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Sample records for advanced fuels development

  1. Advanced development: Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solar thermal fuels and chemicals program at Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. High technology is developed and applied to displace fossil fuel (oil) use in the production/processing of valuable fuels and chemicals. The technical and economic feasibility is demonstrated to extent that enables the industry to participate and commercialize the product. A representative process, namely Furfural production with a bottoming of acetone, butanol and ethanol, is described. Experimental data from all solar production of furfural is discussed. Estimates are given to show the attractiveness of this process, considering its flexibility to be adaptable to dishes, troughs or central receivers. Peat, lignite and low rank coal processing, heavy oil stripping and innovative technologies for process diagnostics and control are mentioned as examples of current projects under intensive development.

  2. Advanced development: Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1981-05-01

    The solar thermal fuels and chemicals program at Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. High technology is developed and applied to displace fossil fuel (oil) use in the production/processing of valuable fuels and chemicals. The technical and economic feasibility is demonstrated to extent that enables the industry to participate and commercialize the product. A representative process, namely Furfural production with a bottoming of acetone, butanol and ethanol, is described. Experimental data from all solar production of furfural is discussed. Estimates are given to show the attractiveness of this process, considering its flexibility to be adaptable to dishes, troughs or central receivers. Peat, lignite and low rank coal processing, heavy oil stripping and innovative technologies for process diagnostics and control are mentioned as examples of current projects under intensive development.

  3. Advanced fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.; Baumert, B.; Claar, T. D.; Fousek, R. J.; Huang, H. S.; Kaun, T. D.; Krumpelt, M.; Minh, N.; Mrazek, F. C.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period January through March 1984 are described. These efforts have been directed principally toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions, a number of prospective alternative cathode materials have been identified. From the list of candidates, LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and ZnO were selected for further investigation. During this quarter, they were doped to promote conductivity and tested for solubility and ion migration in the cell environment. An investigation directed to understanding in cell densification of anode materials was initiated. In addition, calculations were made to evaluate the practicality of controlling sulfur accumulation in molten carbonate fuel cells by bleed off of a portion of the anode gas that could be recycled to the cathode. In addition, a model is being developed to predict the performance of solid oxide fuel cells as a function of cell design and operation.

  4. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  5. Advanced Fuel Development and Fuel Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    operation, and quality control monitoring requirements for these new elements. 39 TASK NO. 26: Surfactant Additives for Improved Low and High...increases are required. Aspen Systems has designed and synthesized a new class of multifunctional additives known as metal deactivating surfactants (MDS... Recycling 4 TASK NO. 03: Emissions Control Through Advanced Combustor Mixing Schemes 5 TASK NO. 04: Gas Layer Protection of Hot Carbon

  6. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  7. Advanced Diesel Oil Fuel Processor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Fuel Cell Power Plants ," EPRI Report EM-2686, Octobe: 1982. 4. R. G. Minet and D. Warren, "Evaluation of Hybrid TER-1,TR Fuel Processor," EPRI Report ...EM-2096, October 1981. 5. R. G. Minet and D. Warren, "Assessment of Fuel Processing aysiems for Dispersed Fuel Cell Power Plants ,’ EPRI Report EM...34Fuel Processor Development for !i.- MW Fuel Cell Power Plants ,4 EPRI Report EM-1123, July 1985. 9. M. HI. Hyman, "Simulate Methane Reformer

  8. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  9. Development of An Advanced JP-8 Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    included the Microthermal Precipitation Test (MTP), Fuel Reactor Test, Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS), and Isothermal Corrosion Oxidation Test (ICOT... Microthermal Precipitation Test The impetus for this development effort was the need for a screening test that could discriminate between fuels of...varying propensity to produce thermally induced insoluble particulate material in the bulk fuel. The Microthermal Precipitation (MTP) test thermally

  10. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamawaki, Michio

    2003-06-01

    The verification test programs of high burnup BWR and PWR fuels have been carried out by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry since 1986. BWR and PWR fuel assemblies of high burnup range of up to about 48 GWd/t and 53 GWd/t, respectively were examined by hot cell PIEs and many segment rods of local burnup range of up to more than 60GWd/t were power ramped in test reactors. Though some fuel rods showed minor failure after power ramp tests beyond commercial reactor condition, the results have shown good performance of the high burnup fuels in general. In BWR power ramp tests, the new failure mode of segment rods and the decrease of the failure threshold for higher burnup fuels have been found. Other than oxide fuel, new type fuels such as metallic, nitride and hydride fuels are under research and development in Japan for fast breeder reactors and, in case of hydride fuel, for both fast reactors and LWRs. Topics on some of these new type fuels will be also presented.

  11. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  12. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  13. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  14. THE MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FROM DOE’S FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FCRD) ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carmack; L. Braase; F. Goldner

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors, enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel, effectively utilize nuclear energy resources, and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state of the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal oriented science based approach.” AFC uses a “goal oriented, science based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. One of the most challenging aspects of AFC is the management, integration, and coordination of major R&D activities across multiple organizations. AFC interfaces and collaborates with Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) campaigns, universities, industry, various DOE programs and laboratories, federal agencies (e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]), and international organizations. Key challenges are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Challenged with the research and development of fuels for two different reactor technology platforms, AFC targeted transmutation fuel development and focused ceramic fuel development for Advanced LWR Fuels.

  15. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Gradual wetting of the anode structure and subsequent long-term performance loss was determined to be caused by deposition of a silicon-containing material on the anode. This deposit was attributed to degradation of the asbestos matrix, and attention was therefore placed on development of a substitute matrix of potassium titanate. An 80 percent gold 20 percent platinum catalyst cathode was developed which has the same performance and stability as the standard 90 percent gold - 10 percent platinum cathode but at half the loading. A hybrid polysulfone/epoxy-glass fiber frame was developed which combines the resistance to the cell environment of pure polysulfone with the fabricating ease of epoxy-glass fiber laminate. These cell components were evaluated in various configurations of full-size cells. The ways in which the baseline engineering model system would be modified to accommodate the requirements of the space tug application are identified.

  16. Development of Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, S. D.; Dumbacher, P.; Cole, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    This was a small-scale, hot-fire test series to make initial measurements of performance differences of five new liquid fuels relative to rocket propellant-1 (RP-1). The program was part of a high-energy-density materials development at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the fuels tested were quadricyclane, 1-7 octodiyne, AFRL-1, biclopropylidene, and competitive impulse noncarcinogenic hypergol (CINCH) (di-methyl-aminoethyl-azide). All tests were conducted at MSFC. The first four fuels were provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The U.S. Army, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL, provided the CINCH. The data recorded in all hot-fire tests were used to calculate specific impulse and characteristic exhaust velocity for each fuel, then compared to RP-1 at the same conditions. This was not an exhaustive study, comparing each fuel to RP-1 at an array of mixture ratios, nor did it include important fuel parameters, such as fuel handling or long-term storage. The test hardware was designed for liquid oxygen (lox)/RP-1, then modified for gaseous oxygen/RP-1 to avoid two-phase lox at very small flow rates. All fuels were tested using the same thruster/injector combination designed for RP-1. The results of this test will be used to determine which fuels will be tested in future test programs.

  17. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  18. Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

    Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

  19. Development of Advanced Fuel Cell System (Phase 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A multiple-task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. During Phase 4, the lowest stabilized degradation rate observed in all the testing completed during four phases of the program, 1 microvolt/hour, was demonstrated. This test continues after 5,000 hours of operation. The cell incorporates a PPf anode, a 90Au/10Pt cathode, a hybrid frame, and a Fybex matrix. These elements were developed under this program to extend cell life. The result demonstrated that the 80Au/20Pt cathode is as stable as a 90Au/10Pt cathode of twice the precious metal loading, was confirmed in full-scale cells. A hybrid frame two-cell plaque with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids was demonstrated to prevent the cell-to cell electrolyte transfer that limited the endurance of multicell plaques. At the conclusion of Phase 4, more than 90,900 hours of testing had been completed and twelve different cell designs had been evaluated. A technology base has been established which is ready for evaluation at the powerplant level.

  20. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  1. Development of Advanced High Uranium Density Fuels for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, James; Butt, Darryl; Meyer, Mitchell; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-15

    This work conducts basic materials research (fabrication, radiation resistance, thermal conductivity, and corrosion response) on U3Si2 and UN, two high uranium density fuel forms that have a high potential for success as advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels. The outcome of this proposed work will serve as the basis for the development of advance LWR fuels, and utilization of such fuel forms can lead to the optimization of the fuel performance related plant operating limits such as power density, power ramp rate and cycle length.

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  3. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Gary Bell

    2005-05-01

    The Department of Energy has established the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program to address the following overall goals: Provide a baseline fuel qualification data set in support of the licensing and operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Gas-reactor fuel performance demonstration and qualification comprise the longest duration research and development (R&D) task for the NGNP feasibility. The baseline fuel form is to be demonstrated and qualified for a peak fuel centerline temperature of 1250°C. Support near-term deployment of an NGNP by reducing market entry risks posed by technical uncertainties associated with fuel production and qualification. Utilize international collaboration mechanisms to extend the value of DOE resources. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, postirradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process, key fuel properties, the irradiation performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. Fuel performance modeling and analysis of the fission product behavior in the primary circuit are important aspects of this work. The performance models are considered essential for several reasons, including guidance for the plant designer in establishing the core design and operating limits, and demonstration to the licensing authority that the applicant has a thorough understanding of the in-service behavior of the fuel system. The fission product behavior task will also provide primary source term data needed for licensing. An overview of the program and recent progress will be presented.

  4. Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

    2013-08-31

    Technical aspects of producing alternative fuels that may eventually supplement or replace conventional the petroleum-derived fuels that are presently used in vehicular transportation have been investigated. The work was centered around three projects: 1) deriving butanol as a fuel additive from bacterial action on sugars produced from decomposition of aqueous suspensions of wood cellulose under elevated temperature and pressure; 2) using highly ordered, openly structured molecules known as metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds as adsorbents for gas separations in fuel processing operations; and 3) developing a photocatalytic membrane for solar-driven water decomposition to generate pure hydrogen fuel. Several departments within the STEM College at YSU contributed to the effort: Chemistry, Biology, and Chemical Engineering. In the butanol project, sawdust was blended with water at variable pH and temperature (150 – 250{degrees}C), and heated inside a pressure vessel for specified periods of time. Analysis of the extracts showed a wide variety of compounds, including simple sugars that bacteria are known to thrive upon. Samples of the cellulose hydrolysate were fed to colonies of Clostridium beijerinckii, which are known to convert sugars to a mixture of compounds, principally butanol. While the bacteria were active toward additions of pure sugar solutions, the cellulose extract appeared to inhibit butanol production, and furthermore encouraged the Clostridium to become dormant. Proteomic analysis showed that the bacteria had changed their genetic code to where it was becoming sporulated, i.e., the bacteria were trying to go dormant. This finding may be an opportunity, as it may be possible to genetically engineer bacteria that resist the butanol-driven triggering mechanism to stop further fuel production. Another way of handling the cellulosic hydrolysates was to simply add the enzymes responsible for butanol synthesis to the hydrolytic extract ex-vivo. These

  5. Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Duane D. Bruns; Robert M. Counce; Irma D. Lima Rojas

    2010-06-09

    this research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

  6. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  8. Development of advanced kocite electrocatalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, L. S.; Leyerle, R. W.; Scarlata, D. S.; Vanek, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    These improved electrocatalysts should demonstrate a larger initial catalytic metal surface area, and a better catalytic metal surface area retention during fuel cell operation than present state-of-the-art phosphoric acid electrocatalysts. Kocite electrocatalysts impregnated with platinum and platinum-vanadium alloys were tested. The Kocite electrocatalysts were aged in electrodes potentiostated in H3PO4 half cells, and were then analyzed for catalytic metals surface area retention. Compared with the state-of-the-art platinum electrocatalysts, as represented by a standard Kocite electrocatalyst, the Kocite electrocatalysts impregnated by the techniques used in this study have a better initial platinum surface area. This initial surface area difference appeared to be maintained when the catalysts are aged at 700 mV, but was not maintained when the catalysts were aged at 800 mV. Variations of the alumina substrate and of the post-treatment of the leached Kocite catalyst support did not produce any catalysts with better platinum surface area retention than the standard catalyst. Alloying of vanadium with the platinum did produce Kocite electrocatalysts which maintained their alloy surface area better than the standard catalyst maintained its platinum surface area.

  9. NASA Advanced Fuels Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    NASA with the USAF Research Laboratory and it's industry partners, has been conducting planning and research into advanced fuels. This work is sponsored under the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP). The current research focus is on Alternative Hydrocarbon fuels, Monopropellants, and Solid Cryogens for storing atoms of Hydrogen, Boron, Carbon, and Aluminum. Alternative hydrocarbons that are under consideration are bi cyclo propylidene, spiro pentane, and tri propargyl amine. These three fuels have been identified as initial candidates to increase the specific impulse of hydrocarbon fueled rockets by 10-15 seconds over 02/RP-1. Formulation of these propellants is proceeding this year, and rocket engine testing is planned for the near future. Monopropellant investigations are focused on dinitramine based fuels, and potential collaborations with the US Navy. The dinitramine fuel work is being conducted under an Small Business Innovation research (SBIR) contract with the team of Orbital Technologies Corp. (Madison, WI) and SRI (Menlo Park, CA). This work may lead to a high density, high specific impulse monopropellants that can simplify the operations for launch vehicles and spacecraft. Solid Cryogens are being considered to store atoms of Hydrogen, Boron, Carbon, and Aluminum. Stored atom propellants are potentially the highest specific impulse chemical rockets that may be practical. These fuels are composed of atoms, stored in solid cryogenic particles, suspended in a cryogenic liquid or gel. The fuel would be fed to a rocket engine as a slurry or gelled cryogenic liquid with the suspended particles with the trapped atoms. Testing is planned to demonstrate the formation of the particles, and then characterize the slurry flows. Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can be used to reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs. Advanced propellant technologies can make the space vehicles safer, more

  10. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  11. NASA's First Year Progress with Fuel Cell Advanced Development in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industry partners, is leading a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) advanced development effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort encompasses the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program, and is directed at multiple power levels for both primary and regenerative fuel cell systems. The major emphasis is the replacement of active mechanical ancillary components with passive components in order to reduce mass and parasitic power requirements, and to improve system reliability. A dual approach directed at both flow-through and non flow-through PEMFC system technologies is underway. A brief overview of the overall PEMFC project and its constituent tasks will be presented, along with in-depth technical accomplishments for the past year. Future potential technology development paths will also be discussed.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  13. Results from the DOE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti

    2014-06-01

    Modular HTGR designs were developed to provide natural safety, which prevents core damage under all design basis accidents and presently envisioned severe accidents. The principle that guides their design concepts is to passively maintain core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude and allows potential elimination of the need for evacuation and sheltering beyond a small exclusion area. This level, however, is predicated on exceptionally high fuel fabrication quality and performance under normal operation and accident conditions. Germany produced and demonstrated high quality fuel for their pebble bed HTGRs in the 1980s, but no U.S. manufactured fuel had exhibited equivalent performance prior to the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The design goal of the modular HTGRs is to allow elimination of an exclusion zone and an emergency planning zone outside the plant boundary fence, typically interpreted as being about 400 meters from the reactor. To achieve this, the reactor design concepts require a level of fuel integrity that is better than that claimed for all prior US manufactured TRISO fuel, by a few orders of magnitude. The improved performance level is about a factor of three better than qualified for German TRISO fuel in the 1980’s. At the start of the AGR program, without a reactor design concept selected, the AGR fuel program selected to qualify fuel to an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic options. This resulted in needing a fuel form that could survive at peak fuel temperatures of 1250°C on a time-averaged basis and high burnups in the range of 150 to 200 GWd/MTHM (metric tons of heavy metal) or 16.4 to 21.8% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). Although Germany has demonstrated excellent performance of TRISO-coated UO

  14. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  15. Safeguards and Non-proliferation Issues as Related to Advanced Fuel Cycle and Advanced Fast Reactor Development with Processing of Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerry D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; Dee E. Vaden

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this work is to establish basic data and techniques to enable safeguards appropriate to a new generation of nuclear power systems that will be based on fast spectrum reactors and mixed actinide fuels containing significant quantities of "minor" actinides, possibly due to reprocessing, and determination of what new radiation signatures and parameters need to be considered. The research effort focuses on several problems associated with the use of fuel having significantly different actinide inventories that current practice and on the development of innovative techniques using new radiation signatures and other parameters useful for safeguards and monitoring. In addition, the development of new distinctive radiation signatures as an aid in controlling proliferation of nuclear materials has parallel applications to support Gen-IV and current advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) goals as well as the anticipated Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP).

  16. Development of TMI Logistic Fuel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Advanced Military Power Generation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Power generation systems based on the Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are an optional modality for military...integrated system using TMI’s proprietary sulfur-tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam reformer, integrated into a compact unit which

  17. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  18. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  19. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  3. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  4. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  5. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  6. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

  7. Advanced fuel cell development. Progress Report, April-June 1980. [LiAlO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.D.; Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.; Fraioli, A.V.; Kucera, G.H.; Poeppel, R.B.; Sim, J.W.; Smith, J.L.

    1980-11-01

    Advanced fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period April-June 1980 are described. These efforts have been directed toward understanding and improving components of molten carbonate fuel cells and have included operation of a 10-cm square cell. Studies have continued on the development of electrolyte structures (LiAlO/sub 2/ and Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). This effort is being concentrated on the preparation of sintered LiAl0/sub 2/ as electrolyte support. Tape casting is presently under investigation as a method for producing green bodies to be sintered; this technique may be an improvement over cold pressing, which was used in the past to produce green bodies. The transition temperature for the ..beta..- to ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ allotropic transformation is being determined using differential thermal analysis. Work is continuing on the development of preoxidized, prelithiated NiO cathodes. Two techniques, one of which is simpler than the other, have been developed to fabricate plates of Li/sub 0/ /sub 05/Ni/sub 0/ /sub 95/O. In addition, electroless nickel plating is being investigated as a means of providing corrosion protection to structural hardware. To improve its cell testing capability, ANL has constructed a device for improved resistance measurements by the current-interruption technique.

  8. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  9. Advanced Fuel Development and Fuel Combustion Delivery Order 0007: Abatement of Soot from Military Gas Turbine Engines via Fuel Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    studies with liquid fuels were undertaken. In addition to ethanol and DME, cyclohexanone was studied because it was a component in a commercial... cyclohexanone appeared to have the potential to remove six carbons from pathways to soot formation. It was studied in the various experimental test rigs to...effective in reducing soot was determined to be composed to nitro-alkanes, cyclohexanone , toluene, and dichloroethane. The latter two compounds are

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  12. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  13. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  14. Development of Advanced Low Emission Injectors and High-Bandwidth Fuel Flow Modulation Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Parker Hannifin Corporation developed the 3-Zone fuel nozzle for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program to meet NASAs target of 75 LTO NOx reduction from CAEP6 regulation. The nozzle concept was envisioned as a drop-in replacement for currently used fuel nozzle stem, and is built up from laminates to provide energetic mixing suitable for lean direct injection mode at high combustor pressure. A high frequency fuel valve was also developed to provide fuel modulation for the pilot injector. Final testing result shows the LTO NOx level falling just shy of NASAs goal at 31.

  15. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  16. Process Modeling Phase I Summary Report for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Daw, C Stuart; Boyalakuntla, Dhanunjay S; FINNEY, Charles E A

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate application of computational fluid dynamics modeling to the scale-up of a Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition (FBCVD) process for nuclear fuels coating. Specifically, this work, referred to as Modeling Scale-Up Phase I, was conducted between January 1, 2006 and March 31, 2006 in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Program. The objective was to develop, demonstrate and "freeze" a version of ORNL's computational model of the TRI ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel-particle coating process that can be specifically used to assist coater scale-up activities as part of the production of AGR-2 fuel. The results in this report are intended to serve as input for making decisions about initiating additional FBCVD modeling work (referred to as Modeling Scale-Up Phase II) in support of AGR-2. The main computational tool used to implement the model is the general-purpose multiphase fluid-dynamics computer code known as MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges), which is documented in detail on the DOE-sponsored website http://www.mfix.org. Additional computational tools are also being developed by ORNL for post-processing MFIX output to efficiently summarize the important information generated by the coater simulations. The summarized information includes quantitative spatial and temporal measures (referred to as discriminating characteristics, or DCs) by which different coater designs and operating conditions can be compared and correlated with trends in product quality. The ORNL FBCVD modeling work is being conducted in conjunction with experimental coater studies at ORNL with natural uranium CO (NUCO) and surrogate fuel kernels. Data are also being obtained from ambient-temperature, spouted-bed characterization experiments at the University of Tennessee and theoretical studies of carbon and silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition kinetics at Iowa State

  17. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  18. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori; May, W. Edgar

    2014-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. AFC uses a “goal-oriented, science-based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. The modeling and simulation activities for fuel performance are carried out under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, which is closely coordinated with AFC. In this report, the word “fuel” is used generically to include fuels, targets, and their associated cladding materials. R&D of light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced accident tolerance is also conducted by AFC. These fuel systems are designed to achieve significantly higher fuel and plant performance to allow operation to significantly higher burnup, and to provide enhanced safety during design basis and beyond design basis accident conditions. The overarching goal is to develop advanced nuclear fuels and materials that are robust, have high performance capability, and are more tolerant to

  19. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2011 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    One of the major research and development (R&D) areas under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is advanced fuels development. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has the responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY 20) 2011 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section. The order of the accomplishments in this report is consistent with the AFC work breakdown structure (WBS).

  20. Development of an advanced JP-8 fuel. Final report, August 1990-January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, T.B.

    1993-12-01

    Technical effort was directed at increasing the design limit of current JP-8 fuel from 325 deg F (163 deg C) to 425 deg F (218 deg C) at the fuel nozzle. The objective was to accomplish this near-term thermal stability goal solely through the use of a fuel soluble additive package. JP-Thermally stable fuel was considered the thermal stability target since it has the high-temperature properties sought from the significantly more economical JP-8 + 100 formulation. The additives were evaluated in an additive-free Jet A considered typical of fuel most likely to be encountered in the field. DuPont JFA-5, currently the only accepted thermally stability improving additive, was considered state of the art and used as a bench mark. Additive manufacturers were surveyed and solicited for candidate additives that had potential for improving fuel thermal oxidative stability. Test methods were developed and/or refined for use in screening additives. Using the Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) in conjunction with a LECO Carbon Determinator, 152 additives were screened. Additive performance was ranked based on surface carbon and differential pressure. Additional screening was performed using the Isothermal Corrosion Oxidation Test (ICOT). Additives screened included oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-type antioxidants; dispersants; detergents; metal deactivators; antifoulants; and proprietary thermal stability improvers. Twenty-seven experimental blends comprised of various additive combinations were tested. Five baseline fuels were evaluated.

  1. Development of coupled SCALE4.2/GTRAN2 computational capability for advanced MOX fueled assembly designs

    SciTech Connect

    Vujic, J.; Greenspan, E.; Slater, Postma, T.; Casher, G.; Soares, I.; Leal, L.

    1995-05-01

    An advanced assembly code system that can efficiently and accurately analyze various designs (current and advanced) proposed for plutonium disposition is being developed by {open_quotes}marrying{close_quotes} two existing state-of-the-art methodologies-GTRAN2 and SCALE 4.2. The resulting code system, GT-SCALE, posses several unique characteristics: exact 2D representation of a complete fuel assembly, while preserving the heterogeniety of each of its pin cells; flexibility in the energy group structure, the present upper limit being 218 groups; a comprehensive cross-section library and material data base; and accurate burnup calculations. The resulting GT-SCALE is expected to be very useful for a wide variety of applications, including the analysis of very heterogeneous UO{sub 2} fueled LWR fuel assemblies; of hexagonal shaped fuel assemblies as of the Russian LWRs; of fuel assemblies for HTGRs; as well as for the analysis of criticality safety and for calculation of the source term of spent fuel.

  2. Status of Transuranic Bearing Metallic Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Hayes; Bruce Hilton; Heather MacLean; Debbie Utterbeck; Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2009-09-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the metallic fuel development under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The metallic fuel development program includes fuel fabrication, characterization, advanced cladding research, irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination (PIE). The focus of this paper is on the recent irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor and some PIE results from these tests.

  3. Report on Development of Concepts for the Advanced Casting System in Support of the Deployment of a Remotely Operable Research Scale Fuel Fabrication Facility for Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Marsden

    2007-03-01

    Demonstration of recycle processes with low transuranic losses is key to the successful implementation of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership strategy to manage spent fuel. It is probable that these recycle processes will include remote fuel fabrication. This report outlines the strategy to develop and implement a remote metal fuel casting process with minimal transuranic losses. The approach includes a bench-scale casting system to develop materials, methods, and perform tests with transuranics, and an engineering-scale casting system to demonstrate scalability and remote operability. These systems will be built as flexible test beds allowing exploration of multiple fuel casting approaches. The final component of the remote fuel fabrication demonstration culminates in the installation of an advanced casting system in a hot cell to provide integrated remote operation experience with low transuranic loss. Design efforts and technology planning have begun for the bench-scale casting system, and this will become operational in fiscal year 2008, assuming appropriate funding. Installation of the engineering-scale system will follow in late fiscal year 2008, and utilize materials and process knowledge gained in the bench-scale system. Assuming appropriate funding, the advanced casting system will be installed in a remote hot cell at the end of fiscal year 2009.

  4. Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  6. Final Assembly and Initial Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Grover

    2007-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing.1,2 The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The final design phase for the first experiment was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the first experiment test train (designated AGR-1) as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment

  7. FY2015 ceramic fuels development annual highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclellan, Kenneth James

    2015-09-22

    Key challenges for the Advanced Fuels Campaign are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Ceramic fuel development activities for fiscal year 2015 fell within the areas of 1) National and International Technical Integration, 2) Advanced Accident Tolerant Ceramic Fuel Development, 3) Advanced Techniques and Reference Materials Development, and 4) Fabrication of Enriched Ceramic Fuels. High uranium density fuels were the focus of the ceramic fuels efforts. Accomplishments for FY15 primarily reflect the prioritization of identification and assessment of new ceramic fuels for light water reactors which have enhanced accident tolerance while also maintaining or improving normal operation performance, and exploration of advanced post irradiation examination techniques which will support more efficient testing and qualification of new fuel systems.

  8. Advanced Microbial Fuel Cell Development, Miniaturization and Energy and Power Density Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    fuel cell development, miniaturization, and energy and power density enhancement. The anode is very important in the performance of a microbial fuel cell "MFC", and is often the limiting factor for a high power output. In present work, we used the CNT/PANI composite as the anode materials of MFCs for the first time and investigated the electrocatalytic properties of the composite associated with the bacterium biocatalyst. A method was developed to fabricate a nanostructured CNT/PANI composite anode for

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  11. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2010 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2010-12-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Accomplishment Report documents the high-level research and development results achieved in fiscal year 2010. The AFC program has been given responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. The science-based approach combines theory, experiments, and multi-scale modeling and simulation aimed at a fundamental understanding of the fuel fabrication processes and fuel and clad performance under irradiation. The scope of the AFC includes evaluation and development of multiple fuel forms to support the three fuel cycle options described in the Sustainable Fuel Cycle Implementation Plan4: Once-Through Cycle, Modified-Open Cycle, and Continuous Recycle. The word “fuel” is used generically to include fuels, targets, and their associated cladding materials. This document includes a brief overview of the management and integration activities; but is primarily focused on the technical accomplishments for FY-10. Each technical section provides a high level overview of the activity, results, technical points of contact, and applicable references.

  12. Implications of Results from the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program on Licensing of Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti

    2001-10-01

    The high level of safety of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs is achieved by passively maintaining core temperatures below fission product release thresholds under all envisioned accident scenarios. This level of fuel performance and fission product retention reduces the radioactive source term by many orders of magnitude relative to other reactor types but is predicated on exceptionally high coated-particle fuel fabrication quality and excellent fuel performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program decided to qualify for uranium oxide/uranium carbide (UCO) TRISO coated-particle fuel in an operating envelope that would bound both pebble bed and prismatic modular HTGR options. By using a mixture of uranium oxide and uranium carbide, the kernel composition is engineered to minimize CO formation and fuel kernel migration, which is key to maintain to fuel integrity at the higher burnups, temperatures, and temperature gradients anticipated in prismatic HTGRs. Fuel fabrication conducted at both laboratory and engineering scale has demonstrated the ability to fabricate high quality UCO TRISO fuel with very low defects. The first irradiation (AGR 1) exposed about 300,000 TRISO fuel particles to a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA, a peak fast-neutron fluence of about 4.3 × 1025 n/m2, and a maximum time-averaged fuel temperature of about 1,200°C without a single particle failure. The very low release of key metallic fission products (except silver) measured in post-irradiation examination (PIE) confirms the excellent performance measured under irradiation. Very low releases have been measured in accident simulation heatup testing (''safety testing'') after hundreds of hours at 1600 and 1700°C and no particle failures (no noble gas release measured) have been observed. Even after hundreds of hours at 1800°C, the releases are still very low

  13. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  15. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  16. Development/Demonstration of an Advanced Oxy-Fuel Front-End System

    SciTech Connect

    Mighton, Steven, J.

    2007-08-06

    Owens Corning and other glass manufacturers have used oxy-fuel combustion technology successfully in furnaces to reduce emissions, increase throughput, reduce fuel consumption and, depending on the costs of oxygen and fuel, reduce energy costs. The front end of a fiberglass furnace is the refractory channel system that delivers glass from the melter to the forming process. After the melter, it is the second largest user of energy in a fiberglass plant. A consortium of glass companies and suppliers, led by Owens Corning, was formed to develop and demonstrate oxy/fuel combustion technology for the front end of a fiberglass melter, to demonstrate the viability of this energy saving technology to the U.S. glass industry, as a D.O.E. sponsored project. The project goals were to reduce natural gas consumption and CO2 green house gas emissions by 65 to 70% and create net cost savings after the purchase of oxygen to achieve a project payback of less than 2 years. Project results in Jackson, TN included achieving a 56% reduction in gas consumption and CO2 emissions. A subsequent installation in Guelph ON, not impacted by unrelated operational changes in Jackson, achieved a 64% reduction. Using the more accurate 64% reduction in the payback calculation yielded a 2.2 year payback in Jackson. The installation of the demonstration combustion system saves 77,000 DT/yr of natural gas or 77 trillion Btu/yr and eliminates 4500 tons/yr of CO2 emissions. This combustion system is one of several energy and green house gas reduction technologies being adopted by Owens Corning to achieve aggressive goals relating to the company’s global facility environmental footprint.

  17. HTR Fuel Development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Languille, Alain; Conrad, R.; Haas, D.

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

  18. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    assets will continue to accomplish DOE's critical nuclear material missions (e.g., processing in H-Canyon and plutonium storage in K-Area). Thus, the demonstration can be accomplished by leveraging the incremental cost of performing demonstrations without needing to cover the full operational cost of the facility. Current Center activities have been focused on integrating advanced safeguards monitoring technologies demonstrations into the SRS H-Canyon and advanced location technologies demonstrations into K-Area Materials Storage. These demonstrations are providing valuable information to researchers and customers as well as providing the Center with an improved protocol for demonstration management that can be exercised across the entire SRS (as well as to offsite venues) so that future demonstrations can be done more efficiently and provide an opportunity to utilize these unique assets for multiple purposes involving national laboratories, academia, and commercial entities. Key among the envisioned future demonstrations is the use of H-Canyon to demonstrate new nuclear materials separations technologies critical for advancing the mission needs DOE-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to advance the research for next generation fuel cycle technologies. The concept is to install processing equipment on frames. The frames are then positioned into an H-Canyon cell and testing in a relevant radiological environment involving prototypic radioactive materials can be performed.

  19. Development of Cesium and Strontium Separation and Immobilization Technologies in Support of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Terry A. Todd; Julie L. Tripp

    2006-02-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD/PEG) process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for the extraction of Cs and polyethylene glycol for the synergistic extraction of Sr in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99%. The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) for the extraction of Sr and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) for the extraction of Cs. Laboratory test results of the FPEX process, using simulated feed solution spiked with radiotracers, indicate good Cs and Sr extraction and stripping performance. A preliminary solvent extraction flowsheet for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel with the FPEX process has been developed, and testing of the flowsheet with simulated spent nuclear fuel solutions is planned in the near future. Steam reforming is currently being developed for stabilization of the Cs/Sr product stream because it can produce a solid waste form while retaining the Cs and Sr in the solid, destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous solutions, and convert the Cs and Sr into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals. A bench-scale steam reforming pilot plant has been operated with several potential feed compositions and steam reformed product has been generated and analyzed.

  20. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  1. Development of an Advanced Flameless Combustion Heat Source Utilizing Heavy Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    captive flameless heat generation. CDI’s unique success in achieving stabilization in captive combustion for light fuels such as methanol, ethanol and...7 4.3.2 Light Fuel Testing/Calibration (Methanol and Ethanol ).............................................. 10 4.3.3 Heavy Fuel Testing...9 Figure 3. Catalytic Combustion Data for Methanol & Ethanol ...................................................11 Figure 4. Catalytic

  2. Resonance Region Nuclear Data Analysis to Support Advanced Fuel Cycle Development

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Michael E; Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Gil, Choong-Sup; Kim, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are performing collaborative research as part of a three-year United States (U.S.) / Republic of Korea (ROK) International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project to provide improved neutron cross-section data with uncertainty or covariance data important for advanced fuel cycle and nuclear safeguards applications. ORNL and KAERI have initiated efforts to prepare new cross-section evaluations for 240Pu, 237Np, and the stable Cm isotopes. At the current stage of the I-NERI project, ORNL has recently completed a preliminary resonance-region cross-section evaluation with covariance data for 240Pu and initiated resonance evaluation efforts for 237Np and 244Cm. Likewise, KAERI is performing corresponding high-energy cross-section analyses (i.e., above the resonance region) for the noted isotopes. The paper provides results pertaining to the new resonance region evaluation efforts with emphasis on the new 240Pu evaluation.

  3. Development of an Advanced Fluid Mechanics Measurement Facility for Flame Studies of Neat Fuels, Jet Fuels, and their Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-26

    through the use of hot - wire anemometry . Implementing a DPIV system in flames and achieving the level of accuracy of LDV is a challenge, particularly...temperature at the hot boundary for a given strain rate and fuel concentration in the fuel jet. Law and coworkers (e.g., Law et al. 1986; Law 1988... wired into a single USB LaVision PTU timing box to share a single LaVision acquisition license through partitioning of the dongle with a USB switch

  4. Advanced fuel concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Despite their more stringent plasma heating and confinement requirements, advanced fuel (AF) fusion cycles potentially offer improved environmental compatibility and lower costs. This comes about by elimination of tritium breeding requirements and by a reduction in neutron flux (hence, activation and radiation damage). Also a larger energy fraction carried by charged particles makes direct energy conversion more suitable. As a first application, a symbiotic system of semi-catalyzed-deuterium fueled hybrid fuel factories, supplying both fissle fuel to light water reactors and /sup 3/He to D-/sup 3/He satellite fusion reactors, is proposed. Subsequently, an evolution into a system of synfuel factories with satellite D-/sup 3/He reactors is envisioned.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  6. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - integrated multi-scale multi-physics hierarchical modeling and simulation framework Part III: cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Tome, Carlos N; Caro, J A; Lebensohn, R A; Unal, Cetin; Arsenlis, A; Marian, J; Pasamehmetoglu, K

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Reactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems to develop predictive tools is critical. Not only are fabrication and performance models needed to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. In this paper we review the current status of the advanced modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor cladding, with emphasis on what is available and what is to be developed in each scale of the project, how we propose to pass information from one scale to the next, and what experimental information is required for benchmarking and advancing the modeling at each scale level.

  7. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Lessig, W.S.

    1984-08-01

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners.

  8. Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2009-09-01

    The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by the

  9. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  11. Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Ming-Chia D.

    2003-01-01

    The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  13. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; Veronica Rutledge; Candido Pereira; Jackie Copple; Kurt Frey; John Krebs; Laura Maggos; Kevin Nichols; Kent Wardle; Pratap Sadasivan; Valmor DeAlmieda; David Depaoli

    2011-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets and integrated

  14. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  16. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  17. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  18. Advanced servomanipulator development

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world.

  19. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  20. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  1. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  2. Recent advances in the development and utilization of modern anode materials for high performance microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Jayesh M; Yadav, Abhishek; Ghosh, Prakash C; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-04-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are novel bio-electrochemical device for spontaneous or single step conversion of biomass into electricity, based on the use of metabolic activity of bacteria. The design and use of MFCs has attracted considerable interests because of the potential new opportunities they offer for sustainable production of energy from biodegradable and reused waste materials. However, the associated slow microbial kinetics and costly construction materials has limited a much wider commercial use of the technology. In the past ten years, there has been significant new developments in MFCs which has resulted in several-fold increase in achievable power density. Yet, there is still considerable possibility for further improvement in performance and development of new cost effective materials. This paper comprehensively reviews recent advances in the construction and utilization of novel anodes for MFCs. In particular, it highlights some of the critical roles and functions of anodes in MFCs, strategies available for improving surface areas of anodes, dominant performance of stainless-steel based anode materials, and the emerging benefits of inclusion of nanomaterials. The review also demonstrates that some of the materials are very promising for large scale MFC applications and are likely to replace conventional anodes for the development of next generation MFC systems. The hurdles to the development of commercial MFC technology are also discussed. Furthermore, the future directions in the design and selection of materials for construction and utilization of MFC anodes are highlighted.

  3. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-09-02

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of nding reactor deployment pro les that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to re ne the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-o s that exist between these di erent objectives.

  4. Metallic fuel development

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Metallic fuels are capable of achieving high burnup as a result of design modifications instituted in the late 1960's. The gap between the fuel slug and the cladding is fixed such that by the time the fuel swells to the cladding the fission gas bubbles interconnect and release the fission gas to an appropriately sized plenum volume. Interconnected porosity thus provides room for the fuel to deform from further swelling rather than stress the cladding. In addition, the interconnected porosity allows the fuel pin to be tolerant to transient events because as stresses are generated during a transient event the fuel flows rather than applying significant stress to the cladding. Until 1969 a number of metallic fuel alloys were under development in the US. At that time the metallic fuel development program in the US was discontinued in favor of ceramic fuels. However, development had proceeded to the point where it was clear that the zirconium addition to uranium-plutonium fuel would yield a ternary fuel with an adequately high solidus temperature and good compatibility with austenitic stainless steel cladding. Furthermore, several U-Pu-Zr fuel pins had achieved about 6 at.% bu by the late 1960's, without failure, and thus the prospect for high burnup was promising.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-04-26

    The main purpose of this project is engineering development of advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies for cleaning coal. Development of these technologies is an important step in the Department of Energy program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected United States coals and that this fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for a portion of the premium fuels (oil and natural gas) burned by electric utility and industrial boilers in this country. Capturing a relatively small fraction of the total utility and industrial oil-fired boiler fuel market would have a significant impact on domestic coal production and reduce national dependence on petroleum fuels. Significant potential export markets also exist in Europe and the Pacific Rim for cost-effective premium fuels prepared from ultra-clean coal. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs, and boiler derating are kept to a minimum. Also, retrofit boiler emissions must be compatible with national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for the ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of ultra-clean coal discussed below. The cost-shared contract effort is for 48 months beginning September 30, 1992, and ending September 30, 1996. This report discusses the technical progress made during the second 3 months of the project, January 1 to March 31, 1993.

  7. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

    2011-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that

  9. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Development of advanced catalytic layer based on vertically aligned conductive polymer arrays for thin-film fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shangfeng; Yi, Baolian; Cao, Longsheng; Song, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Hongmei; Shao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    The degradation of carbon supports significantly influences the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), particularly in the cathode, which must be overcome for the wide application of fuel cells. In this study, advanced catalytic layer with electronic conductive polymer-polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire as ordered catalyst supports for PEMFCs is prepared. A platinum-palladium (PtPd) catalyst thin layer with whiskerette shapes forms along the long axis of the PPy nanowires. The resulting arrays are hot-pressed on both sides of a Nafion® membrane to construct a membrane electrode assembly (without additional ionomer). The ordered thin catalyst layer (approximately 1.1 μm) is applied in a single cell as the anode and the cathode without additional Nafion® ionomer. The single cell yields a maximum performance of 762.1 mW cm-2 with a low Pt loading (0.241 mg Pt cm-2, anode + cathode). The advanced catalyst layer indicates better mass transfer in high current density than that of commercial Pt/C-based electrode. The mass activity is 1.08-fold greater than that of DOE 2017 target. Thus, the as-prepared electrodes have the potential for application in fuel cells.

  12. Postirradiation evaluations of capsules HANS-1 and HANS-2 irradiated in the HFIR target region in support of fuel development for the advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, irradiation, and evaluation of two capsule tests containing U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel particles in contact with aluminum. The tests were in support of fuel qualification for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor, a high-powered research reactor that was planned for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At the time of these tests, the fuel consisted of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, containing highly enriched uranium dispersed in aluminum at a volume fraction of {approximately}0.15. The extremely high thermal flux in the target region of the High Flux Isotope Reactor provided up to 90% burnup in one 23-d cycle. Temperatures up to 450{degrees}C were maintained by gamma heating. Passive SiC temperature monitors were employed. The very small specimen size allowed only microstructural examination of the fuel particles but also allowed many specimens to be tested at a range of temperatures. The determination of fission gas bubble morphology by microstructural examination has been beneficial in developing a fuel performance model that allows prediction of fuel performance under these extreme conditions. The results indicate that performance of the reference fuel would be satisfactory under the ANS conditions. In addition to U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, particles of U{sub 3}Si, UAl{sub 2}, UAl{sub x}, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were tested.

  13. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2010-06-30

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels. Thailand is of particular interest since it introduced E20 to its commercial market in 2007 and the US is now considering introducing E20 into the US market.

  14. Advanced Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Whitacre, Jay; Valdez, T. I.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of catalyst for Fuel Cells. The objectives of the project are to reduce the cost of stack components and reduce the amount of precious metal used in fuel cell construction. A rapid combinatorial screening technique based on multi-electrode thin film array has been developed and validated for identifying catalysts for oxygen reduction; focus shifted from methanol oxidation in FY05 to oxygen reduction in FY06. Multi-electrode arrays of thin film catalysts of Pt-Ni and Pt-Ni-Zr have been deposited. Pt-Ni and have been characterized electrochemically and structurally. Pt-Ni-Zr and Pt-Ni films show higher current density and onset potential compared to Pt. Electrocatalytic activity and onset potential are found to be strong function of the lattice constant. Thin film Pt(59)Ni(39)Zr(2) can provide 10 times the current density of thin film Pt. Thin film Pt(59)Ni(39)Zr(2) also shows 65mV higher onset potential than Pt.

  15. Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Stork, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    This summary reviews the status of alternate transportation fuels development and utilization in Thailand. Thailand has continued to work to promote increased consumption of gasohol especially for highethanol content fuels like E85. The government has confirmed its effort to draw up incentives for auto makers to invest in manufacturing E85-compatible vehicles in the country. An understanding of the issues and experiences associated with the introduction of alternative fuels in other countries can help the US in anticipation potential problems as it introduces new automotive fuels.

  16. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  17. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advances—on fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.—are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-07-28

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1993. The project has three major objectives: (1) the primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) a secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics; and (3) a third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  19. Studies on sulfur poisoning and development of advanced anodic materials for waste-to-energy fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaza, Fabio; Paoletti, Claudia; LoPresti, Roberto; Simonetti, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Mauro

    Biomass is the renewable energy source with the most potential penetration in energy market for its positive environmental and socio-economic consequences: biomass live cycles for energy production is carbon neutral; energy crops promote alternative and productive utilizations of rural sites creating new economic opportunities; bioenergy productions promote local energy independence and global energy security defined as availability of energy resource supply. Different technologies are currently available for energy production from biomass, but a key role is played by fuel cells which have both low environmental impacts and high efficiencies. High temperature fuel cells, such as molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), are particularly suitable for bioenergy production because it can be directly fed with biogas: in fact, among its principal constituents, methane can be transformed to hydrogen by internal reforming; carbon dioxide is a safe diluent; carbon monoxide is not a poison, but both a fuel, because it can be discharged at the anode, and a hydrogen supplier, because it can produce hydrogen via the water-gas shift reaction. However, the utilization of biomass derived fuels in MCFC presents different problems not yet solved, such as the poisoning of the anode due to byproducts of biofuel chemical processing. The chemical compound with the major negative effects on cell performances is hydrogen sulfide. It reacts with nickel, the main anodic constituent, forming sulfides and blocking catalytic sites for electrode reactions. The aim of this work is to study the hydrogen sulfide effects on MCFC performances for defining the poisoning mechanisms of conventional nickel-based anode, recommending selection criteria of sulfur-tolerant materials, and selecting advanced anodes for MCFC fed with biogas.

  20. Advanced ceramic cladding for water reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Feinroth, H.

    2000-07-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives (NERI) program, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed as cladding for water reactor fuel elements. The purpose is to substantially increase the passive safety of water reactors. A development effort was initiated in 1991 to fabricate CFCC-clad tubes using commercially available fibers and a sol-gel process developed by McDermott Technologies. Two small-diameter CFCC tubes were fabricated using pure alumina and alumina-zirconia fibers in an alumina matrix. Densities of {approximately}60% of theoretical were achieved. Higher densities are required to guarantee fission gas containment. This NERI work has just begun, and only preliminary results are presented herein. Should the work prove successful, further development is required to evaluate CFCC cladding and performance, including in-pile tests containing fuel and exploring a marriage of CFCC cladding materials with suitable advanced fuel and core designs. The possibility of much higher temperature core designs, possibly cooled with supercritical water, and achievement of plant efficiencies {ge}50% would be examined.

  1. Mixed oxide fuel development

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.D.; Omberg, R.P.

    1987-05-08

    This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  3. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  4. Advanced Biorefineries for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review, "Advanced biorefineries for production of fuel ethanol," is a chapter in the Wiley book entitled Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries and is intended to cover all major ethanol production processes to date. The chapter discusses current fuel ethanol production processe...

  5. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  6. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  7. Advanced Fuel-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, William F., III; Martin, Ronald E.; Struning, Albin J.; Whitehill, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Modules designed for long life, light weight, reliability, and low cost. Stack of alkaline fuel cells based on modules, consisting of three fuel cells and cooler. Each cell includes following components: ribbed carbon fine-pore anode electrolyte-reservoir plate; platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode; potassium titanate matrix bonded with butyl rubber; gold-plated nickel-foil electrode substrates; and silver plated, gold-flashed molded polyphenylene sulfide cell holder. Each cell has active area of 1ft to the 2nd power (0.09 m to the 2nd power). Materials and configurations of parts chosen to extend life expectancy, reduce weight and manufacturing cost, and increase reliability.

  8. Cermet-fueled reactors for advanced space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Taylor, I.N.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-12-01

    Cermet-fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high-performance advanced space power systems. The cermet consists of a hexagonal matrix of a refractory metal and a ceramic fuel, with multiple tubular flow channels. The high performance characteristics of the fuel matrix come from its high strength at elevated temperatures and its high thermal conductivity. The cermet fuel concept evolved in the 1960s with the objective of developing a reactor design that could be used for a wide range of mobile power generating sytems, including both Brayton and Rankine power conversion cycles. High temperature thermal cycling tests for the cermet fuel were carried out by General Electric as part of the 710 Project (General Electric 1966), and by Argonne National Laboratory in the Direct Nuclear Rocket Program (1965). Development programs for cermet fuel are currently under way at Argonne National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The high temperature qualification tests from the 1960s have provided a base for the incorporation of cermet fuel in advanced space applications. The status of the cermet fuel development activities and descriptions of the key features of the cermet-fueled reactor design are summarized in this paper.

  9. Advances in fuel management and on-line core monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Hansen, L.E.; Patten, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF) has developed and implemented advanced core power distribution monitoring methods for BWRs and PWRs based on the three dimensional nodal simulator codes used for incore fuel management design and analysis. The use of these methods has resulted in a more accurate assessment of the core power distribution and corresponding increased operating margins. These increased margins allow for more economical fuel cycle designs. Since the initial application in 1982, ANF has made enhancements to the incore monitoring system. These enhancements have permitted more rapid analysis of local power changes, power distribution projections during ascent to full power and on-line statistical analysis of the incore detector signal. The on-line analysis implemented in BWRs has also been developed for application PWRs. In the future, reactors are expected to operate with longer fuel cycles, more aggressive low radial leakage loadings, load follow and use higher burnup fuel. These advances will require more burnable neutron absorbers and more sophisticated fuel designs. To accommodate these advances, the fuel management methodologies and measurement system will require improvements. The state-of-the-art methods provided by ANF provide incore monitoring systems compatible with these expected needs.

  10. Current Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; B. W. Dixon; A. Goldmann; R. N. Hill; J. J. Jacobson; G. E. Matthern; J. D. Smith; A. M. Yacout

    2006-03-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes mining, enrichment, nuclear power plants, recycling (if done), and residual waste disposition. The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has four program objectives to guide research on how best to glue these pieces together, as follows: waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety. We have developed a comprehensive set of metrics to evaluate fuel cycle options against the four program objectives. The current list of metrics is long-term heat, long-term dose, radiotoxicity and weapons usable material. This paper describes the current metrics and initial results from comparisons made using these metrics. The data presented were developed using a combination of “static” calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This work aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. The results from a series of dynamic simulations evaluating these options are included in this report. The model interface includes a few “control knobs” for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future. The results from the simulations show that the future is dark (uncertain) and that the system is sluggish with slow time response times to changes (i.e., what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants). Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would increase our

  11. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  12. Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I.

    1996-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

  13. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels R&D Subtask: Advanced Propulsion Fuels Research and Development Support to AFRL/RQTF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    AIR FORCE NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other...than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government . The fact that the Government formulated or supplied the drawings...Extinction Stretch Rates of Jet Fuels, Alternative Fuels and Fuel Blends The most important governing parameter in the laminar flamelet regime of a

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  15. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  16. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  17. Advanced Fuels Can Reduce the Cost of Getting Into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1998-01-01

    Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs, and advanced propellant technologies can make space vehicles safer and easier to operate, and can improve their performance. Five major areas have been identified for fruitful research: monopropellants, alternative hydrocarbons, gelled hydrogen, metallized gelled propellants, and high-energy-density propellants. During the development of the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Plan, these technologies were identified as those most likely to be effective for new NASA vehicles. Several NASA research programs had fostered work in fuels under the topic Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles in 1996 to 1997. One component of this topic was to promote the development and commercialization of monopropellant rocket fuels, hypersonic fuels, and high-energy-density propellants. This research resulted in the teaming of small business with large industries, universities, and Government laboratories. This work is ongoing with seven contractors. The commercial products from these contracts will bolster advanced propellant research. Work also is continuing under other programs, which were recently realigned under the "Three Pillars" of NASA: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. One of the five areas is described below, and its applications and effect on future missions is discussed. This work is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the assistance of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The regenerative cooling of spacecraft engines and other components can improve overall vehicle performance. Endothermic fuels can absorb energy from an engine nozzle and chamber and help to vaporize high-density fuel before it enters the combustion chamber. For supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, endothermic fuels can absorb the high heat fluxes created on the wing leading edges and

  18. Could Advanced Fusion Fuels Be Used with Today's Technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Khater, H. Y.

    1998-03-01

    Could today's technology suffice for engineering advanced-fuel, magnetic-fusion power plants, thus making fusion development primarily a physics problem? Such a path would almost certainly cost far less than the present D-T development program, which is driven by daunting engineering challenges as well as physics questions. Advanced fusion fuels, in contrast to D-T fuel, produce a smaller fraction of the fusion power as neutrons but have lower fusion reactivity, leading to a trade-off between engineering and physics. This paper examines the critical fusion engineering issues and related technologies with an eye to their application in tokamak and alternate-concept D-3He power plants. These issues include plasma power balance, magnets, surface heat flux, input power, fuel source, radiation damage, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear proliferation.

  19. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development Task 8.3 - autothermal fuel reformer (ATR). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Autothermal fuel reforming (ATR) consists of reacting a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas or diesel with steam to produce a hydrogen-rich {open_quotes}reformed{close_quotes} fuel. This work has been designed to investigate the fuel reformation and the product gas combustion under gas turbine conditions. The hydrogen-rich gas has a high flammability with a wide range of combustion stability. Being lighter and more reactive than methane, the hydrogen-rich gas mixes readily with air and can be burned at low fuel/air ratios producing inherently low emissions. The reformed fuel also has a low ignition temperature which makes low temperature catalytic combustion possible. ATR can be designed for use with a variety of alternative fuels including heavy crudes, biomass and coal-derived fuels. When the steam required for fuel reforming is raised by using energy from the gas turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency is improved because of the steam and fuel chemically recuperating. Reformation of natural gas or diesel fuels to a homogeneous hydrogen-rich fuel has been demonstrated. Performance tests on screening various reforming catalysts and operating conditions were conducted on a batch-tube reactor. Producing over 70 percent of hydrogen (on a dry basis) in the product stream was obtained using natural gas as a feedstock. Hydrogen concentration is seen to increase with temperature but less rapidly above 1300{degrees}F. The percent reforming increases as the steam to carbon ratio is increased. Two basic groups of reforming catalysts, nickel - and platinum-basis, have been tested for the reforming activity.

  20. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  1. The Adoption of Advanced Fuel Cycle Technology Under a Single Repository Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Wilson

    2009-11-02

    Develops the tools to investiage the hypothesis that the savings in repository space associated with the implementation of advanced nuclear fuel cycles can result in sufficient cost savings to offset the higher costs of those fuel cycles.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 12, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 12 (July--September 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at Lady Dunn. Under Subtask 4.4, additional toxic trace element analysis of column flotation samples finalized the data set. Data analysis indicates that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements. The final Subtask 6.3 Selective Agglomeration Process Optimization topical report was issued this quarter. Preliminary Subtask 6.4 work investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation indicated that selective agglomeration products formulate slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Work continued on Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing. Results indicate that a 2 lb ash/MBtu product could be produced at a 100-mesh topsize with the Elkhorn No. 3 coal. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module neared completion this quarter with the completion of additional revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU and advanced flotation module was completed this quarter and startup and shakedown testing began.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly progress report No. 10, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-04-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by June, 1997. During Quarter 10 (January--March, 1995), preliminary work continued for the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant. Towards this end, laboratory flotation testing and refurbishing of the column have been started. The final version of the Subtask 4.2 Advanced Flotation Process Optimization Research topical report was issued, as was a draft version of the Subtask 4.3 report discussing the formulation of coal-water slurry fuels (CWF) from advanced flotation products. A number of product samples from Subtask 4.4 testing were sent to both Combustion Engineering and Penn State for combustion testing. The evaluation of toxic trace element analyses of column flotation products also continued. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr PDU was essentially completed with the approval of various process flow, plant layout, electrical, and vendor equipment drawings. The final version of the Subtask 6.5 -- Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Design and Test Plan Report was issued during this reporting quarter. Design and construction of this 25 lb/hr selective agglomeration test unit was completed and preliminary testing started. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU began following the selection of TIC. The Industrial Company as the construction subcontractor.

  4. Fuel gas developments

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This volume is devoted to current research and specific developmental programs in the area of fuel gas production from biomass. Anaerobic biological conversion of lignocellulosic residuals to increase methane production by using pretreatment methods such as thermochemical, autohydrolysis, and staged or continuous flow processes are described. Essential considerations for establishing digestion process design criterias are covered. Included in this discussion are the sources and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW), MSW preprocessing and pretreatment, and digester control parameters such as nutrient requirements, organic loading rate, retention time, feed slurry concentration, temperature, mixing, and gas quality and quantity. Highlighted are the practical aspects of reactors to promote biomass retention, improving treatment efficiency, product rate, and process stability. Brief summaries are presented on process configuration. Detailed coverage is given to the development and commercialization of anaerobic systems that are now used, such as the Celrobic system and the Biothane process. Problems associated with using biomass digester effluents as soil conditioners and feeds are discussed. The use of commercial manure-to-fuel gas systems at large environmental beef cattle feedlots is also discussed. The volume concludes with a comparative study on the conversion of agricultural crop residues to either gaseous or liquid fuels.

  5. Advanced supersonic technology fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Status of the fuel tank simulation and YF-12A flight tests utilizing a fluorosilicone sealant is described. New elastomer sealant development is detailed, and comparisons of high and low temperature characteristics are made to baseline fluorosilicone sealants.

  6. US RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; D. E. Burkes; D. D. Keiser

    2008-10-01

    Post irradiation examinations of irradiated RERTR plate type fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory have led to in depth characterization of fuel behavior and performance. Both destructive and non-destructive examination capabilities at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) as well as recent results obtained are discussed herein. New equipment as well as more advanced techniques are also being developed to further advance the investigation into the performance of the high density U-Mo fuel.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  8. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  9. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  10. Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycle Schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    SARTORI, ENRICO

    2008-03-17

    Version 00 SMAFS was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model are represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can easily modify values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs.

  11. Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

    2005-02-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

  12. Compatibility of alternative fuels with advanced automotive gas turbine and stirling engines. A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J.; Horvath, D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of alternative fuels in advanced automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of a literature survey. These alternative engines are briefly described, and the aspects that will influence fuel selection are identified. Fuel properties and combustion properties are discussed, with consideration given to advanced materials and components. Alternative fuels from petroleum, coal, oil shale, alcohol, and hydrogen are discussed, and some background is given about the origin and production of these fuels. Fuel requirements for automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines are developed, and the need for certain reseach efforts is discussed. Future research efforts planned at Lewis are described.

  13. Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Working Group (AFCWG) was formed and asked to perform a scientific evaluation of the current status of fuel cells, with emphasis on identification of long-range research that may have a significant impact on the practical utilization of fuel cells in a variety of applications. The AFCWG held six meetings at locations throughout the country where fuel cell research and development are in progress, for presentations by experts on the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as for inputs on research needs. Subsequent discussions by the AFCWG have resulted in the identification of priority research areas that should be explored over the long term in order to advance the design and performance of fuel cells of all types. Surveys describing the salient features of individual fuel cell types are presented in Chapters 2 to 6 and include elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The Introduction and the Summary (Chapter 1) were prepared by AFCWG. They were repeatedly revised in response to comments and criticism. The present version represents the closest approach to a consensus that we were able to reach, which should not be interpreted to mean that each member of AFCWG endorses every statement and every unexpressed deletion. The Introduction and Summary always represent a majority view and, occasionally, a unanimous judgment. Chapters 2 to 6 provide background information and carry the names of identified authors. The identified authors of Chapters 2 to 6, rather than AFCWG as a whole, bear full responsibility for the scientific and technical contents of these chapters.

  14. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  15. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  16. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  17. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  18. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1996-04-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components:(1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub- micrometer and micrometer sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct liquefaction of coal. Progress reports for these tasks are presented.

  19. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  20. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  1. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Ralph G. Bennett; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mark Roth; J. D. Smith; Robert Hill; James Laidler; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2004-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is addressing key issues associated with critical national needs. This paper compares the major options with these major “outcome” objectives - waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety as well as “process” objectives associated with readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. Working together, separation, transmutation, and fuel technologies provide complete energy systems that can improve waste management compared to the current “once-through/no separation” approach. Future work will further increase confidence in potential solutions, optimize solutions for the mixtures of objectives, and develop attractive development and deployment paths for selected options. This will allow the nation to address nearer-term issues such as avoiding the need for additional geological repositories while making nuclear energy a more sustainable energy option for the long-term. While the Generation IV Initiative is exploring multiple reactor options for future nuclear energy for both electricity generation and additional applications, the AFCI is assessing fuel cycles options for either a continuation or expansion of nuclear energy in the United States. This report compares strategies and technology options for managing the associated spent fuel. There are four major potential strategies, as follows: · The current U.S. strategy is once through: standard nuclear power plants, standard fuel burnup, direct geological disposal of spent fuel. Variants include higher burnup fuels in water-cooled power plants, once-through gas-cooled power plants, and separation (without recycling) of spent fuel to reduce the number and cost of geological waste packages. · The second strategy is thermal recycle, recycling some fuel components in thermal reactors. This strategy extends the useful life of

  2. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 14, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-04-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by June 1997. During Quarter 14 (January--March 1996), parametric testing of the 30-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Plant continued under Subtask 3.2. Subtask 3. 3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter with parametric testing of the batch dewatering unit. Coal product moistures of 3 to 12 percent were achieved, with higher percent solids slurry feeds resulting in lower product moistures. For a given percent solids feed, the product moisture decreased with increasing butane to dry coal ratios. Stirring time, stirring rate, and settling time were all found to have little effect on the final moisture content. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-fuel slurry formulation for coals cleaned by selective agglomeration, indicated that pH adjustment to 10 resulted in marginally better (lower viscosity) slurries for one of the two coals tested. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that the new Taggart coal requires a grind with a d{sub 80} of approximately 33 microns to achieve the 1 lb ash/MBtu product quality specification. Also under Subtask 6.5, reductions in the various trace element concentrations accomplished during selective agglomeration were determined. Work was essentially completed on the detailed design of the PDU selective agglomeration module under Task 7 with the issuing of a draft report.

  4. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  5. Hybrid fuel formulation and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to develop an improved hybrid fuel with higher regression rate, a regression rate expression exponent close to 0.5, lower cost, and higher density. The approach was to formulate candidate fuels based on promising concepts, perform thermomechanical analyses to select the most promising candidates, develop laboratory processes to fabricate fuel grains as needed, fabricate fuel grains and test in a small lab-scale motor, select the best candidate, and then scale up and validate performance in a 2500 lbf scale, 11-inch diameter motor. The characteristics of a high performance fuel have been verified in 11-inch motor testing. The advanced fuel exhibits a 15% increase in density over an all hydrocarbon formulation accompanied by a 50% increase in regression rate, which when multiplied by the increase in density yields a 70% increase in fuel mass flow rate; has a significantly lower oxidizer-to-fuel (O/F) ratio requirement at 1.5; has a significantly decreased axial regression rate variation making for more uniform propellant flow throughout motor operation; is very clean burning; extinguishes cleanly and quickly; and burns with a high combustion efficiency.

  6. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  7. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  8. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 13, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-01-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit. During Quarter 13 (October--December 1995), testing of the GranuFlow dewatering process indicated a 3--4% reduction in cake moisture for screen-bowl and solid-bowl centrifuge products. The Orimulsion additions were also found to reduce the potential dustiness of the fine coal, as well as improve solids recovery in the screen-bowl centrifuge. Based on these results, Lady Dunn management now plans to use a screen bowl centrifuge to dewater their Microcel{trademark} column froth product. Subtask 3.3 testing, investigating a novel Hydrophobic Dewatering process (HD), continued this quarter. Continuing Subtask 6.4 work, investigating coal-water-slurry formulation, indicated that selective agglomeration products can be formulated into slurries with lower viscosities than advanced flotation products. Subtask 6.5 agglomeration bench-scale testing results indicate that a very fine grind is required to meet the 2 lb ash/MBtu product specification for the Winifrede coal, while the Hiawatha coal requires a grind in the 100- to 150-mesh topsize range. Detailed design work remaining involves the preparation and issuing of the final task report. Utilizing this detailed design, a construction bid package was prepared and submitted to three Colorado based contractors for quotes as part of Task 9.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-10-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 8 (July - September, 1994), work on the formulation of coal water slurries from flotation concentrates was completed. Parametric and optimization tests were performed on the Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch MicrocelT{sup M} flotation column. Laboratory research on selective agglomeration was completed with limited testing of the Dietz coal and alternate agglomerants. Initial planning has started for the bench-scale agglomeration unit which will utilize heptane as the bridging liquid in a conventional two-stage system, and steam stripping for heptane recovery and recycle. A project review meeting was held at Bechtel to discuss the detailed design of the PDU, which is being designed to process Indiana VII, Sunnyside, and Taggart coals. Process flow, piping and instrument, and equipment layout diagrams are being revised to reflect the process improvements resulting from bench-scale testing. Material Requisition activity has commenced, and will continue next quarter along with the selection of a construction subcontractor.

  11. Irradiation Test of Advanced PWR Fuel in Fuel Test Loop at HANARO

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Song, Kun Woo; Park, Su Ki; Seo, Chul Gyo

    2007-07-01

    A new fuel test loop has been constructed in the research reactor HANARO at KAERI. The main objective of the FTL (Fuel Test Loop) is an irradiation test of a newly developed LWR fuel under PWR or Candu simulated conditions. The first test rod will be loaded within 2007 and its irradiation test will be continued until a rod average their of 62 MWd/kgU. A total of five test rods can be loaded into the IPS (In-Pile Section) and fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure and fuel stack elongation can be measured by an on-line real time system. A newly developed advanced PWR fuel which consists of a HANA{sup TM} alloy cladding and a large grain UO{sub 2} pellet was selected as the first test fuel in the FTL. The fuel cladding, the HANA{sup TM} alloy, is an Nb containing Zirconium alloy that has shown better corrosion and creep resistance properties than the current Zircaloy-4 cladding. A total of six types of HANA{sup TM} alloy were developed and two or three of these candidate alloys will be used as test rod cladding, which have shown a superior performance to the others. A large-grain UO{sub 2} pellet has a 14{approx}16 micron 2D diameter grain size for a reduction of a fission gas release at a high burnup. In this paper, characteristics of the FTL and IPS are introduced and the expected operation and irradiation conditions are summarized for the test periods. Also the preliminary fuel performance analysis results, such as the cladding oxide thickness, fission gas release and rod internal pressure, are evaluated from the test rod safety analysis aspects. (authors)

  12. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  14. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  15. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, July, August, September, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    150 electrolyte reservoir plates (ERP`s) were carbonized for the small area short stack. A process was developed which allows thin (1--2 mil) matrix to be applied to full-size electrodes using a curtain coater. Full-size cooler samples were molded with and without cooler tube arrays. Two alternative cooler hoses were evaluated and found to be acceptable based on 1400 h testing at simulated conditions.

  16. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  17. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  18. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  19. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, James H.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J; Campbell, Joseph L

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  20. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  1. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-06-16

    The overall objective of this program was to develop regenerable sorbents for use in the temperature range of 343 to 538 C (650 to 1000 F) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases in a fluidized-bed reactor. The goal was to develop sorbents that are capable of reducing the H{sub 2}S level in the fuel gas to less than 20 ppmv in the specified temperature range and pressures in the range of 1 to 20 atmospheres, with chemical characteristics that permit cyclic regeneration over many cycles without a drastic loss of activity, as well as physical characteristics that are compatible with the fluidized bed application.

  2. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  3. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, M. H.; Chepanoske, W. A.; Feret, J. M.; France, L. L.; Haines, N. L.; Heberling, C. F.; Holman, R. R.; Kelly, J. L.; Kochka, E. L.

    1992-03-01

    The development is reported of a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. Results of this effort include: (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, components designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into fun height 100 kill stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kill module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  4. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents in detail the work performed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Energy Research Corporation during the fourth phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. The results of this effort include (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through innovative improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, component designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into full height 100 kW stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kW module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  5. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-01-25

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 ton lots of each of three project coals, by each process. The project began in October, 1992 and is scheduled for completion by March, 1997. During Quarter 9 (October--December, 1995), parametric and optimization testing was completed for the Taggart, Sunnyside, and Indiana VII coal using a 12-inch Microcel{trademark} flotation column. The detailed design of the 2-t/hr PDU grinding, flotation, and dewatering circuits neared completion with the specification of the major pieces of capital equipment to be purchased for these areas. Selective agglomeration test work investigated the properties of various industrial grades of heptane for use during bench- and PDU-scale testing. It was decided to use a hydrotreated grade of commercial heptane due to its low cost and low concentration of aromatic compounds. The final Subtask 6.4 CWF Formulation Studies Test Plan was issued. A draft version of the Subtask 6.5 Preliminary Design and Test Plan Report was also issued, discussing the progress made in the design of the bench-scale selective agglomeration unit. PDU construction work moved forward through the issuing of 26 request for quotations and 21 award packages for capital equipment.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly

  9. Advanced techniques in safeguarding a conditioning facility for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Although reprocessing continues to be the main factor in the waste management of nuclear reactors, the alternative of direct final disposal is currently being developed to the level of industrial applications, based on an agreement between the heads of the federal government and the federal states of Germany. Thus, the Konrad and Gorleben sites are being studied as potential final repositories as is the pilot conditioning facility (PKA) under construction. Discussions on the application of safeguards measures have led to the drafting of an approach that will cover the entire back end of the fuel cycle. The conditioning of fuel prior to direct final disposal represents one element in the overall approach. A modern facility equipped with advanced technology, PKA is a pilot plant with regard to conditioning techniques as well as to safeguards. Therefore, the PKA safeguards approach is expected to facilitate future industrial applications of the conditioning procedure. This cannot be satisfactorily implemented without advanced safeguards techniques. The level of development of the safeguards techniques varies. While advanced camera and seal systems are basically available, the other techniques and methods still require research and development. Feasibility studies and equipment development are geared to providing applicable safeguards techniques in time for commissioning of the PKA.

  10. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel. Task 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  11. VVANTAGE 6 - an advanced fuel assembly design for VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.K.; DeMario, E.E.; Knott, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    Over the last 25 years, Westinghouse fuel assemblies for pressurized water reactors (PWR`s) have undergone significant changes to the current VANTAGE 5. VANTAGE 5 PWR fuel includes features such as removable top nozzles, debris filter bottom nozzles, low-pressure-drop zircaloy grids, zircaloy intermediate flow mixing grids, optimized fuel rods, in-fuel burnable absorbers, and increased burnup capability to region average values of 48000 MWD/MTU. These features have now been adopted to the VVER reactors. Westinghouse has completed conceptual designs for an advanced fuel assembly and other core components for VVER-1000 reactors known as VANTAGE 6. This report describes the VVANTAGE 6 fuel assembly design.

  12. Fuel qualification plan for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development and qualification plan for the fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source. The reference fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, dispersed in aluminum and clad in 6061 aluminum. This report was prepared in May 1994, at which time the reference design was for a two-element core containing highly enriched uranium (93% {sup 235}U) . The reactor was in the process of being redesigned to accommodate lowered uranium enrichment and became a three-element core containing a higher volume fraction of uranium enriched to 50% {sup 235}U. Consequently, this report was not issued at that time and would have been revised to reflect the possibly different requirements of the lower-enrichment, higher-volume fraction fuel. Because the reactor is now being canceled, this unrevised report is being issued for archival purposes. The report describes the fabrication and inspection development plan, the irradiation tests and performance modeling to qualify performance, the transient testing that is part of the safety program, and the interactions and interfaces of the fuel development with other tasks.

  13. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  14. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-03-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  15. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    The conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design has been performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey was completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins were designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicted that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  17. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Developing technologies for synthetic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprow, F. B.

    1981-05-01

    After consideration of a likely timetable for the development of a synthetic fuels industry and its necessary supporting technology, the large variety of such fuels and their potential roles is assessed along with their commercialization outlook. Among the fuel production methods considered are: (1) above-ground retorting of oil shale; (2) in-situ shale retorting; (3) open pit mining of tar sands; (4) in-situ steam stimulation of tar sands; (5) coal gasification; (6) methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen; and (7) direct coal liquefaction by the hydrogenation of coal. It is shown that while the U.S. has very limited resource bases for tar sands and heavy crudes, the abundance of shale in the western states and the abundance and greater geographical dispersion of coal will make these the two most important resources of a future synthetic fuels industry.

  19. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  20. Hydrocarbon fuel cooling technologies for advanced propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, D.R.; Spadaccini, L.J.

    1997-04-01

    Storable hydrocarbon fuels that undergo endothermic reaction provide an attractive heat sink for future high-speed aircraft. An investigation was conducted to explore the endothermic potential of practical fuels, with inexpensive and readily available catalysts, under operating conditions simulative of high-speed flight applications. High heat sink capacities and desirable reaction products have been demonstrated for n-heptane and Norpar 12 fuels using zeolite catalysts in coated tube reactor configurations. The effects of fuel composition and operating condition on extent of fuel conversion, product composition, and the corresponding endotherm have been examined. The results obtained in this study provide a basis for catalytic-reactor/heat-exchanger design and analysis.

  1. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

  3. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    SciTech Connect

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternative power sources for transportation and stationary applications. The degradation of commonly used electrode catalysts (e.g. Pt, Ag, and others) and corrosion of carbon substrates are making commercialization of fuel cells incorporating present day technologies economically problematic. Furthermore, due to the instability of the Pt catalyst, the performance of fuel cells declines on long-term operation. When methanol is used as the fuel, a voltage drop, as well as significant thermal management problems can be encountered, the later being due to chemical oxidation of methanol at the platinized carbon at the cathode. Though extensive work was conducted on platinized electrodes for both the oxidation and reduction reactions, due to the problems mentioned above, fuel cells have not been fully developed for widespread commercial use. Several investigators have previously evaluated metal macrocyclic complexes as alternative catalysts to Pt and Pt/Ru in fuel cells. Unfortunately, though they have demonstrated catalytic activity, these materials were found to be unstable on long term use in the fuel cell environment. In order to improve the long-term stability of metal macrocyclic complexes, we have chemically bonded these complexes to the carbon substrate, thereby enhancing their catalytic activity as well as their chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated these catalysts for O{sub 2} reduction, H{sub 2} oxidation, and direct methanol oxidation in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) and aqueous carbonate fuel cells. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and long-term stability. In this paper we confine our discussion to the initial performance results of some of these catalysts in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells, including their long-term performance characteristics as well as CO poisoning effects on these catalysts.

  4. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  5. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  6. Advanced Aircraft Fuel Evaluation. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    sensible heat they can absorb and the endothermic heat of dehydrogenation at 450-500*C to the corresponding aromatic hydro- carbons. The aromatics in...hydrogen released in the endothermic dehydrogenation. Having absorbed this heat from the airframe, the fuel now has an effective heating value...reducing the heat absorbing capability of the fuel. The presence of an alkyl group increases the molecular weight of the fuel relative to the amount of

  7. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  8. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-09-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  9. Advanced thermionic converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, F. N.; Lieb, D.; Briere, T. R.; Sommer, A. H.; Rufeh, F.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress at Thermo Electron in developing advanced thermionic converters is summarized with particular attention paid to the development of electrodes, diodes, and triodes. It is found that one class of materials (ZnO, BaO and SrO) provides interesting cesiated work functions (1.3-1.4 eV) without additional oxygen. The second class of materials studied (rare earth oxides and hexaborides) gives cesiated/oxygenated work functions of less than 1.2 eV. Five techniques of oxygen addition to thermionic converters are discussed. Vapor deposited tungsten oxide collector diodes and the reflux converter are considered.

  10. Development of biodiesel slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Suppes, G.J.; Ng, C.; Srinivasan, B.

    1994-12-31

    As an alternative to diesel, the DOE has recently supported research which developed coal-water-slurries to the extent that they have demonstrated in low-, medium-, and high-speed diesel engines. Coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuels would be an American-made alternative to diesel distilled from imported crude oil. Such alternatives to imported oil are particularly desirable as 1994 crude oil imports will most likely exceed those disastrously high levels of the early 1980`s which led to a major recession. This paper is on the testing and development of biodiesel slurry fuels (e.g. corn flour and water) as an alternative to diesel for use in a modified diesel engine. While the economics for CWS`s are not favorable until bulk, tax-free diesel prices exceed $0.80 per gallon, a preliminary analysis of biodiesel slurries shows economic viability at today`s diesel prices. This paper presents advantages of biodiesel slurries over CWS`s due to different ash compositions and economics specific to applications on farm tractors. Engine modifications, fuel costs, fuel processing, fuel performance, and on-going research are discussed.

  11. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; March-Leuba, Jose A; Thurston, Carl; Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ireland, A.; Wysocki, A.

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, the capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.

  12. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; ...

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, themore » capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.« less

  13. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  14. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  15. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  16. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  17. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  18. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  19. Advanced strategic missile development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, R. L.

    1981-05-01

    The M-X program is taking two paths: (1) the current development and projected deployment of a survivable land based ICBM (the M-X) in a multiple protective structure system, and (2) a building block development of readiness posture and strategic futures technology that could be used for a wide range of projected needs in the event of major changes in the threat or the political climate. The blend of aerospace and civil engineering technologies which has resulted in the systems concept necessary to assure the continued survivability of the land based strategic missile force is summarized. Recent advanced technology development activities, which have been focused on systems upgrade options to the current ICBM force, basing options which may be required for special force elements, small missile options for airborne applications, penetration technology to counter SAM and ABM threats, and systems concepts for unique targeting requirements are reviewed.

  20. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels Research and Development-Subtask: Framework and Guidance for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Footprints of Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    59 15. Allocation of Energy Use Based on Plant - and Process-Level Analyses of a Petroleum Refinery (Wang, Lee and...such as the emissions from a vehicle hauling fuel from refinery to market, many of the elements in the life cycle emissions of a fuel system are not...A simple example is the allocation selection methodology associated with analyzing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with a refinery unit

  1. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  2. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    This decrease will allow for increased combustion operating efficiencies and fuel economy with reduced emissions on both current and future aircraft...capability is planned to be implemented on the CFM-56 for future combustion studies. We made facility improvements to allow fuel composition studies...an Aero Gas Turbine Combustion Chamber," ASME 97-GT-148. 8. Tolpadi, A. K., Danis, A. M., Mongia , H. C., and Lindstedt R. P., "Soot Modeling in

  3. Fuel Cells for Portable Power: 1. Introduction to DMFCs; 2. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr

    2012-07-16

    Thanks to generally less stringent cost constraints, portable power fuel cells, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) in particular, promise earlier market penetration than higher power polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for the automotive and stationary applications. However, a large-scale commercialization of DMFC-based power systems beyond niche applications already targeted by developers will depend on improvements to fuel cell performance and performance durability as well as on the reduction in cost, especially of the portable systems on the higher end of the power spectrum (100-250 W). In this part of the webinar, we will focus on the development of advanced materials (catalysts, membranes, electrode structures, and membrane electrode assemblies) and fuel cell operating concepts capable of fulfilling two key targets for portable power systems: the system cost of $5/W and overall fuel conversion efficiency of 2.0-2.5 kWh/L. Presented research will concentrate on the development of new methanol oxidation catalysts, hydrocarbon membranes with reduced methanol crossover, and improvements to component durability. Time permitted, we will also present a few highlights from the development of electrocatalysts for the oxidation of two alternative fuels for the direct-feed fuel cells: ethanol and dimethyl ether.

  4. New developments in RTR fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.

    2013-07-01

    As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

  5. Recent developments in biodesulfurization of fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Feng, Jinhui; Yu, Bo; Li, Fuli; Ma, Cuiqing

    2009-01-01

    The emission of sulfur oxides can have adverse effects on the environment. Biodesulfurization of fossil fuels is attracting more and more attention because such a bioprocess is environmentally friendly. Some techniques of desulfurization have been used or studied to meet the stricter limitation on sulfur content in China. Recent advances have demonstrated the mechanism and developments for biodesulfurization of gasoline, diesel and crude oils by free cells or immobilized cells. Genetic technology was also used to improve sulfur removal efficiencies. In this review, we summarize recent progress mainly in China on petroleum biodesulfurization.

  6. Optical Fuel Injector Patternation Measurements in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. For one injector, further comparison is also made with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  7. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  8. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C.; Friedlander, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  9. Versatile Affordable Advanced Fuels and Combustion Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Fuels, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2008 2415 165 elastomer is highly fluorinated and relatively inert, as evident by the very low percentage of volume swell. Previous...hydrogen bonding involves hydrogen bound to nearly any electrophilic structure not just a highly electrophilic atom such as oxygen and nitrogen

  10. Advanced technology lightweight fuel cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of the alkaline electrolyte fuel cell as the power source in a multi hundred kilowatt orbital energy storage system was studied. The total system weight of an electrolysis cell energy storage system was determined. The tests demonstrated: (1) the performance stability of a platinum on carbon anode catalyst configuration after 5000 hours of testing has no loss in performance; (2) capability of the alkaline fuel cell to operate to a cyclical load profile; (3) suitability of a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate for use in the alkaline fuel cell; (4) long life potential of a hybrid polysulfone cell edge frame construction; and (5) long term stability of a fiber reinforced potassium titanate matrix structure. The power section tested operates with passive water removal eliminating the requirement for a dynamic hydrogen pump water separator thereby allowing a powerplant design with reduced weight, lower parasite power, and a potential for high reliability and extended endurance. It is concluded that two perovskites are unsuitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support at the cathode of an alkaline fuel cell.

  11. Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Pitsch, Heinz

    2010-05-31

    The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation; a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet transformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.

  12. Enabling Advanced Modeling and Simulations for Fuel-Flexible Combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz Pitsch

    2010-05-31

    The overall goal of the present project is to enable advanced modeling and simulations for the design and optimization of fuel-flexible turbine combustors. For this purpose we use a high-fidelity, extensively-tested large-eddy simulation (LES) code and state-of-the-art models for premixed/partially-premixed turbulent combustion developed in the PI's group. In the frame of the present project, these techniques are applied, assessed, and improved for hydrogen enriched premixed and partially premixed gas-turbine combustion. Our innovative approaches include a completely consistent description of flame propagation, a coupled progress variable/level set method to resolve the detailed flame structure, and incorporation of thermal-diffusion (non-unity Lewis number) effects. In addition, we have developed a general flamelet-type transformation holding in the limits of both non-premixed and premixed burning. As a result, a model for partially premixed combustion has been derived. The coupled progress variable/level method and the general flamelet tranformation were validated by LES of a lean-premixed low-swirl burner that has been studied experimentally at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The model is extended to include the non-unity Lewis number effects, which play a critical role in fuel-flexible combustor with high hydrogen content fuel. More specifically, a two-scalar model for lean hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched combustion is developed and validated against experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Results are presented to emphasize the importance of non-unity Lewis number effects in the lean-premixed low-swirl burner of interest in this project. The proposed model gives improved results, which shows that the inclusion of the non-unity Lewis number effects is essential for accurate prediction of the lean-premixed low-swirl flame.

  13. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  14. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

    2011-01-01

    The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described.

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  16. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  17. ENHANCING ADVANCED CANDU PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE FUEL WITH MINOR ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2010-05-01

    The advanced nuclear system will significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. Minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality assessed. The concept of MARA, significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms for peace and the intermediate term of nuclear energy reconnaissance.

  18. Development of portable fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N.

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  19. Screening of advanced cladding materials and UN-U3Si5 fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Todosow, Michael; Cuadra, Arantxa

    2015-07-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima, a focus of the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign has been the development of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding options with the potential for improved performance in an accident. Uranium dioxide (UO2) fuels with various advanced cladding materials were analyzed to provide a reference for cladding performance impacts. For advanced cladding options with UO2 fuel, most of the cladding materials have some reactivity and discharge burn-up penalty (in GWd/t). Silicon carbide is one exception in that the reactor physics performance is predicted to be very similar to zirconium alloy cladding. Most candidate claddings performed similar to UO2-Zr fuel-cladding in terms of safety coefficients. The clear exception is that Mo-based materials were identified as potentially challenging from a reactor physics perspective due to high resonance absorption. This paper also includes evaluation of UN-U3Si5 fuels with Kanthal AF or APMT cladding. The objective of the U3Si5 phase in the UN-U3Si5 fuel concept is to shield the nitride phase from water. It was shown that UN-U3Si5 fuels with Kanthal AF or APMT cladding have similar reactor physics and fuel management performance over a wide parameter space of phase fractions when compared to UO2-Zr fuel-cladding. There will be a marginal penalty in discharge burn-up (in GWd/t) and the sensitivity to 14N content in UN ceramic composites is high. Analysis of the rim effect due to self-shielding in the fuel shows that the UN-based ceramic fuels are not expected to have significantly different relative burn-up distributions at discharge relative to the UO2 reference fuel. However, the overall harder spectrum in the UN ceramic composite fuels increases transuranic build-up, which will increase long-term activity in a once-thru fuel cycle but is expected to be a significant advantage in a fuel cycle with continuous recycling of transuranic material. It is recognized that the fuel and cladding properties assumed in

  20. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  1. Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Advanced fuel cell active components have been developed and scaled up from laboratory scale to commercial scale. Full width components of both the stabilized nickel cathodes and the low chrome anodes have been successfully cast on M-C Power's production tape caster. An improved design for a fuel cell separator plate has been developed. The improved design meets the goals of lower cost and manufacturing simplicity, and addresses performance issues of the current commercial area plate. The engineering that the Bechtel Corporation has completed for the MCFC power plant includes a site design, a preliminary site layout, a Process Flow Diagram, and specification for the procurement of some of the major equipment items. Raw materials for anode and cathode components were ordered and received during the first half of 1993. Tape casting of anodes was started in late summer and continued through August. In addition to the technical progress mentioned above, an environment assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). As a result, the PDT has received a categorical exclusion from the Air Pollution Control District permit requirements. The PDT is configured to demonstrate the viability of natural gas-fueled MCFC for the production of electricity and thermal energy in an environmentally benign manner for use in commercial and industrial applications.

  3. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  4. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  5. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  6. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  7. 3-D THERMAL EVALUATIONS FOR a FUELED EXPERIMENT in the ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, R.G.; Chang, G.S.; Utterbeck, D.J.

    2004-10-06

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Generation IV reactor programs are developing new fuel types for use in the current Light Water Reactors and future advanced reactor concepts. The Advanced Gas Reactor program is planning to test fuel to be used in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) nuclear reactor. Preliminary information for assessing performance of the fuel will be obtained from irradiations performed in the Advanced Test Reactor large ''B'' experimental facility. A test configuration has been identified for demonstrating fuel types typical of gas cooled reactors or fast reactors that may play a role in closing the fuel cycle or increasing efficiency via high temperature operation Plans are to have 6 capsules, each containing 12 compacts, for the test configuration. Each capsule will have its own temperature control system. Passing a helium-neon gas through the void regions between the fuel compacts and the graphite carrier and between the graphite carrier and the capsule wall will control temperature. This design with three compacts per axial level was evaluated for thermal performance to ascertain the temperature distributions in the capsule and test specimens with heating rates that encompass the range of initial heat generation rates.

  8. 3-D Thermal Evaluations for a Fueled Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Debra Utterbeck

    2004-10-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Generation IV reactor programs are developing new fuel types for use in the current Light Water Reactors and future advanced reactor concepts. The Advanced Gas Reactor program is planning to test fuel to be used in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) nuclear reactor. Preliminary information for assessing performance of the fuel will be obtained from irradiations performed in the Advanced Test Reactor large “B” experimental facility. A test configurations has been identified for demonstrating fuel types typical of gas cooled reactors or fast reactors that may play a role in closing the fuel cycle or increasing efficiency via high temperature operation Plans are to have 6 capsules, each containing 12 compacts, for the test configuration. Each capsule will have its own temperature control system. Passing a helium-neon gas through the void regions between the fuel compacts and the graphite carrier and between the graphite carrier and the capsule wall will control temperature. This design with three compacts per axial level was evaluated for thermal performance to ascertain the temperature distributions in the capsule and test specimens with heating rates that encompass the range of initial heat generation rates.

  9. Intercode Advanced Fuels and Cladding Comparison Using BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI Fuel Performance Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Aaren

    As part of the Department of Energy's Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) campaign, new cladding designs and fuel types are being studied in order to help make nuclear energy a safer and more affordable source for power. This study focuses on the implementation and analysis of the SiC cladding and UN, UC, and U3Si2 fuels into three specific nuclear fuel performance codes: BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI. These fuels boast a higher thermal conductivity and uranium density than traditional UO2 fuel which could help lead to longer times in a reactor environment. The SiC cladding has been studied for its reduced production of hydrogen gas during an accident scenario, however the SiC cladding is a known brittle and unyielding material that may fracture during PCMI (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction). This work focuses on steady-state operation with advanced fuel and cladding combinations. By implementing and performing analysis work with these materials, it is possible to better understand some of the mechanical interactions that could be seen as limiting factors. In addition to the analysis of the materials themselves, a further analysis is done on the effects of using a fuel creep model in combination with the SiC cladding. While fuel creep is commonly ignored in the traditional UO2 fuel and Zircaloy cladding systems, fuel creep can be a significant factor in PCMI with SiC.

  10. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein.

  11. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  12. Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2011-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

  13. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  14. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EY A) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  15. Mobile fuel cell development at Siemens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recent mobile fuel cell developments are reported with particular attention given to fuel cell technology based on photon exchange membrane (PEM) as electrolyte. Advantages of PEM fuel cells over conventional systems include their overload capacity, low power degradation, long lifetime, and the possibility to operate the fuel cell at different temperatures. The PEM fuel cells can be operated with CO2-containing reactants and have a considerable potential for increasing power. These facts make it possible to construct energy storage systems with H2/air fuel cells for electric cars or long-term storage facilities for regenerative energy systems.

  16. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  17. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet engine fuels has five components: development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer-sized and micrometer particles suspended in fuels during thermal stresses; characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct coal liquefaction. Progress is described.

  18. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  19. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  20. Toxicity of irradiated advanced heavy water reactor fuels.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D; Richardson, R B; Edwards, G W R

    2013-02-01

    The good neutron economy and online refueling capability of the CANDU® heavy water moderated reactor (HWR) enable it to use many different fuels such as low enriched uranium (LEU), plutonium, or thorium, in addition to its traditional natural uranium (NU) fuel. The toxicity and radiological protection methods for these proposed fuels, unlike those for NU, are not well established. This study uses software to compare the fuel composition and toxicity of irradiated NU fuel against those of two irradiated advanced HWR fuel bundles as a function of post-irradiation time. The first bundle investigated is a CANFLEX® low void reactor fuel (LVRF), of which only the dysprosium-poisoned central element, and not the outer 42 LEU elements, is specifically analyzed. The second bundle investigated is a heterogeneous high-burnup (LEU,Th)O(2) fuelled bundle, whose two components (LEU in the outer 35 elements and thorium in the central eight elements) are analyzed separately. The LVRF central element was estimated to have a much lower toxicity than that of NU at all times after shutdown. Both the high burnup LEU and the thorium fuel had similar toxicity to NU at shutdown, but due to the creation of such inhalation hazards as (238)Pu, (240)Pu, (242)Am, (242)Cm, and (244)Cm (in high burnup LEU), and (232)U and (228)Th (in irradiated thorium), the toxicity of these fuels was almost double that of irradiated NU after 2,700 d of cooling. New urine bioassay methods for higher actinoids and the analysis of thorium in fecal samples are recommended to assess the internal dose from these two fuels.

  1. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Assemblies and Core Designs for the Current and Next Generations of LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean; Vierow, Karen

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the project is to design and analyze advanced fuel assemblies for use in current and future light water reactors and to assess their ability to reduce the inventory of transuranic elements, while preserving operational safety. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can delay or avoid the need for a second geological repository in the US. Current light water reactor fuel assembly designs under investigation could reduce the plutonium inventory of reprocessed fuel. Nevertheless, these designs are not effective in stabilizing or reducing the inventory of minor actinides. In the course of this project, we developed and analyzed advanced fuel assembly designs with improved thermal transmutation capability regarding transuranic elements and especially minor actinides. These designs will be intended for use in thermal spectrum (e.g., current and future fleet of light water reactors in the US). We investigated various fuel types, namely high burn-up advanced mixed oxides and inert matrix fuels, in various geometrical designs that are compliant with the core internals of current and future light water reactors. Neutronic/thermal hydraulic effects were included. Transmutation efficiency and safety parameters were used to rank and down-select the various designs.

  2. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  3. Advanced Pellet Cladding Interaction Modeling Using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Hales; Various

    2014-06-01

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  4. Advanced Pellet-Cladding Interaction Modeling using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert O.; Capps, Nathan A.; Sunderland, Dion J.; Liu, Wenfeng; Hales, Jason; Stanek, Chris; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-06-15

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermo-mechanical-chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  5. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    SciTech Connect

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  6. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  7. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    SciTech Connect

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  9. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program.

  10. Masters Study in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Kanchan

    2014-12-08

    There are currently three key drivers for the US energy sector a) increasing energy demand and b) environmental stewardship in energy production for sustainability and c) general public and governmental desire for domestic resources. These drivers are also true for energy nation globally. As a result, this sector is rapidly diversifying to alternate sources that would supplement or replace fossil fuels. These changes have created a need for a highly trained workforce with a the understanding of both conventional and emerging energy resources and technology to lead and facilitate the reinvention of the US energy production, rational deployment of alternate energy technologies based on scientific and business criteria while invigorating the overall economy. In addition, the current trends focus on the the need of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) graduate education to move beyond academia and be more responsive to the workforce needs of businesses and the industry. The SIUC PSM in Advanced Energy and Fuels Management (AEFM) program was developed in response to the industries stated need for employees who combine technical competencies and workforce skills similar to all PSM degree programs. The SIUC AEFM program was designed to provide the STEM graduates with advanced technical training in energy resources and technology while simultaneously equipping them with the business management skills required by professional employers in the energy sector. Technical training include core skills in energy resources, technology and management for both conventional and emerging energy technologies. Business skills training include financial, personnel and project management. A capstone internship is also built into the program to train students such that they are acclimatized to the real world scenarios in research laboratories, in energy companies and in government agencies. The current curriculum in the SIUC AEFM will help fill the need for training both recent

  11. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.; Li, H.; Neill, S.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a pathway to use easily measured ignition properties as metrics for characterizing fuels in advanced combustion engine research--correlate IQT{trademark} measured parameters with engine data. In HCCL engines, ignition timing depends on the reaction rates throughout compression stroke: need to understand sensitivity to T, P, and [O{sub 2}]; need to rank fuels based on more than one set of conditions; and need to understand how fuel composition (molecular species) affect ignition properties.

  12. Fuel consolidation demonstration: Consolidation concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    EPRI, Northeast utilities Service Company (NUSCO), DOE, Baltimore Gas Electric Company, and Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) are engaged in a program to develop a system for consolidating spent fuel, in which the consolidated fuel will be licensable by NRC for storage in the spent-fuel storage pool. Fuel consolidation offers a means of substantially increasing the capacity of spent-fuel storage pools. Consolidation equipment design, development, construction, and testing are being performed by C-E in Windsor, Connecticut. Seismic and structural evaluation of the capability of the Millstone Unit 2 spent-fuel pool and building to accommodate the increased fuel capacity is being conducted by NUSCO. NUSCO plans to obtain a license to store consolidated fuel in the Millstone-2 spent-fuel storage pool. NUSCO also plans to perform a hot demonstration of the integrated consolidation system with spent fuel at Millstone-2. This report describes the consolidation system design that forms the basis for the detailed design of the equipment comprising the system, including information on the fabrication and testing of the equipment. Appendix B describes an evaluation of the ability of the system under development to consolidate LWR spent-fuel assemblies other than the 14 {times} 14 fuel of C-E design stored at Millstone-2. A comparison was made of fuel-assembly designs on the basis of information available in open literature. It was concluded that with appropriate dimensional modifications the spent-fuel consolidation system equipment design is applicable to almost all PWR fuel-assembly configurations. 8 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPENT OXIDE FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Kim, Ik-Soo; Hong, Sun-Seok; Kang, Dae-Seung; Park, Seong-Won

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) has been under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997. The concept is to convert spent oxide fuel into metallic form and to remove high heat-load fission products such as Cs and Sr from the spent fuel. The heat power, volume, and radioactivity of spent fuel can decrease by a factor of a quarter via this process. For the realization of ACP, a concept of electrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel in Li2O-LiCl molten salt was proposed and several cold tests using fresh uranium oxides have been carried out. In this new electrochemical reduction process, electrolysis of Li2O and reduction of uranium oxide are taking place simultaneously at the cathode part of electrolysis cell. The conversion of uranium oxide to uranium metal can reach more than 99% ensuring the feasibility of this process.

  15. Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

  16. Status of the NGNP fuel experiment AGR-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also undergo on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and sup

  17. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  18. Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Singh, K D S; Sharma, V K

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a new power reactor concept being developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The reactor retains many desirable features of the existing Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), while incorporating new, advanced safety features. The reactor aims to utilise the vast thorium resources available in India. The reactor core will use plutonium as the make-up fuel, while breeding (233)U in situ. On account of this unique combination of fuel materials, the operational characteristics of the fuel as determined by its radioactivity, decay heat and radio-toxicity are being viewed with great interest. Radio-toxicity of the spent fuel is a measure of potential radiological hazard to the members of the public and also important from the ecological point of view. The radio-toxicity of the AHWR fuel is extremely high to start with, being approximately 10(4) times that of the fresh natural U fuel used in a PHWR, and continues to remain relatively high during operation and subsequent cooling. A unique feature of this fuel is the peak observed in its radio-toxicity at approximately 10(5) y of decay cooling. The delayed increase in fuel toxicity has been traced primarily to a build-up of (229)Th, (230)Th and (226)Ra. This phenomenon has been observed earlier for thorium-based fuels and is confirmed for the AHWR fuel. This paper presents radio-toxicity data for AHWR spent fuel up to a period of 10(6) y and the results are compared with the radio-toxicity of PHWR.

  19. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  20. Completion of the first NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiment, AGR-1, in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover; John Maki; David Petti

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The design of AGR-1 test train and support systems used to monitor and control the experiment during

  1. Advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    The concept design for a small (less than 10 MWe) solar thermal electric generating plant was completed using projected 1985 technology. The systems requirements were defined and specified. The components, including an engineering prototype for one 15 kWe module of the generating plant, were conceptually designed. Significant features of the small solar thermal power plant were identified as the following: (1) 15 kWe Stirling-cycle engine/alternator with constant power output; (2) 10 meter point-focusing paraboloidal concentrator with cantilevered cellular glass reflecting panels; (3) primary heat pipe with 800 C output solar cavity receiver; (4) secondary heat pipe with molten salt thermal energy storage unit; (5) electric energy transport system; and (6) advanced battery energy storage capability.

  2. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  3. Advanced NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cell for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Kim, Kyu-Jung; Luo, Nie; Shrestha, Prajakti Joshi

    2009-03-01

    Fuel cells have played an important role in NASA's space program starting with the Gemini space program. However, improved fuel cell performance will be needed to enable demanding future missions. An advanced fuel cell (FC) using liquid fuel and oxidizer is being developed by U of IL/NPL team to provide air independence and to achieve higher power densities than normal H2/O2 fuel cells (Lou et al., 2008; Miley, 2007). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used in this FC directly at the cathode (Lou and Miley, 2004). Either of two types of reactant, namely a gas-phase hydrogen or an aqueous NaBH4 solution, is utilized as fuel at the anode. Experiments with both 10-W single cells and 500-W stacks demonstrate that the direct utilization of H2O2 and NaBH4 at the electrodes result in >30% higher voltage output compared to the ordinary H2/O2 FC (Miley, 2007). Further, the use of this combination of all liquid fuels provides—from an operational point of view—significant advantages (ease of storage, reduced pumping requirements, simplified heat removal). This design is inherently compact compared to other fuel cells that use gas phase reactants. This results in a high overall system (including fuel tanks, pumps and piping, waste heat radiator) power density. Further, work is in progress on a regenerative version which uses an electrical input, e.g. from power lines or a solar panel to regenerate reactants.

  4. Advanced and In Situ Analytical Methods for Solar Fuel Materials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Tüysüz, Harun; Braun, Artur; Ranjan, Chinmoy; La Mantia, Fabio; Miller, Benjamin K; Zhang, Liuxian; Crozier, Peter A; Haber, Joel A; Gregoire, John M; Park, Hyun S; Batchellor, Adam S; Trotochaud, Lena; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-01-01

    In situ and operando techniques can play important roles in the development of better performing photoelectrodes, photocatalysts, and electrocatalysts by helping to elucidate crucial intermediates and mechanistic steps. The development of high throughput screening methods has also accelerated the evaluation of relevant photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties for new solar fuel materials. In this chapter, several in situ and high throughput characterization tools are discussed in detail along with their impact on our understanding of solar fuel materials.

  5. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  6. Development of fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing technology at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, T.; Takeda, H.; Togashi, A.; Hayashi, S. . Tokai Works); Stradley, J.G. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, a broad range of research development (R D) programs to establish fast breeder reactor (FBR) system and its associated fuel cycle technology have been pursued by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Developmental activities for FBR fuel reprocessing technology have been primarily conducted at PNC Tokai Works where many important R D facilities for nuclear fuel cycle are located. These include cold and uranium tests for process equipment development in the Engineering Demonstration Facilities (EDF)-I and II, and laboratory-scale hot tests in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) where fuel dissolution and solvent extraction characteristics are being investigated with irradiated FBR fuel pins whose burn-up ranges up to 100,000 MWd/t. An extensive effort has also been made at EDF-III to develop advanced remote technology which enables to increase plant availability and to decrease radiation exposures to the workers in future reprocessing plants. The PNC and the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) entered into the joint collaboration in which the US shares the R Ds to support FBR fuel reprocessing program at the PNC. Several important R Ds on advanced process equipment such as a rotary dissolver and a centrifugal contactor system are in progress in a joint effort with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). In order to facilitate hot testing on advanced processes and equipment, the design of a new engineering-scale hot test facility is now in progress aiming at the start of hot operation in late 90's. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: Fit-for-Purpose (FFP) and Dynamic Seal Testing of Alternative Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    High Frequency Reciprocating Rig HRJ Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Hz Hertz ID Ignition Delay IPK Iso -Paraffinic Kerosene IQTTM Ignition Quality ...RESEARCH DIVISION ISO 9001 CERTIFIED ISO 14001 CERTIFIED 247 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 248 Approved for public...JAMES T. EDWARDS MIGUEL A. MALDONADO, Chief Program Manager Fuels and Energy Branch Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  8. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan; Russell, Tamara; Lau, Y. C.; Liu, Shan; Arnett, Michael; Peck, Arthur; Tralshawala, Nilesh; Weber, Joseph; Benjamin, Marc; Iduate, Michelle; Kittleson, Jacob; Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Delvaux, John; Casanova, Fernando; Lacy, Ben; Brzek, Brian; Wolfe, Chris; Palafox, Pepe; Ding, Ben; Badding, Bruce; McDuffie, Dwayne; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  9. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  10. Advanced anodes for high-temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, A; Barnett, S; Gorte, R J; Irvine, J T S; McEvoy, A J; Mogensen, M; Singhal, S C; Vohs, J

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells will undoubtedly find widespread use in this new millennium in the conversion of chemical to electrical energy, as they offer very high efficiencies and have unique scalability in electricity-generation applications. The solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is one of the most exciting of these energy technologies; it is an all-ceramic device that operates at temperatures in the range 500-1,000 degrees C. The SOFC offers certain advantages over lower temperature fuel cells, notably its ability to use carbon monoxide as a fuel rather than being poisoned by it, and the availability of high-grade exhaust heat for combined heat and power, or combined cycle gas-turbine applications. Although cost is clearly the most important barrier to widespread SOFC implementation, perhaps the most important technical barriers currently being addressed relate to the electrodes, particularly the fuel electrode or anode. In terms of mitigating global warming, the ability of the SOFC to use commonly available fuels at high efficiency, promises an effective and early reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and hence is one of the lead new technologies for improving the environment. Here, we discuss recent developments of SOFC fuel electrodes that will enable the better use of readily available fuels.

  11. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  12. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  13. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    SciTech Connect

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    of the resulting MOX. The study considered two sub-cases within each of the two fuel cycles in which the uranium and plutonium from the first generation of MOX spent fuel (i) would not be recycled to produce a second generation of MOX for use in LWRs or (ii) would be recycled to produce a second generation of MOX fuel for use in LWRs. The study also investigated the effects of recycling MOX spent fuel multiple times in LWRs. The study assumed that both fuel cycles would store and then reprocess spent MOX fuel that is not recycled to produce a next generation of LWR MOX fuel and would use the recovered products to produce FR fuel. The study further assumed that FRs would begin to be brought on-line in 2043, eleven years after recycle begins in LWRs, when products from 5-year cooled spent MOX fuel would be available. Fuel for the FRs would be made using the uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides recovered from MOX. For the cases where LWR fuel was assumed to be recycled one time, the 1st generation of MOX spent fuel was used to provide nuclear materials for production of FR fuel. For the cases where the LWR fuel was assumed to be recycled two times, the 2nd generation of MOX spent fuel was used to provide nuclear materials for production of FR fuel. The number of FRs in operation was assumed to increase in successive years until the rate that actinides were recovered from permanently discharged spent MOX fuel equaled the rate the actinides were consumed by the operating fleet of FRs. To compare the two fuel cycles, the study analyzed recycle of nuclear fuel in LWRs and FRs and determined the radiological characteristics of irradiated nuclear fuel, nuclear waste products, and recycle nuclear fuels. It also developed a model to simulate the flows of nuclear materials that could occur in the two advanced nuclear fuel cycles over 81 years beginning in 2020 and ending in 2100. Simulations projected the flows of uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides as these nuclear fuel

  14. Advanced Interconnect Development

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

    2005-01-27

    The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

  15. Coating parameters of zirconium carbide on advanced TRISO fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulude, Michael C.

    The feasibility of using very high temperature reactors (VHTR) as part of the next generation of nuclear reactors greatly depends on the tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles reliability to retain both gaseous and metallic fission products created in irradiated UO2. Most research devoted to TRISO fuel particles has focused on the characteristics and retention ability of silicon carbide as the main barrier against metallic fission products. This work investigates the deposition parameters necessary to create advanced TRISO particles consisting of the standard SiC TRISO coatings with an additional layer of ZrC applied directly to the UO2 fuel kernel. The additional ZrC layer will act as an oxygen getter to prevent failure mechanisms experienced in TRISO particles. Two failure mechanisms that are of the most concern are the over pressurization of the particles and kernel migration within the TRISO particles. In this study successful ZrC coatings were created and the deposition characteristics were analyzed via optical and SEM microscopy techniques. The ZrC layer was confirmed through XRD analysis. This investigation also reduced U3O8 microspheres to UO2 in an argon atmosphere. The oxygen to metal ratio from the reduced U3O8 was back calculated from oxidation analysis performed with a TGA machine. Once consistent repeatability is shown with coating surrogate zirconia kernels, advanced TRISO coatings will be deposited on the UO2 fuel kernels.

  16. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  17. Designing advanced alkaline polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Lin; Lu, Juntao

    2012-03-20

    Although the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is a superior power source for electric vehicles, the high cost of this technology has served as the primary barrier to the large-scale commercialization. Over the last decade, researchers have pursued lower-cost next-generation materials for fuel cells, and alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) have emerged as an enabling material for platinum-free fuel cells. To fulfill the requirements of fuel cell applications, the APE must be as conductive and stable as its acidic counterpart, such as Nafion. This benchmark has proved challenging for APEs because the conductivity of OH(-) is intrinsically lower than that of H(+), and the stability of the cationic functional group in APEs, typically quaternary ammonia (-NR(3)(+)), is usually lower than that of the sulfonic functional group (-SO(3)(-)) in acidic polymer electrolytes. To improve the ionic conductivity, APEs are often designed to be of high ion-exchange capacity (IEC). This modification has caused unfavorable changes in the materials: these high IEC APEs absorb excessive amounts of water, leading to significant swelling and a decline in mechanical strength of the membrane. Cross-linking the polymer chains does not completely solve the problem because stable ionomer solutions would not be available for PEFC assembly. In this Account, we report our recent progress in the development of advanced APEs, which are highly resistant to swelling and show conductivities comparable with Nafion at typical temperatures for fuel-cell operation. We have proposed two strategies for improving the performance of APEs: self-cross-linking and self-aggregating designs. The self-cross-linking design builds on conventional cross-linking methods and works for APEs with high IEC. The self-aggregating design improves the effective mobility of OH(-) and boosts the ionic conductivity of APEs with low IEC. For APEs with high IEC, cross-linking is necessary to restrict the swelling of the

  18. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  19. Task 4 -- Conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system (CFATS)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-15

    Solar is developing the technologies for a highly efficient, recuperated, Advanced Turbine System (ATS) that is aimed at the dispersed power generation market. With ultra-low-emissions in mind the primary fuel selected for this engine system is natural gas. Although this gas fired ATS (GFATS) will primarily employ natural gas the use of other fuels particular those derived from coal and renewable resources cannot be overlooked. The enabling technologies necessary to direct fire coal in gas turbines were developed during the 1980`s. This Solar development co-sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) resulted in the testing of a full size coal-water-slurry fired combustion system. In parallel with this program the DOE funded the development of integrated gasification combined cycle systems (IGCC). This report describes the limitations of the Solar ATs (recuperated engine) and how these lead to a recommended series of modifications that will allow the use of these alternate fuels. Three approaches have been considered: direct-fired combustion using either a slagging combustor, or a pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC), externally or indirectly fired approaches using pulverized fuel, and external gasification of the fuel with subsequent direct combustion of the secondary fuel. Each of these approaches requires substantial hardware and system modifications for efficient fuel utilization. The integration issues are discussed in the sections below and a recommended approach for gasification is presented.

  20. Advanced telemedicine development

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a Java-based, electronic, medical-record system that can handle multimedia data and work over a wide-area network based on open standards, and that can utilize an existing database back end. The physician is to be totally unaware that there is a database behind the scenes and is only aware that he/she can access and manage the relevant information to treat the patient.

  1. Advanced 80 We Stirling Convertor Development Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Penswick, L. B.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents progress on the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) being developed by Sunpower and Boeing/Rocketdyne under NASA NRA funding. The ASC will use a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C. The ASC is projected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (AC electrical out/ heat in) when operating at a temperature ratio of 3.0, and to have a convertor specific power of 90 We/kg (AC). An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) convertor, has already demonstrated 36% efficiency (based on AC electrical out) at this temperature ratio. The ASC is being developed for potential use in advanced radioisotope space power systems. The increased efficiency of this Stirling convertor compared to RTGs, would reduce the required amount of Plutonium fuel by a factor of approximately 5.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  3. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  4. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Task Order 0004: Advanced Propulsion Fuels R&D, Subtask: Optimization of Lipid Production and Processing of Microalgae for the Development of Biofuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Fuels R&D Subtask: Optimization of Lipid Production and Processing of Microalgae for the Development of Biofuels José Colucci, Govind Nadathur...Production and Processing of Microalgae for the Development of Biofuels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-D-2806-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ABSTRACT Microalgae are considered a suitable feedstock to produce biofuels or bio-oils. Some species are known to naturally accumulate large amounts

  5. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as pyroprocessing,'' featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs.

  6. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1992-11-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ``pyroprocessing,`` featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs.

  7. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  8. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delage, F.; Carmack, J.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Pelletier, M.; Somers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  9. Advanced Launch Development Program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgrove, Roger

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System is a joint NASA - Air Force program originally directed to define the concept for a modular family of launch vehicles, to continue development programs and preliminary design activities focused primarily on low cost to orbit, and to offer maturing technologies to existing systems. The program was restructed in the spring of 1990 as a result of funding reductions and renamed the Advanced Launch Development Program. This paper addresses the program's status following that restructuring and as NASA and the Air Force commence a period of deliberation over future space launch needs and the budgetary resources available to meet those needs. The program is currently poised to protect a full-scale development decision in the mid-1990's through the appropriate application of program resources. These resources are concentrated upon maintaining the phase II system contractor teams, continuing the Space Transportation Engine development activity, and refocusing the Advanced Development Program demonstrated activities.

  10. Current status of the development of high density LEU fuel for Russian research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vatulin, A.; Dobrikova, I.; Suprun, V.; Trifonov, Y.; Kartashev, E.; Lukichev, V.

    2008-07-15

    One of the main directions of the Russian RERTR program is to develop U-Mo fuel and fuel elements/FA with this fuel. The development is carried out both for existing reactors, and for new advanced designs of reactors. Many organizations in Russia, i.e. 'TVEL', RDIPE, RIAR, IRM, NPCC participate in the work. Two fuels are under development: dispersion and monolithic U-Mo fuel, as well two types of FA to use the dispersion U-Mo fuel: with tubular type fuel elements and with pin type fuel elements. The first stage of works was successfully completed. This stage included out-pile, in-pile and post irradiation examinations of U-Mo dispersion fuel in experimental tubular and pin fuel elements under parameters similar to operation conditions of Russian design pool-type research reactors. The results received both in Russia and abroad enabled to go on to the next stage of development which includes irradiation tests both of full-scale IRT pin-type and tube-type fuel assemblies with U-Mo dispersion fuel and of mini-fuel elements with modified U-Mo dispersion fuel and monolithic fuel. The paper gives a generalized review of the results of U-Mo fuel development accomplished by now. (author)

  11. Development of a Ship Service Fuel Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Sanderson FuelCell Energy, Inc. 3 Great Pasture Road Danbury, CT 06811 USA sabens@fce.com Sommaire Sous un programme � trois phases commandit� par...lÕOffice of Naval Research (ONR), FuelCell Energy, Inc. est en train de d�velopper une centrale � piles � combustible de 2,5 MW pour la production dÕ...sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), FuelCell Energy, Inc. is developing a 2.5 MW fuel cell power plant for ship service power generation

  12. Advanced accelerator theory development

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Houck, T.L.; Poole, B.; Tishchenko, N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wang, I.

    1998-02-09

    A new accelerator technology, the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA), is potentially an ultra compact accelerator/pulsed power driver. This new accelerator relies on three new components: the ultra-high gradient insulator, the asymmetric Blumlein and low jitter switches. In this report, we focused our attention on the first two components of the DWA system the insulators and the asymmetric Blumlein. First, we sought to develop the necessary design tools to model and scale the behavior of the high gradient insulator. To perform this task we concentrated on modeling the discharge processes (i.e., initiation and creation of the surface discharge). In addition, because these high gradient structures exhibit favorable microwave properties in certain accelerator configurations, we performed experiments and calculations to determine the relevant electromagnetic properties. Second, we performed circuit modeling to understand energy coupling to dynamic loads by the asymmetric Blumlein. Further, we have experimentally observed a non-linear coupling effect in certain asymmetric Blumlein configurations. That is, as these structures are stacked into a complete module, the output voltage does not sum linearly and a lower than expected output voltage results. Although we solved this effect experimentally, we performed calculations to understand this effect more fully to allow better optimization of this DWA pulse-forming line system.

  13. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    The University of Michigan

    1998-07-01

    Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

  14. Strategic Partnerships in Fuel Cell Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Dorey

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how forming strategic alliances with universities, emerging technology companies, the state of Ohio, the federal government, and the National Science Foundation, has enabled Stark State College to develop a $5.5 million Fuel Cell Prototyping Center and establish a Fuel Cell Technology program to promote economic development…

  15. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  16. Progress in the development of metallic fuel in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Renewed interest has developed in metallic fuel for fast reactors as a result of Argonne National Laboratory's integral fast reactor (IFR) concept. This concept involves a novel approach to fuel-cycle closure that is based on metal reprocessing and injection-casting fabrication. This paper delves into recent developments associated with the performance of metallic fuels. In February of 1985, three full assemblies of advanced metallic fuel were placed in the core of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The 61-pin assemblies each contained an identical complement of metallic fuel of three compositions: U-10 Zr, U-8 Pu-10 Zr, and U-19 Pu-10 Zr. The pins were clad with the austenitic D9, had linear power rating of 15 kW/ft, and achieved peak cladding temperatures of 600{degree}C. The burnup achieved to date on these pins is 14 at.% burnup without any failures, and the irradiation continues. These lead assemblies have demonstrated that metallic fuels have the potential of being competitive with any existing fuel type in terms of steady-state performance.

  17. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  18. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  19. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  20. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-12-18

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  1. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following... irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel...

  2. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Montierth, Leland M.

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  3. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  4. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear

  5. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  6. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ticianelli, E.A.; Srinivasan, S.; Gonzalez, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    With methods used to advance solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology, we are close to obtaining the goal of 1 A/cm/sup 2/ at 0.7. Higher power densities have been reported (2 A/cm/sup 2/ at 0.5 V) but only with high catalyst loading electrodes (2 mg/cm/sup 2/ and 4 mg/cm/sup 2/ at anode and cathode, respectively) and using a Dow membrane with a better conductivity and water retention characteristics. Work is in progress to ascertain performances of cells with Dow membrane impregnated electrodes and Dow membrane electrolytes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  7. High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morehead, H.

    1995-10-19

    An outline of the Westinghouse high-efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle is presented. The following topics are discussed: The Westinghouse SOFC pilot manufacturing facility, cell scale-up plan, pressure effects on SOFC power and efficiency, sureCell versus conventional gas turbine plants, sureCell product line for distributed power applications, 20 MW pressurized-SOFC/gas turbine power plant, 10 MW SOFC/CT power plant, sureCell plant concept design requirements, and Westinghouse SOFC market entry.

  8. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H Irradiation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Debra J. Utterbeck; Gray Chang

    2005-09-01

    The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments on transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. These experiments are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 20 atom % burnup. Results of the evaluations show that AFC-1D will remain in the ATR for approximately 100 additional effective full power days (EFPDs), and AFC-1G and AFC-1H for approximately 300 additional EFPDs in order to reach the desired programmatic burnup. The specific irradiation schedule for these tests will be determined based on future physics evaluations and all results will be documented in subsequent reports.

  10. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  11. Advanced catalyst supports for PEM fuel cell cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Lei; Shao, Yuyan; Sun, Junming; Yin, Geping; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Electrocatalyst support materials are key components for polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, which play a critical role in determining electrocatalyst durability and activity, mass transfer and water management. The commonly-used supports, e.g. porous carbon black, cannot meet all the requirements under the harsh operation condition of PEM fuel cells. Great efforts have been made in the last few years in developing alternative support materials. In this paper, we selectively review recent progress on three types of important support materials: carbon, non-carbon and hybrid carbon-oxides nanocomposites. A perspective on future R&D of electrocatalyst support materials is also provided.

  12. Advanced Motor-Controller Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-22

    which document the three stages of develop- _ - fment. "U Volume Summary A. Phase I Report Flux Synthesis and PWM Synthesis Techniques Theory and...Three Phase Power Bridge and Evaluation of Motor Controller Volume Summary The three reports assembled in this votume represent work performed...1963-A * I ADVANCED MOTOR-CONTROLLER * DEVELOPMENT Final Report for Period October 1979 - June 1983 June 22, 1983 Report DTNSRDC-PASD-CR-1-83

  13. Long life Regenerative Fuel Cell technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.; Cataldo, Robert L.; Mcelroy, James F.; Stedman, Jay K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a technology roadmap for completing advanced development of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) to meet long life (20,000 hrs at 50 percent duty cycle) mobile or portable power system applications on the surface of the moon and Mars. Development of two different sized RFC power system modules is included in this plan (3 and 7.5 kWe). A conservative approach was taken which includes the development of a Ground Engineering System, Qualification Unit, and Flight Unit. This paper includes a concept description, technology assessment, development issues, development tasks, and development schedule.

  14. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  15. From fields to fuels: recent advances in the microbial production of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yan; Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-11-16

    Amid grave concerns over global climate change and with increasingly strained access to fossil fuels, the synthetic biology community has stepped up to the challenge of developing microbial platforms for the production of advanced biofuels. The adoption of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel alternatives derived from microbial sources has the potential to significantly limit net greenhouse gas emissions. In this effort, great strides have been made in recent years toward the engineering of microorganisms to produce transportation fuels derived from alcohol, fatty acid, and isoprenoid biosynthesis. We provide an overview of the biosynthetic pathways devised in the strain development of biofuel-producing microorganisms. We also highlight many of the commonly used and newly devised engineering strategies that have been employed to identify and overcome pathway bottlenecks and problems of toxicity to maximize production titers.

  16. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  17. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stack design having a 10 kW power rating for operation at higher than atmospheric pressure based on the existing Mark II design configuration is described. Functional analysis, trade studies and thermodynamic cycle analysis for requirements definition and system operating parameter selection purposes were performed. Fuel cell materials and components, and performance testing and evaluation of the repeating electrode components were characterized. The state of the art manufacturing technology for all fuel cell components and the fabrication of short stacks of various sites were established. A 10 kW PAFC stack design for higher pressure operation utilizing the top down systems engineering aproach was developed.

  18. Space station propulsion: The advanced development program at Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A reference configuration was established for the initial operating capability (IOC) station. The reference configuration has assumed hydrazine fueled thrusters as the propulsion system. This was to establish costing and as a reference for comparison when other propulsion systems are considered. An integral part of the plan to develop the Space Station is the advanced development program. The objective of this program is to provide advanced technology alternatives for the initial and evolutionary Space Station which optimize the system's functional characteristics in terms of performance, cost, and utilization. The portion of the Advanced Development Program that is concerned with auxiliary propulsion and the research and programmatic activities conducted are discussed.

  19. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  20. The JRC-ITU approach to the safety of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Fanghaenel, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Somers, J.; Konings, R.; Erdmann, N.; Uffelen, P. van; Glatz, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    The JRC-ITU safety studies of advanced fuels and cycles adopt two main axes. First the full exploitation of still available and highly relevant knowledge and samples from past fuel preparation and irradiation campaigns (complementing the limited number of ongoing programmes). Secondly, the shift of focus from simple property measurement towards the understanding of basic mechanisms determining property evolution and behaviour of fuel compounds during normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The final objective of the second axis is the determination of predictive tools applicable to systems and conditions different from those from which they were derived. State of the art experimental facilities, extensive networks of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations worldwide, and a developing programme for training and education are essential in this approach. This strategy has been implemented through various programs and projects. The SUPERFACT programme constitutes the main body of existing knowledge on the behavior in-pile of MOX fuel containing minor actinides. It encompassed all steps of a closed fuel cycle. Another international project investigating the safety of a closed cycle is METAPHIX. In this case a U-Pu19-Zr10 metal alloy containing Np, Am and Cm constitutes the fuel. 9 test pins have been prepared and irradiated. In addition to the PIE (Post Irradiation Examination), pyrometallurgical separation of the irradiated fuel has been performed, to demonstrate all the steps of a multiple recycling closed cycle and characterize their safety relevant aspects. Basic studies like thermodynamic fuel properties, fuel-cladding-coolant interactions have also been carried out at JRC-ITU.

  1. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoric acid fuel cell module (stack) development which culminated in an 80 cell air-cooled stack with separated gas cooling and treed cooling plates is described. The performance of the 80 cell stack was approx. 100 mV per cell higher than that attained during phase 1. The components and materials performed stably for over 8000 hours in a 5 cell stack. The conceptual design of a fuel conditioning system is described.

  2. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myles, K. M.; Mcpheeters, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) concept has been proven, and the performance has been dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials have been minimized, thus allowing successful fabrication of the MSOFC with few defects. The MSOFC shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source for many applications from stationary power, to automobile propulsion, to space pulsed power.

  3. Testimony of Fred R. Mynatt before the Energy Research and Development Subcommittee of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, US House of Representatives. [Advanced fuel technology, gas-cooled reactor technology, and liquid metal-cooled reactor technology programs

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1987-03-18

    This report provides a description of the statements submitted for the record to the committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the United States House of Representatives. These statements describe three principal areas of activity of the Advanced Reactor Technology Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). These areas are advanced fuel cycle technology, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology, and liquid metal-cooled reactor. The areas of automated reactor control systems, robotics, materials and structural design shielding and international cooperation were included in these statements describing the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's efforts in these areas. (FI)

  4. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M.

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  5. Advanced microbial check valve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A flight certified assembly identified as a Microbial Check Valve (MCV) was developed and tested. The MCV is a canister packed with an iodinated anionic exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through the device. The device is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of organism removal is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was successfully developed for the space shuttle to: disinfect fuel cell water; and prevent back contamination of the stored potable water supply. One version of the device consists of a high residual iodinated resin bed that imparts approximately 2 ppm of iodine to the fuel cell water as it flows to the potable water tanks. A second version of the device consists of a low residual iodinated resin bed. One of these low residual beds is located at each use port in the potable water system for the dual purpose of removing some iodine from the potable water as it is dispensed and also to prevent back contamination of the potable supply.

  6. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance Jeff Sympson...Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-D-2806-0021 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63216F 6... biofuel low lubricity endurance test. The testing was performed on Woodward Item Number 6970-034 according to Woodward test procedure DTP-1827 Rev

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  9. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  10. Status of the Combined Third and Fourth NGNP Fuel Irradiations In the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti; Michael E. Davenport

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is irradiating up to seven low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The experiments will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of several independent capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in September 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated (AGR-3/4), which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. Since the purpose of this combined experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is

  11. PEM fuel cell stack development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Presently, the major challenges to the introduction of fuel cell power systems for automotive applications are to maximize the effective system power density and minimize cost. The material cost, especially for Platinum, had been a significant factor until recent advances by Los Alamos National Laboratory and others in low Platinum loading electrode design has brought these costs within control. Since the initiation of its PEM stack development efforts, MTI has focused on applying its system and mechanical engineering heritage on both increasing power density and reducing cost. In May of 1995, MTI was selected (along with four other companies) as a subcontractor by the Ford Motor Company to participate in Phase I of the DOE Office of Transportation Technology sponsored PNGV Program entitled: {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}. This Program was instituted to: (1) Advance the performance and economic viability of a direct-hydrogen-fueled PEM fuel cell system, (2) Identify the critical problems that must be resolved before system scale-up and vehicle integration, and (3) Integrate the fuel cell power system into a sub-scale vehicle propulsion system. The Phase I objective was to develop and demonstrate a nominal 10 kW stack meeting specific criteria. Figure I is a photograph of the stack used for these demonstrations. After completion of Phase I, MTI was one of only two companies selected to continue into Phase II of the Program. This paper summarizes Phase I stack development and results.

  12. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  13. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced thermoelectric material for radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) applications is reported. A number of materials were explored. The bulk of the effort, however, was devoted to improving silicon germanium alloys by the addition of gallium phosphide, the synthesis and evaluation of lanthanum chrome sulfide and the formulation of various mixtures of lanthanum sulfide and chrome sulfide. It is found that each of these materials exhibits promise as a thermoelectric material.

  14. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.« less

  15. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.

  16. BR-100 spent fuel shipping cask development

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinn, E.J.; Childress, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Continued public acceptance of commercial nuclear power is contingent to a large degree on the US Department of Energy (DOE) establishing an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the from-reactor transportation segment of this system, the B W Fuel Company (BWFC) is under contract to the DOE to develop a spent-fuel cask that is compatible with both rail and barge modes of transportation. Innovative design approaches were the keys to achieving a cask design that maximizes payload capacity and cask performance. The result is the BR-100, a 100-ton rail/barge cask with a capacity of 21 PWR or 52 BWR ten-year cooled, intact fuel assemblies. 3 figs.

  17. Application of a Plasma Mass Separator to Advanced LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Richard; Miller, Robert; Papay, Larry; Wagoner, John; Ahlfeld, Charles; Czerwinski, Ken

    2006-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating spent fuel reprocessing for the purposes of increasing the effective capacity of a deep geological repository, reducing the radiotoxicity of waste placed in the repository and conserving nuclear fuel resources. DOE is considering hydro-chemical processing of the spent fuel after cutting the fuel cladding and fuel dissolution in nitric acid. The front end process, known as UREX, is largely based on the PUREX process and extracts U, Tc as well as fission product gases. A number of additional processing steps have become known as UREX+. One of the steps includes a further chemical treatment of remove Cs and Sr to reduce repository heat load. Other steps include successive extraction of the actinides from residual fission products, including the lanthanides. The additional UREX+ processing renders the actinides suitable for burning as reactor fuel in an advanced reactor to convert actinides to shorter-lived fission products and to produce power. New methods for separating groups of elements by their atomic mass have been developed and can be exploited to enhance spent fuel reprocessing. These physical processes dry the waste streams so that they can be vaporized and singly ionized in plasma that is contained in longitudinal magnetic and perpendicular electric fields. Proper configuration of the fields causes the plasma to rapidly rotate and expel heavier mass ions at the center of the machine. Lower mass ions form closed orbits within the cylindrical plasma column and are transported to either end of the machine. This plasma mass separator was originally developed to reduce the mass of material that must be immobilized in borosilicate glass from DOE defense waste at former weapons production facilities. The plasma mass separator appears to be well-suited for processing the UREX raffinate and solids streams by exploiting the large atomic mass gap that exists between lanthanides (< {approx}180 amu) and actinides

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  19. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), a unique, state-of-the-art facility for conducting combustion research, is located at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The ASCR, which was nearing completion at the close of 1995, will be capable of simulating the very high pressure and high temperature conditions that are expected to exist in future, advanced subsonic gas turbine (jet) engines. Future environmental regulations will require much cleaner burning (more environmentally friendly) aircraft engines. The ASCR is critical to the development of these cleaner engines. It will allow NASA and U.S. aircraft engine industry researchers to identify and test promising clean-burning gas turbine engine combustion concepts under the pressure and temperature conditions that are expected for those future engines. Combustion processes will be investigated for a variety of next-generation aircraft engine sizes, including engines for large, long-range aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 3000 mi) and for regional aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 400 mi). The ASCR design was conceived and initiated in 1993, and fabrication and construction of the rig, including the buildup of an advanced control room, took place throughout 1994 and 1995. In early 1996, the ASCR will be operational for obtaining research data. The ASCR is an intricate part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program, which is aimed at developing technologies critical to the next generation of gas turbine engines. This effort is in collaboration with the U.S. aircraft gas turbine engine industry. A goal of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program is to develop combustion concepts and technologies that will result in gas turbine engines that produce 50 percent less nitrous oxide (NO_x) pollutants than current engines do. This facility is unique in its capability to simulate advanced subsonic engine pressure, temperature, and air flow rate conditions

  20. NP-MHTGR Fuel Development Program Results

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, John Thomas; Petti, David Andrew; Hobbins, Richard Redfield; McCardell, Richard K.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Southworth, Finis Hio

    2002-10-01

    In August 1988, the Secretary of Energy announced a strategy to acquire New Production Reactor capacity for producing tritium. The strategy involved construction of a New Production Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) where the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was selected as the Management and Operations contractor for the project. Immediately after the announcement in August 1988, tritium target particle development began with the INEEL selected as the lead laboratory. Fuel particle development was initially not considered to be on a critical path for the project, therefore, the fuel development program was to run concurrently with the design effort of the NP-MHTGR.

  1. Advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) progress with respect to remote operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo Jik; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2007-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) to reduce the volume of spent fuel, and the construction of the ACP facility (ACPF) for a demonstration of its technical feasibility has been completed. In 2006 two inactive demonstrations were performed with simulated fuels in the ACPF. Accompanied by process equipment performance tests, its remote operability and maintainability were also tested during that time. Procedures for remote operation tasks are well addressed in this study and evaluated thoroughly. Also, remote maintenance and repair tasks are addressed regarding some important modules with a high priority order. The above remote handling test's results provided a lot of information such as items to be revised to improve the efficiency of the remote handling tasks. This paper deals with the current status of ACP and the progress of remote handling of ACPF. (authors)

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  3. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  5. Molybdenum-base cermet fuel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, James P.; Gurwell, William E.; Moss, Ronald W.; White, George D.; Seifert, David A.

    Development of a multimegawatt (MMW) space nuclear power system requires identification and resolution of several technical feasibility issues before selecting one or more promising system concepts. Demonstration of reactor fuel fabrication technology is required for cermet-fueled reactor concepts. The MMW reactor fuel development activity at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on producing a molybdenum-matrix uranium-nitride (UN) fueled cermte. This cermet is to have a high matrix density (greater than or equal to 95 percent) for high strength and high thermal conductance coupled with a high particle (UN) porosity (approximately 25 percent) for retention of released fission gas at high burnup. Fabrication process development involves the use of porous TiN microspheres as surrogate fuel material until porous Un microspheres become available. Process development was conducted in the areas of microsphere synthesis, particle sealing/coating, and high-energy-rate forming (HERF) and the vacuum hot press consolidation techniques. This paper summarizes the status of these activities.

  6. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  12. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates that could conduct the heat, provide a sufficiently uniform temperature heat sink for each cell of the fuel cell stack, and be substantially lighter than the conventional thermal management approach. Tests were run with different materials to evaluate the design approach to a heat exchanger that could interface with the edges of the passive cooling plates. Measurements were made during fuel cell operation to determine the temperature of individual cooling plates and also to determine the temperature uniformity from one cooling plate to another.

  13. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within the cooling plate to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack rather than using a pumped loop cooling system to convectively remove the heat. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components which reduces fuel cell system mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous analysis had identified that low density, ultra-high thermal conductivity materials would be needed for the cooling plates in order to achieve the desired reductions in mass and the highly uniform thermal heat sink for each cell within a fuel cell stack. A pyrolytic graphite material was identified and fabricated into a thin plate using different methods. Also a development project with Thermacore, Inc. resulted in a planar heat pipe. Thermal conductivity tests were done using these materials. The results indicated that lightweight passive fuel cell cooling is feasible.

  14. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-10-06

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  15. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and plans for fabrication of Stacks 564 and 800 are described. The results of the OS/IES loop testing of Stack 562, endurance testing of Stack 560 and the post test analysis of Stack 561 are reported. Progress on construction and modification of the fuel cell test facilities and the 10 kW reformer test station is described. Efforts to develop the technical data base for the fuel conditioning system included vendor contacts, packed bed heat transfer tests, development of the BOLTAR computer program, and work on the detailed design of the 10 kW reformer are described.

  16. Fuel cells: a survey of current developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, Mark A. J.; Geiger, Stefan; Jollie, David M.

    Since the first practical uses of fuel cells were developed, it has become clear that they could find use in many products over a wide power range of milliwatts to tens of megawatts. Throughout the 1990s, and later, there has been significant work carried out on adapting the various different fuel cell technologies for use in targetted consumer and industrial applications. This paper discusses these developments and gives details on the specific market segments for providing power to vehicles, portable devices and large- and small-scale stationary power generation.

  17. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  18. Interatomic potentials for mixed oxide and advanced nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwary, Pratyush; Walle, Axel van de; Jeon, Byoungseon; Groenbech-Jensen, Niels

    2011-03-01

    We extend our recently developed interatomic potentials for UO{sub 2} to the fuel system (U,Pu,Np)O{sub 2}. We do so by fitting against an extensive database of ab initio results as well as to experimental measurements. The applicability of these interactions to a variety of mixed environments beyond the fitting domain is also assessed. The employed formalism makes these potentials applicable across all interatomic distances without the need for any ambiguous splining to the well-established short-range Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark universal pair potential. We therefore expect these to be reliable potentials for carrying out damage simulations (and molecular dynamics simulations in general) in nuclear fuels of varying compositions for all relevant atomic collision energies.

  19. Advances in the generation of a new emulsified fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, A.; Ramírez, M.; Medina, E.; Bolado, R.; Mora, J.

    2011-08-01

    The development of a new emulsified fuel is described, from the conceptual idea to the semi-industrial tests of the final product. The starting point was the necessity to lower the particulate matter (PM) emissions produced by the combustion of more than 200 MBD of heavy fuel oil (HFO) used for electric power conversion. The major component of HFO is a vacuum residue of the oil refining process mixed with light cycle oils to make it pumpable. An alternative to handle and burn the high viscosity residue (solid at room temperature) is by converting it in an oil-in-water emulsion. The best emulsions resulted of 70% residue in 30% water, Sauter Mean Diameter of 10-20 μm and a stability of more than 90 days. Spray burning tests of the emulsion against HFO in a semi-industrial 500 kW furnace showed a reduction in PM emissions of 24-36%.

  20. Recent Advances in Carbon Nanotube-Based Enzymatic Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cosnier, Serge; Holzinger, Michael; Le Goff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent trends in the field of enzymatic fuel cells. Thanks to the high specificity of enzymes, biofuel cells can generate electrical energy by oxidation of a targeted fuel (sugars, alcohols, or hydrogen) at the anode and reduction of oxidants (O2, H2O2) at the cathode in complex media. The combination of carbon nanotubes (CNT), enzymes and redox mediators was widely exploited to develop biofuel cells since the electrons involved in the bio-electrocatalytic processes can be efficiently transferred from or to an external circuit. Original approaches to construct electron transfer based CNT-bioelectrodes and impressive biofuel cell performances are reported as well as biomedical applications. PMID:25386555

  1. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Mertyurek, Ugur; Belles, Randy; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  2. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The efforts performed to develop a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stack design having a 10 kW power rating for operation at higher than atmospheric pressure based on the existing Mark II design configuration are described. The work involves: (1) Performance of pertinent functional analysis, trade studies and thermodynamic cycle analysis for requirements definition and system operating parameter selection purposes, (2) characterization of fuel cell materials and components, and performance testing and evaluation of the repeating electrode components, (3) establishment of the state-of-the-art manufacturing technology for all fuel cell components at Westinghouse and the fabrication of short stacks of various sites, and (4) development of a 10 kW PAFC stack design for higher pressure operation utilizing the top down systems engineering approach.

  3. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  4. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  5. Meeting Summary Advanced Light Water Reactor Fuels Industry Meeting Washington DC October 27 - 28, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group first met in November of 2010 with the objective of looking 20 years ahead to the role that advanced fuels could play in improving light water reactor technology, such as waste reduction and economics. When the group met again in March 2011, the Fukushima incident was still unfolding. After the March meeting, the focus of the program changed to determining what we could do in the near term to improve fuel accident tolerance. Any discussion of fuels with enhanced accident tolerance will likely need to consider an advanced light water reactor with enhanced accident tolerance, along with the fuel. The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group met in Washington D.C. on October 72-18, 2011 to continue discussions on this important topic.

  6. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G, and AFC-1H End of FY-07 Irradiation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Debra J Utterbeck; Gray S Chang; Misit A Lillo

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), is to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. Success in this undertaking could potentially dramatically decrease the volume of material requiring disposal with attendant reductions in long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is investigation of irradiation/transmutation effects on actinide-bearing metallic fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. Goals of this initiative include addressing the limited irradiation performance data available on metallic fuels with high concentrations of Pu, Np and Am, as are envisioned for use as actinide transmutation fuels. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments of transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. The metallic fuel experiments and nitride experiment are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 40 at.% burnup.

  8. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  9. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  10. Fabrication and Comparison of Fuels for Advanced Gas Reactor Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Phillips; Charles Barnes; John Hunn

    2010-10-01

    As part of the program to demonstrate TRISO-coated fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a series of irradiation tests of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel are being performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. In the first test, called “AGR-1,” graphite compacts containing approximately 300,000 coated particles were irradiated from December 2006 until November 2009. Development of AGR-1 fuel sought to replicate the properties of German TRISO-coated particles. No particle failures were seen in the nearly 3-year irradiation to a burn up of 19%. The AGR-1 particles were coated in a two-inch diameter coater. Following fabrication of AGR-1 fuel, process improvements and changes were made in each of the fabrication processes. Changes in the kernel fabrication process included replacing the carbon black powder feed with a surface-modified carbon slurry and shortening the sintering schedule. AGR-2 TRISO particles were produced in a six-inch diameter coater using a change size about twenty-one times that of the two-inch diameter coater used to coat AGR-1 particles. Changes were also made in the compacting process, including increasing the temperature and pressure of pressing and using a different type of press. Irradiation of AGR-2 fuel began in late spring 2010. Properties of AGR-2 fuel compare favorably with AGR-1 and historic German fuel. Kernels are more homogeneous in shape, chemistry and density. TRISO-particle sphericity, layer thickness standard deviations, and defect fractions are also comparable. In a sample of 317,000 particles from deconsolidated AGR-2 compacts, 3 exposed kernels were found in a leach test. No SiC defects were found in a sample of 250,000 deconsolidated particles, and no IPyC defects in a sample of 64,000 particles. The primary difference in properties between AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacts is that AGR-2 compacts have a higher matrix density, 1.6 g/cm3 compared to about 1.3 g/cm3 for AGR-1 compacts. Based on

  11. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  12. Vision for the development of an international nuclear fuel recycling program

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Kenneth D.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the development of an international nuclear fuel recycle program is to: - Demonstrate advanced recycling by working to prove the technologies needed to close the fuel cycle, minimize waste, and obtain more energy benefit for each unit of fuel. - Build a global vision by enlisting partners to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies in a way that enables nuclear power to meet global challenges. The program will begin with the establishment of a smaller scale secure fuel cycle facility that would serve as a model for international nuclear fuel reprocessing centers that would eventually be built in several countries world wide. The operating process plants will provide the secure and safe guarded environment for the recycle of spent fuel from nuclear power stations around the world. The demonstration site will provide for developing and testing processes that would lead to the more complete use of the energy available in nuclear fuels and the minimization of long lived nuclear waste. (author)

  13. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  14. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, funded by Johnson Space Center, is investigating knowledge-based techniques for software reuse in NASA software development projects. Two prototypes have been demonstrated and a third is now in development. The approach is to build a foundation that provides passive reuse support, add a layer that uses domain-independent programming knowledge, add a layer that supports the acquisition of domain-specific programming knowledge to provide active support, and enhance maintainability and modifiability through an object-oriented approach. The development of new application software would use specification-by-reformulation, based on a cognitive theory of retrieval from very long-term memory in humans, and using an Ada code library and an object base. Current tasks include enhancements to the knowledge representation of Ada packages and abstract data types, extensions to support Ada package instantiation knowledge acquisition, integration with Ada compilers and relational databases, enhancements to the graphical user interface, and demonstration of the system with a NASA contractor-developed trajectory simulation package. Future work will focus on investigating issues involving scale-up and integration.

  15. Development of Advanced Centrifugal Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.

    2009-09-30

    A CRADA project was performed between BNL and Flowserve, California, under the auspices of Initiative for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) with the DOE support. The purpose was to jointly support a team of Russian institutes led by Kurchatov Institute to develop technology to increase operating life of centrifugal pumps. The work was performed from March 1, 2002 to September 30, 2009. The project resulted in development and validation the total cost of the sub-contract with Kurchatov Institute was $700,000, with matching fund from the industrial partner, Flowserve. The technical objective of this project is to develop advanced centrifugal pumps for the power, petroleum, chemical and water services industries by increasing the reliability of pumping equipment without a corresponding increase in life cycle cost. This major market need can be served by developing centrifugal pumps that generate only modest forces on the mechanical system even when operating under significant off-design conditions. This project is focused towards understanding the origin of hydraulic forces (both radial and axial, steady and time-dependent) and to develop design options, which reduce these forces over a broad flow range. This focus will include the force generation due to cavitation inside the pump as the operating conditions extend to low suction pressures. The results of research will reduce the inception of cavitation that leads to surface erosion and to find passive method of reducing peaks in axial thrust during whole range of flow rates.

  16. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin

    1987-01-01

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  17. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warshay, Marvin

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  18. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFC's for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-sq cm per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  19. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  20. System analyses on advanced nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Myeongguk

    To evaluate the impacts of accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) fuel cycle on a geological repository, two mathematical models are developed: a reactor system analysis model and a high-level waste (HLW) conditioning model. With the former, fission products and residual trans-uranium (TRU) contained in HLW generated from a reference ATW plant operations are quantified and the reduction of TRU inventory included in commercial spent-nuclear fuel (CSNF) is evaluated. With the latter, an optimized waste loading and composition in solidification of HLW are determined and the volume reduction of waste packages associated with CSNF is evaluated. WACOM, a reactor system analysis code developed in this study for burnup calculation, is validated by ORIGEN2.1 and MCNP. WACOM is used to perform multicycle analysis for the reference lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled transmuter. By applying the results of this analysis to the reference ATW deployment scenario considered in the ATW roadmap, the HLW generated from the ATW fuel cycle is quantified and the reduction of TRU inventory contained in CSNF is evaluated. A linear programming (LP) model has been developed for determination of an optimized waste loading and composition in solidification of HLW. The model has been applied to a US-defense HLW. The optimum waste loading evaluated by the LP model was compared with that estimated by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the US and a good agreement was observed. The LP model was then applied to the volume reduction of waste packages associated with CSNF. Based on the obtained reduction factors, the expansion of Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) capacity is evaluated. It is found that with the reference ATW system, the TRU contained in CSNF could be reduced by a factor of ˜170 in terms of inventory and by a factor of ˜40 in terms of toxicity under the assumed scenario. The number of waste packages related to CSNF could be reduced by a factor of ˜8 in terms of

  1. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myles, K. M.; Mcpheeters, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  2. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, K. M.; McPheeters, C. C.

    1989-12-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  3. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY_

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; F. J. Rice; N. E. Woolstenhulme; J-F. Jue; B. H. Park; S. E. Steffler; N. P. Hallinan; M. D. Chapple; M. C. Marshall; B. L. Mackowiak; C. R. Clark; B. H. Rabin

    2009-11-01

    Full-size/prototypic U10Mo monolithic fuel-foils and aluminum clad fuel plates are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). These efforts are focused on realizing Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) high density monolithic fuel plates for use in High Performance Research and Test Reactors. The U10Mo fuel foils under development afford a fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort, including application of a zirconium barrier layer on fuel foils, fabrication scale-up efforts, and development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fuel plate clad bonding processes to be discussed include: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB).

  4. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells (URFC) have recently been developed by several fuel cell manufacturers. These manufacturers have concentrated their efforts on the development of the cell stack technology itself, and have not up to this point devoted much effort to the design and development of the balance of plant. A fuel cell technology program at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) that has as its goal the definition and feasibility testing of the URFC system balance of plant. Besides testing the feasibility, the program also intends to minimize the system weight, volume, and parasitic power as its goal. The design concept currently being developed uses no pumps to circulate coolant or reactants, and minimizes the ancillary components to only the oxygen and hydrogen gas storage tanks, a water storage tank, a loop heat pipe to control the temperature and two pressure control devices to control the cell stack pressures during operation. The information contained in this paper describes the design and operational concepts employed in this concept. The paper also describes the NASA Glenn research program to develop this concept and test its feasibility.

  5. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knasel, Don; Ehresman, Derik

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project has successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a full scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator for space station applications. A Truss Hexagonal Panel reflector was selected as a viable solar concentrator concept to be used for space station applications. This concentrator utilizes a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. The detailed design of the concentrator, which included structural, thermal and optical analysis, identified the feasibility of the design and specific technologies that were required to fabricate it. The needed surface accuracy of the reflectors surface was found to be very tight, within 5 mrad RMS slope error, and results in very close tolerances for fabrication. To meet the design requirements, a modular structure composed of hexagonal panels was used. The panels, made up of graphite epoxy box beams provided the strength, stiffness and dimensional stability needed. All initial project requirements were met or exceeded by hardware demonstration. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort within the project, which included developing the vapor deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  6. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  7. MODELING ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR FRESH FUEL SHIPPING CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    Rick J. Migliore

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor Fresh Fuel Shipping Container (ATR FFSC) is currently licensed per 10 CFR 71 to transport a fresh fuel element for either the Advanced Test Reactor, the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II). During the licensing process, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) raised a number of issues relating to the criticality analysis, namely (1) lack of a tolerance study on the fuel and packaging, (2) moderation conditions during normal conditions of transport (NCT), (3) treatment of minor hydrogenous packaging materials, and (4) treatment of potential fuel damage under hypothetical accident conditions (HAC). These concerns were adequately addressed by modifying the criticality analysis. A tolerance study was added for both the packaging and fuel elements, full-moderation was included in the NCT models, minor hydrogenous packaging materials were included, and fuel element damage was considered for the MURR and MITR-II fuel types.

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  9. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell development in Columbia (SC)

    SciTech Connect

    Reifsnider, Kenneth; Chen, Fanglin; Popov, Branko; Chao, Yuh; Xue, Xingjian

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    SciTech Connect

    Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-07-31

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  12. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.S.

    1992-07-17

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500[degrees]F (815[degrees]C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650[degrees]F (900[degrees]C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  13. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, N. S.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500 F (815 C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650 F (900 C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  14. Advanced uncooled sensor product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A.; Masini, P.; Lamb, M.; Hamers, J.; Kocian, T.; Gordon, E.; Parrish, W.; Williams, R.; LeBeau, T.

    2015-06-01

    The partnership between RVS, Seek Thermal and Freescale Semiconductor continues on the path to bring the latest technology and innovation to both military and commercial customers. The partnership has matured the 17μm pixel for volume production on the Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program in efforts to bring advanced production capability to produce a low cost, high performance product. The partnership has developed the 12μm pixel and has demonstrated performance across a family of detector sizes ranging from formats as small as 206 x 156 to full high definition formats. Detector pixel sensitivities have been achieved using the RVS double level advanced pixel structure. Transition of the packaging of microbolometers from a traditional die level package to a wafer level package (WLP) in a high volume commercial environment is complete. Innovations in wafer fabrication techniques have been incorporated into this product line to assist in the high yield required for volume production. The WLP seal yield is currently > 95%. Simulated package vacuum lives >> 20 years have been demonstrated through accelerated life testing where the package has been shown to have no degradation after 2,500 hours at 150°C. Additionally the rugged assembly has shown no degradation after mechanical shock and vibration and thermal shock testing. The transition to production effort was successfully completed in 2014 and the WLP design has been integrated into multiple new production products including the TWS and the innovative Seek Thermal commercial product that interfaces directly to an iPhone or android device.

  15. Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes

    2007-03-01

    Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompasses—fuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additions—significant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

  16. NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Sankovic, John; Wilt, David; Abelson, Robert D.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) project is developing the next generation of radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Requirements of advanced RPSs include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet future mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications, including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. Advanced RPS development goals also include long-life, reliability, and scalability. This paper provides an update on the contractual efforts under the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for research and development of Stirling, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic power conversion technologies. The paper summarizes the current RPCT NRA efforts with a brief description of the effort, a status and/or summary of the contractor's key accomplishments, a discussion of upcoming plans, and a discussion of relevant system-level benefits and implications. The paper also provides a general discussion of the benefits from the development of these advanced power conversion technologies and the eventual payoffs to future missions (discussing system benefits due to overall improvements in efficiency, specific power, etc.).

  17. Integrated safeguards testing laboratories in support of the advanced fuel cycle initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Demuth, Scott F; Klasky, Kristen L; Lee, Haeok; Miller, Michael C; Sprinkle, James K; Tobin, Stephen J; Williams, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    A key enabler for advanced fuel cycle safeguards research and technology development for programs such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is access to facilities and nuclear materials. This access is necessary in many cases in order to ensure that advanced safeguards techniques and technologies meet the measurement needs for which they were designed. One such crucial facility is a hot cell based laboratory which would allow developers from universities, national laboratories, and commercial companies to perform iterative research and development of advanced safeguards instrumentation under realistic operating conditions but not be subject to production schedule limitations. The need for such a facility arises from the requirement to accurately measure minor actinide and/or fission product bearing nuclear materials that cannot be adequately shielded in glove boxes. With the contraction of the DOE nuclear complex following the end of the cold war, many suitable facilities at DOE sites are increasingly costly to operate and are being evaluated for closure. A hot cell based laboratory that allowed developers to install and remove instrumentation from the hot cell would allow for both risk mitigation and performance optimization of the instrumentation prior to fielding equipment in facilities where maintenance and repair of the instrumentation is difficult or impossible. These benefits are accomplished by providing developers the opportunity to iterate between testing the performance of the instrumentation by measuring realistic types and amounts of nuclear material, and adjusting and refining the instrumentation based on the results of these measurements. In this paper, we review the requirements for such a facility using the Wing 9 hot cells in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility as a model for such a facility and describe recent use of these hot cells in support of AFCI.

  18. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The work performed during the Second Logical Unit of Work of a multi-year program designed to develop a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) for electric utility power plant application is discussed. The Second Logical Unit of Work, which covers the period May 14, 1983 through May 13, 1984, was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  19. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  20. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Moore; Francine J. Rice; Nicolas E. Woolstenhulme; W. David SwanK; DeLon C. Haggard; Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Steven E. Steffler; N. Pat Hallinan; Michael D. Chapple; Douglas E. Burkes

    2008-10-01

    Within the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), UMo fuel-foils are being developed in an effort to realize high density monolithic fuel plates for use in high-flux research and test reactors. Namely, targeted are reactors that are not amenable to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel conversion via utilization of high density dispersion-based fuels, i.e. 8-9 gU/cc. LEU conversion of reactors having a need for >8-9 gU/cc fuel density will only be possible by way of monolithic fuel forms. The UMo fuel foils under development afford fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. Two primary challenges have been established with respect to UMo monolithic fuel development; namely, fuel element fabrication and in-reactor fuel element performance. Both issues are being addressed concurrently at the Idaho National Laboratory. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL); including development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fabrication processes to be discussed include: UMo alloying and casting, foil fabrication via hot rolling, fuel-clad interlayer application via co-rolling and thermal spray processes, clad bonding via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB), and fuel plate finishing.

  1. Incorporation of a risk analysis approach for the nuclear fuel cycle advanced transparency framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko; Kitabata, Takuya; Vugrin, Eric D.; Vugrin, Kay White; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2007-05-01

    Proliferation resistance features that reduce the likelihood of diversion of nuclear materials from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. A framework that monitors process information continuously can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation by measuring and reducing diversion risk, thus ensuring the legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation makes this possible by generating instantaneous system state data that can be used to track and measure the status of the process and material at any given time. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are working in cooperation to develop an advanced transparency framework capable of assessing diversion risk in support of overall plant transparency. The ''diversion risk'' quantifies the probability and consequence of a host nation diverting nuclear materials from a civilian fuel cycle facility. This document introduces the details of the diversion risk quantification approach to be demonstrated in the fuel handling training model of the MONJU Fast Reactor.

  2. Developing a career advancement program.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Shirley L

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever asked yourself, "What will I be doing five or ten years from now?" "Will I be doing the same thing I'm doing right now?" How would you feel if the answer were "yes"? I often wonder if any of my employees think the same thing. If they do, and the answer is "yes," just how does that make them feel? A day's work for managers can run the gamut--from billing and coding, to patient issues, to staff performance reviews, to CQI, to JCAHO-just to name a few. We're NEVER bored. Can we say the same of our employees, or do they do the same thing day in and day out? If so, it's no wonder that attitudes may become negative and motivation and productivity may decline. What are we as healthcare managers and administrators doing to value and continually train our employees so that staff morale, productivity and patient satisfaction remain high? What are we doing to keep those highly motivated employees motivated and challenged so that they don't get bored and want to move across town to our neighboring hospital or healthcare center? What are we doing to stop our employees from developing the "same job, different day" attitude? A Career Ladder program holds many benefits and opportunities for the motivated employee who seeks and needs additional challenges on the job. It affords them opportunities to learn new skills, demonstrate initiative, accept additional responsibilities and possibly advance into new positions. It also affords them opportunities to grow, to be challenged and to feel like an important and valued member of the radiology team and radiology department. For the manager, a Career Ladder program affords opportunities to retain valuable employees, attract new high-quality employees and maintain a workforce of well-trained highly motivated employees, which in turn will provide high quality products and services to our customers. A Career Ladder program is a "win-win" situation for everyone. For the last twelve months, I have been working with other

  3. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  4. Development of fuel processors for transportation and stationary fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.L.; Bentley, J.M.; Thijssen, J.H.J.

    1996-12-31

    Five years of development effort at Arthur D. Little have resulted in a family of low-cost, small-scale fuel processor designs which have been optimized for multiple fuels, applications, and fuel cell technologies. The development activities discussed in this paper involve Arthur D. Little`s proprietary catalytic partial oxidation fuel processor technology. This technology is inherently compact and fuel-flexible, and has been shown to have system efficiencies comparable to steam reformers when integrated properly with a wide range of fuel cell types.

  5. Performance of the fissionTPC and the Potential to Advance the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towell, Rusty; Niffte Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The NIFFTE fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a powerful tool that is being developed to take precision measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections of transuranic elements. During the last run at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) the fully instrumented TPC took data for the first time. The exquisite tracking capabilities of this device allow the full reconstruction of charged particles produced by neutron beam induced fissions from a thin central target. The wealth of information gained from this approach will allow cross section systematics to be controlled at the level of 1%. The fissionTPC performance from this run will be shared. These results are critical to the development of advanced uranium-fueled reactors. However, there are clear advantages to developing thorium-fueled reactors including the abundance of thorium verses uranium, minimizing radioactive waste, improved reactor safety, and enhanced proliferation resistance. The potential for using the fissionTPC to measure needed cross sections important to the development of thorium fueled nuclear reactors will also be discussed.

  6. Overview of the U.S. DOE Accident Tolerant Fuel Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Frank Goldner; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Lance L. Snead

    2013-09-01

    The United States Fuel Cycle Research and Development Advanced Fuels Campaign has been given the responsibility to conduct research and development on enhanced accident tolerant fuels with the goal of performing a lead test assembly or lead test rod irradiation in a commercial reactor by 2022. The Advanced Fuels Campaign has defined fuels with enhanced accident tolerance as those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-Zircaloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. This paper provides an overview of the FCRD Accident Tolerant Fuel program. The ATF attributes will be presented and discussed. Attributes identified as potentially important to enhance accident tolerance include reduced hydrogen generation (resulting from cladding oxidation), enhanced fission product retention under severe accident conditions, reduced cladding reaction with high-temperature steam, and improved fuel-cladding interaction for enhanced performance under extreme conditions. To demonstrate the enhanced accident tolerance of candidate fuel designs, metrics must be developed and evaluated using a combination of design features for a given LWR design, potential improvements to that design, and the design of an advanced fuel/cladding system. The aforementioned attributes provide qualitative guidance for parameters that will be considered for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance. It may be unnecessary to improve in all attributes and it is likely that some attributes or combination of attributes provide meaningful gains in accident tolerance, while others may provide only marginal benefits. Thus, an initial step in program implementation will be the development of quantitative

  7. Spherical fuel elements for advanced HTR manufacture and qualification by irradiation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.-W.; Heit, W.; Röllig, K.; Ragoss, H.; Müller, H.

    1990-04-01

    The reference fuel cycle for future pebble bed HTRs uses low enriched uranium fuel. The spherical fuel element for these HTRs is a 60 mm diameter sphere containing TRISO-coated particles with UO 2 kernels. Qualification of this fuel was performed by production and quality control experience, irradiation testing and accident simulation experiments. The results of the qualification programme fully support the new safety concepts of advanced HTR designs. Further work concentrates on consolidating performance data sets and on quantifying the endurance limits of reference fuel elements under normal and accident conditions.

  8. Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Harold

    2012-09-30

    To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.

  9. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  10. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  11. Fuel cell development at McDermott Technology, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Tharp, M.R.; Privette, R.M.; Rowley, D.R.; Khandkar, A.

    1999-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has been involved with the development of a wide variety of fuel cell technologies since 1990. Current programs include the development of planar solid fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks and systems and fuel processing and balance of plant development for proton exchange membrane (PEM) systems. These programs are described.

  12. Developing alternative feedstocks for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V.K.

    1982-06-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent research to examine the viability of energy sorghum as a feedstock for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum is the name given to any sweet sorghum shown to be feasible for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum can grow on a variety of soils, in 90 day cycles, with up to three crops a year. Crop rotation is rarely needed; most of the nitrogen and potassium returns to the soil. Harmon Engineering and Testing initiated an inhouse program to research sweet sorghum development. Equipment specifications and preliminary results are given. An ''energy farm'' process is explained step by step. Stalk juice, grain, and stalk fiber yields are listed. The use of bagasse and carbon dioxide is also considered.

  13. Recent developments in fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical and physical requirements limit the choice of fuel cell electrolytes to strong aqueous acids and alkalis, (pyro)phosphoric acid, carbonate metals, and solid oxides (O{sup {minus}2} conductors, with rare H{sup +} conductors). The choice of electrolytes and operating temperatures is therefore limited, controlling the choice of other materials (anode catalysts, cathode catalysts, current collectors, and construction materials), which are determined by the properties of the electrolyte, the temperature, the electrode potentials, the gas atmospheres, and thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The families of state-of-the-art and new materials for each class of electrolyte are reviewed. The area of greatest activity is the solid oxide fuel cell (500--1,000 C). In a review of this length, the extensive list of new solid oxide developments can only be given by way of introduction.

  14. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2003-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system is unique in that it uses the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The tank surfaces also play an important role in the temperature control of regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers used to dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis during the charging and also used to humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by fuel cell during the discharging of the URFCS. A bi- directional pressure controller is used to control the pressure of the oxygen and hydrogen gas inside the URFC stack during both charging and discharging of the URFC system. A water storage accumulator is used to store water reactant and control water pressure inside the URFC stack.

  15. Advances in Antiviral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Barney S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Antiviral vaccines have been the most successful biomedical intervention for preventing epidemic viral disease. Vaccination for smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle was the basis for disease eradication, and recent progress in polio eradication is promising. While early vaccines were developed empirically by passage in live animals or eggs, more recent vaccines have been developed because of the advent of new technologies, particularly cell culture and molecular biology. Recent technological advances in gene delivery and expression, nanoparticles, protein manufacturing, and adjuvants have created the potential for new vaccine platforms that may provide solutions for vaccines against viral pathogens for which no interventions currently exist. In addition, the technological convergence of human monoclonal antibody isolation, structural biology, and high throughput sequencing is providing new opportunities for atomic-level immunogen design. Selection of human monoclonal antibodies can identify immunodominant antigenic sites associated with neutralization and provide reagents for stabilizing and solving the structure of viral surface proteins. Understanding the structural basis for neutralization can guide selection of vaccine targets. Deep sequencing of the antibody repertoire and defining the ontogeny of the desired antibody responses can reveal the junctional recombination and somatic mutation requirements for B-cell recognition and affinity maturation. Collectively, this information will provide new strategic approaches for selecting vaccine antigens, formulations, and regimens. Moreover, it creates the potential for rational vaccine design and establishing a catalogue of vaccine technology platforms that would be effective against any given family or class of viral pathogens and improve our readiness to address new emerging viral threats. PMID:23947359

  16. Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Mono-uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Ebbinghaus, B; Meiers, T; Ahn, J

    2006-02-09

    The US National Energy Policy of 2001 advocated the development of advanced fuel and fuel cycle technologies that are cleaner, more efficient, less waste-intensive, and more proliferation resistant. The need for advanced fuel development is emphasized in on-going DOE-supported programs, e.g., Global Nuclear Energy Initiative (GNEI), Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and GEN-IV Technology Development. The Directorates of Energy & Environment (E&E) and Chemistry & Material Sciences (C&MS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are interested in advanced fuel research and manufacturing using its multi-disciplinary capability and facilities to support a design concept of a small, secure, transportable, and autonomous reactor (SSTAR). The E&E and C&MS Directorates co-sponsored this Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Project on Mono-Uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications. In fact, three out of the six GEN-IV reactor concepts consider using the nitride-based fuel, as shown in Table 1. SSTAR is a liquid-metal cooled, fast reactor. It uses nitride fuel in a sealed reactor vessel that could be shipped to the user and returned to the supplier having never been opened in its long operating lifetime. This sealed reactor concept envisions no fuel refueling nor on-site storage of spent fuel, and as a result, can greatly enhance proliferation resistance. However, the requirement for a sealed, long-life core imposes great challenges to research and development of the nitride fuel and its cladding. Cladding is an important interface between the fuel and coolant and a barrier to prevent fission gas release during normal and accidental conditions. In fabricating the nitride fuel rods and assemblies, the cladding material should be selected based on its the coolant-side corrosion properties, the chemical/physical interaction with the nitride fuel, as well as their thermal and neutronic properties. The US NASA space reactor, the

  17. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors. Therefore, the overriding motivation behind the FFC R&D program described in this plan is to foster closer integration between fuel design and fabrication to reduce programmatic risk. These motivating factors are all interrelated, and progress addressing one will aid understanding of the others. The FFC R&D needs fall into two principal categories, 1) baseline process optimization, to refine the existing fabrication technologies, and 2) manufacturing process alternatives, to evaluate new fabrication technologies that could provide improvements in quality, repeatability, material utilization, or cost. The FFC R&D Plan examines efforts currently under way in regard to coupon, foil, plate, and fuel element manufacturing, and provides recommendations for a number of R&D topics that are of high priority but not currently funded (i.e., knowledge gaps). The plan ties all FFC R&D efforts into a unified vision that supports the overall Convert Program schedule in general, and the fabrication schedule leading up to the MP-1 and FSP-1 irradiation experiments specifically. The fabrication technology decision gates and down-selection logic and schedules are tied to the schedule for fabricating the MP-1 fuel plates, which will provide the necessary data to make a final fuel fabrication process down-selection. Because of the short turnaround between MP-1 and the follow-on FSP-1 and MP-2 experiments, the suite of specimen types that will be available for MP-1 will be the same as those available for FSP-1 and MP-2. Therefore, the only opportunity to explore parameter space and alternative processing

  18. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 °C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and

  19. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic

  20. TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF FUEL PLATES FOR RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Wight; G.A. Moore; S.C. Taylor

    2008-10-01

    This paper discusses how candidate fuel plates for RERTR Fuel Development experiments are examined and tested for acceptance prior to reactor insertion. These tests include destructive and nondestructive examinations (DE and NDE). The DE includes blister annealing for dispersion fuel plates, bend testing of adjacent cladding, and microscopic examination of archive fuel plates. The NDE includes Ultrasonic (UT) scanning and radiography. UT tests include an ultrasonic scan for areas of “debonds” and a high frequency ultrasonic scan to determine the "minimum cladding" over the fuel. Radiography inspections include identifying fuel outside of the maximum fuel zone and measurements and calculations for fuel density. Details of each test are provided and acceptance criteria are defined. These tests help to provide a high level of confidence the fuel plate will perform in the reactor without a breach in the cladding.

  1. Grouped actinide separation in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Ougier, M.; Soucek, P.; Murakamin, T.; Tsukada, T.; Koyama, T.

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at cleaner waste streams (containing only the short-lived fission products) a partitioning and transmutation (P-T) scheme can significantly reduce the quantities of long-lived radionuclides consigned to waste. Many issues and options are being discussed and studied at present in view of selecting the optimal route. The choice is between individual treatment of the relevant elements and a grouped treatment of all actinides together. In the European Collaborative Project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by Separation and Transmutation), grouped separation options derived from an aqueous extraction or from a dry pyroprocessing route were extensively investigated. Successful demonstration tests for both systems have been carried out in the frame of this project. The aqueous process called GANEX (Grouped Actinide Extraction) is composed of 2 cycles, a first one to recover the major part of U followed by a co-extraction of Np, Pu, Am, and Cm altogether. The pyro-reprocessing primarily applicable to metallic fuels such as the U-Pu-Zr alloy originally developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (US) in the mid 1980s, has also been applied to the METAPHIX fuels containing up to 5% of minor actinides and 5% of lanthanides (e.g. U{sub 60}Pu{sub 20}-Zr{sub 10}Am{sub 2}Nd{sub 3.5}Y{sub 0.5}Ce{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}). A grouped actinide separation has been successfully carried out by electrorefining on solid Al cathodes. At present the recovery of the actinides from the alloy formed with Al upon electrodeposition is under investigation, because an efficient P-T cycle requires multiple re-fabrication and re-irradiation. (authors)

  2. An examination of the elastic structural response of the Advanced Neutron Source fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-09-01

    Procedures for evaluating the elastic structural response of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) fuel plates to coolant flow and to temperature variations are presented in this report. Calculations are made that predict the maximum deflection and the maximum stress for a representative plate from the upper and from the lower fuel elements.

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE U.S. FUEL CYCLE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Terry A. Todd

    2011-10-01

    Treatment or processing of used nuclear fuel to recycle uranium and plutonium has historically been accomplished using the well known PUREX process. The PUREX process has been used on an industrial scale for over 60 years in the nuclear industry. Research is underway to develop advanced separation methods for the recovery of other used fuel components, such as the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) for possible transmutation in fast spectrum reactors, or other constituents (e.g. Cs, Sr, transition metals, lanthanides) to help facilitate effective waste management options. This paper will provide an overview of new solvent extraction processes developed for advanced nuclear fuel cycles, and summarize recent experimental results. This will include the utilization of new extractants for selective separation of target metals and new processes developed to selectively recover one or more elements from used fuel.

  4. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  5. UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION OF CALCULATED TEMPERATURES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR FUEL IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam; Hawkes, Grant Lynn; Einerson, Jeffrey James

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the quantification of uncertainty of the calculated temperature data for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory in support of the Advanced Reactor Technology Research and Development program. Recognizing uncertainties inherent in physics and thermal simulations of the AGR tests, the results of the numerical simulations are used in combination with statistical analysis methods to improve qualification of measured data. The temperature simulation data for AGR tests are also used for validation of the fission product transport and fuel performance simulation models. These crucial roles of the calculated fuel temperatures in ensuring achievement of the AGR experimental program objectives require accurate determination of the model temperature uncertainties. To quantify the uncertainty of AGR calculated temperatures, this study identifies and analyzes ABAQUS model parameters of potential importance to the AGR predicted fuel temperatures. The selection of input parameters for uncertainty quantification of the AGR calculated temperatures is based on the ranking of their influences on variation of temperature predictions. Thus, selected input parameters include those with high sensitivity and those with large uncertainty. Propagation of model parameter uncertainty and sensitivity is then used to quantify the overall uncertainty of AGR calculated temperatures. Expert judgment is used as the basis to specify the uncertainty range for selected input parameters. The input uncertainties are dynamic accounting for the effect of unplanned events and changes in thermal properties of capsule components over extended exposure to high temperature and fast neutron irradiation. The sensitivity analysis performed in this work went beyond the traditional local sensitivity. Using experimental design, analysis of pairwise interactions of model parameters was performed to establish

  6. An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

  7. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of pretesting and performance testing of Stack 564 are reported. The design features, progress in fabrication and plans for assembly of Stack 800 are given. The status of endurance testing of Stack 560 is reported. The design, fabrication, test procedures and preliminary tests of the 10 kW double counterflow reformer and the reformer test stand are described. Results of vendor contacts to define the performance and cost of fuel conditioning system components are reported. The results of burner tests and continuing development of the BOLTAR program are reported.

  8. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H End of FY-06 Irradiation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and

    2006-09-01

    The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments on transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. The metallic fuel experiments and nitride experiment are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 40 at.% burnup and = 25 at.% burnup, respectively. Based on the results of the physics evaluations it has been determined that the AFC-1D experiment will remain in the ATR for approximately 4 additional cycles, the AFC-1G experiment for an additional 4-5 cycles, and the AFC-1H experiment for approximately 8 additional cycles, in order to reach the desired programmatic burnup. The specific irradiation schedule for these tests will be determined based on future physics evaluations and all results will be documented in subsequent reports.

  10. Annual Report: Advanced Energy Systems Fuel Cells (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kirk; Richards, George

    2014-04-16

    The comprehensive research plan for Fuel Cells focused on Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) programmatic targets and included objectives in two primary and focused areas: (1) investigation of degradation modes exhibited by the anode/electrolyte/cathode (AEC), development of computational models describing the associated degradation rates, and generation of a modeling tool predicting long term AEC degradation response; and (2) generation of novel electrode materials and microstructures and implementation of the improved electrode technology to enhance performance. In these areas, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Regional University Alliance (RUA) team has completed and reported research that is significant to the SECA program, and SECA continued to engage all SECA core and SECA industry teams. Examination of degradation in an operational solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) requires a logical organization of research effort into activities such as fundamental data gathering, tool development, theoretical framework construction, computational modeling, and experimental data collection and validation. Discrete research activity in each of these categories was completed throughout the year and documented in quarterly reports, and researchers established a framework to assemble component research activities into a single operational modeling tool. The modeling framework describes a scheme for categorizing the component processes affecting the temporal evolution of cell performance, and provides a taxonomical structure of known degradation processes. The framework is an organizational tool that can be populated by existing studies, new research completed in conjunction with SECA, or independently obtained. The Fuel Cell Team also leveraged multiple tools to create cell performance and degradation predictions that illustrate the combined utility of the discrete modeling activity. Researchers first generated 800 continuous hours of SOFC experimental

  11. Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

  12. The BWR advanced fuel design experience using Studsvik CMS

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovine, A.S.; Gibbon, S.H.; Wiksell, G.

    1996-12-31

    The current trend within the nuclear industry is to maximize generation by extending cycle lengths and taking outages as infrequently as possible. As a result, many utilities have begun to use fuel designed to meet these more demanding requirements. These fuel designs are significantly more heterogeneous in mechanical and neutronic detail than prior designs. The question arises as to how existing in-core fuel management codes, such as Studsvik CMS perform in modeling cores containing these designs. While this issue pertains to both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), this summary focuses on BWR applications.

  13. Flight management concepts development for fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that increased airspace congestion will produce increased flight delay unless advanced flight management concepts are developed to compensate. It has been estimated that a 5 percent reduction in delay is approximately equivalent, in terms of direct operating costs, to a 5 percent reduction in drag. The present investigation regarding the development of the required flight management concepts is organized into three sections, related to background, current research, and future effort. In the background section, a summary is provided of past technical effort concerning flight management. The second section is concerned with on-going efforts to integrate flight management with ground-based flight planning, and with an advanced concepts simulator to test the new developments. In the third section, attention is given to research concerning airborne flight management integration with other flight functions.

  14. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  15. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  16. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

    2006-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this final quarter of the no cost extension several planar membranes of a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase were prepared and permeability testing was performed.

  18. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  19. Combustion Characterization and Model Fuel Development for Micro-tubular Flame-assisted Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Milcarek, Ryan J; Garrett, Michael J; Baskaran, Amrish; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-10-02

    Combustion based power generation has been accomplished for many years through a number of heat engine systems. Recently, a move towards small scale power generation and micro combustion as well as development in fuel cell research has created new means of power generation that combine solid oxide fuel cells with open flames and combustion exhaust. Instead of relying upon the heat of combustion, these solid oxide fuel cell systems rely on reforming of the fuel via combustion to generate syngas for electrochemical power generation. Procedures were developed to assess the combustion by-products under a wide range of conditions. While theoretical and computational procedures have been developed for assessing fuel-rich combustion exhaust in these applications, experimental techniques have also emerged. The experimental procedures often rely upon a gas chromatograph or mass spectrometer analysis of the flame and exhaust to assess the combustion process as a fuel reformer and means of heat generation. The experimental techniques developed in these areas have been applied anew for the development of the micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cell. The protocol discussed in this work builds on past techniques to specify a procedure for characterizing fuel-rich combustion exhaust and developing a model fuel-rich combustion exhaust for use in flame-assisted fuel cell testing. The development of the procedure and its applications and limitations are discussed.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROCARBON JET FUELS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AIRCRAFT ENGINE OILS, *AVIATION FUELS, *HYDROCARBONS, *JET ENGINE FUELS, *LUBRICANTS, *POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, BENZENE, CATALYSIS...CHEMICAL REACTIONS , COMBUSTION, CUMENES, DECOMPOSITION, ETHYLENES, FORMALDEHYDE, FRAGMENTATION, HIGH TEMPERATURE, HYDROGENATION, NAPHTHALENES, PHYSICAL

  1. Advanced photovoltaic solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program, started in mid-1987, is currently in progress to fabricate prototype wing hardware that will lead to wing integration and testing in 1989. The design configuration and key details are reviewed. A status of prototype hardware fabricated to date is provided. Results from key component-level tests are discussed. Revised estimates of array-level performance as a function of solar cell device technology for geosynchronous missions are given.

  2. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  3. Analysis of fuel options for the breakeven core configuration of the Advanced Recycling Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stauff, N.E.; Klim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.; Fiorina, C.; Franceschini, F.

    2013-07-01

    A trade-off study is performed to determine the impacts of various fuel forms on the core design and core physics characteristics of the sodium-cooled Toshiba- Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR). The fuel forms include oxide, nitride, and metallic forms of U and Th. The ARR core configuration is redesigned with driver and blanket regions in order to achieve breakeven fissile breeding performance with the various fuel types. State-of-the-art core physics tools are used for the analyses. In addition, a quasi-static reactivity balance approach is used for a preliminary comparison of the inherent safety performances of the various fuel options. Thorium-fueled cores exhibit lower breeding ratios and require larger blankets compared to the U-fueled cores, which is detrimental to core compactness and increases reprocessing and manufacturing requirements. The Th cores also exhibit higher reactivity swings through each cycle, which penalizes reactivity control and increases the number of control rods required. On the other hand, using Th leads to drastic reductions in void and coolant expansion coefficients of reactivity, with the potential for enhancing inherent core safety. Among the U-fueled ARR cores, metallic and nitride fuels result in higher breeding ratios due to their higher heavy metal densities. On the other hand, oxide fuels provide a softer spectrum, which increases the Doppler effect and reduces the positive sodium void worth. A lower fuel temperature is obtained with the metallic and nitride fuels due to their higher thermal conductivities and compatibility with sodium bonds. This is especially beneficial from an inherent safety point of view since it facilitates the reactor cool-down during loss of power removal transients. The advantages in terms of inherent safety of nitride and metallic fuels are maintained when using Th fuel. However, there is a lower relative increase in heavy metal density and in breeding ratio going from oxide to metallic

  4. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  5. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Dynys, Fred W.; Lang, Jerry; Daniels, Christopher C.; Palko, Joeseph L.; Choi, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers at NASA GRC are confronting the seal durability challenges of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by pursuing an integrated and multidisciplinary development effort incorporating thermo-structural analyses, advanced materials, experimentation, and novel seal design concepts. The successful development of durable hermetic SOFC seals is essential to reliably producing the high power densities required for aerospace applications.

  7. Developments in U.S. Alternative Fuel Markets

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The alternative fueled vehicle (AFV)/alternative fuels industry experienced a number of market-related changes in the second half of the 1990s. This article describes each of the alternative transportation fuels and the AFVs in detail. It provides information on the development to date and looks at trends likely to occur in the future.

  8. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Rick; Wall, Mark; Sullivan, Neal

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  10. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, R. J.; Singh, P.

    An overview of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development at Westinghouse is presented in this paper. The basic operating principles of SOFC's, evolution in tubular cell design and performance improvement, selection criteria for cell component materials, and cell processing techniques are discussed. The commercial goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 5 to 10 years. Results of cell test operated for more than 50,000 hours are presented. Since 1986, significant progress has been made in the evolution of cells with higher power, lower cost and improved thermal cyclic capability. Also in this period, successively larger multi-kilowatt electrical generators systems have been built and successfully operated for more than 7000 hours.

  11. Recent progress in the development of metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G. ); Tsai, H.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Tests to date demonstrate that metallic fuel for advanced liquid metal reactors performs well, is easily reprocessed and refabricated and provides inherent reactor safety within an economic design. The behavior and performance of metallic fuel is key to the demonstration of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept at Argonne National Laboratory. Since 1985, more than 40 assemblies of experimental fuel in addition to the standard metallic driver fuel for Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2)have been irradiated; several more continue to be designed and fabricated. Results have characterized the influence of a wide range of fabrication, design and material variables upon irradiation behavior throughout the fuel lifetime under normal and upset conditions including operation with breached cladding. Results of test, both in- and out-of-reactor, indicate that metallic fuel is readily and economically fabricated, capable of achieving high exposure and long reactor residence times, and possesses unique and promising safety features. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Constituent Redistribution in U-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, Jack D.; Unal, Cetin; Matthews, Christopher

    2016-09-30

    Previous work done by Galloway, et. al. on EBR-II ternary (U-Pu-Zr) fuel constituent redistribution yielded accurate simulation data for the limited data sets of Zr redistribution. The data sets included EPMA scans of two different irradiated rods. First, T179, which was irradiated to 1.9 at% burnup, was analyzed. Second, DP16, which was irradiated to 11 at% burnup, was analyzed. One set of parameters that most accurately represented the zirconium profiles for both experiments was determined. Since the binary fuel (U-Zr) has previously been used as the driver fuel for sodium fast reactors (SFR) as well as being the likely driver fuel if a new SFR is constructed, this same process has been initiated on the binary fuel form. From limited binary EPMA scans as well as other fuel characterization techniques, it has been observed that zirconium redistribution also occurs in the binary fuel, albeit at a reduced rate compared to observation in the ternary fuel, as noted by Kim et. al. While the rate of redistribution has been observed to be slower, numerous metallographs of U-Zr fuel show distinct zone formations.

  13. Further evaluations of the toxicity of irradiated advanced heavy water reactor fuels.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Geoffrey W R; Priest, Nicholas D

    2014-11-01

    The neutron economy and online refueling capability of heavy water moderated reactors enable them to use many different fuel types, such as low enriched uranium, plutonium mixed with uranium, or plutonium and/or U mixed with thorium, in addition to their traditional natural uranium fuel. However, the toxicity and radiological protection methods for fuels other than natural uranium are not well established. A previous paper by the current authors compared the composition and toxicity of irradiated natural uranium to that of three potential advanced heavy water fuels not containing plutonium, and this work uses the same method to compare irradiated natural uranium to three other fuels that do contain plutonium in their initial composition. All three of the new fuels are assumed to incorporate plutonium isotopes characteristic of those that would be recovered from light water reactor fuel via reprocessing. The first fuel investigated is a homogeneous thorium-plutonium fuel designed for a once-through fuel cycle without reprocessing. The second fuel is a heterogeneous thorium-plutonium-U bundle, with graded enrichments of U in different parts of a single fuel assembly. This fuel is assumed to be part of a recycling scenario in which U from previously irradiated fuel is recovered. The third fuel is one in which plutonium and Am are mixed with natural uranium. Each of these fuels, because of the presence of plutonium in the initial composition, is determined to be considerably more radiotoxic than is standard natural uranium. Canadian nuclear safety regulations require that techniques be available for the measurement of 1 mSv of committed effective dose after exposure to irradiated fuel. For natural uranium fuel, the isotope Pu is a significant contributor to the committed effective dose after exposure, and thermal ionization mass spectrometry is sensitive enough that the amount of Pu excreted in urine is sufficient to estimate internal doses, from all isotopes, as low

  14. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  15. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  16. Interim report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.; Potter, J.D.; Smalley, J.T.; Baker, C.P.; Jaquish, W.R.

    1997-06-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project at the Hanford Site. The project will retrieve spent nuclear fuel, clean and remove fuel from canisters, repackage fuel into baskets, and load fuel into a multi-canister overpack (MCO) for vacuum drying and interim dry storage. The FRS is required to retrieve basin fuel canisters, clean fuel elements sufficiently of uranium corrosion products (or sludge), empty fuel from canisters, sort debris and scrap from whole elements, and repackage fuel in baskets in preparation for MCO loading. The purpose of fuel handling development testing was to examine the systems ability to accomplish mission activities, optimization of equipment layouts for initial process definition, identification of special needs/tools, verification of required design changes to support performance specification development, and validation of estimated activity times/throughput. The test program was set up to accomplish this purpose through cold development testing using simulated and prototype equipment; cold demonstration testing using vendor expertise and systems; and graphical computer modeling to confirm feasibility and throughput. To test the fuel handling process, a test mockup that represented the process table was fabricated and installed. The test mockup included a Schilling HV series manipulator that was prototypic of the Schilling Hydra manipulator. The process table mockup included the tipping station, sorting area, disassembly and inspection zones, fuel staging areas, and basket loading stations. The test results clearly indicate that the Schilling Hydra arm cannot effectively perform the fuel handling tasks required unless it is attached to some device that can impart vertical translation, azimuth rotation, and X-Y translation. Other test results indicate the importance of camera locations and capabilities, and of the jaw and end effector tool design. 5 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Comparison of ash behavior of different fuels in fluidised bed combustion using advanced fuel analysis and global equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven-Onderwater, M.; Blomquist, J.P.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.

    1999-07-01

    The behavior of different ashes is predicted by means of a combination of an advanced fuel analysis and global equilibrium calculations. In order to cover a broad spectrum of fuels a coal, a peat, a forest residue and Salix (i.e. willow) are studied. The latter was taken with and without soil contamination, i.e. with a high and low content of silica , respectively. It is shown that mineral matter in fossil and biomass fuels can be present in the matrix of the fuel itself or as included minerals. Using an advanced fuel analysis, i.e. a fractionation method, this mineral content can be divided into four fractions. The first fraction mainly contains those metal ions, that can be leached out of the fuel by water and mainly contains alkali sulfates, carbonates and chlorides. The second fraction mainly consists of those ions leached out by ammonium acetate and covers those ions, that are connected to the organic matrix. The third fraction contains the metals leached out by hydrochloric acid and contains earth alkali carbonates and sulfates as well as pyrites. The rest fraction contains those minerals, that are not leached out by any of the above mentioned solvents, such as silicates. A global equilibrium analysis is used to predict the thermal and chemical behavior of the combined first and second fractions and of the combined third and rest fractions under pressurized and/or atmospheric combustion conditions. Results of both the fuel analysis and the global equilibrium analysis are discussed and practical implications for combustion processes are pointed out.

  18. Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics,more » particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is

  19. Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B. W.; Novascone, S. R.; Williamson, R. L.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics, particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is possible to use

  20. NASA's Planned Fuel Cell Development Activities for 2009 and Beyond in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Energy Storage Project is one of many technology development efforts being implemented as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). The Energy Storage Project is a focused technology development effort to advance lithium-ion battery and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technologies to meet the specific power and energy storage needs of NASA Exploration missions. The fuel cell portion of the project has as its focus the development of both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems, and is led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), academia, and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve stack electrical performance, reduce system mass and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability.

  1. Materials Requirements for Advanced Energy Systems - New Fuels. Volume 3: Materials Research Needs in Advanced Energy Systems Using New Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    principal new fuel studied; hydrogen-derived fuels considere-d were ammonia, hydrazine, boranes, silanes, carbon monoxide, and methyl alcohol . The...support systems. analysis - None. Essential background for A-4 -pply policy decil ’oo,ts. ting •h- tion. H2 environment and 02 tfaterialq testing under...Depleted oil or gas H2, CO Porosity 01 formation. Grouting. None. None. reservoirs, aqui- gases, and Sfers, natural or Nl13 mined caverns. 1.2.1 Underwater

  2. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Physical Chemistry Research Toward Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Advancement.

    PubMed

    Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Campbell, Stephen A

    2013-02-07

    Hydrogen fuel cells, the most common type of which are proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are on a rapid path to commercialization. We credit physical chemistry research in oxygen reduction electrocatalysis and theory with significant breakthroughs, enabling more cost-effective fuel cells. However, most of the physical chemistry has been restricted to studies of platinum and related alloys. More work is needed to better understand electrocatalysts generally in terms of properties and characterization. While the advent of such highly active catalysts will enable smaller, less expensive, and more powerful stacks, they will require better understanding and a complete restructuring of the diffusion media in PEMFCs to facilitate faster transport of the reactants (O2) and products (H2O). Even Ohmic losses between materials become more important at high power. Such lessons from PEMFC research are relevant to other electrochemical conversion systems, including Li-air batteries and flow batteries.

  4. Numerical approach for the voloxidation process of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byung Heung; Jeong, Sang Mun; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2007-07-01

    A voloxidation process is adopted as the first step of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process in order to prepare the SF oxide to be reduced in the following electrolytic reduction process. A semi-batch type voloxidizer was devised to transform a SF pellet into powder. In this work, a simple reactor model was developed for the purpose of correlating a gas phase flow rate with an operation time as a numerical approach. With an assumption that a solid phase and a gas phase are homogeneous in a reactor, a reaction rate for an oxidation was introduced into a mass balance equation. The developed equation can describe a change of an outlet's oxygen concentration including such a case that a gas flow is not sufficient enough to continue a reaction at its maximum reaction rate. (authors)

  5. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    A 30-cell stack was tested for 7200 hours. At 6000 hours the stack was successfully refilled with acid with no loss of performance. A second stack containing the advanced Configuration B cell package was fabricated and assembled for testing in 1985. A 200-kW brassboard inverter was successfully evaluated, verifying the design of the two-bridge ASCR circuit design. A fuel processing catalyst train was tested for 2000 hours verifying the catalyst for use in a 200-kW development reformer. The development reformer was fabricated for evaluation in 1985. The initial test plan was prepared for a 200-kW verification test article.

  6. The `advanced DIR-MCFC development' project, an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortbeek, P. J.; Ottervanger, R.

    An overview is given of the approach and mid-term status of the joint European `Advanced DIR-MCFC Development' project, in which BCN, BG plc, GDF, ECN, Stork, Schelde and Sydkraft co-operate. Hospitals are identified as an attractive initial market for cogeneration direct internal reforming-molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) systems in the size of 400 kWe. Innovative system and stack design concepts are being developed for this application. The `SMARTER' system, based on DIR stacks, combines high electric efficiency and a wide operational window with optimal system simplicity and low cost.

  7. PEM fuel cell applications and their development at International Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, T.F.; Gorman, M.E.; Van Dine, L.L.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) is involved with the full spectrum of fuel cell power plants including the development of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. The extensive background in systems, design, materials and manufacturing technologies has been brought to bear on the development of highly competitive PEM power plants. IFC is aggressively pursuing these opportunities and is developing low-cost designs for a wide variety of PEM fuel cell applications with special emphasis on portable power and transportation. Experimental PEM power plants for each of these applications have been successfully tested.

  8. Development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy monitoring of fuel markers to prevent fraud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.

  9. Manufacturing development of DC-10 advanced rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and ground test activities during development of production methods for an advanced composite rudder for the DC-10 transport aircraft are described. The advanced composite aft rudder is satisfactory for airline service and a cost saving in a full production manufacturing mode is anticipated.

  10. Affordable Development and Optimization of CERMET Fuels for NTP Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Mireles, Omar R.

    2014-01-01

    CERMET fuel materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) are currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The work is part of NASA's Advanced Space Exploration Systems Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Project. The goal of the FY12-14 project is to address critical NTP technology challenges and programmatic issues to establish confidence in the affordability and viability of an NTP system. A key enabling technology for an NCPS system is the fabrication of a stable high temperature nuclear fuel form. Although much of the technology was demonstrated during previous programs, there are currently no qualified fuel materials or processes. The work at MSFC is focused on developing critical materials and process technologies for manufacturing robust, full-scale CERMET fuels. Prototypical samples are being fabricated and tested in flowing hot hydrogen to understand processing and performance relationships. As part of this initial demonstration task, a final full scale element test will be performed to validate robust designs. The next phase of the project will focus on continued development and optimization of the fuel materials to enable future ground testing. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the CERMET fuel materials development plan. The overall CERMET fuel development path is shown in Figure 2. The activities begin prior to ATP for a ground reactor or engine system test and include materials and process optimization, hot hydrogen screening, material property testing, and irradiation testing. The goal of the development is to increase the maturity of the fuel form and reduce risk. One of the main accomplishmens of the current AES FY12-14 project was to develop dedicated laboratories at MSFC for the fabrication and testing of full length fuel elements. This capability will enable affordable, near term development and optimization of the CERMET fuels for future ground testing. Figure 2 provides a timeline of the

  11. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S.

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  12. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Development of a Stabilized Light Water Reactor Fuel Matrix for Extended Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    BD Hanson; J Abrefah; SC Marschman; SG Prussin

    2000-09-08

    The main objective of this project is to develop an advanced fuel matrix capable of achieving extended burnup while improving safety margins and reliability for present operations. In the course of this project, the authors improve understanding of the mechanism for high burnup structure (HBS) formation and attempt to design a fuel to minimize its formation. The use of soluble dopants in the UO{sub 2} matrix to stabilize the matrix and minimize fuel-side corrosion of the cladding is the main focus.

  13. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  14. Roadmap for development of an advanced head-end reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Johnson, J.A.; Spencer, B.B.; Collins, E.D.

    2013-07-01

    A novel dry treatment process for used nuclear fuel (UNF) using nitrogen dioxide is being developed to remove volatile and semi-volatile fission products and convert the monolithic fuel material to a fine powder suitable as a feed to many different separations processes. The process may be considered an advanced form of voloxidation, which was envisioned to remove tritium from the fuel prior to introduction of the fuel into the aqueous separations systems, where subsequent separation of tritium from the water would be difficult and expensive. The product from NO{sub 2} reaction can be selectively chosen to be U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, UO{sub 3}, or a nitrate by adjusting the processing conditions; all products are generated at temperatures lower than those used in standard voloxidation. All the fundamental tenants of the process have been successfully demonstrated as a proof of principle, and many aspects have been corroborated multiple times at laboratory scale. The goal of this roadmap is to define the activities required to develop the process to a technology-readiness level sufficient to an engineering-scale implementation. (authors)

  15. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  16. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Soloiu, Valentin A.

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  17. NLS Advanced Development - Launch operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO), one of a number of the USAF's National Launch System (NLS) Launch Operations projects whose aim is to research, develop and apply new technologies and more efficient approaches toward launch operations. The goal of the ALO project is to develop generic control and monitor software for launch operation subsystems. The result is enhanced reliability of system design, and reduced software development and retention of expert knowledge throughout the life-cycle of the system.

  18. 'Radiotoxicity Index': An Inappropriate Discriminator for Advanced Fuel Cycle Technology Selection - 12276

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John; Sowder, Andrew; Apted, Michael; Kozak, Matthew; Nutt, Mark; Swift, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A radiotoxicity index (RI) is often used as a figure of merit for evaluating for evaluating the attractiveness of employing an advanced fuel cycle (i.e., a fuel cycle that uses some combination of separations and other reactor technologies, such as fast reactors), rather than continued use of the current 'once-through' fuel cycle. The RI is calculated by multiplying the amount of every radionuclide found in a waste form for some unit amount of waste times the drinking water dose conversion factor, DCF, for each radionuclide, then summing these together. Some argue that if the RI for an advanced fuel cycle is lower than the RI for a once-through fuel cycle, then implementation of the particular advanced fuel cycle has merit because it reduces the radiotoxicity of the waste. Use of an RI for justifying separations technologies and other components of advanced fuel cycles is not only inappropriate, but can be misleading with respect to judging benefits of advance fuel cycle options. The disposal system, through its use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to migration, eliminates most of the radionuclides contributing to the RI such that additional separations technologies will make little difference to peak dose rates. What must also be considered is the health/dose risk caused to workers and the public by the construction and operation of the separations facility itself. Thus, use of RI may lead to selection of separations technologies that may have a negligible effect on lowering the potential health risks associated with disposal, but will increase real worker and public health risks in the near term. The use of the radiotoxicity index (RI) as a figure of merit for justifying advanced fuel cycles involving separations technologies is not only inappropriate, but can be misleading with respect to judging benefits of advance fuel cycle options. The disposal system, through its use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to migration, eliminates most of the

  19. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  20. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.