinder behaves and to compare the turbulent flow noise with other sources of noise found in towed sonar arrays, commonly used for maritime surveillance and geophysical exploration. Based on both simulations and measurements we present spectral estimates of the acoustic field and estimates of the spatial coherence ``distance'' of the noise.
Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations
Avramidis, K. A.
2015-12-15
In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.; Vidoni, T. J.
1991-01-01
The main objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. In the efforts related to LES, we were concerned with developing reliable subgrid closures for modeling of the fluctuation correlations of scalar quantities in reacting turbulent flows. In the work on DNS, we focused our attention to further investigation of the effects of exothermicity in compressible turbulent flows. In our previous work, in the first year of this research, we have considered only 'simple' flows. Currently, we are in the process of extending our analyses for the purpose of modeling more practical flows of current interest at LaRC. A summary of our accomplishments during the third six months of the research is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Khosronejad, Ali
2016-02-01
Sand waves arise in subaqueous and Aeolian environments as the result of the complex interaction between turbulent flows and mobile sand beds. They occur across a wide range of spatial scales, evolve at temporal scales much slower than the integral scale of the transporting turbulent flow, dominate river morphodynamics, undermine streambank stability and infrastructure during flooding, and sculpt terrestrial and extraterrestrial landscapes. In this paper, we present the vision for our work over the last ten years, which has sought to develop computational tools capable of simulating the coupled interactions of sand waves with turbulence across the broad range of relevant scales: from small-scale ripples in laboratory flumes to mega-dunes in large rivers. We review the computational advances that have enabled us to simulate the genesis and long-term evolution of arbitrarily large and complex sand dunes in turbulent flows using large-eddy simulation and summarize numerous novel physical insights derived from our simulations. Our findings explain the role of turbulent sweeps in the near-bed region as the primary mechanism for destabilizing the sand bed, show that the seeds of the emergent structure in dune fields lie in the heterogeneity of the turbulence and bed shear stress fluctuations over the initially flatbed, and elucidate how large dunes at equilibrium give rise to energetic coherent structures and modify the spectra of turbulence. We also discuss future challenges and our vision for advancing a data-driven simulation-based engineering science approach for site-specific simulations of river flooding.
Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)
2007-07-01
An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.
François, Marianne M.
2015-05-28
A review of recent advances made in numerical methods and algorithms within the volume tracking framework is presented. The volume tracking method, also known as the volume-of-fluid method has become an established numerical approach to model and simulate interfacial flows. Its advantage is its strict mass conservation. However, because the interface is not explicitly tracked but captured via the material volume fraction on a fixed mesh, accurate estimation of the interface position, its geometric properties and modeling of interfacial physics in the volume tracking framework remain difficult. Several improvements have been made over the last decade to address these challenges.more » In this study, the multimaterial interface reconstruction method via power diagram, curvature estimation via heights and mean values and the balanced-force algorithm for surface tension are highlighted.« less
Large eddy simulations of in-cylinder turbulent flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaeizadeh, Araz; Afshari, Asghar; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad
2007-11-01
A high-order numerical model is developed and tested for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows in internal combustion (IC) engines. In this model, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinate systems are solved via a generalized high-order multi-block compact differencing scheme. The LES model has been applied to three flow configurations: (1) a fixed poppet valve in a sudden expansion, (2) a simple piston-cylinder assembly with a stationary open valve and harmonically moving flat piston, (3) a laboratory single-cylinder engine with three moving intake and exhaust valves. The first flow configuration is considered for studying the flow around the valves in IC engines. The second flow configuration is closer to that in IC engines but is based on a single stationary intake/exhaust valve and relatively simple geometry. It is considered in this work for better understating of the effects of moving piston on the large-scale unsteady vortical fluid motions in the cylinder and for further validation of our LES model. The third flow configuration includes all the complexities involve in a realistic single-cylinder IC engine. The predicted flow statistics by LES show good comparison with the available experimental data.
Numerical simulations of the blood flow through vertebral arteries.
Jozwik, Krzysztof; Obidowski, Damian
2010-01-19
Vertebral arteries are two arteries whose structure and location in human body result in development of special flow conditions. For some of the arteries, one can observe a significant difference between flow rates in the left and the right arteries during ultrasonography diagnosis. Usually the reason of such a difference was connected with pathology of the artery in which a smaller flow rate was detected. Simulations of the flow through the selected type of the vertebral artery geometry for twenty five cases of artery diameters have been carried out. The main aim of the presented experiment was to visualize the flow in the region of vertebral arteries junction in the origin of the basilar artery. It is extremely difficult to examine this part of human circulation system, thus numerical experiments may be helpful in understanding the phenomena occurring when two relatively large arteries join together to form one vessel. The obtained results have shown that an individual configuration and diameters of particular arteries can exert an influence on the flow in them and affect a significant difference between flow rates for vertebral arteries. It has been assumed in the investigations that modelled arteries were absolutely normal, without any pathology. In the numerical experiment, the non-Newtonian model of blood was employed.
Simulation and study of stratified flows around finite bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gushchin, V. A.; Matyushin, P. V.
2016-06-01
The flows past a sphere and a square cylinder of diameter d moving horizontally at the velocity U in a linearly density-stratified viscous incompressible fluid are studied. The flows are described by the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. Variations in the spatial vortex structure of the flows are analyzed in detail in a wide range of dimensionless parameters (such as the Reynolds number Re = Ud/ ν and the internal Froude number Fr = U/( Nd), where ν is the kinematic viscosity and N is the buoyancy frequency) by applying mathematical simulation (on supercomputers of Joint Supercomputer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences) and three-dimensional flow visualization. At 0.005 < Fr < 100, the classification of flow regimes for the sphere (for 1 < Re < 500) and for the cylinder (for 1 < Re < 200) is improved. At Fr = 0 (i.e., at U = 0), the problem of diffusion-induced flow past a sphere leading to the formation of horizontal density layers near the sphere's upper and lower poles is considered. At Fr = 0.1 and Re = 50, the formation of a steady flow past a square cylinder with wavy hanging density layers in the wake is studied in detail.
A new approach to flow simulation using hybrid models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solgi, Abazar; Zarei, Heidar; Nourani, Vahid; Bahmani, Ramin
2017-01-01
The necessity of flow prediction in rivers, for proper management of water resource, and the need for determining the inflow to the dam reservoir, designing efficient flood warning systems and so forth, have always led water researchers to think about models with high-speed response and low error. In the recent years, the development of Artificial Neural Networks and Wavelet theory and using the combination of models help researchers to estimate the river flow better and better. In this study, daily and monthly scales were used for simulating the flow of Gamasiyab River, Nahavand, Iran. The first simulation was done using two types of ANN and ANFIS models. Then, using wavelet theory and decomposing input signals of the used parameters, sub-signals were obtained and were fed into the ANN and ANFIS to obtain hybrid models of WANN and WANFIS. In this study, in addition to the parameters of precipitation and flow, parameters of temperature and evaporation were used to analyze their effects on the simulation. The results showed that using wavelet transform improved the performance of the models in both monthly and daily scale. However, it had a better effect on the monthly scale and the WANFIS was the best model.
Direct Numerical Simulation of A Shaped Hole Film Cooling Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
The combustor exit temperatures in modern gas turbine engines are generally higher than the melting temperature of the turbine blade material. Film cooling, where cool air is fed through holes in the turbine blades, is one strategy which is used extensively in such engines to reduce heat transfer to the blades and thus reduce their temperature. While these flows have been investigated both numerically and experimentally, many features are not yet well understood. For example, the geometry of the hole is known to have a large impact on downstream cooling performance. However, the details of the flow in the hole, particularly for geometries similar to those used in practice, are generally know well-understood, both because it is difficult to experimentally observe the flow inside the hole and because much of the numerical literature has focused on round hole simulations. In this work, we show preliminary direct numerical simulation results for a film cooling flow passing through a shaped hole into a the boundary layer developing on a flat plate. The case has density ratio 1.6, blowing ratio 2.0, and the Reynolds number (based on momentum thickness) of incoming boundary layer is approximately 600. We compare the new simulations against both previous experiments and LES.
Simulation of Separated Flows with the K-Epsilon Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poroseva, Svetlana; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2001-11-01
The standard k-ɛ model is widely use in industrial applications even if its limits and disadvantages are well known. It was shown in a previous work^*, that with the standard k and ɛ transport equations and an appropriate modeling of the coefficients, it is possible to predict correctly free shear flows and equilibrium boundary layers under different pressure gradient. In the present work the same approach has been used to simulate separated flows in a planar diffuser and backstep, an axi-symmetric combustion chamber and a channel with wavy-walls. The computations are in good agreement with the experimental data for both the mean velocity and shear stress profiles. In addition, they are comparable with results obtained with the more complex v^2-f-model^**. Simulations have been carried out using a commercial CFD code (Fluent). ^* Poroseva, S.V. & Bezard, H., On ability of standard k-ɛ model to simulate aerodynamic turbulent flows, CFD Journal, 2001, v.9, N 1, pp. 464-470 ^** Durbin, P.A. Separated Flow Computations Using the v^2-f Model, AIAA J., 1995
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.
1983-01-01
Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.
1d Numerical Simulation of A Swiss Debris Flow: Comparison of Flow Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McArdell, B. W.; Graf, Ch.; Naef, D.; Rickenmann, D.
Efforts to numerically model debris flows have been limited by a lack of appropriate numerical tools. Here we report on our efforts to systematically evaluate different flow laws using a numerical tool under development at our institute. The model, DFEM, is a finite element solution of the shallow water equations in one or two dimensions and is based on the FEMTOOL libraries from Rutschmann (1993). Debris flow constitu- tive relations or flow laws include turbulent (e.g. Manning, Chézy, Voellmy), laminar (Bingham, Newtonian laminar), and inertial formulations (dilatant/grain shearing) as well as combinations of flow laws when appropriate. The model is applied to a recent debris flow event from the Schipfenbach torrent, Switzerland (Hürlimann, submitted), where we maintain an automated debris flow observation station. Observations include flow depth measurements from ultrasonic depth measurement devices, reach-averaged velocities estimated from the travel time between ultrasonic gages and geophones, velocity and flow behavior from video cam- eras situated near the flow retention basin on the fan, and post-event field surveys. Preliminary results suggest that the flow of debris in the steep reaches of the torrent channel can be reasonably described by a simple turbulent flow law (e.g. Manning- Strickler or Chézy) with a large overall flow resistance, and that both the flow in the channel and the deposition on the fan can be satisfactorily simulated using the Voellmy fluid approach. The results using the Voellmy fluid approach are in agree- ment with results calculated from the AVAL-1D snow avalanche simulation code and input parameters for debris instead of snow, corroborating the implementation in the DFEM model. The AVAL-1D code is commercially available, providing another tool that may be used by workers in the natural hazards field for debris flow routing in torrent channels and on alluvial fans. References: Hürlimann, M., Rickenmann, D. and Graf, Ch., Field
Numerical simulations of a precession driven flow in a cylinder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giesecke, Andre; Gundrum, Thomas; Herault, Johann; Stefani, Frank
2015-04-01
Precession has long been discussed as a complementary energy source for driving the geodynamo. A fluid flow of liquid sodium in a cylindrical container, solely driven by precession, is considered as a source for magnetic field generation in the next generation dynamo experiment currently under development in the framework of DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies). We present results from three-dimensional non-linear hydrodynamic simulations of a precession driven flow in cylindrical geometry. The main focus will be on non-axisymmetric time-dependent flow structures that could be responsible for dynamo action. Promising candidates may be triadic resonances that are caused by non-linear interaction of three distinct inertial modes. These modes have a comparable structure as the columnar convection cells that are responsible for dynamo action in geodynamo simulations, and it seems reasonable to expect similar properties in case of precessional forcing. Our simulations reveal clear triads at aspect ratios close to predictions from the linear theory. However, the emergence of these structures requires a remarkable long time-span of the order of a few hundred rotation periods till a (quasi-)steady state is reached. Furthermore, the amplitude of the waves with higher azimuthal wavenumbers remains well below the forced m=1 mode. Their ability for dynamo action will have to be verified in future simulations of the magnetic induction equation.
Very High Resolution Simulations of Compressible, Turbulent Flows
Woodward, P R; Porter, D H; Sytine, I; Anderson, S E; Mirin, A A; Curtis, B C; Cohen, R H; Dannevik, W P; Dimits, A M; Eliason, D E; Winkler, K-H; Hodson, S W
2001-04-26
The steadily increasing power of supercomputing systems is enabling very high resolution simulations of compressible, turbulent flows in the high Reynolds number limit, which is of interest in astrophysics as well as in several other fluid dynamical applications. This paper discusses two such simulations, using grids of up to 8 billion cells. In each type of flow, convergence in a statistical sense is observed as the mesh is refined. The behavior of the convergent sequences indicates how a subgrid-scale model of turbulence could improve the treatment of these flows by high-resolution Euler schemes like PPM. The best resolved case, a simulation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layer in a shock tube experiment, also points the way toward such a subgrid-scale model. Analysis of the results of that simulation indicates a proportionality relationship between the energy transfer rate from large to small motions and the determinant of the deviatoric symmetric strain as well as the divergence of the velocity for the large-scale field.
Interrogation of numerical simulation for modeling of flow induced microstructure
Joseph, D.D.
1994-12-31
This paper summarizes recent efforts using direct numerical simulations to determine microstructural properties of fluidized suspensions of a few particles. The authors have been studying the motions of a few particles in a viscous fluid by direct numerical simulation at moderate values of the Reynolds number in the 100`s. From these simulations, they find the mechanisms which give rise to lateral migration of particles and turn the broad side of long bodies perpendicular to the stream. They find that a viscous ``stagnation`` point is a point on the body where the shear stress vanishes and the pressure is nearly a maximum. They show how the migration is controlled by stagnation and separation points and go further than before in the discussion of Segre-Silberberg effects of cross-streamline migration in two dimensions. They have analyzed the lift off and steady flight of solid capsules in Poiseuille flows. They do a three-dimensional simulation of steady flow at slow speeds and show that the extensional stresses in a viscoelastic flow change the sign of the normal stress which would exist at points of stagnation in a Newtonian fluid, causing the long side of the body to line up with the stream.
Entrainment in Laboratory Simulations of Cumulus Cloud Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimha, R.; Diwan, S.; Subrahmanyam, D.; Sreenivas, K. R.; Bhat, G. S.
2010-12-01
A variety of cumulus cloud flows, including congestus (both shallow bubble and tall tower types), mediocris and fractus have been generated in a water tank by simulating the release of latent heat in real clouds. The simulation is achieved through ohmic heating, injected volumetrically into the flow by applying suitable voltages between diametral cross-sections of starting jets and plumes of electrically conducting fluid (acidified water). Dynamical similarity between atmospheric and laboratory cloud flows is achieved by duplicating values of an appropriate non-dimensional heat release number. Velocity measurements, made by laser instrumentation, show that the Taylor entrainment coefficient generally increases just above the level of commencement of heat injection (corresponding to condensation level in the real cloud). Subsequently the coefficient reaches a maximum before declining to the very low values that characterize tall cumulus towers. The experiments also simulate the protected core of real clouds. Cumulus Congestus : Atmospheric cloud (left), simulated laboratory cloud (right). Panels below show respectively total heat injected and vertical profile of heating in the laboratory cloud.
Simulation of hard-disk flow in microchannels.
Shen, Guofei; Ge, Wei
2010-01-01
The dynamic flow behavior of a hard-disk fluid under external force field in two-dimensional microchannels is investigated using an event-driven molecular dynamics simulation method. Simulations have been carried out under laminar and subsonic conditions in both slip regime and transition regime, and the effects of three main factors, Knudsen number (Kn), force field intensity, and packing fraction, on flow and heat transfer behavior have been studied. It is shown that all the factors play important roles in the velocity distribution of the flow, and the temperature profile of the gas flow may exhibit a bimodal shape with a local minimum instead of a maximum in the center. These findings verify the predictions of nonequilibrium kinetic theories on the so-called "temperature dip." At high Kn, the two maxima of temperature shift to two walls and the temperature profile changes to a "parabola" opening upward with a minimum in the center. A slight setback of the temperature is also found before the fluid flow eventually arrives at a steady state when the shear rate is high enough.
Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Resendiz Rosas, Celerino
2005-07-01
In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The separation control technique studied is called "synthetic jet actuation". The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous, steady and unsteady compressible turbulent flows. The pulsating zero mass jet flow is simulated by imposing a harmonically varying transpiration boundary condition on the airfoil's surface. Turbulence is modeled with the algebraic model of Baldwin and Lomax. The application of synthetic jet actuators is based in their ability to energize the boundary layer, thereby providing significant increase in the lift coefficient. This has been corroborated experimentally and it is corroborated numerically in this research. The performed numerical simulation investigates the flow over a NACA0015 airfoil. For this flow Re = 9 x 105 and the reduced frequency and momentum coefficient are F + = 1.1 and Cmu = 0.04 respectively. The oscillatory injection takes place at 12.27% chord from the leading edge. A maximum increase in the mean lift coefficient of 93% is predicted by the code. A discrepancy of approximately 10% is observed with corresponding experimental data from the literature. The general trend is, however, well captured. The discrepancy is attributed to the modeling of the injection boundary condition and to the turbulence model. A sensitivity analysis of the lift coefficient to different values of the oscillation parameters is performed. It is concluded that tangential injection, F+ ≈ O(1) and the utilized grid resolution around the site of injection are optimal. Streamline fields obtained for different angles of injection are analyzed. Flow separation and attachment as functions of the injection angle and of the velocity of injection can be observed. It is finally concluded that a reliable numerical tool has been developed which can be utilized as a support tool in the optimization of the synthetic jet operation and in the
TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajid, Muhammad
2016-07-01
This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olynick, David P.; Hassan, H. A.; Moss, James N.
1988-01-01
A grid generation and adaptation procedure based on the method of transfinite interpolation is incorporated into the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method of Bird. In addition, time is advanced based on a local criterion. The resulting procedure is used to calculate steady flows past wedges and cones. Five chemical species are considered. In general, the modifications result in a reduced computational effort. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the simulation method is time step dependent if requirements on cell sizes are not met.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renouf, M.; Bonamy, D.; Dubois, F.; Alart, P.
2005-10-01
The rheology of two-dimensional steady surface flow of cohesionless cylinders in a rotating drum is investigated through nonsmooth contact dynamics simulations. Profiles of volume fraction, translational and angular velocity, rms velocity, strain rate, and stress tensor are measured at the midpoint along the length of the surface-flowing layer, where the flow is generally considered as steady and homogeneous. Analysis of these data and their interrelations suggest the local inertial number—defined as the ratio between local inertial forces and local confinement forces—to be the relevant dimensionless parameter to describe the transition from the quasistatic part of the packing to the flowing part at the surface of the heap. Variations of the components of the stress tensor as well as the ones of rms velocity as a function of the inertial number are analyzed within both the quasistatic and the flowing phases. Their implications are discussed.
Researchers Mine Information from Next-Generation Subsurface Flow Simulations
Gedenk, Eric D.
2015-12-01
A research team based at Virginia Tech University leveraged computing resources at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory to explore subsurface multiphase flow phenomena that can't be experimentally observed. Using the Cray XK7 Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, the team took Micro-CT images of subsurface geologic systems and created two-phase flow simulations. The team's model development has implications for computational research pertaining to carbon sequestration, oil recovery, and contaminant transport.
Simulated transonic flows for aircraft with nacelles, pylons, and winglets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boppe, C. W.; Stern, M. A.
1980-01-01
A computational method which simulates transonic flow about wing-fuselage configurations has been extended to include the treatment of multiple body and non-planar wing surfaces. The finite difference relaxation scheme is characterized by a modified small disturbance flow equation and multiple embedded grid system. Wing-body combinations with as many as four nacelles/pods, four pylons, and wing-tip-mounted winglets can be analyzed. A scheme for modeling inlet spillage and engine exhaust interference effects has been included. Computed results are correlated with experimental data for three transport configurations.
Multiscale simulation of water flow past a C540 fullerene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walther, Jens H.; Praprotnik, Matej; Kotsalis, Evangelos M.; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2012-04-01
We present a novel, three-dimensional, multiscale algorithm for simulations of water flow past a fullerene. We employ the Schwarz alternating overlapping domain method to couple molecular dynamics (MD) of liquid water around the C540 buckyball with a Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) description for the Navier-Stokes equations. The proposed method links the MD and LB domains using a fully three-dimensional interface and coupling of velocity gradients. The present overlapping domain method implicitly preserves the flux of mass and momentum and bridges flux-based and Schwarz domain decomposition algorithms. We use this method to determine the slip length and hydrodynamic radius for water flow past a buckyball.
On integrating large eddy simulation and laboratory turbulent flow experiments.
Grinstein, Fernando F
2009-07-28
Critical issues involved in large eddy simulation (LES) experiments relate to the treatment of unresolved subgrid scale flow features and required initial and boundary condition supergrid scale modelling. The inherently intrusive nature of both LES and laboratory experiments is noted in this context. Flow characterization issues becomes very challenging ones in validation and computational laboratory studies, where potential sources of discrepancies between predictions and measurements need to be clearly evaluated and controlled. A special focus of the discussion is devoted to turbulent initial condition issues.
Ge, Liang; Jones, S Casey; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Healy, Timothy M; Yoganathan, Ajit P
2003-10-01
A numerical method is developed for simulating unsteady, 3-D, laminar flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the leaflets fixed. The method employs a dual-time-stepping artificial-compressibility approach together with overset (Chimera) grids and is second-order accurate in space and time. Calculations are carried out for the full 3-D valve geometry under steady inflow conditions on meshes with a total number of nodes ranging from 4 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6). The computed results show that downstream of the leaflets the flow is dominated by two pairs of counter-rotating vortices, which originate on either side of the central orifice in the aortic sinus and rotate such that the common flow of each pair is directed away from the aortic wall. These vortices intensify with Reynolds number, and at a Reynolds number of approximately 1200 their complex interaction leads to the onset of unsteady flow and the break of symmetry with respect to both geometric planes of symmetry. Our results show the highly 3-D structure of the flow; question the validity of computationally expedient assumptions of flow symmetry; and demonstrate the need for highly resolved, fully 3-D simulations if computational fluid dynamics is to accurately predict the flow in prosthetic mechanical heart valves.
Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.
Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus
2015-09-15
Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.
Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science
Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus
2015-01-01
Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627
Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.
2004-01-01
In this project on the first stage (2000-Ol), we continued to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). At the second stage (2001-03), FM&AL team concentrated its efforts on solving of problems of interest to Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), especially in the field of propulsion system enhancement. The NASA GRC R&D Directorate and LaRC Hyper-X Program specialists in a hypersonic technology jointly with the FM&AL staff conducted research on a wide region of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The last year the Hampton University School of Engineering & Technology was awarded the NASA grant, for creation of the Aeropropulsion Center, and the FM&AL is a key team of the project fulfillment responsible for research in Aeropropulsion and Acoustics (Pillar I). This work is supported by joint research between the NASA GRC/ FM&AL and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IMMSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The main areas of current scientific interest of the FM&AL include an investigation of the proposed and patented advanced methods for aircraft engine thrust and noise benefits. This is the main subject of our other projects, of which one is presented. The last year we concentrated our efforts to analyze three main problems: (a) new effective methods fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines; (b) new re-circulation method for mixing, heat transfer and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems and domestic industry application; (c) covexity flow The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines (see, for
Numerical Simulation of Subsonic and Transonic Propeller Flow. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, Aaron
1988-01-01
The numerical simulation of 3-D transonic flow about a system of propeller blades is investigated. In particular, it is shown that the use of helical coordinates significantly simplifies the form of the governing equation when the propeller system is assumed to be surrounded by an irrotational flow field of an inviscid fluid. The unsteady small disturbance equation, valid for lightly loaded blades and expressed in helical coordinates, is derived from the general blade-fixed potential equation, given for an arbitrary coordinate system. The use of a coordinate system which inherently adapts to the mean flow results in a disturbance equation requiring relatively few terms to accurately model the physics of the flow. Furthermore, the helical coordinate system presented here is novel in that it is periodic in the circumferential direction while, simultaneously, maintaining orthogonal properties at the mean blade locations. The periodic characteristic allows a complete cascade of blades to be treated, and the orthogonality property affords straightforward treatment of blade boundary conditions. An ADI numerical scheme is used to compute the solution of the steady flow as an asymptotic limit of an unsteady flow. As an example of the method, solutions are presented for subsonic and transonic flow about a 5 percent thick bicircular arc blade of an 8-bladed cascade. Both high and low advance ratio cases are computed and include a lifting as well as nonlifting cases. The nonlifting solutions obtained are compared to solutions from a Euler code.
Simulation of finite size particles in turbulent flows using entropic lattice boltzmann method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Abhineet; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Toschi, Federico
2016-11-01
Particle-laden turbulent flows occur in variety of industrial applications. While the numerical simulation of such flows has seen significant advances in recent years, it still remains a challenging problem. Many studies investigated the rheology of dense suspensions in laminar flows as well as the dynamics of point-particles in turbulence. Here we will present results on the development of numerical methods, based on the Lattice Boltzmann method, suitable for the study of suspensions of finite-size particles under turbulent flow conditions and with varying geometrical complexity. The turbulent flow is modeled by an entropic lattice Boltzmann method, and the interaction between particles and carrier fluid is modeled using bounce back rule. Direct contact and lubrication force models for particle-particle interactions and particle-wall interaction are taken into account to allow for a full four-way coupled interaction. The accuracy and robustness of the method is discussed by validating velocity profile in turbulent pipe flow, sedimentation velocity of spheres in duct flow and resistance functions of approaching particles. Results show that the velocity profiles and turbulence statistics can be significantly altered by the presence of the dispersed solid phase. The author is supported by Shell-NWO computational sciences for energy research (CSER) Grant (12CSER034).
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; ...
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carriedmore » out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.« less
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow for grid-to-rod fretting in nuclear reactors
Bakosi, J.; Christon, M. A.; Lowrie, R. B.; Pritchett-Sheats, L. A.; Nourgaliev, R. R.
2013-07-12
The grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) problem in pressurized water reactors is a flow-induced vibration problem that results in wear and failure of the fuel rods in nuclear assemblies. In order to understand the fluid dynamics of GTRF and to build an archival database of turbulence statistics for various configurations, implicit large-eddy simulations of time-dependent single-phase turbulent flow have been performed in 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod bundles with a single grid spacer. To assess the computational mesh and resolution requirements, a method for quantitative assessment of unstructured meshes with no-slip walls is described. The calculations have been carried out using Hydra-TH, a thermal-hydraulics code developed at Los Alamos for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors, a United States Department of Energy Innovation Hub. Hydra-TH uses a second-order implicit incremental projection method to solve the singlephase incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The simulations explicitly resolve the large scale motions of the turbulent flow field using first principles and rely on a monotonicity-preserving numerical technique to represent the unresolved scales. Each series of simulations for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 rod-bundle geometries is an analysis of the flow field statistics combined with a mesh-refinement study and validation with available experimental data. Our primary focus is the time history and statistics of the forces loading the fuel rods. These hydrodynamic forces are believed to be the key player resulting in rod vibration and GTRF wear, one of the leading causes for leaking nuclear fuel which costs power utilities millions of dollars in preventive measures. As a result, we demonstrate that implicit large-eddy simulation of rod-bundle flows is a viable way to calculate the excitation forces for the GTRF problem.
Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California Flow Simulations
Minsley, Burke J.; Ikard, Scott
2010-01-01
Numerical flow modeling and analysis of observation-well data at Hidden Dam are carried out to supplement recent geophysical field investigations at the site (Minsley and others, 2010). This work also is complementary to earlier seepage-related studies at Hidden Dam documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam was documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a sub-drain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren (1980a, b) suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain in the downstream portion of the dam. The current modeling study is aimed at quantifying how variability in dam and foundation hydrologic properties influences seepage as a function of reservoir stage. Flow modeling is implemented using the COMSOL Multiphysics software package, which solves the partially saturated flow equations in a two-dimensional (2D) cross-section of Hidden Dam that also incorporates true downstream topography. Use of the COMSOL software package provides a more quantitative approach than the flow net analysis by Cedergren (1980a, b), and allows for rapid evaluation of the influence of various parameters such as reservoir level, dam structure and geometry, and hydrogeologic properties of the dam and foundation materials. Historical observation-well data are used to help validate the flow simulations by comparing observed and predicted water levels for a range of reservoir elevations. The flow models are guided by, and
Optimizing the simulation of riverine species flow preferences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiesel, Jens; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Guse, Björn; Kakouei, Karan; Jähnig, Sonja C.; Fohrer, Nicola
2016-04-01
Riverine biota have distinct demands on the discharge regime. To quantify these demands, discharge time series are translated to ecohydrological indicators, e.g. magnitude, timing or duration of baseflow or peak flow events. These indicators are then related to species occurrence and/or absence to establish the feedback response of aquatic species to hydrological conditions. These links can be used in conjunction with hydrological simulations for predictions of species occurrences. If differences between observed and simulated ecohydrological indicator values are too high, such predictions can be wrong. Indicator differences can be due to poor input data quality and simplified model algorithms, but also depend on how the model was optimized. For instance, in case the model was optimised towards a single objective function, e.g. minimizing the difference between simulated and observed Q95, differences between simulated and observed high flow indicators will be smaller as compared to baseflow indicators. In this study, we are working towards assessing this error depending on the optimisation of the model. This assessment is based on a multi-objective vs. single-objective model optimization which we have realised in the following four-step approach: (1) sets of highly relevant ecohydrological indicators are defined; (2) the hydrologic model is optimised using a multi-objective function that combines all indicators; (3) the hydrologic model is optimised using single-objective functions with one optimisation round for each indicator and (4) the differences between all optimisation methods are calculated. By assessing these absolute (simulated vs observed) and relative (simulated vs simulated) differences, we can evaluate the magnitude of the possible error band when optimising a hydrological model towards different ecohydrological indicators. This assessment can be used to optimize hydrological models for depicting preferences of riverine biota more effectively and
Bone Blood Flow During Simulated Microgravity: Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloomfield, Susan A.
1999-01-01
Blood flow to bone has been shown to affect bone mass and presumably bone strength. Preliminary data indicate that blood flow to the rat femur decreases after 14 days of simulated microgravity, using hindlimb suspension (HLS). If adult rats subjected to HLS are given dobutamine, a synthetic catecholamine which can cause peripheral vasodilation and increased blood flow, the loss of cortical bone area usually observed is prevented. Further, mechanisms exist at the molecular level to link changes in bone blood flow to changes in bone cell activity, particularly for vasoactive agents like nitric oxide (NO). The decreases in fluid shear stress created by fluid flow associated with the shifts of plasma volume during microgravity may result in alterations in expression of vasoactive agents such as NO, producing important functional effects on bone cells. The primary aim of this project is to characterize changes in 1) bone blood flow, 2) indices of bone mass, geometry, and strength, and 3) changes in gene expression for modulators of nitric oxide activity (e.g., nitric oxide synthase) and other candidate genes involved in signal transduction of mechanical loading after 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of HLS in the adult rat. Using a rat of at least 5 months of age avoids inadvertently studying effects of simulated microgravity on growing, rather than adult, bone. Utilizing the results of these studies, we will then define how altered blood flow contributes to changes in bone with simulated microgravity by administering a vasodilatory agent (which increases blood flow to tissues) during hindlimb suspension. In all studies, responses in the unloaded hindlimb bones (tibial shaft, femoral neck) will be compared with those in the weightbearing humeral shaft and the non-weightbearing calvarium (skull) from the same animal. Bone volumetric mineral density and geometry will be quantified by peripheral quantitative CT; structural and material properties of the long bones will be
Water shortage risk assessment using spatiotemporal flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Hsin-I.; Su, Ming-Daw; Wu, Yii-Chen; Cheng, Ke-Sheng
2016-12-01
Paddy irrigation practices in Taiwan utilize complicated water conveyance networks which draw streamflows from different tributaries. Characterizing and simulating streamflow series is thus an essential task for irrigation risk assessment and planning mitigation measures. It generally involves modeling the temporal variation and spatial correlation of streamflow data at different sites. Like many other environmental variables, streamflows are asymmetric and non-Gaussian. Such properties exacerbate the difficulties in spatiotemporal modeling of streamflow data. A stochastic spatiotemporal simulation approach capable of generating non-Gaussian ten-day period streamflow data series at different sites is presented in this paper. Historical flow data from different flow stations in southern Taiwan were used to exemplify the application of the proposed model. Simulated realizations of the spatiotemporal anisotropic multivariate Pearson type III distribution were validated by comparing parameters and spatiotemporal correlation characteristics of the simulated data and the observed streamflow data. Risks of irrigation water shortage were estimated and the effect of mitigation measures was assessed using the simulated data.
Toward the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Speziale, C. G.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
New subgrid-scale models for the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows are developed and tested based on the Favre-filtered equations of motion for an ideal gas. A compressible generalization of the linear combination of the Smagorinsky model and scale-similarity model, in terms of Favre-filtered fields, is obtained for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. An analogous thermal linear combination model is also developed for the subgrid-scale heat flux vector. The two dimensionless constants associated with these subgrid-scale models are obtained by correlating with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence performed on a 96(exp 3) grid using Fourier collocation methods. Extensive comparisons between the direct and modeled subgrid-scale fields are provided in order to validate the models. A large-eddy simulation of the decay of compressible isotropic turbulence (conducted on a coarse 32(exp 3) grid) is shown to yield results that are in excellent agreement with the fine grid direct simulation. Future applications of these compressible subgrid-scale models to the large-eddy simulation of more complex supersonic flows are discussed briefly.
Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.
Numerical simulation of particle laden coaxial turbulent jet flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza
2010-11-01
The study of coaxial turbulent particle laden jets has been of interest due to its importance in many applications such as industrial burners, and mixing devices. The addition of the second phase to the continuous phase jet can change the already complicated flow pattern and turbulent characteristics of the jets. Albeit the vast research efforts that have been devoted to understand such phenomena, demand for detailed investigation of particle laden flows remains an active area of research. The advent of laser diagnostics has helped to quantify the myriad details of the jet flow fields in more details. In parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide additional information by further investigating such flows with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this work, numerical simulations results are presented for the flow and turbulent characteristics of a coaxial jet with and without the dispersed phase. The results are compared with the experimental data measured using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry diagnostic technique. The key objective of this work is to undermine the flow field details that are difficult if not impossible to measure.
Volumetric lattice Boltzmann simulation for blood flow in aorta arteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deep, Debanjan; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Teague, Shawn
2012-11-01
Complicated moving boundaries pose a major challenge in computational fluid dynamics for complex flows, especially in the biomechanics of both blood flow in the cardiovascular system and air flow in the respiratory system where the compliant nature of the vessels can have significant effects on the flow rate and wall shear stress. We develop a computation approach to treat arbitrarily moving boundaries using a volumetric representation of lattice Boltzmann method, which distributes fluid particles inside lattice cells. A volumetric bounce-back procedure is applied in the streaming step while momentum exchange between the fluid and moving solid boundary are accounted for in the collision sub-step. Additional boundary-induced migration is introduced to conserve fluid mass as the boundary moves across fluid cells. The volumetric LBM (VLBM) is used to simulate blood flow in both normal and dilated aorta arteries. We first compare flow structure and pressure distribution in steady state with results from Navier-Stokes based solver and good agreements are achieved. Then we focus on wall stress within the aorta for different heart pumping condition and present quantitative measurement of wall shear and normal stress.
Correia, Rodolfo Patussi; Bento, Laiz Cameirão; Bortolucci, Ana Carolina Apelle; Alexandre, Anderson Marega; Vaz, Andressa da Costa; Schimidell, Daniela; Pedro, Eduardo de Carvalho; Perin, Fabricio Simões; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Mendes, Cláudio Ernesto Albers; Barroso, Rodrigo de Souza; Bacal, Nydia Strachman
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection. Conclusion: High-sensitivity flow cytometry allowed more sensitive determination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone type and size, particularly in samples with small clones. PMID:27759825
Validation of Blood Flow Simulations in Intracranial Aneurysms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yue; Anor, Tomer; Baek, Hyoungsu; Jayaraman, Mahesh; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George
2010-11-01
Catheter-based digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the most accurate diagnostic procedure for investigating vascular anomalies and cerebral blood flow. Here we describe utilization of DSA in a patient with an intracranial aneursysm to validate corresponding spectral element simulations. Subsequently, we examine via visualization the structure of flow in internal carotid arteries laden with three different types of aneurysms: (1) a wide-necked saccular aneurysm, (2) a narrower-necked saccular aneurysm, and (3) a case with two adjacent saccular aneurysms. We have found through high resolution simulations that in cases (1) and (3) in physiological conditions a hydrodynamic instability occurs during the decelerating systolic phase resulting in a high frequency oscillation (20-50 Hz). We use the in-silico dye visualization to discriminate among different physical mechanisms causing the instability and contrast their effect with case (2) for which an instability arises only at much higher flowrates.
Unsteady Simulation of a Landing-Gear Flow Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Fei; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.
2002-01-01
This paper presents results of an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of a landing-gear flow field. The geometry of the four-wheel landing gear assembly consists of several of the fine details including the oleo-strut, two diagonal struts, a door, yokes/pin and a flat-plate simulating the wing surface. The computational results, obtained by using 13.3 million grid points, are presented with an emphasis on the characteristics of the unsteadiness ensuing from different parts of the landing-gear assembly, including vortex shedding patterns and frequencies of dominant oscillations. The results show that the presence of the diagonal struts and the door significantly influence the flow field. Owing to the induced asymmetry, vortices are shed only from one of the rear wheels and not the other. Present computations also capture streamwise vortices originating from the upstream corners of the door.
Numerical simulation of turbulence flow in a Bulb turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ENOMOTO, Yasuyuki; NAKAMURA, Takanori; OHTAKE, Norio; KUBO, Koichi; ZHAI, Yabin
2016-11-01
In this paper, high accuracy performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Bulb turbine is presented. The performance is predicted by solving steady and unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, Large Eddy simulation and Detached Eddy Simulation. The prediction accuracy was evaluated to compare with the model test results for efficiency characteristic, pressure fluctuation characteristic and velocity distribution at runner inlet and outlet of NQE 0.8 Bulb model turbine. As for the efficiency near the on-cam condition, it is possible to determine with high accuracy in the steady RANS analysis. However, for the analysis accuracy regarding pressure fluctuation characteristic and turbine characteristics at off-cam operating condition, it found that there is a need to further study. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Bulb type turbine.
[Numerical flow simulation : A new method for assessing nasal breathing].
Hildebrandt, T; Osman, J; Goubergrits, L
2016-08-01
The current options for objective assessment of nasal breathing are limited. The maximum they can determine is the total nasal resistance. Possibilities to analyze the endonasal airstream are lacking. In contrast, numerical flow simulation is able to provide detailed information of the flow field within the nasal cavity. Thus, it has the potential to analyze the nasal airstream of an individual patient in a comprehensive manner and only a computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses is required. The clinical application is still limited due to the necessary technical and personnel resources. In particular, a statistically based referential characterization of normal nasal breathing does not yet exist in order to be able to compare and classify the simulation results.
Numerical Simulation of Conductivity Gradient-Induced Electrokinetic Flow Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradford, Stephen; Meinhart, Carl
2006-03-01
This research is focused on the electrokinetic flow instabilities observed in long, thin microchannels with conductivity gradients orthogonal to the streamwise direction and applied potential. This situation often occurs in field amplified sample stacking (FASS) and isoelectric focusing, where control of the instabilities is imperative. Alternatively, the inherently chaotic flow patterns can be leveraged to fabricate an efficient micromixer under specific conditions. These instabilities arise from fluid body forces generated by the action of applied electric fields on electrolyte concentration-based conductivity gradients. A model is developed to describe the phenomena in general and applied specifically to thin microchannels with the conductivity gradient perpendicular to the applied field (both DC and AC). A higher-order, depth averaged correlation is proposed to account for the out of plane effects. Numerical simulations performed using COMSOL 3.2 are compared to 2-D and 3-D simulations as well as experimental data for multiple geometries with good agreement.
Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing
Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.
1988-12-01
Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.
Large eddy simulation of unsteady wind farm behavior using advanced actuator disk models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe
2014-11-01
The present project aims at improving the level of fidelity of unsteady wind farm scale simulations through an effort on the representation and the modeling of the rotors. The chosen tool for the simulations is a Fourth Order Finite Difference code, developed at Universite catholique de Louvain; this solver implements Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The wind turbines are modeled as advanced actuator disks: these disks are coupled with the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM method) and also take into account the turbine dynamics and controller. A special effort is made here to reproduce the specific wake behaviors. Wake decay and expansion are indeed initially governed by vortex instabilities. This is an information that cannot be obtained from the BEM calculations. We thus aim at achieving this by matching the large scales of the actuator disk flow to high fidelity wake simulations produced using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method. It is obtained by adding a controlled excitation at the disk. We apply this tool to the investigation of atmospheric turbulence effects on the power production and on the wake behavior at a wind farm level. A turbulent velocity field is then used as inflow boundary condition for the simulations. We gratefully acknowledge the support of GDF Suez for the fellowship of Mrs Maud Moens.
Research Advances: DRPS--Let The Blood Flow!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Angela G.
2007-01-01
A team from the University of Pittsburgh's McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine has shown the potential for clinical use of the drag-reducing polymer (DRP) poly(N-vinylformamide), or PNVF. The high molecular weight PNVF is shown to reduce resistance to turbulent flow in a pipe and to enhance blood flow in animal models and it also…
Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester
1998-01-01
Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.
Numerical Methods and Simulations of Complex Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Peter
Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impossible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This dissertation describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational
Multiparticle simulation of collapsing volcanic columns and pyroclastic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neri, Augusto; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Macedonio, Giovanni; Gidaspow, Dimitri
2003-04-01
A multiparticle thermofluid dynamic model was developed to assess the effect of a range of particle size on the transient two-dimensional behavior of collapsing columns and associated pyroclastic flows. The model accounts for full mechanical and thermal nonequilibrium conditions between a continuous gas phase and N solid particulate phases, each characterized by specific physical parameters and properties. The dynamics of the process were simulated by adopting a large eddy simulation approach able to resolve the large-scale features of the flow and by parametrizing the subgrid gas turbulence. Viscous and interphase effects were expressed in terms of Newtonian stress tensors and gas-particle and particle-particle coefficients, respectively. Numerical simulations were carried out by using different grain-size distributions of the mixture at the vent, constitutive equations, and numerical resolutions. Dispersal dynamics describe the formation of the vertical jet, the column collapse and the building of the pyroclastic fountain, the generation of radially spreading pyroclastic flows, and the development of thermal convective instabilities from the fountain and the flow. The results highlight the importance of the multiparticle formulation of the model and describe several mechanical and thermal nonequilibrium effects. Finer particles tend to follow the hot ascending gas, mainly in the phoenix column and, secondarily, in the convective plume above the fountain. Coarser particles tend to segregate mainly along the ground both in the proximal area close to the crater rim because of the recycling of material from the fountain and in the distal area, because of the loss of radial momentum. As a result, pyroclastic flows were described as formed by a dilute fine-rich suspension current overlying a dense underflow rich in coarse particles from the proximal region of the flow. Nonequilibrium effects between particles of different sizes appear to be controlled by particle
GPU Accelerated Numerical Simulation of Viscous Flow Down a Slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gygax, Remo; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2014-05-01
Numerical simulations are an effective tool in natural risk analysis. They are useful to determine the propagation and the runout distance of gravity driven movements such as debris flows or landslides. To evaluate these processes an approach on analogue laboratory experiments and a GPU accelerated numerical simulation of the flow of a viscous liquid down an inclined slope is considered. The physical processes underlying large gravity driven flows share certain aspects with the propagation of debris mass in a rockslide and the spreading of water waves. Several studies have shown that the numerical implementation of the physical processes of viscous flow produce a good fit with the observation of experiments in laboratory in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. When considering a process that is this far explored we can concentrate on its numerical transcription and the application of the code in a GPU accelerated environment to obtain a 3D simulation. The objective of providing a numerical solution in high resolution by NVIDIA-CUDA GPU parallel processing is to increase the speed of the simulation and the accuracy on the prediction. The main goal is to write an easily adaptable and as short as possible code on the widely used platform MATLAB, which will be translated to C-CUDA to achieve higher resolution and processing speed while running on a NVIDIA graphics card cluster. The numerical model, based on the finite difference scheme, is compared to analogue laboratory experiments. This way our numerical model parameters are adjusted to reproduce the effective movements observed by high-speed camera acquisitions during the laboratory experiments.
Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novosád, Jan; Vít, Tomáš
2015-05-01
This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.
Simulation of contaminant flow ina laboratory-scale porous system
Rashidi, M.
1995-12-01
The microscopic movement of contaminants in a porous medium has been simulated in an experiment. The approach has been to study the microscale transport processes using a novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging technique developed in our laboratories. The system studied consists of a packed porous column with a refractive index-matched fluid seeded with fluorescent tracer particles (for flow measurements) or an organic dye (for contaminant concentration measurements). Microscopic measurements of contaminant concentration, contaminant velocity, and pore geometry were obtained in a full three-dimensional volume of the test section at a good accuracy and a high resolution. 3D plots of these measurements show the complex geometry of the porous medium. It is also seen that near the contaminant front there is a significant correlation between the flow and the contaminant concentration. The goal is to use these and future results toward better understanding of contaminant flow and report thorough natural porous media.
Using TRINET for simulating flow and transport in porous media
Najita, J.; Doughty, C.
1998-08-01
The finite element model TRINET calculates transient or steady-state fluid flow and solute transport on a lattice composed of one-dimensional finite elements (i.e., pipes) of porous medium. TRINET incorporates an adaptive gridding algorithm to minimize numerical dispersion for transport calculations. Although TRINET was originally developed to study fracture networks, the primary interest here is in applying TRINET more generally to simulate transport in porous media (or a fractured medium being treated as an effective continuum). This requires developing expressions to relate TRINET inputs to equivalent parameters used to describe flow and transport in homogeneous porous media. In this report, the authors briefly describe the basic TRINET formulation for flow and transport, present TRINET equivalences for porous medium parameters, and compare TRINET to analytical solutions using the proposed porous medium equivalents.
Boundary conditions for direct simulations of compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poinsot, T. J.; Lele, S. K.
1992-01-01
The present consideration of procedures for the definition of boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes equations emphasizes the derivation of boundary conditions that are compatible with nondissipative algorithms applicable to direct simulations of turbulent flows. A novel formulation for the Euler equations is derived on the basis of characteristic wave relations through boundaries; this formulation is generalized to the Navier-Stokes equations. The method, which applies to both sub- and supersonic flows, is used in reflecting and nonreflecting boundary-condition treatments. Attention is given to practical implementations involving inlet and outlet boundaries and slip and nonslip walls, as well as the test cases of a ducted shear layer, vortices propagating through boundaries, and Poiseuille flow.
Computing transitional flows using wall-modeled large eddy simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodart, Julien; Larsson, Johan
2012-11-01
To be applicable to complex aerodynamic flows at realistic Reynolds numbers, large eddy simulation (LES) must be combined with a model for the inner part of the boundary layer. Aerodynamic flows are, in general, sensitive to the location of boundary layer transition. While traditional LES can predict the transition location and process accurately, existing wall-modeled LES approaches can not. In the present work, the behavior of the wall-model is locally adapted using a sensor in the LES-resolved part of boundary layer. This sensor estimates whether the boundary layer is turbulent or not, in a way that does not rely on any homogeneous direction. The proposed method is validated on controlled transition scenarios on a flat plat boundary layer, and finally applied to the flow around a multi-element airfoil at realistic Reynolds number.
A Boundary Condition for Simulation of Flow Over Porous Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Tinetti, Ana F.
2001-01-01
A new boundary condition is presented.for simulating the flow over passively porous surfaces. The model builds on the prior work of R.H. Bush to eliminate the need for constructing grid within an underlying plenum, thereby simplifying the numerical modeling of passively porous flow control systems and reducing computation cost. Code experts.for two structured-grid.flow solvers, TLNS3D and CFL3D. and one unstructured solver, USM3Dns, collaborated with an experimental porosity expert to develop the model and implement it into their respective codes. Results presented,for the three codes on a slender forebody with circumferential porosity and a wing with leading-edge porosity demonstrate a good agreement with experimental data and a remarkable ability to predict the aggregate aerodynamic effects of surface porosity with a simple boundary condition.
Simulation of 3D Chaotic Electroconvection in Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Scott; Mani, Ali
2016-11-01
Electroconvection, a microscale electrohydrodynamic phenomenon with chaotic features reminiscent of turbulence, provides the dominant transport mechanism in many electrochemical processes where ions are driven through ion-selective surfaces under large applied voltages. Electrodialysis, for example, desalinates water by flowing it between layers of ion-selective membranes with alternating selectivity while an electric field is applied normal to the membranes. This process leads to alternating channels becoming enriched and depleted of ions. Despite its key importance, much about how electroconvection enhances ion transport, particularly in the presence of crossflow, remains a mystery. We present results of 3D direct numerical simulations of electroconvection in a canonical geometry of an electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir with periodic sides subject to applied shear flow. We analyze the effects of crossflow on both flow statistics and qualitative structures in the fully chaotic regime. Stanford Graduate Fellowship, NSF GRFP.
The advanced computational testing and simulation toolkit (ACTS)
Drummond, L.A.; Marques, O.
2002-05-21
During the past decades there has been a continuous growth in the number of physical and societal problems that have been successfully studied and solved by means of computational modeling and simulation. Distinctively, a number of these are important scientific problems ranging in scale from the atomic to the cosmic. For example, ionization is a phenomenon as ubiquitous in modern society as the glow of fluorescent lights and the etching on silicon computer chips; but it was not until 1999 that researchers finally achieved a complete numerical solution to the simplest example of ionization, the collision of a hydrogen atom with an electron. On the opposite scale, cosmologists have long wondered whether the expansion of the Universe, which began with the Big Bang, would ever reverse itself, ending the Universe in a Big Crunch. In 2000, analysis of new measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation showed that the geometry of the Universe is flat, and thus the Universe will continue expanding forever. Both of these discoveries depended on high performance computer simulations that utilized computational tools included in the Advanced Computational Testing and Simulation (ACTS) Toolkit. The ACTS Toolkit is an umbrella project that brought together a number of general purpose computational tool development projects funded and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These tools, which have been developed independently, mainly at DOE laboratories, make it easier for scientific code developers to write high performance applications for parallel computers. They tackle a number of computational issues that are common to a large number of scientific applications, mainly implementation of numerical algorithms, and support for code development, execution and optimization. The ACTS Toolkit Project enables the use of these tools by a much wider community of computational scientists, and promotes code portability, reusability, reduction of duplicate efforts
Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors
Pitsch, Heinz
2010-05-31
The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation; a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet transformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.
Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors
Heinz Pitsch
2010-05-31
The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high-fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation, a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet tranformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.
Simulation model for flow of neutrophils in pulmonary capillary network.
Shirai, Atsushi; Fujita, Ryo; Hayase, Toshiyuki
2005-01-01
The concentration of neutrophils in the pulmonary microvasculature is higher than in systemic large vessels. It is thought that the high concentration of neutrophils facilitates their effective recruitment to sites of inflammation. Thus, in order to understand the role of neutrophils in the immune system, it is important to clarify their flow characteristics in the pulmonary microvasculature. In previous studies, we numerically investigated the motion of a neutrophil through a single capillary segment modeled by a moderate axisymmetric constriction in a straight pipe, developing a mathematical model for the prediction of the transit time of the cell through the segment. In the present study, this model was extended for application to network simulation of the motion of neutrophils. First, we numerically investigated shape recovery of a neutrophil after expulsion from a narrow capillary segment. This process was modeled in two different phases: elastic recovery and viscous recovery. The resulting model was combined with the previously developed models to simulate motion of the cells and plasma flow in a capillary network. A numerical simulation of the motion of neutrophils and plasma flow in a simple lattice capillary network showed that neutrophils were widely dispersed in the network with an increased concentration.
Microchambers flow simulation for immunoassay-based biosensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acharya, Ashwin; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran
2007-06-01
This paper presents fluid modeling and simulation of microchambers within microfluidic chip for immunoassay based biosensing applications. A microfluidic biosensor chip for fluorescence based immunoassay detection of biological elements should include suitably designed chambers with rinsing channels. Microfluidic chambers are necessary in holding and immobilizing enzymes onto the microfluidic surface. They function as center of interest for enzyme interactions and optical detection. It is also necessary to incorporate cleaning function into the micro-chambers to instigate reusability. The shape and size of the chamber is a crucial factor for sensitivity of the integrated biosensor as the optical detection unit would be placed at the top of the chamber. In the present work, combinations of chambers and channels with various geometries and sizes are simulated for rinsing flows. Chambers are analyzed for rinsing behavior under certain pressure drops between the inlet and outlet channels. Average velocity and flow contours are plotted and compared at different cross-sections within the chambers. Simulations are performed using FEM software, FEMLAB (Comsol, Inc., Burlington, MA). Optimized chambers are selected based on optimal rinsing, negligible slow zones without reverse flows, relatively simple geometry and low pressure drops.
A new framework for simulating forced homogeneous buoyant turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, Phares L.; Blanquart, Guillaume
2015-06-01
This work proposes a new simulation methodology to study variable density turbulent buoyant flows. The mathematical framework, referred to as homogeneous buoyant turbulence, relies on a triply periodic domain and incorporates numerical forcing methods commonly used in simulation studies of homogeneous, isotropic flows. In order to separate the effects due to buoyancy from those due to large-scale gradients, the linear scalar forcing technique is used to maintain the scalar variance at a constant value. Two sources of kinetic energy production are considered in the momentum equation, namely shear via an isotropic forcing term and buoyancy via the gravity term. The simulation framework is designed such that the four dimensionless parameters of importance in buoyant mixing, namely the Reynolds, Richardson, Atwood, and Schmidt numbers, can be independently varied and controlled. The framework is used to interrogate fully non-buoyant, fully buoyant, and partially buoyant turbulent flows. The results show that the statistics of the scalar fields (mixture fraction and density) are not influenced by the energy production mechanism (shear vs. buoyancy). On the other hand, the velocity field exhibits anisotropy, namely a larger variance in the direction of gravity which is associated with a statistical dependence of the velocity component on the local fluid density.
Meshless lattice Boltzmann method for the simulation of fluid flows.
Musavi, S Hossein; Ashrafizaadeh, Mahmud
2015-02-01
A meshless lattice Boltzmann numerical method is proposed. The collision and streaming operators of the lattice Boltzmann equation are separated, as in the usual lattice Boltzmann models. While the purely local collision equation remains the same, we rewrite the streaming equation as a pure advection equation and discretize the resulting partial differential equation using the Lax-Wendroff scheme in time and the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin scheme based on augmented radial basis functions in space. The meshless feature of the proposed method makes it a more powerful lattice Boltzmann solver, especially for cases in which using meshes introduces significant numerical errors into the solution, or when improving the mesh quality is a complex and time-consuming process. Three well-known benchmark fluid flow problems, namely the plane Couette flow, the circular Couette flow, and the impulsively started cylinder flow, are simulated for the validation of the proposed method. Excellent agreement with analytical solutions or with previous experimental and numerical results in the literature is observed in all the simulations. Although the computational resources required for the meshless method per node are higher compared to that of the standard lattice Boltzmann method, it is shown that for cases in which the total number of nodes is significantly reduced, the present method actually outperforms the standard lattice Boltzmann method.
Numerical simulation of the flow over Barchan dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Piomelli, Ugo; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Best, Jim
2012-11-01
We performed large-eddy simulation of the turbulent flow over a typical barchan dune model. The configuration is similar to that of experiments carried out at the University of Illinois, but the Reynolds number based on the free-surface velocity and the dune height is one fifth of the experiment. The simulation adopts the volume-of-fluid technique to model the dune. The use of periodic boundary conditions in the streamwise and spanwise directions implies that we are considering a fully developed flow over one dune in an infinite array. The height of the domain is close to the thickness of the approaching boundary layer, upstream of the dunes in the experiment. The resolution used is close to a typical DNS; Δx+ < 20 . 7 , Δy+ < 0 . 8 , and Δz+ < 10 . 3 . The approaching flow to the dune accelerates over the stoss (upstream) side and rises up to the crest, while at the same time diverging slowly in the spanwise direction toward the closest horn. The separated flow either reattaches on the plane or moves helically inside the recirculation zone toward the closest horn. The separated shear-layer extends downstream and toward the free-surface and contribute to downstream dunes. The agreement of the turbulence statistics with the experiment is good.
Simulations of Bluff Body Flow Interaction for Noise Source Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Medi R.; Lockard David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Neuhart, Dan H.; McGinley, Catherine B.
2006-01-01
The current study is a continuation of our effort to characterize the details of flow interaction between two cylinders in a tandem configuration. This configuration is viewed to possess many of the pertinent flow features of the highly interactive unsteady flow field associated with the main landing gear of large civil transports. The present effort extends our previous two-dimensional, unsteady, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations to three dimensions using a quasilaminar, zonal approach, in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. Two distinct separation length-to-diameter ratios of L/D = 3.7 and 1.435, representing intermediate and short separation distances between the two cylinders, are simulated. The Mach 0.166 simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of Re = 1.66 105 to match the companion experiments at NASA Langley Research Center. Extensive comparisons with the measured steady and unsteady surface pressure and off-surface particle image velocimetry data show encouraging agreement. Both prominent and some of the more subtle trends in the mean and fluctuating flow fields are correctly predicted. Both computations and the measured data reveal a more robust and energetic shedding process at L/D = 3.7 in comparison with the weaker shedding in the shorter separation case of L/D = 1.435. The vortex shedding frequency based on the computed surface pressure spectra is in reasonable agreement with the measured Strouhal frequency.
Reactive flow simulations: one-to-one comparison with experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Neuville, Amelie; Pedersen, Janne; Jettestuen, Espen; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Hiorth, Aksel
2014-05-01
Direct in-situ observations of structural changes in the pore space of porous rocks during reactive flow provide valuable insights into the pore scale mechanisms that govern mineral growth, changes in wetting properties and increased oil recovery. We present simulations of single-phase reactive flow in micrometer sized channels in a calcite (CaCO3) crystal and compare mineralogical and geometrical changes in the numerical results to experimental in-situ observations made with the same flow geometry and reactive fluids. This enables a rigorous test of the numerical model and a method for determining kinetic rate constants that will be used in simulations of reactive flow in chalk geometries. The numerical model is a lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) that moves a set of chemical basis species through the pore space by advection and diffusion. A chemical solver with general kinetic expressions is coupled to the LBM via mass fluxes at the solid-fluid interface. The mineralogy of the solid is described by scalar fields, each representing a mineral phase. The rate of dissolution or precipitation of a mineral depends on the local chemical disequilibrium and on a kinetic rate constant specific to each mineral.
Flow and particle deposition in the Turbuhaler: a CFD simulation.
Milenkovic, J; Alexopoulos, A H; Kiparissides, C
2013-05-01
In this work the steady-state flow in a commercial dry powder inhaler device, DPI (i.e., Turbuhaler) is described using computational fluid dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using commercial CFD software considering different flow models, i.e., laminar, k-ε, k-ε RNG, and k-ω SST as well as large Eddy simulation. Particle motion and deposition are described using a Eulerian-fluid/Lagrangian-particle approach. Particle collisions with the DPI walls are taken to result in deposition when the normal collision velocity is less than a critical capture velocity. Flow and particle deposition, for a range of mouthpiece pressure drops (i.e., 800-8800 Pa), as well as particle sizes corresponding to single particles and aggregates (i.e., 0.5-20 μm), are examined. The total volumetric outflow rate, the overall particle deposition as well as the spatial distribution of deposition sites in the DPI are determined. The transitional k-ω SST model for turbulent flow was found to produce results most similar to a reference solution obtained with LES, as well as experimental results for the pressure drop in the DPI. Overall, the simulation results are found to be in agreement with the available experimental data for local and total particle deposition.
Pointer, William David; Shaver, Dillon; Liu, Yang; Vegendla, Prasad; Tentner, Adrian
2016-09-30
The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy charges participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with the development of advanced modeling and simulation capabilities that can be used to address design, performance and safety challenges in the development and deployment of advanced reactor technology. The NEAMS has established a high impact problem (HIP) team to demonstrate the applicability of these tools to identification and mitigation of sources of steam generator flow induced vibration (SGFIV). The SGFIV HIP team is working to evaluate vibration sources in an advanced helical coil steam generator using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the turbulent primary coolant flow over the outside of the tubes and CFD simulations of the turbulent multiphase boiling secondary coolant flow inside the tubes integrated with high resolution finite element method assessments of the tubes and their associated structural supports. This report summarizes the demonstration of a methodology for the multiphase boiling flow analysis inside the helical coil steam generator tube. A helical coil steam generator configuration has been defined based on the experiments completed by Polytecnico di Milano in the SIET helical coil steam generator tube facility. Simulations of the defined problem have been completed using the Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modeling capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. Simulations suggest that the two phases will quickly stratify in the slightly inclined pipe of the helical coil steam generator. These results have been successfully benchmarked against both empirical correlations for pressure drop and simulations using an alternate CFD methodology, the dispersed phase mixture modeling capabilities of the open source CFD code Nek5000.
Large eddy simulation of tip-leakage flow in an axial flow fan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Keuntae; Choi, Haecheon; Choi, Seokho; Sa, Yongcheol; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung
2016-11-01
An axial flow fan with a shroud generates a complicated tip-leakage flow by the interaction of the axial flow with the fan blades and shroud near the blade tips. In this study, large eddy simulation is performed for tip-leakage flow in a forward-swept axial flow fan inside an outdoor unit of an air-conditioner, operating at the design condition of the Reynolds number of 547,000 based on the radius of blade tip and the tip velocity. A dynamic global model is used for a subgrid-scale model, and an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame is adopted. The present simulation clearly reveals the generation and evolution of tip-leakage vortex near the blade tip by the leakage flow. At the inception of the leakage vortex near the leading edge of the suction-side of the blade tip, the leakage vortex is composed of unsteady multiple vortices containing high-frequency fluctuations. As the leakage vortex develops downstream along a slant line toward the following blade, large and meandering movements of the leakage vortex are observed. Thus low-frequency broad peaks of velocity and pressure occur near the pressure surface. Supported by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2016-C3-0027).
Flow Simulations of The Dynamics of a Perturbed Solid-Body Rotation Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shixiao; Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi
2016-11-01
DNS is conducted to study the 3-D flow dynamics of a base solid-body rotation flow with a uniform axial velocity in a finite-length pipe. The simulation results describe the neutral stability line in response to either axisymmetric or 3-dimensional perturbations in a diagram of Reynolds number (Re , based on inlet axial velocity and pipe radius) versus the incoming flow swirl ratio (ω). This line is in good agreement with the neutral stability line recently predicted by the linear stability theory of Wang et al. (2016). The Wang & Rusak (1996) axisymmetric instability mechanism and evolution to an axisymmetric breakdown state is recovered in the simulations at certain operational conditions in terms of Re and ω. However, at other operational conditions there exists a dominant, 3-dimensional spiral type of instability mode that agrees with the linear stability theory of Wang et al. (2016). The growth of this mode leads to a spiral type of flow roll-up that subsequently nonlinearly saturates on a rotating spiral type of vortex breakdown. The computed time history of the velocity components at a certain point in the flow is used to describe 3-dimensional phase portraits of the flow global dynamics and its long-term behavior.
SIPSON--simulation of interaction between pipe flow and surface overland flow in networks.
Djordjević, S; Prodanović, D; Maksimović, C; Ivetić, M; Savić, D
2005-01-01
The new simulation model, named SIPSON, based on the Preissmann finite difference method and the conjugate gradient method, is presented in the paper. This model simulates conditions when the hydraulic capacity of a sewer system is exceeded, pipe flow is pressurized, the water flows out from the piped system to the streets, and the inlets cannot capture all the runoff. In the mathematical model, buried structures and pipelines, together with surface channels, make a horizontally and vertically looped network involving a complex interaction of flows. In this paper, special internal boundary conditions related to equivalent inlets are discussed. Procedures are described for the simulation of manhole cover loss, basement flooding, the representation of street geometry, and the distribution of runoff hydrographs between surface and underground networks. All these procedures are built into the simulation model. Relevant issues are illustrated on a set of examples, focusing on specific parameters and comparison with field measurements of flooding of the Motilal ki Chal catchment (Indore, India). Satisfactory agreement of observed and simulated hydrographs and maximum surface flooding levels is obtained. It is concluded that the presented approach is an improvement compared to the standard "virtual reservoir" approach commonly applied in most of the models.
Advanced solid elements for sheet metal forming simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mataix, Vicente; Rossi, Riccardo; Oñate, Eugenio; Flores, Fernando G.
2016-08-01
The solid-shells are an attractive kind of element for the simulation of forming processes, due to the fact that any kind of generic 3D constitutive law can be employed without any additional hypothesis. The present work consists in the improvement of a triangular prism solid-shell originally developed by Flores[2, 3]. The solid-shell can be used in the analysis of thin/thick shell, undergoing large deformations. The element is formulated in total Lagrangian formulation, and employs the neighbour (adjacent) elements to perform a local patch to enrich the displacement field. In the original formulation a modified right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor (C) is obtained; in the present work a modified deformation gradient (F) is obtained, which allows to generalise the methodology and allows to employ the Pull-Back and Push-Forwards operations. The element is based in three modifications: (a) a classical assumed strain approach for transverse shear strains (b) an assumed strain approach for the in-plane components using information from neighbour elements and (c) an averaging of the volumetric strain over the element. The objective is to use this type of elements for the simulation of shells avoiding transverse shear locking, improving the membrane behaviour of the in-plane triangle and to handle quasi-incompressible materials or materials with isochoric plastic flow.
Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study
George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L.; O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.
1998-08-01
A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.
Numerical Simulation of a High Mach Number Jet Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli; Mankbadi, Reda R.
1993-01-01
The recent efforts to develop accurate numerical schemes for transition and turbulent flows are motivated, among other factors, by the need for accurate prediction of flow noise. The success of developing high speed civil transport plane (HSCT) is contingent upon our understanding and suppression of the jet exhaust noise. The radiated sound can be directly obtained by solving the full (time-dependent) compressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, this requires computational storage that is beyond currently available machines. This difficulty can be overcome by limiting the solution domain to the near field where the jet is nonlinear and then use acoustic analogy (e.g., Lighthill) to relate the far-field noise to the near-field sources. The later requires obtaining the time-dependent flow field. The other difficulty in aeroacoustics computations is that at high Reynolds numbers the turbulent flow has a large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) cannot obtain all the scales of motion at high Reynolds number of technological interest. However, it is believed that the large scale structure is more efficient than the small-scale structure in radiating noise. Thus, one can model the small scales and calculate the acoustically active scales. The large scale structure in the noise-producing initial region of the jet can be viewed as a wavelike nature, the net radiated sound is the net cancellation after integration over space. As such, aeroacoustics computations are highly sensitive to errors in computing the sound sources. It is therefore essential to use a high-order numerical scheme to predict the flow field. The present paper presents the first step in a ongoing effort to predict jet noise. The emphasis here is in accurate prediction of the unsteady flow field. We solve the full time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order finite difference method. Time accurate spatial simulations of both plane and axisymmetric jet are presented. Jet Mach
Three-phase flow simulations in discrete fracture networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geiger, S.; Niessner, J.; Matthai, S. K.; Helmig, R.
2006-12-01
Fractures are often the key conduits for fluid flow in otherwise low permeability rocks. Their presence in hydrocarbon reservoirs leads to complex production histories, unpredictable coupling of wells, rapidly changing flow rates, possibly early water breakthrough, and low final recovery. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a combination of finite volume and finite element discretization is well suited to model incompressible, immiscible two-phase flow in 3D discrete fracture networks (DFN) representing complexly fractured rocks. Such an approach has been commercialized in Golder Associates' FracMan Reservoir Edition software. For realistic reservoir simulations, however, it would be desirable if a third compressible gas phase can be included which is often present at reservoir conditions. Here we present the extension of an existing node-centred finite volume - finite element (FEFV) discretization for the efficient and accurate simulations of three-component - three-phase flow in geologically realistic representations of fractured porous media. Two possible types of fracture networks can be used: In 2D, they are detailed geometrical representations of fractured rock masses mapped in field studies. In 3D, they are geologically constrained, stochastically generated discrete fracture networks. Flow and transport can be simulated for fractures only or for fractures and matrix combined. The governing equations are solved decoupled using an implicit-pressure, explicit-saturation (IMPES) approach. Flux and concentration terms can be treated with higher-order accuracy in the finite volume scheme to preserve shock fronts. The method is locally mass conservative and works on unstructured, spatially refined grids. Flash calculations are carried out by a new description of the Black-Oil model. Capillary and gravity effects are included in this formulation. The robustness and accuracy of this formulation is shown in several applications. First, grid convergence is
Compositional Space Parameterization Approach for Reservoir Flow Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voskov, D.
2011-12-01
Phase equilibrium calculations are the most challenging part of a compositional flow simulation. For every gridblock and at every time step, the number of phases and their compositions must be computed for the given overall composition, temperature, and pressure conditions. The conventional approach used in petroleum industry is based on performing a phase-stability test, and solving the fugacity constraints together with the coupled nonlinear flow equations when the gridblock has more than one phase. The multi-phase compositional space can be parameterized in terms of tie-simplexes. For example, a tie-triangle can be used such that its interior encloses the three-phase region, and the edges represent the boundary with specific two-phase regions. The tie-simplex parameterization can be performed for pressure, temperature, and overall composition. The challenge is that all of these parameters can change considerably during the course of a simulation. It is possible to prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously with respect to pressure, temperature, and overall composition. The continuity of the tie-simplex parameterization allows for interpolation using discrete representations of the tie-simplex space. For variations of composition, a projection to the nearest tie-simplex is used, and if the tie-simplex is within a predefined tolerance, it can be used directly to identify the phase-state of this composition. In general, our parameterization approach can be seen as the generalization of negative flash idea for systems with two or more phases. Theory of dispersion-free compositional displacements, as well as computational experience of general-purpose compositional flow simulation indicates that the displacement path in compositional space is determined by a limited number of tie-simplexes. Therefore, only few tie-simplex tables are required to parameterize the entire displacement. The small number of tie-simplexes needed in a course of a simulation motivates
The effect of global visual flow on simulator sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharkey, Thomas J.; Mccauley, Michael E.
1991-01-01
Simulator-induced sickness is investigated in experiments performed at the NASA Ames Army Crew Station Research Facility using the fixed-base helmet-mounted-display flight simulator described by Lypaczewski et al. (1986). The focus of the tests was on the possible roles of (1) global visual flow, as defined by Warren et al. (1982), and (2) maneuvering intensity (in the conflict hypothesis of Reason and Brand, 1975). The results, based on subjective evaluations, physiological measurements, and physical tests on 19 Army helicopter pilots performing a 40-min river-valley following task, are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed. The data are found to be in agreement with (1) and inconsistent with (2), indicating more sickness at lower altitude instead of with increased maneuvering. Shorter simulator sessions and postponement of low-altitude work until later in the training period are recommended.
Repartitioning Strategies for Massively Parallel Simulation of Reacting Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisciuneri, Patrick; Zheng, Angen; Givi, Peyman; Labrinidis, Alexandros; Chrysanthis, Panos
2015-11-01
The majority of parallel CFD simulators partition the domain into equal regions and assign the calculations for a particular region to a unique processor. This type of domain decomposition is vital to the efficiency of the solver. However, as the simulation develops, the workload among the partitions often become uneven (e.g. by adaptive mesh refinement, or chemically reacting regions) and a new partition should be considered. The process of repartitioning adjusts the current partition to evenly distribute the load again. We compare two repartitioning tools: Zoltan, an architecture-agnostic graph repartitioner developed at the Sandia National Laboratories; and Paragon, an architecture-aware graph repartitioner developed at the University of Pittsburgh. The comparative assessment is conducted via simulation of the Taylor-Green vortex flow with chemical reaction.
Simulating MODFLOW-based reactive transport under radially symmetric flow conditions.
Wallis, Ilka; Prommer, Henning; Post, Vincent; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Simmons, Craig T
2013-01-01
Radially symmetric flow and solute transport around point sources and sinks is an important specialized topic of groundwater hydraulics. Analysis of radial flow fields is routinely used to determine heads and flows in the vicinity of point sources or sinks. Increasingly, studies also consider solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and thermal changes that occur in the vicinity of point sources/sinks. Commonly, the analysis of hydraulic processes involves numerical or (semi-) analytical modeling methods. For the description of solute transport, analytical solutions are only available for the most basic transport phenomena. Solving advanced transport problems numerically is often associated with a significant computational burden. However, where axis-symmetry applies, computational cost can be decreased substantially in comparison with full three-dimensional (3D) solutions. In this study, we explore several techniques of simulating conservative and reactive transport within radial flow fields using MODFLOW as the flow simulator, based on its widespread use and ability to be coupled with multiple solute and reactive transport codes of different complexity. The selected transport simulators are MT3DMS and PHT3D. Computational efficiency and accuracy of the approaches are evaluated through comparisons with full 2D/3D model simulations, analytical solutions, and benchmark problems. We demonstrate that radial transport models are capable of accurately reproducing a wide variety of conservative and reactive transport problems provided that an adequate spatial discretization and advection scheme is selected. For the investigated test problems, the computational load was substantially reduced, with the improvement varying, depending on the complexity of the considered reaction network.
Advances in Constitutive and Failure Models for Sheet Forming Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Jeong Whan; Stoughton, Thomas B.
2016-08-01
Non-Associated Flow Rule (Non-AFR) can be used as a convenient way to account for anisotropic material response in metal deformation processes, making it possible for example, to eliminate the problem of the anomalous yielding in equibiaxial tension that is mistakenly attributed to limitations of the quadratic yield function, but may instead be attributed to the Associated Flow Rule (AFR). Seeing as in Non-AFR based models two separate functions can be adopted for yield and plastic potential, there is no constraint to which models are used to describe each of them. In this work, the flexible combination of two different yield criteria as yield function and plastic potential under Non-AFR is proposed and evaluated. FE simulations were carried so as to verify the accuracy of the material directionalities predicted using these constitutive material models. The stability conditions for non-associated flow connected with the prediction of yield point elongation are also reviewed. Anisotropic distortion hardening is further incorporated under non-associated flow. It has been found that anisotropic hardening makes the noticeable improvements for both earing and spring-back predictions. This presentation is followed by a discussion of the topic of the forming limit & necking, the evidence in favor of stress analysis, and the motivation for the development of a new type of forming limit diagram based on the polar effective plastic strain (PEPS) diagram. In order to connect necking to fracture in metals, the stress-based necking limit is combined with a stress- based fracture criterion in the principal stress, which provides an efficient method for the analysis of necking and fracture limits. The concept for the PEPS diagram is further developed to cover the path-independent PEPS fracture which is compatible with the stress-based fracture approach. Thus this fracture criterion can be utilized to describe the post-necking behavior and to cover nonlinear strain-path. Fracture
Experiments and simulations of oil-water flows in horizontal pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibarra-Hernandes, Roberto; Wright, Stuart; Xie, Zhihua; Markides, Christos; Matar, Omar
2016-11-01
The extraction of detailed information (e.g. velocity and turbulent data) in the flow of two immiscible liquid phases in horizontal pipes is of great importance for the fundamental understanding of the in situ hydrodynamics (and transport properties) of these flows, and the validation and improvement of advanced multiphase flow models. This detailed flow information can be obtained by the application of advanced laser-based diagnostic techniques, such as Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), however, the difference in the refractive index between the most relevant test fluids (oil, water) prevents the extraction of accurate information simultaneously in both phases, especially when the phases begin to develop interfacial instabilities, droplets and dispersions. In this work, a simultaneous, combined two-line technique is employed to obtain spatiotemporally resolved information in a 32 mm ID quartz pipe in terms of liquid phase distributions, velocity profiles and turbulence measurements. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations carried out using the Fluidity code based on control-volume, finite-elements, and adaptive, unstructured meshing. Funding from BP (for R-IH), Cameron (for SW), and the EPSRC UK through the MEMPHIS programme (Grant Number EP/K0039761/1) is gratefully acknowledged.
Simulation of flow in dual-scale porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Hua
Liquid composite molding (LCM) is one of the most effective processes for manufacturing near net-shaped parts from fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The quality of LCM products and the efficiency of the process depend strongly on the wetting of fiber preforms during the mold-filling stage of LCM. Mold-filling simulation is a very effective approach to optimize the LCM process and mold design. Recent studies have shown that the flow modeling for the single-scale fiber preforms (made from random mats) has difficulties in accurately predicting the wetting in the dual-scale fiber preforms (made from woven and stitched fabrics); the latter are characterized by the presence of unsaturated flow created due to two distinct length-scales of pores (i.e., large pores outside the tows and small pores inside the tows) in the same media. In this study, we first develop a method to evaluate the accuracy of the permeability-measuring devices for LCM, and conduct a series of 1-D mold-filling experiments for different dual-scale fabrics. The volume averaging method is then applied to derive the averaged governing equations for modeling the macroscopic flow through the dual-scale fabrics. The two sets of governing equations are coupled with each other through the sink terms representing the absorptions of mass, energy, and species (degree of resin cure) from the global flow by the local fiber tows. The finite element method (FEM) coupled with the control volume method, also known as the finite element/control volume (FE/CV) method, is employed to solve the governing equations and track the moving boundary signifying the moving liquid-front. The numerical computations are conducted with the help of an in-house developed computer program called PORE-FLOW(c). We develop the flux-corrected transport (FCT) based FEM to stabilize the convection-dominated energy and species equations. A fast methodology is proposed to simulate the dual-scale flow under isothermal conditions, where flow
Gas permeability and flow characterization of simulated lunar regolith
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toutanji, Houssam; Goff, Christopher M.; Ethridge, Edwin; Stokes, Eric
2012-04-01
Recent discoveries of water ice trapped within lunar topsoil (regolith) have placed a new emphasis on the recovery and utilization of water for future space exploration. Upon heating the lunar ice to sublimation, the resulting water vapor could theoretically transmit through the lunar regolith, to be captured on the surface. As the permeability of lunar regolith is essential to this process, this paper seeks to experimentally determine the permeability and flow characteristics of various gas species through simulated lunar regolith (SLR). Two different types of SLR were compacted and placed into the permeability setup to measure the flow-rate of transmitted gas through the sample. Darcy's permeability constant was calculated for each sample and gas combination, and flow characteristics were determined from the results. The results show that Darcy's permeability constant varies with SLR compaction density, and identified no major difference in permeable flow between the several tested gas species. Between the two tested SLR types, JSC-1A was shown to be more permeable than NU-LHT under similar conditions. In addition, a transition zone was identified in the flow when the gas pressure differential across the sample was less than ˜40 kPa.
Finite element simulation of glottal flow and pressure.
Guo, C G; Scherer, R C
1993-08-01
Computational studies of laryngeal aerodynamics should help clarify the relationships among configuration, air flow, surface pressure, and vocal fold movement within the larynx, and the acoustic consequences of the output glottal air flow. The penalty finite element method [S. W. Kim, Comput. Fluids 16(4), 429-444 (1988a); NASA CR-179357 (1988b); S. W. Kim and R. A. Decker, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids 9, 43-57 (1989)] was adopted to simulate steady air flow and air pressure through the larynx. A total of 133 conditions of different glottal configurations and inflow rates were studied. The computational results were compared to empirical data from earlier experiments. Two cases are reported (1) constant glottal divergence (42 degrees) but variable diameter and (2) constant glottal diameter (0.04 cm) but variable glottal angle. For case (1), the average discrepancy for translaryngeal pressure drop between the computational results and empirical data was 6.8% for pressures between 3 and 15 cm H2O. Flow separation occurred just downstream of the minimal glottal diameter. For case (2), the computational results for translaryngeal pressure drop differed from the empirically derived Scherer-Guo (S-G) equation predictions by an average of 8.9% for pressure between 3 and 13 cm H2O. Pressure recovery in the glottis suggested that the optimal glottal diffuser angle was near 10 degrees. Results suggest that the computational method should be sufficient to study glottal aerodynamics (assuming quasisteady flow).
Simulation of inertial fibre orientation in turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Njobuenwu, Derrick O.; Fairweather, Michael
2016-06-01
The spatial and orientational behaviour of fibres within a suspension influences the rheological and mechanical properties of that suspension. An Eulerian-Lagrangian framework to simulate the behaviour of fibres in turbulent flows is presented. The framework is intended for use in simulations of non-spherical particles with high Reynolds numbers, beyond the Stokesian regime, and is a computationally efficient alternative to existing Stokesian models for fibre suspensions in turbulent flow. It is based on modifying available empirical drag correlations for the translation of non-spherical particles to be orientation dependent, accounting for the departure in shape from a sphere. The orientational dynamics of a particle is based on the framework of quaternions, while its rotational dynamics is obtained from the solution of the Euler equation of rotation subject to external torques on the particle. The fluid velocity and turbulence quantities are obtained using a very high-resolution large eddy simulation with dynamic calibration of the sub-grid scale energy containing fluid motions. The simulation matrix consists of four different fibre Stokes numbers (St = 1, 5, 25, and 125) and five different fibre aspect ratios (λ = 1.001, 3, 10, 30, and 50), with results considered at four distances from a channel wall (in the viscous sub-layer, buffer, and fully turbulent regions), which are taken as a measure of the flow velocity gradient, all at a constant fibre to fluid density ratio (ρp/ρ = 760) and shear Reynolds number Reτ = 150. The simulated fibre orientation, concentration, and streakiness confirm previous experimentally observed characteristics of fibre behaviour in turbulence, and that of direct numerical simulations of fibres in Stokesian, or creeping flow, regimes. The fibres exhibit translational motion similar to spheres, where they tend to accumulate in the near-wall (viscous sub-layer and buffer) region and preferentially concentrate in regions of low
Unstructured Mesh Methods for the Simulation of Hypersonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, Jaime; Bibb, K. L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This report describes the research work undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The aim of this research is to identify effective algorithms and methodologies for the efficient and routine solution of hypersonic viscous flows about re-entry vehicles. For over ten years we have received support from NASA to develop unstructured mesh methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics. As a result of this effort a methodology based on the use, of unstructured adapted meshes of tetrahedra and finite volume flow solvers has been developed. A number of gridding algorithms flow solvers, and adaptive strategies have been proposed. The most successful algorithms developed from the basis of the unstructured mesh system FELISA. The FELISA system has been extensively for the analysis of transonic and hypersonic flows about complete vehicle configurations. The system is highly automatic and allows for the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations starting from CAD data. The code has been parallelized and utilizes efficient solution algorithms. For hypersonic flows, a version of the, code which incorporates real gas effects, has been produced. One of the latest developments before the start of this grant was to extend the system to include viscous effects. This required the development of viscous generators, capable of generating the anisotropic grids required to represent boundary layers, and viscous flow solvers. In figures I and 2, we show some sample hypersonic viscous computations using the developed viscous generators and solvers. Although these initial results were encouraging, it became apparent that in order to develop a fully functional capability for viscous flows, several advances in gridding, solution accuracy, robustness and efficiency were required. As part of this research we have developed: 1) automatic meshing techniques and the corresponding computer codes have been delivered to NASA and implemented into the GridEx system, 2) a finite
Unsteady Simulation of an ASME Venturi Flow in a Cross Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonifacio, Jeremy; Rahai, Hamid
2010-11-01
Unsteady numerical simulations of an ASME venturi flow into a cross flow were performed. The velocity ratios between the venturi flow and the free stream were 25, 50, and 75%. Two cases of the venturi with and without a tube extension have been investigated. The tube extension length was approximately 4D (here D is the inner diameter of the venturi's outlet), connecting the venturi to the bottom surface of the numerical wind tunnel. A finite volume approach with the Wilcox K-φ turbulence model were used. Results that include contours of the mean velocity, velocity vector, turbulent kinetic energy, pressure and vortices within the venturi as well as downstream in the interaction region indicate that when the venturi is flushed with the surface, there is evidence of flow separation within the venturi, near the outlet. However, when the tube extension was added, the pressure recovery was sustained and flow separation within the venturi was not present and the characteristics of the flow in the interaction region were similar to the corresponding characteristics of a pipe jet in a cross flow.
Proceedings of the Advanced Seminar on one-dimensional, open-channel Flow and transport modeling
Schaffranek, Raymond W.
1989-01-01
In view of the increased use of mathematical/numerical simulation models, of the diversity of both model investigations and informational project objectives, and of the technical demands of complex model applications by U.S. Geological Survey personnel, an advanced seminar on one-dimensional open-channel flow and transport modeling was organized and held on June 15-18, 1987, at the National Space Technology Laboratory, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Principal emphasis in the Seminar was on one-dimensional flow and transport model-implementation techniques, operational practices, and application considerations. The purposes of the Seminar were to provide a forum for the exchange of information, knowledge, and experience among model users, as well as to identify immediate and future needs with respect to model development and enhancement, user support, training requirements, and technology transfer. The Seminar program consisted of a mix of topical and project presentations by Geological Survey personnel. This report is a compilation of short papers that summarize the presentations made at the Seminar.
Numerical simulations of non-homogeneous viscoelastic turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony
2004-11-01
The effect of the polymer mixing in turbulent channel flow is studied through numerical simulations, using a spectral technique. In particular, we simulate injection of polymeric material through a slit very close to the wall and parallel to it in pre-established Newtonian turbulent flow. The governing equations consist of the mass conservation, the modified Navier-Stokes equation (in order to take into account the polymer extra-stress), the evolution equation for the conformation tensor and an advection-diffusion equation for the polymer concentration. The injection process is simulated by dividing the computational domain in three different regions: (a) the entrance region where the polymer is introduced (b) the developing region where the polymer is allowed to convect freely interacting/modifying the turbulent flow and (c) the recovering region where we use a reacting sink to force the removal of the polymer from the solvent in order to re-establish the inlet conditions. A fully spectral method is used in order to solve the set of governing equations similar to that developed for homogenous viscoelastic turbulent DNS (Housiadas & Beris, Phys. Fluids, 15, (2003)). Although a significantly improved numerical algorithm has been successfully used before (Housiadas & Beris, to appear in J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. (2004)) a further improved version of that algorithm is presented in this work. The new algorithm has enabled us to extend the simulations for much wider range of viscoelasticity parameter values as well as for many viscoelastic models like the FENE-P, Giesekus, Oldroyd-B and the modified Giesekus/FENE-P model. Results for illustrative sets of parameter values are going to be presented.
Laboratory Simulation of Flow through Single Fractured Granite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, K. K.; Singh, D. N.; Ranjith, P. G.
2015-05-01
Laboratory simulation on fluid flow through fractured rock is important in addressing the seepage/fluid-in-rush related problems that occur during the execution of any civil or geological engineering projects. To understand the mechanics and transport properties of fluid through a fractured rock in detail and to quantify the sources of non-linearity in the discharge and base pressure relationship, fluid flow experiments were carried out on a cylindrical sample of granite containing a `single rough walled fracture'. These experiments were performed under varied conditions of confining pressures, σ 3 (5-40 MPa), which can simulate the condition occurring about 1,000 m below in the earth crust, with elevated base pressure, b p (up to 25 MPa) and by changing fracture roughness. The details of the methodologies involved and the observations are discussed here. The obtained results indicate that most of the data in the Q verses b p plot, fall on the straight line and the flow through the single fracture in granite obeys Darcy's law or the well-known "cubic law" even at high value of b p (=4 MPa) and σ 3 (=5 MPa) combination. The Reynolds number is quite sensitive to the b p, σ 3 and fracture roughness, and there is a critical b p, beyond which transition in flow occurs from laminar to turbulent. It is believed that such studies will be quite useful in identifying the limits of applicability of well know `cubic law', which is required for precise calculation of discharge and/or aperture in any practical issues and in further improving theoretical/numerical models associated with fluid flow through a single fracture.
Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zharov, Vladimir P.
2010-01-01
The formulation of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refractive index matching conditions and by cells labeled by gold nanoparticles. The optical schematics including phase contrast (OPCM) microscopy as a prospective modality for in vivo flow cytometry is also analyzed. The validation of the FDTD approach for the simulation of flow cytometry may open a new avenue in the development of advanced cytometric techniques based on scattering effects from nanoscale targets. PMID:19670359
Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James; Tuchin, Valery V; Zharov, Vladimir P
2009-09-01
The formulation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in-vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled refractive-index matching conditions and by cells labeled by gold nanoparticles. The optical schematics including phase contrast (OPCM) microscopy as a prospective modality for in-vivo flow cytometry is also analyzed. The validation of the FDTD approach for the simulation of flow cytometry may open up a new avenue in the development of advanced cytometric techniques based on scattering effects from nanoscale targets.
Schultz, Peter Andrew
2011-12-01
The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, Aaron
1987-01-01
The numerical simulation of three-dimensional transonic flow about propeller blades is discussed. The equations for the unsteady potential flow about propellers is given for an arbitrary coordinate system. From this the small disturbance form of the equation is derived for a new helical coordinate system. The new coordinate system is suited to propeller flow and allows cascade boundary conditions to be applied straightforward. A numerical scheme is employed which solves the steady flow as an asymptotic limit of unsteady flow. Solutions are presented for subsonic and transonic flow about a 5 percent thick bicircular arc blade of an eight bladed cascade. Both high and low advance ratio cases are given which include a lifting case as well as nonlifting cases. The nonlifting cases are compared to solutions from a Euler code.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, P.; Frankel, S. H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Sabini, G.; Madnia, C. K.
1993-01-01
The primary objective of this research is to extend current capabilities of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first two years of this research have been concentrated on a priori investigations of single-point Probability Density Function (PDF) methods for providing subgrid closures in reacting turbulent flows. In the efforts initiated in the third year, our primary focus has been on performing actual LES by means of PDF methods. The approach is based on assumed PDF methods and we have performed extensive analysis of turbulent reacting flows by means of LES. This includes simulations of both three-dimensional (3D) isotropic compressible flows and two-dimensional reacting planar mixing layers. In addition to these LES analyses, some work is in progress to assess the extent of validity of our assumed PDF methods. This assessment is done by making detailed companions with recent laboratory data in predicting the rate of reactant conversion in parallel reacting shear flows. This report provides a summary of our achievements for the first six months of the third year of this program.
Stochastic Simulation of Lagrangian Particle Transport in Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Guangyuan
This dissertation presents the development and validation of the One Dimensional Turbulence (ODT) multiphase model in the Lagrangian reference frame. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. The flow evolution is governed by a deterministic solution of the viscous processes and a stochastic representation of advection through stochastic domain mapping processes. The three algorithms for Lagrangian particle transport are presented within the context of the ODT approach. The Type-I and -C models consider the particle-eddy interaction as instantaneous and continuous change of the particle position and velocity, respectively. The Type-IC model combines the features of the Type-I and -C models. The models are applied to the multi-phase flows in the homogeneous decaying turbulence and turbulent round jet. Particle dispersion, dispersion coefficients, and velocity statistics are predicted and compared with experimental data. The models accurately reproduces the experimental data sets and capture particle inertial effects and trajectory crossing effect. A new adjustable particle parameter is introduced into the ODT model, and sensitivity analysis is performed to facilitate parameter estimation and selection. A novel algorithm of the two-way momentum coupling between the particle and carrier phases is developed in the ODT multiphase model. Momentum exchange between the phases is accounted for through particle source terms in the viscous diffusion. The source term is implemented in eddy events through a new kernel transformation and an iterative procedure is required for eddy selection. This model is applied to a particle-laden turbulent jet flow, and simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. The effect of particle addition on the velocities of the gas phase is investigated. The development of
Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-09-01
We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH-SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results based on proper coupling of spatial-temporal scales agree well with analytical solutions. In particular, we find that the size of the overlap region should be at least rc,1 + 2rc,2, where rc,1 and rc,2 are cut off radii in the two sub-domains with rc,1 ≤rc,2. Subsequently, a perturbation wave is considered traveling either parallel or perpendicular to the hybrid interface. Compressibility is significant if transient behavior at short sonic-time-scale is relevant, while the fluid can be treated as quasi-incompressible at sufficiently long time scale. To this end, we propose a coupling of density fields from the two sub-domains. Finally, a steady Wannier flow is simulated, where a rotating cylinder is placed next to a
Large-eddy simulation of supercritical fluid flow and combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Hongfa
The present study focuses on the modeling and simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion of real fluids at supercritical conditions. The objectives of the study are: (1) to establish a unified theoretical framework that can be used to study the turbulent combustion of real fluids; (2) to implement the theoretical framework and conduct numerical studies with the aim of improving the understanding of the flow and combustion dynamics at conditions representative of contemporary liquid-propellant rocket engine operation; (3) to identify the key design parameters and the flow variables which dictate the dynamics characteristics of swirl- and shear- coaxial injectors. The theoretical and numerical framework is validated by simulating the Sandia Flame D. The calculated axial and radial profiles of velocity, temperature, and mass fractions of major species are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements. The conditionally averaged mass fraction profiles agree very well with the experimental results at different axial locations. The validated model is first employed to examine the flow dynamics of liquid oxygen in a pressure swirl injector at supercritical conditions. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the effects of external excitations on the dynamic response of the injector. The high-frequency fluctuations do not significantly affect the flow field as they are dissipated shortly after being introduced into the flow. However, the lower-frequency fluctuations are amplified by the flow. As a result, the film thickness and the spreading angle at the nozzle exit fluctuate strongly for low-frequency external excitations. The combustion of gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen in a high-pressure combustion chamber for a shear coaxial injector is simulated to assess the accuracy and the credibility of the computer program when applied to a sub-scale model of a combustor. The predicted heat flux profile is compared with the experimental and numerical studies. The
Lymphoedema management with the LymphFlow Advance pneumatic compression pump.
Lee, Natalie; Wigg, Jane; Pugh, Stacy; Barclay, Janet; Moore, Hayley
2016-10-01
There are many intermittent pneumatic compression devices available for use in the management and adjunct treatment of lymphatic, venous and arterial disease. This article discusses the development of a new advanced pneumatic compression device, the LymphFlow Advance, which can perform focussed treatment on the lymphoedematous area using a variety of different cycles. Case studies with therapist and patient feedback are used to demonstrate the use of the LymphFlow Advance in the lymphoedema clinic, with a discussion of the evidence to underpin recommended treatment regimes.
Geomechanically Coupled Simulation of Flow in Fractured Reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barton, C.; Moos, D.; Hartley, L.; Baxter, S.; Foulquier, L.; Holl, H.; Hogarth, R.
2012-12-01
Capturing the necessary and sufficient detail of reservoir hydraulics to accurately evaluate reservoir behavior remains a significant challenge to the exploitation and management of fracture-dominated geothermal reservoirs. In these low matrix permeability reservoirs, stimulation response is controlled largely by the properties of natural and induced fracture networks, which are in turn controlled by the in situ stresses, the fracture distribution and connectivity and the hydraulic behavior of the fractures. This complex interaction of fracture flow systems with the present-day stress field compounds the problem of developing an effective and efficient simulation to characterize, model and predict fractured reservoir performance. We discuss here a case study of the integration of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, and reservoir engineering data to characterize the in situ stresses, the natural fracture network and the controls on fracture permeability in geothermal reservoirs. A 3D geomechanical reservoir model includes constraints on stress magnitudes and orientations, and constraints on mechanical rock properties and the fractures themselves. Such a model is essential to understanding reservoir response to stimulation and production in low matrix permeability, fracture-dominated reservoirs. The geomechanical model for this study was developed using petrophysical, drilling, and wellbore image data along with direct well test measurements and was mapped to a 3D structural grid to facilitate coupled simulation of the fractured reservoir. Wellbore image and stimulation test data were used along with microseismic data acquired during the test to determine the reservoir fracture architecture and to provide control points for a realistic inter-connected discrete fracture network. As most fractures are stress-sensitive, their hydraulic conductivities will change with changes in bottomhole flowing and reservoir pressures, causing variations in production profiles
Stochastic Rotation Dynamics simulations of wetting multi-phase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Brinkmann, Martin
2016-06-01
Multi-color Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRDmc) has been introduced by Inoue et al. [1,2] as a particle based simulation method to study the flow of emulsion droplets in non-wetting microchannels. In this work, we extend the multi-color method to also account for different wetting conditions. This is achieved by assigning the color information not only to fluid particles but also to virtual wall particles that are required to enforce proper no-slip boundary conditions. To extend the scope of the original SRDmc algorithm to e.g. immiscible two-phase flow with viscosity contrast we implement an angular momentum conserving scheme (SRD+mc). We perform extensive benchmark simulations to show that a mono-phase SRDmc fluid exhibits bulk properties identical to a standard SRD fluid and that SRDmc fluids are applicable to a wide range of immiscible two-phase flows. To quantify the adhesion of a SRD+mc fluid in contact to the walls we measure the apparent contact angle from sessile droplets in mechanical equilibrium. For a further verification of our wettability implementation we compare the dewetting of a liquid film from a wetting stripe to experimental and numerical studies of interfacial morphologies on chemically structured surfaces.
Simulating unsteady flow and sediment transport in vegetated channel network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yang; Duan, Jennifer G.
2014-07-01
This paper presents a one-dimensional model for simulating flood routing and sediment transport over mobile alluvium in a vegetated channel network. The modified St. Venant equations together with the governing equations for suspended sediment and bed load transport were solved simultaneously to obtain flow properties and sediment transport rate. The Godunov-type finite volume method is employed to discretize the governing equations. Then, the Exner equation was solved for bed elevation change. Since sediment transport is non-equilibrium when bed is degrading or aggrading, a recovery coefficient for suspended sediment and an adaptation length for bed load transport were used to quantify the differences between equilibrium and non-equilibrium sediment transport rate. The influence of vegetation on floodplain and main channel was accounted for by adjusting resistance terms in the momentum equations for flow field. A procedure to separate the grain resistance from the total resistance was proposed and implemented to calculate sediment transport rate. The model was tested by a flume experiment case and an unprecedented flood event occurred in the Santa Cruz River, Tucson, Arizona, in July 2006. Simulated results of flow discharge and bed elevation changes showed satisfactory agreements with the measurements. The impacts of vegetation density on sediment transport and significance of non-equilibrium sediment transport model were discussed.
Numerical Simulation of Bubble Formation in Co-Flowing Mercury
Abdou, Ashraf A; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie
2008-01-01
In this work, we present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of helium bubble formation and detachment at a submerged needle in stagnant and co-flowing mercury. Since mercury is opaque, visualization of internal gas bubbles was done with proton radiography (pRad) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE2). The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection in mercury. The VOF model is validated by comparing detailed bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth and detachment, with the experimental measurements at different gas flow rates and mercury velocities. The experimental and computational results show a two-stage bubble formation. The first stage involves growing bubble around the needle, and the second follows as the buoyancy overcomes wall adhesion. The comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth and detachment is in good agreement.
Uncertainty in simulated groundwater-quality trends in transient flow
Starn, J. Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Robbins, Gary A.
2013-01-01
In numerical modeling of groundwater flow, the result of a given solution method is affected by the way in which transient flow conditions and geologic heterogeneity are simulated. An algorithm is demonstrated that simulates breakthrough curves at a pumping well by convolution-based particle tracking in a transient flow field for several synthetic basin-scale aquifers. In comparison to grid-based (Eulerian) methods, the particle (Lagrangian) method is better able to capture multimodal breakthrough caused by changes in pumping at the well, although the particle method may be apparently nonlinear because of the discrete nature of particle arrival times. Trial-and-error choice of number of particles and release times can perhaps overcome the apparent nonlinearity. Heterogeneous aquifer properties tend to smooth the effects of transient pumping, making it difficult to separate their effects in parameter estimation. Porosity, a new parameter added for advective transport, can be accurately estimated using both grid-based and particle-based methods, but predictions can be highly uncertain, even in the simple, nonreactive case.
Urban traffic-network performance: flow theory and simulation experiments
Williams, J.C.
1986-01-01
Performance models for urban street networks were developed to describe the response of a traffic network to given travel-demand levels. The three basic traffic flow variables, speed, flow, and concentration, are defined at the network level, and three model systems are proposed. Each system consists of a series of interrelated, consistent functions between the three basic traffic-flow variables as well as the fraction of stopped vehicles in the network. These models are subsequently compared with the results of microscopic simulation of a small test network. The sensitivity of one of the model systems to a variety of network features was also explored. Three categories of features were considered, with the specific features tested listed in parentheses: network topology (block length and street width), traffic control (traffic signal coordination), and traffic characteristics (level of inter-vehicular interaction). Finally, a fundamental issue concerning the estimation of two network-level parameters (from a nonlinear relation in the two-fluid theory) was examined. The principal concern was that of comparability of these parameters when estimated with information from a single vehicle (or small group of vehicles), as done in conjunction with previous field studies, and when estimated with network-level information (i.e., all the vehicles), as is possible with simulation.
Modeling and eddy simulation of rotating and curved turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arolla, Sunil Kumar
In the first part of this work, two different approaches to incorporate the effects of rotation and curvature in scalar eddy viscosity models have been explored. One is the "Modified coefficients approach"---to parameterize the model coefficients such that the growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is suppressed or enhanced. The other is the "Bifurcation approach"---to parameterize eddy-viscosity coefficient such that the equilibrium solution bifurcates from healthy to decaying solution branches. Simple, yet, predictive models in each of these two approaches are proposed and validated on some benchmark test cases characterized by profound effects of system rotation and/or streamline curvature. The results obtained with both the models are encouraging. Application of the models to some practically relevant flow configurations is also discussed. In the second part, a computational framework is developed with recycling and rescaling method of inflow generation to perform eddy simulation of turbomachinery flows. A systematic validation is carried out on a spatially developing boundary layer on flat plate, flow through a channel and an annulus. Then, large eddy simulation of turbine transition duct is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology.
Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at New Jersey Shallow Shelf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fehr, Annick; Patterson, Fabian; Lofi, Johanna; Reiche, Sönke
2016-04-01
During IODP Expedition 313, three boreholes were drilled in the so-called New Jersey transect. Hydrochemical studies revealed the groundwater situation as more complex than expected, characterized by several sharp boundaries between fresh and saline groundwater. Two conflicting hypotheses regarding the nature of these freshwater reservoirs are currently debated. One hypothesis is that these reservoirs are connected with onshore aquifers and continuously recharged by seaward-flowing groundwater. The second hypothesis is that fresh groundwater was emplaced during the last glacial period. In addition to the petrophysical properties measured during IODP 313 expedition, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on samples from boreholes M0027, M0028 and M0029 in order to deduce porosities and permeabilities. These results are compared with data from alternative laboratory measurements and with petrophysical properties inferred from downhole logging data. We incorporate these results into a 2D numerical model that reflects the shelf architecture as known from drillings and seismic data to perform submarine groundwater flow simulations. In order to account for uncertainties related to the spatial distribution of physical properties, such as porosity and permeability, systematic variation of input parameters was performed during simulation runs. The target is to test the two conflicting hypotheses of fresh groundwater emplacements offshore New Jersey and to improve the understanding of fluid flow processes at marine passive margins.
Numerical Simulations of Separated Flows Using Wall-Modeled LES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vane, Zachary; Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz
2014-11-01
Calculations using an unstructured, wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) solver are performed for several high Reynolds number test cases of interest. While the equilibrium formulation of this wall-model (Bodart, Larsson & Moin, AIAA 2013-2724) has proven to be accurate for steady, attached boundary layers, its application to non-equilibrium or highly three-dimensional problems has yet to be fully explored. A series of turbulent flows that exhibit boundary layer separation due to the geometries involved in each test case are considered. First, spanwise-periodic simulations for the flow over periodic hills are performed at multiple Reynolds numbers. Next, calculations involving separation caused by three-dimensional bodies are used to generate more complex flow fields and to evaluate the accuracy of the WMLES in the separated wake region downstream. The performance of the WMLES is quantified through comparisons with existing numerical and experimental data sets. The effects of grid resolution and variations in several wall-model parameters are also investigated to determine their influence on the overall calculation.
Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.
2003-01-01
The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Results obtained are based on analytical methods, numerical simulations and experimental tests at the NASA LaRC and Hampton University computer complexes and experimental facilities. The main objective of this research is injection, mixing and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems. The sub-projects in the reporting period are: (A) Aero-performance and acoustics of Telescope-shaped designs. The work included a pylon set application for SCRAMJET. (B) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round and diamond-round nozzles. (C) Measurement technique improvements for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel (HU LSWT) including an automatic data acquisition system and a two component (drag-lift) balance system. In addition, a course in the field of aerodynamics was developed for the teaching and training of HU students.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao
2016-09-01
Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The
Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 1. Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buscombe, D.; Rubin, D. M.
2012-06-01
In this, the first of a pair of papers which address the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted natural granular material, a method is presented for simulation of two-phase (solid, void) assemblages of discrete non-cohesive particles. The purpose is to have a flexible, yet computationally and theoretically simple, suite of tools with well constrained and well known statistical properties, in order to simulate realistic granular material as a discrete element model with realistic size and shape distributions, for a variety of purposes. The stochastic modeling framework is based on three-dimensional tessellations with variable degrees of order in particle-packing arrangement. Examples of sediments with a variety of particle size distributions and spatial variability in grain size are presented. The relationship between particle shape and porosity conforms to published data. The immediate application is testing new algorithms for automated measurements of particle properties (mean and standard deviation of particle sizes, and apparent porosity) from images of natural sediment, as detailed in the second of this pair of papers. The model could also prove useful for simulating specific depositional structures found in natural sediments, the result of physical alterations to packing and grain fabric, using discrete particle flow models. While the principal focus here is on naturally occurring sediment and sedimentary rock, the methods presented might also be useful for simulations of similar granular or cellular material encountered in engineering, industrial and life sciences.
Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 1. Simulation
Daniel Buscombe,; Rubin, David M.
2012-01-01
1. In this, the first of a pair of papers which address the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted natural granular material, a method is presented for simulation of two-phase (solid, void) assemblages of discrete non-cohesive particles. The purpose is to have a flexible, yet computationally and theoretically simple, suite of tools with well constrained and well known statistical properties, in order to simulate realistic granular material as a discrete element model with realistic size and shape distributions, for a variety of purposes. The stochastic modeling framework is based on three-dimensional tessellations with variable degrees of order in particle-packing arrangement. Examples of sediments with a variety of particle size distributions and spatial variability in grain size are presented. The relationship between particle shape and porosity conforms to published data. The immediate application is testing new algorithms for automated measurements of particle properties (mean and standard deviation of particle sizes, and apparent porosity) from images of natural sediment, as detailed in the second of this pair of papers. The model could also prove useful for simulating specific depositional structures found in natural sediments, the result of physical alterations to packing and grain fabric, using discrete particle flow models. While the principal focus here is on naturally occurring sediment and sedimentary rock, the methods presented might also be useful for simulations of similar granular or cellular material encountered in engineering, industrial and life sciences.
An efficient time advancing strategy for energy-preserving simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capuano, F.; Coppola, G.; de Luca, L.
2015-08-01
Energy-conserving numerical methods are widely employed within the broad area of convection-dominated systems. Semi-discrete conservation of energy is usually obtained by adopting the so-called skew-symmetric splitting of the non-linear convective term, defined as a suitable average of the divergence and advective forms. Although generally allowing global conservation of kinetic energy, it has the drawback of being roughly twice as expensive as standard divergence or advective forms alone. In this paper, a general theoretical framework has been developed to derive an efficient time-advancement strategy in the context of explicit Runge-Kutta schemes. The novel technique retains the conservation properties of skew-symmetric-based discretizations at a reduced computational cost. It is found that optimal energy conservation can be achieved by properly constructed Runge-Kutta methods in which only divergence and advective forms for the convective term are used. As a consequence, a considerable improvement in computational efficiency over existing practices is achieved. The overall procedure has proved to be able to produce new schemes with a specified order of accuracy on both solution and energy. The effectiveness of the method as well as the asymptotic behavior of the schemes is demonstrated by numerical simulation of Burgers' equation.
An Advanced Leakage Scheme for Neutrino Treatment in Astrophysical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perego, A.; Cabezón, R. M.; Käppeli, R.
2016-04-01
We present an Advanced Spectral Leakage (ASL) scheme to model neutrinos in the context of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and compact binary mergers. Based on previous gray leakage schemes, the ASL scheme computes the neutrino cooling rates by interpolating local production and diffusion rates (relevant in optically thin and thick regimes, respectively) separately for discretized values of the neutrino energy. Neutrino trapped components are also modeled, based on equilibrium and timescale arguments. The better accuracy achieved by the spectral treatment allows a more reliable computation of neutrino heating rates in optically thin conditions. The scheme has been calibrated and tested against Boltzmann transport in the context of Newtonian spherically symmetric models of CCSNe. ASL shows a very good qualitative and a partial quantitative agreement for key quantities from collapse to a few hundreds of milliseconds after core bounce. We have proved the adaptability and flexibility of our ASL scheme, coupling it to an axisymmetric Eulerian and to a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to simulate core collapse. Therefore, the neutrino treatment presented here is ideal for large parameter-space explorations, parametric studies, high-resolution tests, code developments, and long-term modeling of asymmetric configurations, where more detailed neutrino treatments are not available or are currently computationally too expensive.
AN ADVANCED LEAKAGE SCHEME FOR NEUTRINO TREATMENT IN ASTROPHYSICAL SIMULATIONS
Perego, A.; Cabezón, R. M.; Käppeli, R.
2016-04-15
We present an Advanced Spectral Leakage (ASL) scheme to model neutrinos in the context of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and compact binary mergers. Based on previous gray leakage schemes, the ASL scheme computes the neutrino cooling rates by interpolating local production and diffusion rates (relevant in optically thin and thick regimes, respectively) separately for discretized values of the neutrino energy. Neutrino trapped components are also modeled, based on equilibrium and timescale arguments. The better accuracy achieved by the spectral treatment allows a more reliable computation of neutrino heating rates in optically thin conditions. The scheme has been calibrated and tested against Boltzmann transport in the context of Newtonian spherically symmetric models of CCSNe. ASL shows a very good qualitative and a partial quantitative agreement for key quantities from collapse to a few hundreds of milliseconds after core bounce. We have proved the adaptability and flexibility of our ASL scheme, coupling it to an axisymmetric Eulerian and to a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to simulate core collapse. Therefore, the neutrino treatment presented here is ideal for large parameter-space explorations, parametric studies, high-resolution tests, code developments, and long-term modeling of asymmetric configurations, where more detailed neutrino treatments are not available or are currently computationally too expensive.
Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces
Turnage, K.C.
1980-09-01
A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented piping spool pieces is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Results from application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data are shown. Results of the study are used to make recommendations regarding spool piece design, instrument selection, and data reduction methods to obtain more accurate measurements of two-phase flow parameters. 13 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.
Advances in flow visualization using liquid-crystal coatings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses a new four-part mixing method for visualizing boundary layer flows, including transitions, separation, and shock locations, by the use of liquid-crystal coatings. The method controls the event temperature and color-play bandwidth best suited to specific experimental conditions, and is easily learned. The method is applicable almost throughout the altitude and speed ranges for subsonic aircraft flight envelopes, and is also applicable to supersonic flow visualization and for general use in high- and low-speed wind tunnel and water tunnel testing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Choi, Jung-il; Lee, Changhoon; Seo, Jin Keun
2015-03-01
A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color Doppler echocardiography measurement. From 3D incompressible Navier- Stokes equation, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is derived to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. For demonstrating a feasibility of the proposed method, we have performed numerical simulations of the forward problem and numerical analysis of the reconstruction method. First, we construct a 3D moving LV region having a specific stroke volume. To obtain synthetic intra-ventricular flows, we performed a numerical simulation of the forward problem of Navier-Stokes equation inside the 3D moving LV, computed 3D intra-ventricular velocity fields as a solution of the forward problem, projected the 3D velocity fields on the imaging plane and took the inner product of the 2D velocity fields on the imaging plane and scanline directional velocity fields for synthetic scanline directional projected velocity at each position. The proposed method utilized the 2D synthetic projected velocity data for reconstructing LV blood flow. By computing the difference between synthetic flow and reconstructed flow fields, we obtained the averaged point-wise errors of 0.06 m/s and 0.02 m/s for u- and v-components, respectively.
Lattice Boltzmann accelerated direct simulation Monte Carlo for dilute gas flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Staso, G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.
2016-11-01
Hybrid particle-continuum computational frameworks permit the simulation of gas flows by locally adjusting the resolution to the degree of non-equilibrium displayed by the flow in different regions of space and time. In this work, we present a new scheme that couples the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method in the limit of isothermal flows. The former handles strong non-equilibrium effects, as they typically occur in the vicinity of solid boundaries, whereas the latter is in charge of the bulk flow, where non-equilibrium can be dealt with perturbatively, i.e. according to Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics. The proposed concurrent multiscale method is applied to the dilute gas Couette flow, showing major computational gains when compared with the full DSMC scenarios. In addition, it is shown that the coupling with LB in the bulk flow can speed up the DSMC treatment of the Knudsen layer with respect to the full DSMC case. In other words, LB acts as a DSMC accelerator. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.
Multi-scale simulation method for electroosmotic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Lin; Chen, Shiyi; Robbins, Mark O.
2016-10-01
Electroosmotic transport in micro-and nano- channels has important applications in biological and engineering systems but is difficult to model because nanoscale structure near surfaces impacts flow throughout the channel. We develop an efficient multi-scale simulation method that treats near-wall and bulk subdomains with different physical descriptions and couples them through a finite overlap region. Molecular dynamics is used in the near-wall subdomain where the ion density is inconsistent with continuum models and the discrete structure of solvent molecules is important. In the bulk region the solvent is treated as a continuum fluid described by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with thermal fluctuations. A discrete description of ions is retained because of the low density of ions and the long range of electrostatic interactions. A stochastic Euler-Lagrangian method is used to simulate the dynamics of these ions in the implicit continuum solvent. The overlap region allows free exchange of solvent and ions between the two subdomains. The hybrid approach is validated against full molecular dynamics simulations for different geometries and types of flows.
Granular Flow and Dynamics of Lunar Simulants in Excavating Implements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, R. Allen
2010-01-01
The exploration of the lunar surface will rely on properly designed excavation equipment for surface preparations and for collection of lunar regolith in In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) processes. Performance efficiency, i.e minimizing loading forces while maximizing material collection, and mass and volume reductions are major design goals. The NASA Glenn Research Center has embarked on an experimental program to determine the flow characteristics and dynamic forces produced by excavation operations using various excavator bucket designs. A new large scale soil bin facility, 2.27 m x 5.94 m x 0.76 m (nominally 8 ft. x 20 ft. x 27 in.) in size, capable of accommodating moderately large test implements was used for the simulations of lunar operations. The soil bin is filled with GRC-3simulant (a mixture of industrial sands and silt with a particle size distribution and the bulk mechanical (shear) strength representative of an average of lunar regolith from different regions) and uses motorized horizontal rails and a vertical actuator to drive the implement through the lunar simulant soil. A six-axis load cell and encoders provide well resolved measurements of the three dimensional forces and torques and motion of the bucket. In addition, simultaneous video allows for the analysis of the flow behavior and structure formation of the regolith during excavation. The data may be useful in anchoring soil mechanic models and to provide engineering data for design consideration.
Efficient simulation of detached flows at high Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vega, Jose M.; Asensio, Victor; Herrero, Raul; Varas, Fernando
2014-11-01
A method is presented for the computationally efficient simulation of quasi-periodic detached flows in multi-parameter problems at very large Reynolds numbers, keeping in mind a variety of applications, including helicopter flight simulators, control and certification of unmanned aerial vehicles, control of wind turbines, conceptual design in aeronautics, and civil aerodynamics. In many of these applications, the large scale flows (ignoring the smaller turbulent scales) are at most quasi-periodic, namely the Fourier transform exhibits a finite set of concentrated peaks resulting from the nonlinear passive interaction of periodic wakes. The method consists in an offline preprocess and the online operation. In the preprocess, a standard CFD solver (such as URANS) is used in combination with several ingredients such as an iterative combination proper orthogonal decomposition and fast Fourier transform. The online operation is made with a combination of high order singular value decomposition and interpolation. The performance of the method is tested considering the ow over a fairly complex urban topography, for various free stream intensities and orientations, seeking real time online simulations.
Fluid Flow Simulation and Energetic Analysis of Anomalocarididae Locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikel-Stites, Maxwell; Staples, Anne
2014-11-01
While an abundance of animal locomotion simulations have been performed modeling the motions of living arthropods and aquatic animals, little quantitative simulation and reconstruction of gait parameters has been done to model the locomotion of extinct animals, many of which bear little physical resemblance to their modern descendants. To that end, this project seeks to analyze potential swimming patterns used by the anomalocaridid family, (specifically Anomalocaris canadensis, a Cambrian Era aquatic predator), and determine the most probable modes of movement. This will serve to either verify or cast into question the current assumed movement patterns and properties of these animals and create a bridge between similar flexible-bodied swimmers and their robotic counterparts. This will be accomplished by particle-based fluid flow simulations of the flow around the fins of the animal, as well as an energy analysis of a variety of sample gaits. The energy analysis will then be compared to the extant information regarding speed/energy use curves in an attempt to determine which modes of swimming were most energy efficient for a given range of speeds. These results will provide a better understanding of how these long-extinct animals moved, possibly allowing an improved understanding of their behavioral patterns, and may also lead to a novel potential platform for bio-inspired underwater autonomous vehicles (UAVs).
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of supercritical accretion flows revisited
Yang, Xiao-Hong; Yuan, Feng; Bu, De-Fu; Ohsuga, Ken E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn
2014-01-01
We study the dynamics of super-Eddington accretion flows by performing two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Compared with previous works, in this paper we include the T {sub θφ} component of the viscous stress and consider various values of the viscous parameter α. We find that when T {sub θφ} is included, the rotational speed of the high-latitude flow decreases, while the density increases and decreases at the high and low latitudes, respectively. We calculate the radial profiles of inflow and outflow rates. We find that the inflow rate decreases inward, following a power law form of M-dot {sub in}∝r{sup s}. The value of s depends on the magnitude of α and is within the range of ∼0.4-1.0. Correspondingly, the radial profile of density becomes flatter compared with the case of a constant M-dot (r). We find that the density profile can be described by ρ(r)∝r {sup –p} and the value of p is almost same for a wide range of α ranging from α = 0.1 to 0.005. The inward decrease of inflow accretion rate is very similar to hot accretion flows, which is attributed to the mass loss in outflows. To study the origin of outflow, we analyze the convective stability of the slim disk. We find that depending on the value of α, the flow is marginally stable (when α is small) or unstable (when α is large). This is different from the case of hydrodynamical hot accretion flow, where radiation is dynamically unimportant and the flow is always convectively unstable. We speculate that the reason for the difference is because radiation can stabilize convection. The origin of outflow is thus likely because of the joint function of convection and radiation, but further investigation is required.
Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant
Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.
2011-01-01
In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a
Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application
March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner
2010-01-01
This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Current Advances in the Computational Simulation of the Formation of Low-Mass Stars
Klein, R I; Inutsuka, S; Padoan, P; Tomisaka, K
2005-10-24
Developing a theory of low-mass star formation ({approx} 0.1 to 3 M{sub {circle_dot}}) remains one of the most elusive and important goals of theoretical astrophysics. The star-formation process is the outcome of the complex dynamics of interstellar gas involving non-linear interactions of turbulence, gravity, magnetic field and radiation. The evolution of protostellar condensations, from the moment they are assembled by turbulent flows to the time they reach stellar densities, spans an enormous range of scales, resulting in a major computational challenge for simulations. Since the previous Protostars and Planets conference, dramatic advances in the development of new numerical algorithmic techniques have been successfully implemented on large scale parallel supercomputers. Among such techniques, Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics have provided frameworks to simulate the process of low-mass star formation with a very large dynamic range. It is now feasible to explore the turbulent fragmentation of molecular clouds and the gravitational collapse of cores into stars self-consistently within the same calculation. The increased sophistication of these powerful methods comes with substantial caveats associated with the use of the techniques and the interpretation of the numerical results. In this review, we examine what has been accomplished in the field and present a critique of both numerical methods and scientific results. We stress that computational simulations should obey the available observational constraints and demonstrate numerical convergence. Failing this, results of large scale simulations do not advance our understanding of low-mass star formation.
Advances in the Design of High-Performance Flow Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kevin K.
This thesis tackles challenges in feedback control design for fluid flows, from multiple angles and approaches. It covers three major facets---stability theory, control, and reduced-order modeling---and it investigates three major challenges of these facets: nonlinearity, high dimensionality, and non-normality. The dissertation begins with a discussion of global stability via linearized Navier--Stokes eigendecompositions, including numerical algorithms for this analysis. This section then investigates the global stability of a pipe flow through a T-shaped bifurcation at mid-hundred Reynolds numbers, which exhibits vortex breakdown. The recirculation and sensitivity regions closely coincide, which we explain using an inviscid short-wavelength perturbation theory. We also discuss the stability and receptivity properties of this flow. The second part discusses feedback control design for fluid flows, including optimal actuator and sensor placement. It presents an algorithm that computes the gradient of a control measure with respect to such placements, allowing an efficient gradient-based optimization. The implementation on the linearized Ginzburg--Landau and the Orr--Sommerfeld/Squire models of fluid flow reveals that common methods for placement, such as global mode analysis, are suboptimal. We discuss heuristics, including sensitivity, that may predict optimal placements. The third part covers reduced-order flow modeling. It examines previously unknown properties of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD)---a data-based modeling technique---including the uniqueness of the numerical algorithm and the boundary conditions of DMD-based models. We also propose an "optimized" DMD that produces less spurious decompositions, and gives the user control over the number of output modes. We show examples from the two-dimensional laminar flow over a cylinder. This part also investigates the stability and performance of high dimensional (e.g., fluid) systems in closed-loop with reduced
Numerical simulation of compressor endwall and casing treatment flow phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crook, A. J.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1992-01-01
A numerical study is presented of the flow in the endwall region of a compressor blade row, in conditions of operation with both smooth and grooved endwalls. The computations are first compared to velocity field measurements in a cantilevered stator/rotating hub configuration to confirm that the salient features are captured. Computations are then interrogated to examine the tip leakage flow structure since this is a dominant feature of the endwall region. In particular, the high blockage that can exist near the endwalls at the rear of a compressor blade passage appears to be directly linked to low total pressure fluid associated with the leakage flow. The fluid dynamic action of the grooved endwall, representative of the casing treatments that have been most successful in suppressing stall, is then simulated computationally and two principal effects are identified. One is suction of the low total pressure, high blockage fluid at the rear of the passage. The second is energizing of the tip leakage flow, most notably in the core of the leakage vortex, thereby suppressing the blockage at its source.
Direct numerical simulation of curved turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.
1984-01-01
Low Reynolds number, mildly curved, turbulent channel flow has been simulated numerically without subgrid scale models. A new spectral numerical method developed for this problem was used, and the computations were performed with 2 million degrees of freedom. A variety of statistical and structural information has been extracted from the computed flow fields. These include mean velocity, turbulence stresses, velocity skewness, and flatness factors, space time correlations and spectra, all the terms in the Reynolds stress balance equations, and contour and vector plots of instantaneous velocity fields. The effects of curvature on this flow were determined by comparing the concave and convex sides of the channel. The observed effects are consistent with experimental observations for mild curvature. The most significant difference in the turbulence statistics between the concave and convex sides was in the Reynolds shear stress. This was accompanied by significant differences in the terms of the Reynolds shear stress balance equations. In addition, it was found that stationary Taylor-Gortler vortices were present and that they had a significant effect on the flow by contributing to the mean Reynolds shear stress, and by affecting the underlying turbulence.
Simulations of Direct Current Glow Discharges in Supersonic Air Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahadevan, Shankar; Raja, Laxminarayan
2008-10-01
In recent years, there have been a significant number of computational and experimental studies investigating the application of plasma discharges as actuators for high speed flow control. The relative importance of the actuation mechanisms: volumetric heating and electrostatic forcing can be established by developing self-consistent models of the plasma and bulk supersonic flow. To simulate the plasma discharge in a supersonic air stream, a fluid model of the glow discharge is coupled with a compressible Navier-Stokes solver in a self-consistent manner. Source terms for the momentum and energy equations are calculated from the plasma model and input into the Navier-Stokes solver. In turn, the pressure, gas temperature and velocity fields from the Navier-Stokes solution are fed back into the plasma model. The results include plasma species number density contour maps in the absence and presence of Mach 3 supersonic flow, and the corresponding effect of the glow discharge on gas dynamic properties such as the gas pressure and temperature. We also examine the effect of increasing the discharge voltage on the structure of the discharge and its corresponding effect on the supersonic flow.