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Sample records for advanced gasification systems

  1. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  2. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  3. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Dixit, V.B.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  4. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  5. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  6. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  7. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  8. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-10-01

    Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

  9. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and METHANE de-NOX{reg_sign} technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

  10. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  11. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-06-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  12. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development and commercial demonstration of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Cascade Corporation's pulp and paper mill in DeRidder, Louisiana. The advanced power generation system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as the primary fuel resource. The novel system is based on three advanced technology components: GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and 3-stage solid fuels combustion technologies coupled with one of the power generation approaches used in DOE's HIPPS program. Phase 1 of the project is a technical and economic evaluation of the system at the DeRidder site. A Continuation Application will be submitted at the conclusion of Phase 1 for authorization to proceed to testing and design in Phase 2. Phase 2 includes pilot-scale verification of selected system components and preparation of a detailed engineering design and cost estimate for retrofit of the advanced power system at the DeRidder mill. Phase 3 will complete procurement and construction of the system at the DeRidder site along with all required permitting activities. Phase 4 of the project will included plant commissioning, startup and demonstration operations. Design information for the Gasification Island was completed during the quarter. Two vendor quotations were received for the bark/hog fuel dryers. A final layout plan for the major equipment was developed and submitted to DeRidder for review and approval. The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) completed a subcontract for a laboratory study on VOC emissions from wood waste drying using bark from the DeRidder mill. Samples of DeRidder's lime mud and green liquor dregs were collected and analyzed in GTI's laboratory. It was determined that lime mud is far too fine to be utilized as inert bed material in the

  13. Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-25

    The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)

  14. Advanced gasification-based biomass power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.H.; Larson, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    A promising strategy for modernizing bioenergy is the production of electricity or the cogeneration of electricity and heat using gasified biomass with advanced conversion technologies. Major advances that have been made in coal gasification technology, to marry the gas turbine to coal, are readily adaptable to biomass applications. Integrating biomass gasifiers with aeroderivative gas turbines in particular makes it possible to achieve high efficiencies and low unit capital costs at the modest scales required for bioenergy systems. Electricity produced with biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) power systems not only offers major environmental benefits but also would be competitive with electricity produced from fossil fuels and nuclear energy under a wide range of circumstances. Initial applications will be with biomass residues generated in the sugarcane, pulp and paper, and other agro- and forest-product industries. Eventually, biomass grown for energy purposes on dedicated energy farms will also be used to fuel these gas turbine systems. Continuing improvements in jet engine and biomass gasification technologies will lead to further gains in the performance of BIG/GT systems over the next couple of decades. Fuel cells operated on gasified biomass offer the promise of even higher performance levels in the period beyond the turn of the century. 79 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  16. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasian, Javad

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  17. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  18. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  19. Advanced technology applications for second and third general coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The historical background of coal conversion is reviewed and the programmatic status (operational, construction, design, proposed) of coal gasification processes is tabulated for both commercial and demonstration projects as well as for large and small pilot plants. Both second and third generation processes typically operate at higher temperatures and pressures than first generation methods. Much of the equipment that has been tested has failed. The most difficult problems are in process control. The mechanics of three-phase flow are not fully understood. Companies participating in coal conversion projects are ordering duplicates of failure prone units. No real solutions to any of the significant problems in technology development have been developed in recent years.

  20. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  1. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  2. Advanced high-temperature, high-pressure transport reactor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center Office of Power Systems Product Management is to foster the development and deployment of advanced, clean, and affordable fossil-based (coal) power systems. These advanced power systems include the development and demonstration of gasification-based advanced power systems. These systems are integral parts of the Vision 21 Program for the co-production of power and chemicals which is being developed at DOE. DOE has been developing advanced gasification systems which lower the capital and operating cost of producing syngas for electricity or chemicals production. A transport reactor gasifier has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer as compared to other gasification systems because of its high throughput. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) utilizing the Kellogg, Brown and Root (KBR) transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 1000 hours of operation on three different fuels in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) has been completed to date. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has established an extensive database on the operation of various fuels in a transport reactor gasifier. This database will be useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on a transport reactor gasifier. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging between 105 to 130 Btu/scf can be achieved. Factors that affect the TRDU product gas quality appear to be circulation rate, coal type, temperature, and air:coal and steam:coal ratios. Future plans are to modify the transport reactor mixing zone and J-leg loop seal to increase backmixing, thereby increasing solids residence time and gasifier performance. Enriched air- and oxygen-blown gasification tests, especially on widely available low-cost fuels such as petroleum coke, will also be

  3. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Third quarter progress report FY-1984, April 1-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-31

    The overall objective of the KRW coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) modifications to the PDU; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) advanced process design and analysis; and (5) laboratory support studies. For laboratory support studies, coal and/or char fines from Wyoming Sub C, Western Kentucky, Republic of South Africa (RSA), and Pittsburgh seam coals processed in the PDU were characterized for reactivity on a thermogravimetric analyzer. The average relative reactivity of the fines (-120 x +140 mesh) was found to be nearly the same as that for larger size distribution (18 x 60 mesh, -1.0 + 0.25 mm). This is consistent with the observations of studies reported in literature on carbon gasification reactions.

  4. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  5. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  6. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this

  7. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  8. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  9. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  10. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC20

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2006-09-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of the Transport Gasifier following significant modifications of the gasifier configuration. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC20, occurring from August 8 to September 23, 2006. The modifications proved successful in increasing gasifier residence time and particulate collection efficiency, two parameters critical in broadening of the fuel operating envelope and advancing gasification technology. The gasification process operated for over 870 hours, providing the opportunity for additional testing of various gasification technologies, such as PCD failsafe evaluation and sensor development.

  11. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC22

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-11-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC22, the first test campaign using a high moisture lignite from Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC22 was conducted from March 24 to April 17, 2007. The gasification process was operated for 543 hours, increasing the total gasification operation at the PSDF to over 10,000 hours. The PSDF gasification process was operated in air-blown mode with a total of about 1,080 tons of coal. Coal feeder operation was challenging due to the high as-received moisture content of the lignite, but adjustments to the feeder operating parameters reduced the frequency of coal feeder trips. Gasifier operation was stable, and carbon conversions as high as 98.9 percent were demonstrated. Operation of the PCD and other support equipment such as the recycle gas compressor and ash removal systems operated reliably.

  12. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC16

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-08-24

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report discusses Test Campaign TC16 of the PSDF gasification process. TC16 began on July 14, 2004, lasting until August 24, 2004, for a total of 835 hours of gasification operation. The test campaign consisted of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and high sodium lignite from the North Dakota Freedom mine. The highest gasifier operating temperature mostly varied from 1,760 to 1,850 F with PRB and 1,500 to 1,600 F with lignite. Typically, during PRB operations, the gasifier exit pressure was maintained between 215 and 225 psig using air as the gasification oxidant and between 145 and 190 psig while using oxygen as the oxidant. With lignite, the gasifier operated only in air-blown mode, and the gasifier outlet pressure ranged from 150 to 160 psig.

  13. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher

  14. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC14

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-02-28

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details test campaign TC14 of the PSDF gasification process. TC14 began on February 16, 2004, and lasted until February 28, 2004, accumulating 214 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. The gasifier operating temperatures varied from 1760 to 1810 F at pressures from 188 to 212 psig during steady air blown operations and approximately 160 psig during oxygen blown operations.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  16. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC17

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2004-11-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown & Root) Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results gasification operation with Illinois Basin bituminous coal in PSDF test campaign TC17. The test campaign was completed from October 25, 2004, to November 18, 2004. System startup and initial operation was accomplished with Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, and then the system was transitioned to Illinois Basin coal operation. The major objective for this test was to evaluate the PSDF gasification process operational stability and performance using the Illinois Basin coal. The Transport Gasifier train was operated for 92 hours using PRB coal and for 221 hours using Illinois Basin coal.

  18. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  19. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  20. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  1. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  2. Integrated gasification iron-air electrical system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.T.

    1988-05-17

    An integrated, gasification, iron-air electrical system, capable of generating electrical energy from a carbonaceous material is described comprising: (A) a gasification means for carbonaceous materials comprising at least one gasification reactor, where a carbonaceous material is contacted and reacted with a gaseous medium containing steam and air, at a temperature and for a time effective to gasify the carbonaceous material and produce a hot gaseous reaction product comprising CO and H/sub 2/; (B) an iron-air cell containing at least one discharged iron electrode; (C) means to remove the discharged iron electrode from the cell of (B), and contact it with the gaseous reaction product produced in (A); (D) the discharged iron electrode removed from the cell of (B), containing material consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/, which electrode is contacted with the hot gaseous reaction product produced in the gasification reactor of (A), directly, at a temperature of from about 450/sup 0/C to about 700/sup 0/C, for a time effective to convert, by reduction, discharged iron compounds consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/ to charge iron compounds in the electrode and provide a recharged iron electrode; (E) an iron-air cell into which the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) is placed; (F) means to transport the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) to the iron-air cell of (E); and (G) electrical connection means attached to the iron-air cell of (E), providing the cell with capability of generating electrical energy.

  3. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  4. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  5. Recent technology advances in the KRW coal gasification development program

    SciTech Connect

    Haldipur, G.B.; Bachovchin, D.; Cherish, P.; Smith, K.J.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents an update of the technological advances made at the coal gasification PDU during 1982 and 1983. These process improvements have resulted in higher carbon conversion efficiency, greater operational simplicity and enhanced potential for low grade or highly reactive feedstocks such as subbituminous coals and lignites. Process and component performance data are presented on the following topics: Application of advanced non-mechanical fines recycle techniques in a pressurized fluidized bed process, Demonstration of fines consumption and 95+% carbon conversion in recent tests, including results of a successful 15 day process feasibility test; and, Techniques to produce low carbon containing (less than 5%) ash agglomerates from highly reactive feedstocks, such as Wyoming subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite.

  6. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  7. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Phase 2, Final report, May 1, 1983-July 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1987-09-15

    KRW Energy Systems Inc. is engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized, carbonaceous feedstocks for electrical power generation, substitute natural gas, chemical feedstocks, and industrial fuels. This report covers Phase II of the contract period (May 1, 1983 to July 31, 1984) and is a continuation of the work performed in 1983 and reported in the Phase I final report, FE-19122-30. Included is work performed in fiscal 1983 to 1984 on PDU testing, process analysis, cold flow scaleup facility, process and component engineering and design, and laboratory support studies.

  8. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  9. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  10. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC21

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2007-01-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coal. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of the first demonstration of gasification operation with lignite coal following the 2006 gasifier configuration modifications. This demonstration took place during test campaign TC21, occurring from November 7, 2006, through January 26, 2007. The test campaign began with low sodium lignite fuel, and after 304 hours of operation, the fuel was changed to high sodium lignite, for 34 additional hours of operation. Both fuels were from the North Dakota Freedom mine. Stable operation with low sodium lignite was maintained for extended periods, although operation with high sodium lignite was problematic due to agglomeration formation in the gasifier restricting solids circulation.

  11. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  12. Economics of synfuel and gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several gasification systems are discussed. Cost estimates of various synthetic fuels are presented. The lowest cost synthetic fuel is significantly above the current natural gas price of about $2.75/MMBtu and about equivalent to present oil prices at the plant gate. Gas prices for the Welman-Galusha gasifier would have to be increased significantly if the plant ran on two shifts only or if the gasifiers were not fully loaded. For industrial application the lowest cost fuel is probably the direct use of low sulfur coal with some post combustion pollution control. This is followed by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. Coal/oil mixtures and solvent refined coal liquids (SRC I or SRC II) are the next options. High Btu gas from a large coal gasification plant will be more competitive for industrial use. Large industrial uses in the range of 1000 tons of coal a day may find reduced costs with an entrained coal conversion unit such as a Texaco or the Saarberg-Otto Gasifiers. However, before 1985 when the gas price decontrol has been felt, it is unlikely that low Btu gas, medium Btu gas and methanol will be an economical choice for industrial users.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  14. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan

    2004-05-01

    Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated gasification combined cycle plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. A startup meeting was held at the National Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA site on July 28, 2003. SRI staff described the technical approach of the project.

  15. 2007 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

  16. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  17. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  18. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  19. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, black liquor gasification (BLG) can enable the recovery of pulping chemicals and production of syngas from the spent liquor accumulated in the pulping process. The syngas can be converted to value-added fuels, chemicals, and electricity, helping to boost the economics of the pulp mill.

  20. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  1. LOW- AND MEDIUM-BTU GASIFICATION SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives an overview of low- and medium-Btu gasification systems. It describes systems or combinations of processes which are likely to be used for production of low- and medium-Btu gas from coal. This involves making judgments as to types of coals that will be processed,...

  2. Forest Fuels wood-gasification system. Final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.H.

    1982-09-23

    The gasification system consisting of gasifier and dryer with dry fuel handling conveyors, duct work, and appropriate controls was installed. Severe problems in handling and gasifying bark developed. It was concluded that the equipment was not suited to the handling and firing of bark.

  3. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber. PMID:15878635

  4. Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Guan, X.; Gardner, B.; Hendrix, H.

    2002-09-18

    High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The PSDF, near Wilsonville, Alabama, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company, and other industrial participants currently including the Electric Power Research Institute, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. (KBR), and Peabody Energy. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems designed at sufficient size to provide data for commercial scale-up.

  5. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  6. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2002-06-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

  7. Innovative coal gasification system with high temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, K.; Katsushima, H.; Kasahara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, R.; Ootsuka, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper proposes innovative coal gasification power generation systems where coal is gasified with high temperature air of about 1300K produced by gasified coal fuel gas. The main features of these systems are high thermal efficiency, low NO{sub x} emission, compact desulfurization and dust removal equipment and high efficiency molten slag removal with a very compact gasifier. Recent experimental results on the pebble bed coal gasifier appropriate for high temperature air coal gasification are reported, where 97.7% of coal ash is successfully caught in the pebble bed and extracted without clogging. A new concept of high temperature air preheating system is proposed which is characterized by its high reliability and low cost.

  8. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was

  9. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  10. Comparison of intergrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants with current and advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, B.M.; Evans, T.F.; McCone, A.I.; Westisik, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Two recent conceptual design studies examined ''grass roots'' integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) plants for the Albany Station site of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. One of these studies was based on the Texaco Gasifier and the other was developed around the British Gas Co.-Lurgi slagging gasifier. Both gasifiers were operated in the ''oxygen-blown'' mode, producing medium Btu fuel gas. The studies also evaluated plant performance with both current and advanced gas turbines. Coalto-busbar efficiencies of approximately 35 percent were calculated for Texaco IGCC plants using current technology gas turbines. Efficiencies of approximately 39 percent were obtained for the same plant when using advanced technology gas turbines.

  11. Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

  12. Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D. C.; Sealock, L. J.; Phelps, M. R.; Neuenschwander, G. G.; Hart, T. R.

    1993-08-01

    A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system, high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

  13. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. PMID:25936898

  14. Repowering with an integrated gasification-cascaded humidified advanced turbine (IG-CHAT) cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, M.D.; Goldstein, H.N.; Swensen, E.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of repowering a typical US based coal fired power plant with a combination of coal gasification and advanced turbine technologies. In this case, an oxygen blown, fixed bed gasifier (based on British Gas-Lurgi technology) generates clean, low temperature, medium Btu gas which is fired in an advanced type of power cycle; namely, the Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine, or CHAT cycle which is defined and described below. This conceptual site repowering follows the same methodology and uses the same design parameters as in a recent evaluation of plant repowering utilizing a broad suite of advanced technologies, many of which are currently being demonstrated in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  16. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:22093706

  17. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:25724695

  18. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REPORT: WELLMAN-GALUSHA LOW-BTU GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, an Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) for Wellman-Galusha low-Btu gasification systems, is part of an overall environmental assessment program for low-medium-Btu gasification technology. This EAR provides EPA administrators and program offices with a document repre...

  20. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Mark A. Musich

    2007-02-01

    Three potential additives for controlling mercury emissions from syngas at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 F (177 to 260 C) were developed. Current efforts are being directed at increasing the effective working temperature for these sorbents and also being able to either eliminate any potential mercury desorption or trying to engineer a trace metal removal system that can utilize the observed desorption process to repeatedly regenerate the same sorbent monolith for extended use. Project results also indicate that one of these same sorbents can also successfully be utilized for arsenic removal. Capture of the hydrogen selenide in the passivated tubing at elevated temperatures has resulted in limited results on the effective control of hydrogen selenide with these current sorbents, although lower-temperature results are promising. Preliminary economic analysis suggests that these Corning monoliths potentially could be more cost-effective than the conventional cold-gas (presulfided activated carbon beds) technology currently being utilized. Recent Hg-loading results might suggest that the annualized costs might be as high as 2.5 times the cost of the conventional technology. However, this annualized cost does not take into account the significantly improved thermal efficiency of any plant utilizing the warm-gas monolith technology currently being developed.

  1. Method and system for controlling a gasification or partial oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Rozelle, Peter L; Der, Victor K

    2015-02-10

    A method and system for controlling a fuel gasification system includes optimizing a conversion of solid components in the fuel to gaseous fuel components, controlling the flux of solids entrained in the product gas through equipment downstream of the gasifier, and maximizing the overall efficiencies of processes utilizing gasification. A combination of models, when utilized together, can be integrated with existing plant control systems and operating procedures and employed to develop new control systems and operating procedures. Such an approach is further applicable to gasification systems that utilize both dry feed and slurry feed.

  2. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such

  3. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    , combustion, cooling, materials, coatings and casting development. The market potential for the ATS gas turbine in the 2000-2014 timeframe was assessed for combined cycle, simple cycle and integrated gasification combined cycle, for three engine sizes. The total ATS market potential was forecasted to exceed 93 GW. Phase 3 and Phase 3 Extension involved further technology development, component testing and W501ATS engine detail design. The technology development efforts consisted of ultra low NO{sub x} combustion, catalytic combustion, sealing, heat transfer, advanced coating systems, advanced alloys, single crystal casting development and determining the effect of steam on turbine alloys. Included in this phase was full-load testing of the W501G engine at the McIntosh No. 5 site in Lakeland, Florida.

  4. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

  5. Waste-gasification efficiency of a two-stage fluidized-bed gasification system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Chang, Tsung-Jen; Weng, Wang-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study employed a two-stage fluidized-bed gasifier as a gasification reactor and two additives (CaO and activated carbon) as the Stage-II bed material to investigate the effects of the operating temperature (700°C, 800°C, and 900°C) on the syngas composition, total gas yield, and gas-heating value during simulated waste gasification. The results showed that when the operating temperature increased from 700 to 900°C, the molar percentage of H2 in the syngas produced by the two-stage gasification process increased from 19.4 to 29.7mol% and that the total gas yield and gas-heating value also increased. When CaO was used as the additive, the molar percentage of CO2 in the syngas decreased, and the molar percentage of H2 increased. When activated carbon was used, the molar percentage of CH4 in the syngas increased, and the total gas yield and gas-heating value increased. Overall, CaO had better effects on the production of H2, whereas activated carbon clearly enhanced the total gas yield and gas-heating value. PMID:26698684

  6. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  8. Proceedings of the eight annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Longanbach, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    Research programs presented at the Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting are presented. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: To review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 320 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 3-day meeting. Forty-three papers and 31 poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. This volume covers sessions three and four on systems for the production of synthesis gas and systems for the production of coproducts. Individual topics within each session are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  10. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  11. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

  12. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  13. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2006-01-31

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  14. A continuous two stage solar coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.; Manasse, F. K.; Venkataramanan, V.

    The characteristics of a two-stage fluidized-bed hybrid coal gasification system to produce syngas from coal, lignite, and peat are described. Devolatilization heat of 823 K is supplied by recirculating gas heated by a solar receiver/coal heater. A second-stage gasifier maintained at 1227 K serves to crack remaining tar and light oil to yield a product free from tar and other condensables, and sulfur can be removed by hot clean-up processes. CO is minimized because the coal is not burned with oxygen, and the product gas contains 50% H2. Bench scale reactors consist of a stage I unit 0.1 m in diam which is fed coal 200 microns in size. A stage II reactor has an inner diam of 0.36 m and serves to gasify the char from stage I. A solar power source of 10 kWt is required for the bench model, and will be obtained from a central receiver with quartz or heat pipe configurations for heat transfer.

  15. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

  16. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  17. Stochastic modeling of coal gasification combined cycle systems: Cost models for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents cost models developed for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The objective is to obtain a series of capital and operating cost models that can be integrated with an existing set of IGCC process performance models developed at the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These models are implemented in ASPEN, a Fortran-based process simulator. Under a separate task, a probabilistic modeling capability has been added to the ASPEN simulator, facilitating analysis of uncertainties in new process performance and cost (Diwekar and Rubin, 1989). One application of the cost models presented here is to explicitly characterize uncertainties in capital and annual costs, supplanting the traditional approach of incorporating uncertainty via a contingency factor. The IGCC systems selected by DOE/METC for cost model development include the following: KRW gasifier with cold gas cleanup; KRW gasifier with hot gas cleanup; and Lurgi gasifier with hot gas cleanup. For each technology, the cost model includes both capital and annual costs. The capital cost models estimate the costs of each major plant section as a function of key performance and design parameters. A standard cost method based on the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technical Assessment Guide (1986) was adopted. The annual cost models are based on operating and maintenance labor requirements, maintenance material requirements, the costs of utilities and reagent consumption, and credits from byproduct sales. Uncertainties in cost parameters are identified for both capital and operating cost models. Appendices contain cost models for the above three IGCC systems, a number of operating trains subroutines, range checking subroutines, and financial subroutines. 88 refs., 69 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-03-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we conducted two exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons. The first one was aborted after a short period, because of a leak in the pressure regulator of a CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture gas cylinder that was used to prepare the simulated coal gas stream. Nevertheless, this run was very instructive as it showed that during the brief exposure when the concentration of H{sub 2}S increased to 8.6%, even specialty alloys such as HR160 and I800 were badly corroded, yet the sample of a SS405-steel that was coated with Ti/Ta showed no signs of corrosion. After replacing the pressure regulator, a second run was conducted with a fresh set of coated and uncoated samples. The Ti/Ta-coated on to SS405 steel from the earlier runs was also exposed in this test. The run proceeded smoothly, and at the end of test the uncoated steels were badly damaged, some evidence of corrosion was found on coupons of HR160 and I800 alloys and the Cr-coated steels, but again, the Ti/Ta-coated sample appeared unaffected.

  19. Use of North Dakota lignite in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.; Sharp, L.

    1992-12-01

    In order to develop critical data for Department of Energy (DOE) and private industry for advanced high-efficiency power systems using North Dakota lignite in pressurized gasification and combustion systems, tests were performed in bench-scale equipment at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The primary objectives were to (1) determine the conversion levels for Center ND lignite under pressurized fluid-bed gasification conditions with sorbent addition as a function of temperature, (2) determine the sulfur capture using limestone or dolomite under gasification conditions giving 90% or higher carbon conversion, (3) evaluate char/coal conversion and sulfur capture in a pressurized fluid-bed combustor, (4) assess the potential for bed agglomeration under the preferred operating conditions for both systems.

  20. Coal Gasification (chapter only)

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

    2002-11-15

    Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

  1. Proceedings of the tenth annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Beeson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Tenth Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting was held August 28--30, 1990 at the Lakeview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogue which would identify novel concepts that would make coal-based gasification and hot gas cleanup systems more attractive economically and environmentally. Two hundred thirty representatives of government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the three-day meeting. Thirty papers and thirty-three poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Scientists, engineers, and administrators discussed many of the issues facing those engaged in the research and development activities that constitute these programs. This document records Volume 1 of the proceedings of that meeting, and summarizes the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  2. Proceedings of the tenth annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Beeson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Tenth Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting was held August 28--30, 1990 at the Lakview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogue which would identify novel concepts that would make coal-based gasification and hot gas cleanup systems more attractive economically and environmentally. Two hundred thirty representatives of government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the three-day meeting. Thirty papers and thirty-three poster displays were resented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Scientists, engineers, and administrators discussed many of the issues facing those engaged in the research and development activities that constitute these programs. This document records the Volume 2 of the proceedings of that meeting, and summarizes the gasification and gas stream of cleanup programs. Individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  3. Advanced air separation for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersz, D.F.; Parysek, K.D.; Schulte, T.R.; Pavri, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and General Electric Company (GE) conducted a study to determine the benefits associated with extending the integration of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) systems to include the air separation plant which supplies oxygen to the gasifiers. This is achieved by extracting air from the gas turbine air compressors to feed the oxygen plant and returning waste nitrogen to the gas turbine. The ''Radiant Plus Convective Design'' (59/sup 0/F ambient temperature case) defined in EPRI report AP-3486 was selected as a base case into which the oxygen plant-gas turbine integration was incorporated and against which it was compared. General Electric Company's participation in evaluating gas turbine and power block performance ensured consistency between EPRI report AP-3486 and this study. Extending the IGCC integration to include an integrated oxygen plant-gas turbine results in a rare combination of benefits - higher efficiency and lower capital costs. Oxygen plant capital costs are over 20% less and the power requirement is reduced significantly. For the IGCC system, the net power output is higher for the same coal feed rate; this results in an overall improvement in heat rate of about 2% coupled with a reduction in capital costs of 2 to 3%. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Acid Gas Removal by Customized Sorbents for Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfenberger, J.; Sohnemann, J.; Schleitzer, D.; Loewen, A.

    2002-09-20

    In order to reduce exergy losses, gas cleaning at high temperatures is favored in IGFC systems. As shown by thermodynamic data, separation efficiencies of common sorbents decrease with increasing temperature. Therefore, acid gas removal systems have to be developed for IGFC applications considering sorbent capacity, operation temperature, gasification feedstock composition and fuel cell threshold values.

  5. Proceedings of the eight annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Longanbach, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    Forty-three papers and 31 poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs at the contractors review meeting. This volume covers sessions one and two on systems for the production of power and systems for the production of industrial fuel gas. Individual projects of those sessions are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Influence of particle size on performance of a pilot-scale fixed-bed gasification system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renzhan; Liu, Ronghou; Wu, Jinkai; Wu, Xiaowu; Sun, Chen; Wu, Ceng

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size on the gasification performance of a pilot-scale (25 kg/h) downdraft fixed bed gasification system was investigated using prunings from peach trees at five different size fractions (below 1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 cm). The gas and hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. With increasing particle size, gas yield increased while tar and dust content decreased. The lower heating value of the gas decreased slightly with particle size. At a smaller particle size, more hydrocarbons were detected in the producer gas. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide contents increased with the decrease in particle size, reaching 16.09% and 14.36% at particle size below 1cm, respectively. Prunings with a particle size of 1-2 cm were favorable for gasification in the downdraft gasifier used in this study. PMID:22728176

  7. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges. PMID:26247289

  8. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1991-05-01

    The current objective of the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) mild gasification project is to optimize reaction char and marketable liquids production on a 100-lb/hr scale using Wyodak subbituminous and Indiana No. 3 bituminous coals. Tests performed using the EERC 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) include a refractory-cure (Test P001), a test using petroleum coke (Test P002), and tests using Wyodak and Indiana coals. The reactor system used for the 11 PDU tests conducted to date consists of a spouted, fluid-bed carbonizer equipped with an on-line condensation train that yields three boiling point fractions of coal liquids ranging in volatility from about (77{degrees}--750{degrees}F) (25{degrees}--400{degrees}C). The September--December 1990 quarterly report described reaction conditions and the bulk of the analytical results for Tests P010 and P011. This report describes further P010 and P011 analytical work, including the generation of simulated distillation curves for liquid samples on the basis of sulfur content, using gas chromatography coupled with atomic emission detection (GC/AED) analysis. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  11. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

  12. Use of coal gasification in compressed-air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M. )

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Energy Storage and Power Consultants (ESPC) whose objective was to try to develop a cost effective Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) power plant concept integrated with the Texaco Coal Gasification System (TCGS). The capital cost of a coal gasification system is significantly higher than some other power plant systems and if operated at low capacity factors, the total cost of electricity would not be competitive. One of the main objectives of this study was to try to develop a concept which would provide continuous operation of the gasification system and, as a result, improve the plant economics through better utilization of its expensive components. Five CAES/TCGS concepts have been identified as the most promising, and were optimized using specifically developed computerized procedures. These concepts utilized various configurations of conventional reheat turbomachinery trains specifically developed for CAES application, the GE Frame 7F, Frame 7E and LM5000 gas turbine units as parts of the integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts. The project resulted in development of integrated CAES/TCGS plant concepts which were optimized to provide TCGS capacity factors up to over 90%. Cursory economics for some of the integrated CAES/TCGS concepts are slightly better than those of a conventional integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plant. 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  14. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1990-10-01

    The primary objective of the EERC/AMAX Mild Gasification project is to commercialize a process that will produce several value-added products from a high-sulfur midwestern bituminous or a low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Indiana No. 3 and Wyodak coals are being tested in a 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) that has undergone shakedown testing and is undergoing parametric testing. This unit will provide the engineering data for use in determining the technical and economic data required for the design of a commercial-scale mild gasification plant. This report discusses results of carbonizer tests, char upgrading and char separations. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.

  17. Fluidized bed reactor apparatus and related gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.M.; Hoffert, F.D.; Marina, J.M.; Milligan, J.D.

    1982-11-16

    A process and pressurized, gasification reactor apparatus are claimed for converting combustible carbon containing materials such as coal char and other carbonaceous solids or carbonaceous solids/heavy oil combinations to an intermediate heating value fuel gas. The gasification reactor includes an insulated fluidized bed reactor chamber, an upper reactor housing for a freely suspended bayonet bundle type heat exchanger for (A) superheating incoming saturated steam and (B) cooling outgoing high temperature product gas, and a lower reactor housing structure which includes a freefloating, conically-shaped perforated plenum chamber. The superheated steam and oxygen are premixed with the plenum chamber before being pressure directed into the fluidized bed reactor chamber for mixture and combustion with the incoming combustible carbon containing materials such as coal char. After reaction of the superheated steam, oxygen and coal char in the fluidized bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 900/sup 0/ F to 1750/sup 0/ F, the product fuel gases and associated particulate matter are cooled by steam flowing through the bayonet heat exchanger, the steam being superheated by this exchange. After discharge from the heat exchanger, the fuel gas product containing particulate matter is pressure directed into a conventional cyclone separator for (A) separation of the desired product gases and (B) return of the particulate matter for further recycling in the reactor chamber. Undesirable ash clinkers are gravitationally and pressure directed out of the reactor chamber through a central ash withdrawal pipe.

  18. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC09

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2002-09-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC09 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC09 in air- and oxygen-blown modes. Test Run TC09 was started on September 3, 2002, and completed on September 26, 2002. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run, with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen was smooth. The gasifier temperature varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 125 to 270 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC09, 414 hours of solid circulation and over 300 hours of coal feed were attained with almost 80 hours of pure oxygen feed.

  2. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. PMID:26826573

  3. Techno-economic analysis of advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping

    2015-09-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of an integrated production pathway combining fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification. The conversion process is simulated with Aspen Plus® for a 2000 metric ton per day facility. Techno-economic analysis of this integrated pathway has been conducted. A total capital investment of $510 million has been estimated and the minimum fuel selling price (MSP) is $5.59 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis shows that the MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return, fuel yield, biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital investment. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that MSP for bio-oil gasification would be more than $6/gal with a probability of 0.24, which indicates this pathway is still at high risk with current economic and technical situation. PMID:25983227

  4. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Yunhua Zhu; H. Christopher Frey

    2006-12-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. 38 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed. PMID:17195484

  6. Modeling of indirect carbon fuel cell systems with steam and dry gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Katherine M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2016-05-01

    An indirect carbon fuel cell (ICFC) system that couples coal gasification to a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising candidate for high efficiency stationary power. This study couples an equilibrium gasifier model to a detailed 1D MEA model to study the theoretical performance of an ICFC system run on steam or carbon dioxide. Results show that the fuel cell in the ICFC system is capable of power densities greater than 1.0 W cm-2 with H2O recycle, and power densities ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 W cm-2 with CO2 recycle. This result indicates that the ICFC system performs better with steam than with CO2 gasification as a result of the faster electro-oxidation kinetics of H2 relative to CO. The ICFC system is then shown to reach higher current densities and efficiencies than a thermally decoupled gasifier + fuel cell (G + FC) system because it does not include combustion losses associated with autothermal gasification. 55-60% efficiency is predicted for the ICFC system coupled to a bottoming cycle, making this technology competitive with other state-of-the-art stationary power candidates.

  7. System study on partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery - article no. 051801

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.J.; Jin, H.G.; Lin, R.M.; Han, W.

    2008-09-15

    S partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery is proposed in this paper. Partial gasification adopts cascade conversion of the composition of coal. Active composition of coal is simply gasified, while inactive composition, that is char, is burnt in a boiler. Oxy-fuel combustion of syngas produces only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, so the CO{sub 2} can be separated through cooling the working fluid. This decreases the amount of energy consumption to separate CO{sub 2} compared with conventional methods. The novel system integrates the above two key technologies by injecting steam from a steam turbine into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine to combine the Rankine cycle with the Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiency of this system will be higher based on the cascade utilization of energy level. Compared with the conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), the compressor of the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gasifier are substituted for a pump, reheater, and partial gasifier, so the system is simplified. Furthermore, the novel system is investigated by means of energy-utilization diagram methodology and provides a simple analysis of their economic and environmental performance. As a result, the thermal efficiency of this system may be expected to be 45%, with CO{sub 2} recovery of 41.2%, which is 1.5-3.5% higher than that of an IGCC system. At the same time, the total investment cost of the new system is about 16% lower than that of an IGCC. The comparison between the partial gasification technology and the IGCC technology is based on the two representative cases to identify the specific feature of the proposed system.

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  9. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2003-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

  10. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    PubMed

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. PMID:26210232

  11. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  12. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC07

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2002-04-05

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC07 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC07. Prior to TC07, the Transport Reactor was modified to allow operations as an oxygen-blown gasifier. Test Run TC07 was started on December 11, 2001, and the sand circulation tests (TC07A) were completed on December 14, 2001. The coal-feed tests (TC07B-D) were started on January 17, 2002 and completed on April 5, 2002. Due to operational difficulties with the reactor, the unit was taken offline several times. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,700 and 1,780 F at pressures from 200 to 240 psig. In TC07, 679 hours of solid circulation and 442 hours of coal feed, 398 hours with PRB coal and 44 hours with coal from the Calumet mine, and 33 hours of coke breeze feed were attained. Reactor operations were problematic due to instrumentation problems in the LMZ resulting in much higher than desired operating temperatures in the reactor. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable and the modifications to the lower part of the gasifier performed well while testing the gasifier with PRB coal feed.

  13. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  14. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

  15. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC10

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2002-12-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC10 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC10 in air- (mainly for transitions and problematic operations) and oxygen-blown mode. Test Run TC10 was started on November 16, 2002, and completed on December 18, 2002. During oxygen-blown operations, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,825 F at pressures from 150 to 180 psig. After initial adjustments were made to reduce the feed rate, operations with the new fluidized coal feeder were stable with about half of the total coalfeed rate through the new feeder. However, the new fluidized-bed coal feeder proved to be difficult to control at low feed rates. Later the coal mills and original coal feeder experienced difficulties due to a high moisture content in the coal from heavy rains. Additional operational difficulties were experienced when several of the pressure sensing taps in the gasifier plugged. As the run progressed, modifications to the mills (to address processing the wet coal) resulted in a much larger feed size. This eventually resulted in the accumulation of large particles in the circulating solids causing operational instabilities in the standpipe and loop seal. Despite problems with the coal mills, coal feeder, pressure tap nozzles and the standpipe, the gasifier did experience short periods of stability during oxygenblown operations. During these periods, the syngas quality was high. During TC10, the gasifier gasified over 609 tons of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and

  16. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  17. Performance evaluation of an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongchanapai, Suranat; Iwai, Hiroshi; Saito, Motohiro; Yoshida, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The combination of biomass gasification and high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offers great potential as a future sustainable power generation system. In order to provide insights into an integrated small-scale SOFC-biomass gasification power generation system, system simulation was performed under diverse operating conditions. A detailed anode-supported planar SOFC model under co-flow operation and a thermodynamic equilibrium for biomass gasification model were developed and verified by reliable experimental and simulation data. The other peripheral components include three gas-to-gas heat exchangers (HXs), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), burner, fuel and air compressors. To determine safe operating conditions with high system efficiency, energy and exergy analysis was performed to investigate the influence through detailed sensitivity analysis of four key parameters, e.g. steam-to-biomass ratio (STBR), SOFC inlet stream temperatures, fuel utilization factor (Uf) and anode off-gas recycle ratio (AGR) on system performance. Due to the fact that SOFC stack is accounted for the most expensive part of the initial investment cost, the number of cells required for SOFC stack is economically optimized as well. Through the detailed sensitivity analysis, it shows that the increase of STBR positively affects SOFC while gasifier performance drops. The most preferable operating STBR is 1.5 when the highest system efficiencies and the smallest number of cells. The increase in SOFC inlet temperature shows negative impact on system and gasifier performances while SOFC efficiencies are slightly increased. The number of cells required for SOFC is reduced with the increase of SOFC inlet temperature. The system performance is optimized for Uf of 0.75 while SOFC and system efficiencies are the highest with the smallest number of cells. The result also shows the optimal anode off-gas recycle ratio of 0.6. Regarding with the increase of anode off-gas recycle ratio

  18. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  19. Feasibility study of wood biomass gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell power system—comparative characterization of fuel cell and gas turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, H.; Yoshiba, F.; Woudstra, N.; Hemmes, K.; Spliethoff, H.

    The conversion of biomass by means of gasification into a fuel suitable for a high-temperature fuel cell has recently received more attention as a potential substitute for fossil fuels in electric power production. However, combining biomass gasification with a high-temperature fuel cell raises many questions with regard to efficiency, feasibility and process requirements. In this study, a biomass gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system is modelled and compared with a relatively well-established biomass gasification/gas turbine (GT), in order to understand the peculiarities of biomass gasification/MCFC power systems and to develop a reference MCFC system as a future biomass gasification/MCFC power station.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Wolfe, R.A.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.; McKinney, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Coal liquids after fractionation can be blended with petroleum and used interchangeably with conventional fuels without modifications in gasoline and diesel engines. Char can be used as a carbon source in the production of ferroalloys and in mini-mills. Coke can be produced by upgrading char through briquetting and calcining and for use in the steel industry foundries and blast furnaces. In a step beyond the scope of the project, the plan is to finance, design and construct, in a partnership with others, a plant to produce coal liquid, char and coke in the initial range of 250,000 tons/year. In the Coal Technology Corporation CTC/CLC{reg_sign} Process, coal is continuously moved by interfolded twin screws through a heated retort in the absence of air. The residence time of the coal in the Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) is in the range of 20--30 minutes. The coal is heated to controlled temperatures between 800{degree} and 1400{degree}F and is converted into char, condensible hydrocarbon liquids, small quantities of water, and non-condensible fuel gases. The coal derived fuel gases could supply all the required process heat, but for convenience, natural gas is used in the experimental unit. The process concept particularly suitable for highly caking coals which cannot be processed in fluidized bed or moving bed furnaces.

  1. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  2. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix F: Critical technology items/issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Critical technology items and issues are defined in which there is a need for developmental research in order to assure technical and economic success for the state of the art of coal gasification in the United States. Technology development needs for the main processing units and the supporting units are discussed. While development needs are shown for a large number of systems, the most critical areas are associated with the gasifier itself and those systems which either feed the gasifier or directly receive products form the gasifier.

  3. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  4. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  5. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  6. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  7. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  8. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOEpatents

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  9. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  10. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  11. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  12. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REPORT: LURGI COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR SNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation and analysis of data on the equipment and processes constituting the Lurgi Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) systems, the control/disposal alternatives for a media, the performance and cost of control alternatives, and present and proposed environmental req...

  14. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the

  15. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Sewage sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which was used as a support for ferric oxides to form a catalyst (FeOx/SBAC) by a simple impregnation method. The new material was then used to improve the performance of Fenton oxidation of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the prepared FeOx/SBAC significantly enhanced the pollutant removal performance in the Fenton process, so that the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic. The best performance was obtained over a wide pH range from 2 to 7, temperature 30°C, 15 mg/L of H2O2 and 1g/L of catalyst, and the treated effluent concentrations of COD, total phenols, BOD5 and TOC all met the discharge limits in China. Meanwhile, on the basis of significant inhibition by a radical scavenger in the heterogeneous Fenton process as well as the evolution of FT-IR spectra of pollutant-saturated FeOx/BAC with and without H2O2, it was deduced that the catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals, and a possible reaction pathway and interface mechanism were proposed. Moreover, FeOx/SBAC showed superior stability over five successive oxidation runs. Thus, heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of biologically pretreated CGW by FeOx/SBAC, with the advantages of being economical, efficient and sustainable, holds promise for engineering application. PMID:26141873

  16. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  17. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant

  18. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

  19. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  20. Simulation of biomass and/or coal gasification systems integrated with fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ersoz, A.; Ozdogan, S.; Caglayan, E.; Olgun, H.

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a system simulation study. The HYSYS 3.1 - ASPEN code has been used for simulation. The system consists of a fixed bed gasifier followed by reforming and clean-up units. The produced hydrogen gas is fed to a PEM fuel cell. The gasified hydrocarbons are hazelnut shells, bark, rice straw, animal waste, and two lignites. Hydrocarbon properties, gasification, and reforming process parameters all affect the system efficiency. The effect of the moisture content and oxygen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon fees on the fuel processing and overall system efficiencies are presented. The overall efficiency of the system increases with increasing hydrocarbon fees oxygen to carbon ratio; this tendency is more evident at higher moisture levels.

  1. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The major design related features of each generic plant system were characterized in a catalog. Based on the catalog and requirements data, approximately 17 designs and cost estimates were developed for MBG and alternate products. A series of generic trade studies was conducted to support all of the design studies. A set of cost and programmatic analyses were conducted to supplement the designs. The cost methodology employed for the design and sensitivity studies was documented and implemented in a computer program. Plant design and construction schedules were developed for the K-T, Texaco, and B&W MBG plant designs. A generic work breakdown structure was prepared, based on the K-T design, to coincide with TVA's planned management approach. An extensive set of cost sensitivity analyses was completed for K-T, Texaco, and B&W design. Product price competitiveness was evaluated for MBG and the alternate products. A draft management policy and procedures manual was evaluated. A supporting technology development plan was developed to address high technology risk issues. The issues were identified and ranked in terms of importance and tractability, and a plan developed for obtaining data or developing technology required to mitigate the risk.

  2. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  3. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. PMID:27593269

  4. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  5. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  6. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-12-31

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and report on the findings of four samples: (1) Analysis of two porous coupons after exposure to the porous metal particulate filter of the coal gasification power plant at 370 C for 2140 hours revealed that corrosion takes place in the bulk of the sample while the most external zone surface survived the test. (2) Coating and characterization of several porous 409 steel coupons after being coated with nitrides of Ti, Al and/or Si showed that adjusting experimental conditions results in thicker coatings in the bulk of the sample. (3) Analysis of coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 hours showed that a better corrosion resistance is achieved by improving the coatings in the bulk of the samples.

  7. Leveling Intermittent Renewable Energy Production Through Biomass Gasification-Based Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.; Munoz, D.

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of intermittent renewable power in the United States is forcing utilities to manage increasingly complex supply and demand interactions. This paper evaluates biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be integrated with renewable resources to improve the efficiency, reliability, dispatchability, and cost of other renewable technologies. Two hybrid concepts were analyzed that involve co-production of gaseous hydrogen and electric power from thermochemical biorefineries. Both of the concepts analyzed share the basic idea of combining intermittent wind-generated electricity with a biomass gasification plant. The systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at a cost of $1.67/kg. The proposed hybrid systems seek to either fill energy shortfalls by supplying hydrogen to a peaking natural gas turbine or to absorb excess renewable power during low-demand hours. Direct leveling of intermittent renewable electricity production is accomplished with either an indirectly heated biomass gasifier, or a directly heated biomass gasifier. The indirect gasification concepts studied were found to be cost competitive in cases where value is placed on controlling carbon emissions. A carbon tax in the range of $26-40 per metric ton of CO{sub 2} equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emission makes the systems studied cost competitive with steam methane reforming (SMR) to produce hydrogen. However, some additional value must be placed on energy peaking or sinking for these plants to be economically viable. The direct gasification concept studied replaces the air separation unit (ASU) with an electrolyzer bank and is unlikely to be cost competitive in the near future. High electrolyzer costs and wind power requirements make the hybridization difficult to justify economically without downsizing the system. Based on a direct replacement of the ASU with electrolyzers, hydrogen

  8. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  9. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  10. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  11. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:26227570

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  13. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  14. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  15. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  16. Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Qian

    2014-12-01

    A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system was developed to treat coal gasification wastewater to enhance the COD, total phenols (TPh), NH4+ removals and migrate the membrane fouling. Since the MBR–PAC system operated with PAC dosage of 4 g L−1, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ reached 93%, 99% and 63%, respectively with the corresponding influent concentrations of 2.27 g L−1, 497 mg L−1 and 164 mg N L−1; the PAC extraction efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ were 6%, 3% and 13%, respectively; the transmembrane pressure decreased 34% with PAC after 50 d operation. The results demonstrate that PAC played a key role in the enhancement of biodegradability and mitigation of membrane fouling. PMID:25461944

  17. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  18. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

  19. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  20. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper updates the assessment of the Westinghouse hot gas filter design based on ongoing testing and analysis. Results are summarized from recent computational fluid dynamics modeling of the plenum flow during back pulse, analysis of candle stressing under cleaning and process transient conditions and testing and analysis to evaluate potential flow induced candle vibration.

  1. Some studies on a solid state sulfur probe for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements on the solid electrolyte cell (Ar + H(2) + H(2)S/CaS + CaF(2) + (Pt)//CaF(2)//(Pt) + CaF(2) + CaS/H(2) + H(2)+Ar) show that the emf of the cell is directly related to the difference in sulfur potentials established at the Ar + H(2) + H(2)S/electrode interfaces. The electrodes convert the sulfur potential gradient across the calcium fluoride electrolyte into an equivalent fluorine potential gradient. Response time of the probe varies from approximately 9 hr at 990 K to 2.5 hr at 1225 K. The conversion of calcium sulfide and/or calcium fluoride into calcium oxide is not a problem anticipated in commercial coal gasification systems. Suggestions are presented for improving the cell for such commercial applications.

  2. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-09-30

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The primary activity this period was preparation and presentation of the findings on this project at the Twenty-Third annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Dr. Malhotra attended this conference and presented a paper. A copy of his presentation constitutes this quarterly report.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  5. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  6. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  7. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  9. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  10. Assessment of HAPs emissions from advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Brekke, D.W.; Botros, P.E.

    1996-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) identified 189 substances as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Under the CAAA, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate emissions of these HAPs at their sources, including advanced power systems used for the production of electricity. Eleven trace elements are included in the CAAA list of HAPS, as shown in Table 1. The EPA will define those sources that require regulation and limit their emissions according to regulatory directives. This project focused on evaluating and manipulating the advanced power systems HAPs data currently available for presentation to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Trace components included in the 189 HAPs of the 1990 CAAA are: antimony compounds; arsenic compounds; beryllium compounds; cadmium compounds; chromium compounds; cobalt compounds; lead compounds; manganese compounds; mercury compounds; nickel compounds; and selenium compounds. The review of trace element emissions from advanced power systems and hot-gas cleanup systems included data from Tidd Station, General Electric hot-gas cleanup, Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, and the Cool Water plant. Very few other sources of information were located, and those that were contained significantly flawed information that was not of value to this project. To offset the shortage of information, thermochemical equilibrium predictions were used in evaluating advanced control systems. An outline of the systems reviewed is given in Table 2. In addition to the four demonstration and 1 full-scale systems reviewed, nine conventional systems were also reviewed for comparison with the advanced systems.

  11. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  12. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas[trademark], necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  13. Coal gasification: Direct applications and syntheses of chemicals and fuels: A research needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.; Alpert, S.B.; Beer, J.M.; Denn, M.; Haag, W.; Magee, R.; Reichl, E.; Rubin, E.S.; Solomon, P.R.; Wender, I.

    1987-06-01

    The DOE Working Group for an Assessment of Coal-Gasification Research Needs (COGARN - coal gasification advanced research needs) has reviewed and evaluated US programs dealing with coal gasification for a variety of applications. Cost evaluations and environmental-impact assessments formed important components of the deliberations. We have examined in some depth each of the following technologies: coal gasification for electricity generation in combined-cycle systems, coal gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas, coal gasifiers for direct electricity generation in fuel cells, and coal gasification for the production of synthesis gas as a first step in the manufacture of a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. Both catalytic and non-catalytic conversion processes were considered. In addition, we have constructed an orderly, long-range research agenda on coal science, pyrolysis, and partial combustion in order to support applied research and development relating to coal gasification over the long term. The COGARN studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research needs in fuel utilization that involves coal gasification as the dominant or an important component. The findings and research recommendations of COGARN are summarized in this publication.

  14. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  16. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  17. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  18. Novel hydrogen separation device development for coal gasification system applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This study was undertaken for the development of a novel Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator (EHS) technology for low-cost hydrogen separation from coal derived gases. Design and operating parameter testing was performed using subscale cells (25 cm{sup 2}). High H{sub 2} purity, >99% is one of the main features of the EHS. It was found that N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} behave as equivalent inerts; EHS performance is not affected by the balance of feed gas containing these components. This product purity level is not sacrificed by increased H{sub 2} recovery. CO, however, does adversely affect EHS performance and therefore feed stream pretreatment is recommended. Low levels of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} were added to the feed gas stream and it was verified that these impurities did not affect EHS performance. Task 2 demonstrated the scale-up to full size multi-cell module operation while maintaining a stable energy requirement. A 10-cell full-size module (1050 cm{sup 2} cell active area) was operated for over 3,800 hours and gave a stable baseline performance. Several applications for the EHS were investigated. The most economically attractive systems incorporating an EHS contain low pressure, dilute hydrogen streams, such as coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems, hydrogen plant purification and fluid catalytic cracker units. In addition, secondary hydrogen recovery from PSA or membrane tailstreams using an EHS may increase overall system efficiency.

  19. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  20. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  1. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  2. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  3. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-06-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

  4. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill. PMID:19767203

  5. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  7. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  8. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Jordi Perez; Marc Hornbostel; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2007-05-31

    Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in the IGCC system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy will improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. In this study, the use of corrosion-resistant coatings on low alloy steels was investigated for use as high-temperature components in IGCC systems. The coatings were deposited using SRI's fluidized-bed reactor chemical vapor deposition technique. Diffusion coatings of Cr and Al were deposited by this method on to dense and porous, low alloy stainless steel substrates. Bench-scale exposure tests at 900 C with a simulated coal gas stream containing 1.7% H{sub 2}S showed that the low alloy steels such SS405 and SS409 coated with {approx

  9. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  10. The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

    1994-06-01

    Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

  11. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix B: Medium B+U gas design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A four module, 20,000 TPD, based on KT coal gasification technology was designed. The plant processes Kentucky No. 9 coal with provisions for up to five percent North Alabama coal. Medium BTU gas with heat content of 305 BTU/SCF and not more than 200 ppm sulfur is the primary plant product. Sulfur is recovered for scale as prilled sulfur. Ash disposal is on site. The plant is designed for zero water discharge. Trade studies provided the basis for not using boiler produced steam to drive prime movers. Thus process derived steam in excess of process requirements in superheated for power use in prime movers. Electricity from the TVA grid is used to supply the balance of the plant prime mover power requirements. A study of the effect of mine mouth coal cleaning showed that coal cleaning is not an economically preferred route. The design procedure involved defining available processes to meet the requirements of each system, technical/economic trade studies to select the preferred processes, and engineering design and flow sheet development for each module. Cost studies assumed a staggered construction schedule for the four modules beginning spring 1981 and a 90% on stream factor.

  12. Mutagenicity of Tween 80-solvated mild gasification products in the Ames salmonella microsomal assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    The results of the Tween 80-solvated Ames testing of six mild gasification samples indicate significant mutagenic activity only in the composite materials (MG-119 and MG-120), previously suspected from the DMSO-solvated assays, which had shown some variable but ultimately insignificant mutagenic responses. The activity of these samples from the Tween 80-solvated assays was quite low when compared to either the positive controls or the SRC-II HD coal-liquefaction reference material. The class of mutagenic activity expressed by these samples solvated in Tween 80 was that of an indirect-acting, frameshift mutagen(s) since significant activity was found only on tester strain TA98 in the presence of the metabolic activation fraction (S9). Because DMSO and other solvents have been shown to affect the mutagenic activity of certain pure chemicals, the possibility of solvent/mutagen interactions in complex mixtures such as coal-derived liquids exists. Thus, the testing of the genotoxic activity of undefined, chemically complex compounds may require the use of at least two solvent systems to reduce the possibility of artifactual findings. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-03-15

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we conducted two 300-hour tests. In the first test, we exposed samples at 900 C under conditions simulating the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The second test was at 370 C, corresponding to the filter units following the HTHRU. The tests were showed the resilience of silicon nitride as a coating component, and the new coating procedures better penetrated the pores in sintered metal filter samples. Finally, we also received samples that were exposed in the Wabash River plant. Unfortunately, all these samples, that were prepared last year, were severely eroded and/or corroded.

  14. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-09-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted several exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons including a ''500-h'' test. The first experiment was a 316-h test and was designed to look at the performance of Ti/Ta nitride coatings, which seemed to fare the best in earlier tests. The next experiment was a 112-h test with a range of pure metals and commercially available materials. Its purpose was to help identify those metals that best withstood gasifier environment, and hence should be good ingredients for coatings. Finally, we ran a ''500-h'' test, which was also our milestone, with coupons coated with Ti/Ta nitride or Cr/Al coatings.

  15. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-12-01

    Heat exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in an integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high-alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted a simulated gasifier test primarily with TiN-coated steel samples. Although the test showed these coatings to offer significant protection against corrosion, they also revealed a lack of uniformity in the coatings. We spent a considerable amount of effort improving our coatings procedure as well as the fluidized bed reactor and its heater. Based on the results collected thus far, we selected 12 samples and sent them to ConocoPhillips for testing in their gasifier at the Wabash River Energy plant.

  16. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power

  17. Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Woldy, P.N.; Kaufman, H.C.; Dach, M.M.; Beall, J.F.

    1981-02-03

    This version of Texaco's gasification process for high-ash-content solids is not extended to include the production of superheated steam, as described in US Patent 4,247,302. The hot, raw gas stream passes through fewer coolers, producing a high-pressure steam instead of a superheated steam.

  18. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  19. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  2. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  3. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  4. Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

    1977-01-01

    A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

  5. Advanced space recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  6. Advanced training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  7. Dynamic simulation models for selective sulfur removal in coal gasification systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vysniauskas, T.; Sim, W.D.

    1985-07-01

    A study was conducted, under EPRI Agreement RP1038-6, to investigate the feasibility of using computer simulation models to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of selective acid gas treating units. One of the prime objectives was to determine whether these models could be used to simulate the acid gas absorption units in coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plants. Two dynamic simulation models were investigated; one model was developed by S-Cubed (formerly Systems, Science and Software) and the other was an in-house program developed by Hyprotech Ltd. These models were tailored specifically for the Norton Co. SELEXOL process for this study and incorporated an empirically fitted property package to represent the solvent. Both models used the same property package and were tested against SELEXOL plant data provided from the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, Pennsylvania, the Texaco pilot plant in Montebello, California and the TVA pilot plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The results of this study are presented in this report. Although there were inconsistencies in some of the plant data, the models appeared to compare favorably with the plant data. The S-Cubed and Hyprotech model yielded nearly identical results when tested against the Bi-Gas plant data. Overall, the Hyprotech model proved to be faster than the S-Cubed version by about an order of magnitude and therefore offered the more attractive option for general simulation applications. However, further work is still needed to improve the solvent property predictions in the model. 7 refs.

  8. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-06-30

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). We report here on findings of this analysis: (1) A SS409 coupon that was coated with multilayered combined nitrides of Ti, Al, and Si showed adherent coatings on the surface; (2) A similarly coated coupon, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h, revealed that the coating has cracked during the exposure; (3) An SS409 coupon that was coated with nitrides of Ti and Si with a barrier layer of tungsten in between to improve the adhesion of the coating and to prevent outward diffusion of iron to the surface. (4) A porous coupon was coated with nitrides of Ti and Al and examination of the coupon revealed deposition of Ti at the interior surfaces. A similarly prepared coupon was exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 h, and it showed no corrosion.

  9. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2007-03-31

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the hightemperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several 409 low alloy steel samples after coating them in our fluidized bed reactor and also after exposing them to our corrosion test. We report the following findings: 1. A protective coating was deposited inside a porous 409 steel sample to protect it from sulfidation attack. The coating was based on a combination of Si diffusion layer, Nb interlayer and nitrides of titanium and silicon. 2. Analysis of solid coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that multilayer metal/ceramic coatings provide a better protection than ceramic coatings. 3. Deposition of several ceramic/metal multilayer coatings showed that coatings with niobium and tantalum interlayers have good adhesion. However, coatings with a tungsten interlayer suffered localized delaminating and coatings with Zr interlayers showed poor adhesion. 4. Analysis of solid coupons, coated with the above-mentioned multilayer films, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that niobium is the best candidate for interlayer material.

  10. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

  11. Advanced cement solidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kuribayashi, H.; Todo, F.

    1993-12-31

    In order to easily and economically store and transport radioactive waste generated at nuclear power stations, it is essential to reduce the waste volume to the maximum extent. It is also necessary to transform the waste into a stable form for final disposal which will maintain its chemical and physical stability over a long period of time. For this purpose, the Advanced Cement Solidification Process (AC-process) was developed. The AC-process, which utilizes portland cement, can be applied to several kinds of waste such as boric acid waste, laboratory drain waste, incineration ash and spent ion exchange resin. In this paper, the key point of the AC-process, the pretreatment concept for each waste, is described. The AC-process has been adopted for two Japanese PWR stations: the Genkai Nuclear Power Station (Kyushu Electric Power Co.) and the Ikata Nuclear Power Station (Shikoku Electric Power Co.). Construction work has almost finished and commissioning tests are under way at both power stations.

  12. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.

  13. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  14. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  15. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  16. Power Systems Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    California Institute of Technology

    2007-03-31

    In the 17 quarters of the project, we have accomplished the following milestones - first, construction of the three multiwavelength laser scattering machines for different light scattering study purposes; second, build up of simulation software package for simulation of field and laboratory particulates matters data; third, carried out field online test on exhaust from combustion engines with our laser scatter system. This report gives a summary of the results and achievements during the project's 16 quarters period. During the 16 quarters of this project, we constructed three multiwavelength scattering instruments for PM2.5 particulates. We build up a simulation software package that could automate the simulation of light scattering for different combinations of particulate matters. At the field test site with our partner, Alturdyne, Inc., we collected light scattering data for a small gas turbine engine. We also included the experimental data feedback function to the simulation software to match simulation with real field data. The PM scattering instruments developed in this project involve the development of some core hardware technologies, including fast gated CCD system, accurately triggered Passively Q-Switched diode pumped lasers, and multiwavelength beam combination system. To calibrate the scattering results for liquid samples, we also developed the calibration system which includes liquid PM generator and size sorting instrument, i.e. MOUDI. In this report, we give the concise summary report on each of these subsystems development results.

  17. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  18. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  19. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  20. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  1. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  2. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix H: Work breakdown structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A work breakdown structure (WBS) is presented which encompasses the multiple facets (hardware, software, services, and other tasks) of the coal gasification program. The WBS is shown to provide the basis for the following: management and control; cost estimating; budgeting and reporting; scheduling activities; organizational structuring; specification tree generation; weight allocation and control; procurement and contracting activities; and serves as a tool for program evaluation.

  3. Removal of COD, phenols and ammonium from Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using A2O-MBR system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixing; Xu, Xiaochen; Gong, Zheng; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-10-15

    As a typical industrial wastewater, coal gasification wastewater has poor biodegradability and high toxicity. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic membrane reactor (A(2)O-MBR) system was developed to investigate the treatment ability of coal gasification wastewater. The removal capacity of each pollutants used in this system were determined at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) and mixed liquor recycle ratios (R). The experimental results showed that this system could effectively deal with COD and phenol removal and remain in a stable level when the operational parameters altered, while the nitrification was sensitive to operational conditions. The best performance was obtained at HRT of 48 h and R of 3. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, NH(4)(+)-N and phenols were 97.4%, 92.8% and 99.7%, with final concentrations in the effluent of 71 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. Organics degradation and transformation were analyzed by GC/MS and it was found that anaerobic process played an important role in degradation of refractory compounds. PMID:22902132

  4. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  5. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  7. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  8. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The proof of concept, feasibility, and verification of the advanced prop fan and of the integrated advanced prop fan aircraft are established. The use of existing hardware is compatible with having a successfully expedited testbed ready for flight. A prop fan testbed aircraft is definitely feasible and necessary for verification of prop fan/prop fan aircraft integrity. The Allison T701 is most suitable as a propulsor and modification of existing engine and propeller controls are adequate for the testbed. The airframer is considered the logical overall systems integrator of the testbed program.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  10. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  11. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  12. Characterization of Filter Elements for Service in a Coal Gasification Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    2002-09-19

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a joint Department of Energy/Industry sponsored engineering-scale facility for testing advanced coal-based power generation technologies. High temperature, high pressure gas cleaning is critical to many of these advanced technologies. Barrier filter elements that can operate continuously for nearly 9000 hours are required for a successful gas cleaning system for use in commercial power generation. Since late 1999, the Kellogg Brown & Root Transport reactor at the PSDF has been operated in gasification mode. This paper describes the test results for filter elements operating in the Siemens-Westinghouse particle collection device (PCD) with the Transport reactor in gasification mode. Operating conditions in the PCD have varied during gasification operation as described elsewhere in these proceedings (Martin et al, 2002).

  13. Experimental investigation on an entrained flow type biomass gasification system using coconut coir dust as powdery biomass feedstock.

    PubMed

    Senapati, P K; Behera, S

    2012-08-01

    Based on an entrained flow concept, a prototype atmospheric gasification system has been designed and developed in the laboratory for gasification of powdery biomass feedstock such as rice husks, coconut coir dust, saw dust etc. The reactor was developed by adopting L/D (height to diameter) ratio of 10, residence time of about 2s and a turn down ratio (TDR) of 1.5. The experimental investigation was carried out using coconut coir dust as biomass feedstock with a mean operating feed rate of 40 kg/h The effects of equivalence ratio in the range of 0.21-0.3, steam feed at a fixed flow rate of 12 kg/h, preheat on reactor temperature, product gas yield and tar content were investigated. The gasifier could able to attain high temperatures in the range of 976-1100 °C with gas lower heating value (LHV) and peak cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 7.86 MJ/Nm3 and 87.6% respectively. PMID:22613886

  14. Advances in Energy Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.S.; Prince, B.; Sasson, A.M.; Wynne, W.T.; Trefny, F.; Cleveland, F.

    1986-08-01

    This paper is one of the series prepared for a special session to be held at PICA 85. The objective is to review the advances that have been made in Energy Management Systems and to obtain a more common agreement as to the usefulness and future of such systems. The paper contains a summary of five discussions of Energy Management Systems. These discussions focus on the major components of an Energy Management System and address important questions as to the usefulness, past developments, the current state-of-the-art, and needs in Energy Management Systems. Each author provides a different perspective of these systems. The discussions are intended to provide insight into Energy Management Systems, to solicit discussions, and to provide a forum for discussions of Energy Management System's developments and future needs.

  15. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, H.M.; Reuther, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected six integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  16. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  17. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  19. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  20. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  1. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  2. Research on advanced transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  3. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Efforts continued to obtain financing for a commercial continuous formed coke plant. Discussions were held with two steel companies that are interested in producing coke for their use in steel production and foundry operations. Planning for production of 40 tons of foundry formed coke is underway. This coke will be used in two 20-ton tests at General Motors` foundries. During this production, it is planned to determine if a tunnel kiln can be used as a coking furnace as an alternative for a rotary hearth. A rotary hearth is about three times more costly than a competitive-sized tunnel kiln. Work continued on using Western non-caking coals to produce formed coke. Successful tests were made by using Eastern caking coals and other binders to permit using up to 50% of the cheaper Western non-caking coals in formed coke production. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

  4. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  5. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  6. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  7. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS), Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstration advanced anionics system (DAAS) function description, hardware description, operational evaluation, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) are provided. Projected advanced avionics system (PAAS) description, reliability analysis, cost analysis, maintainability analysis, and modularity analysis are discussed.

  8. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  9. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  10. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System, which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5 micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  11. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  14. Fundamental aspects of catalysed coal char gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwal, S. K.; Truesdale, R. S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief review of the basic aspects of catalysed coal char gasification is presented. Kinetics and mechanisms of catalysed and uncatalysed gasification reactions of coal char with steam, carbon dioxide and hydrogen are discussed. Mass transport effects and internal structure of coals are shown to be important in determining rates of these reactions. The importance of the type of catalyst used is also discussed. Such factors as catalyst cations and anions, the method by which the catalyst is contacted with the coal char, and physical and chemical states of the catalyst both prior to and during reaction are shown to be important in the gasification process. Finally, research instruments and equipment used recently for studies in catalysed gasification are reviewed. These include various types of reactor systems for following the course of these reactions and analytical instruments for assessing the physical and/or chemical state of the catalysts and/or coal char both prior to and during the gasification reactions.

  15. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  16. Advanced Docking Berthing System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James

    2006-01-01

    In FY05 the Exploration Systems Technology Maturation Program selected the JSC advanced mating systems development to continue as an in-house project. In FY06, as a result of ESAS Study (60 Day Study) the CEV Project (within the Constellation Program) has chosen to continue the project as a GFE Flight Hardware development effort. New requirement for CEV to travel and dock with the ISS in 2011/12 in support of retiring the Shuttle and reducing the gap of time where US does not have any US based crew launch capability. As before, long-duration compatible seal-on-seal technology (seal-on-seal to support androgynous interface) has been identified as a risk mitigation item.

  17. Task 3.0: Advanced power systems. Semi-annual report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McCollor, D.P.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.

    1993-07-01

    A variety of activities are incorporated into the Advanced Power Systems program. Tasks included are (1) fuel utilization properties, (2) pressurized combustion, (3) catalytic gasification, and (4) hot-gas cleanup. ATRAN is stochastic and combines initial coal inorganics in a random manner in order to predict the resulting fly ash particle size and composition. ASHPERT, is an expert system yielding a first-order estimate of fly ash size and composition. Both models are designed to emulate pulverized-coal combustion. Input data required include identity, chemistry, size, quantity, and mineral-to-coal associations. The pressurized combustion task has focused on the construction of a versatile reactor system to simulate pressurized fluidized-bed combustion. Both castable and monolithic refractories have been investigated in determining slag prevention under a variety of conditions. Catalytic gasification coupled with a molten carbonate fuel cell offers an extremely efficient and environmentally sound power generating system using coal. Work with an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal has not been successful. Continued efforts will focus on using the more reactive low-rank coals to try to achieve this goal. Hot-gas cleanup is the critical issue in many of the proposed advanced power system operations on coal. The key to successful ash removal is an understanding of the properties of the ash to be collected as well as the interactions of this material with the barrier itself. The knowledge base under development will assist in assessing many of these barrier material issues for a variety of coal ashes.

  18. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Seventh quarterly project report, October 1982-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and estimating costs to asertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasifications systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report briefly summarizes efforts previously completed on thermodynamic projections and system performance projections, together with current work on getter selection and qualification. Work on the thermodynamic projections has been completed and includes an update of the data base, development of alkali phase diagrams, and projections for several gasification processes. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved four tests with the leading candidate getter -- emathlite -- on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Plans were also formulated for three tests with emathlite on the bench-scale unit, including one with simulated fuel gas containing water vapor and alkali.

  19. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  20. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  1. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  2. Coal gasification system with a modulated on/off control system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A modulated control system is provided for improving regulation of the bed level in a fixed-bed coal gasifier into which coal is fed from a rotary coal feeder. A nuclear bed level gauge using a cobalt source and an ion chamber detector is used to detect the coal bed level in the gasifier. The detector signal is compared to a bed level set point signal in a primary controller which operates in proportional/integral modes to produce an error signal. The error signal is modulated by the injection of a triangular wave signal of a frequency of about 0.0004 Hz and an amplitude of about 80% of the primary deadband. The modulated error signal is fed to a triple-deadband secondary controller which jogs the coal feeder speed up or down by on/off control of a feeder speed change driver such that the gasifier bed level is driven toward the set point while preventing excessive cycling (oscillation) common in on/off mode automatic controllers of this type. Regulation of the bed level is achieved without excessive feeder speed control jogging.

  3. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  4. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  5. Some studies on a solid-state sulfur probe for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of a program for the development of a sulfur probe for monitoring the sulfur potential in coal gasification reactors, an investigation was conducted regarding the efficiency of the solid electrolyte cell Ar+H2+H2S/CaS+CaF2+(Pt)//CaF2//Pt)+CaF2+CaS/H2S+H2+Ar. A demonstration is provided of the theory, design, and operation of a solid-state sulfur probe based on CaF2 electrolyte. It was found that the cell responds to changes in sulfur potential in a manner predicted by the Nernst equation. The response time of the cell at 1225 K, after a small change in temperature or gas composition, was 2.5 Hr, while at a lower temperature of 990 K the response time was approximately 9 hr. The cell emf was insensitive to a moderate increase in the flow rate of the test gas and/or the reference gas. The exact factors affecting the slow response time of galvanic cells based on a CaF2 electrolyte have not yet been determined. The rate-limiting steps may be either the kinetics of electrode reactions or the rate of transport through the electrolyte.

  6. Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

    2002-06-30

    Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program

  9. Air blown gasification cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Brown, D.; Burnard, G.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) is a hybrid partial gasification cycle based on a novel, air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasifier (PFBG) with a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) to burn the residual char from the PFBG. The ABGC has been developed primarily as a clean coal generation system and embodies a sulfur capture mechanism based on the addition of limestone, or other sorbent, to the PFBG where it is sulfided in the reducing atmosphere, followed by oxidation to a stable sulfate residue in the CFBC. In order to achieve commercialization, certain key technological issues needed to be addressed and an industry-led consortium was established to develop the components of the system through the prototype plant to commercial exploitation. The consortium, known as the Clean Coal Power Generation Group (CCPGG), is undertaking a program of activity aimed at achieving a design specification for a 75 MWe prototype integrated plant by March, 1996. Component development consists of both the establishment of new components, such as the PFBG and the hot gas clean up system, and specific development of already established components, such as the CFBC, raw gas cooler, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gas turbine. This paper discusses the component development activities and indicates the expected performance and economics of both the prototype and commercial plants. In addition, the strategy for component development and achievement of the specification for a 75 MWe prototype integrated plant is described.

  10. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  11. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Third quarterly project report, October 1981-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-02-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and eestimating costs to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report describes work completed on thermodynamic projections, getter selection and qualification, and system performance projections. Work on the thermodynamic projections has been completed and includes an update of the data base, development of alkali phase diagrams, and projections for several gasification processes. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved eight tests with activated bauxite on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system and a comprehensive getter screening test, along with an activated bauxite run with water vapor on the bench-scale unit. Finally, system performance projections entailed a study that attempted to define reaction stoichiometry for the complex gettering process. Data on the fates of alkali metals (Na and K) in 5 gasification processes are reported, including chemical species in the gas and chemical compounds stable at various temperatures in the ash.

  12. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  13. Engineering and economic evaluation of integrated gasification compressed air storage with humidification (IGCASH). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, O.; McCone, A.; Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1993-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Compressed Air Storage with Humidification (IGCASH) is concept for an intermediate-load, cycling-duty plant with the environmental advantages of coal gasification and the reliability benefits of continuous operation of the hot gasification and turbomachinery equipment. The IGCASH concept integrates a quench-type coal gasification system with an advanced compressed air storage system in which the compression heat is recovered and stored in water which is used to humidify and preheat the air and fuel gas sent to the turbine. Bechtel under contract to EPRI (RP 2834-3) performed an engineering and economic evaluation to verify the feasibility of IGCASH as an option for intermediate-load power generation from coal. A baseline design was developed for a conceptual 400 MW generic IGCASH plant using currently available technology, including the Texaco full-quench gasification process, Westinghouse turbomachinery, and solution-mined salt-dome cavern for air storage. Three alternatives to the baseline design were also developed to assess the effects of storage water temperature and next-generation turbomachinery on plant performance and economics. The IGCASH concept compared favorably with conventional pulverized coal fired steam (PCFS) power generation. The IGCASH baseline design showed a significantly lower heat rate and yielded a lower cost of electricity than a comparable PCFS plant operating on the same duty cycle.

  14. Surface Gasification Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and furture large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this report include: (1) corrosion studies of plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories - application/evaluation; (3) protective coatings and claddings - application/evaluation; (4) corrosion of structural ceramics in coal gasification environments; (5) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (6) electroslag component casting; (7) production and evaluation of electroslag casting; and (8) materials review and component failure analysis in support of coal gasification processes and plants.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  16. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  17. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  18. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  19. Advances in Gene Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Zhang, Guisheng; Liu, Dexi

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of genes into cells, both in vitro and in vivo, is critical for studying gene function and conducting gene therapy. Methods that utilize viral and nonviral vectors, as well as physical approaches, have been explored. Viral vector-mediated gene transfer employs replication-deficient viruses such as retro-virus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. A major advantage of viral vectors is their high gene delivery efficiency. The nonviral vectors developed so far include cationic liposomes, cationic polymers, synthetic peptides and naturally occurring compounds. These nonviral vectors appear to be highly effective in gene delivery to cultured cells in vitro but are significantly less effective in vivo. Physical methods utilize mechanical pressure, electric shock or hydrodynamic force to transiently permeate the cell membrane to transfer DNA into target cells. They are simpler than viral- and nonviral-based systems and highly effective for localized gene delivery. The past decade has seen significant efforts to establish the most desirable method for safe, effective and target-specific gene delivery, and good progress has been made. The objectives of this review are to (i) explain the rationale for the design of viral, nonviral and physical methods for gene delivery; (ii) provide a summary on recent advances in gene transfer technology; (iii) discuss advantages and disadvantages of each of the most commonly used gene delivery methods; and (iv) provide future perspectives. PMID:22200988

  20. Study of high temperature removal of alkali of a pressurized gasification system: Final report. [Emathlite pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, D.M.; Alvin, M.A.; DeZubay, E.A.; Mulik, P.R.

    1986-10-01

    Advanced coal-fueled processes that use high-temperature (1500 F or more) gas cleaning have the potential for significant cost savings. Turbine corrosion control by alkali removal may be needed in such systems. A fixed bed of emathlite pellets had been identified earlier as a promising way to remove alkali metal vapors from hot gases. In the present program we examined the fundamental chemistry of the absorption reaction, demonstrated the removal concept in a bench-scale reactor, and developed the engineering basis for process scale-up. An industrial process for making emathlite pellets by slurry extrusion was defined. Pellet cost was estimated as $0.11 to $0.82 per ton of coal, depending on scale of production. The absorption mechanism was defined and shown to result in a sorbent capacity of 18 wt % sodium. A kinetic model that allows sizing of sorbent beds was developed. It was shown that absorption is effective even at very low gas-phase concentrations. The suggested process was demonstrated in a series of fixed bed tests, using up to 12 kg sorbent, at a hot gas cleanup test facility. Alkali removal of greater than 99% was demonstrated. Kinetics and capacity data indicate that even more removal could have been achieved with deeper beds. It was concluded that reduction of gas-phase sodium to the turbine tolerance of about 20 ppb is feasible with this technique. Example calculations of typical process sorbent consumption rates and reactor size requirements are presented. 7 refs., 46 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Applications of moving granular-bed filters to advanced systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.W.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-09-01

    The contract is arranged as a base contract with three options. The objective of the base contract is to develop conceptual design(s) of moving granular bed filter and ceramic candle filter technology for control of particles from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC), and direct coal fueled turbine (DCFT) environments. The conceptual design(s) of these filter technologies are compared, primarily from an economic perspective. The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600{degree}F) testing in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a two advanced power generating plants were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the 450 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, KRW air blown gasifier. A cross-flow filter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting costs were compared.

  2. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  3. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  4. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh. PMID:19758801

  5. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical

  6. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is

  7. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  8. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  9. Gasification of rice straw in a fluidized-bed gasifier for syngas application in close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems.

    PubMed

    Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; Otero, M; Morán, A; García, A I

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility and operation performance of the gasification of rice straw in an atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifier was studied. The gasification was carried out between 700 and 850 °C. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F) for rice straw was 4.28 and air supplied was 7-25% of that necessary for stoichiometric combustion. Mass and power balances, tar concentration, produced gas composition, gas phase ammonia, chloride and potassium concentrations, agglomeration tendencies and gas efficiencies were assessed. Agglomeration was avoided by replacing the normal alumina-silicate bed by a mixture of alumina-silicate sand and MgO. It was shown that it is possible to produce high quality syngas from the gasification of rice straw. Under the experimental conditions used, the higher heating value (HHV) of the produced gas reached 5.1 MJ Nm(-3), the hot gas efficiency 61% and the cold gas efficiency 52%. The obtained results prove that rice straw may be used as fuel for close-coupled boiler-gasifier systems. PMID:22297044

  10. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  11. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, R.E.; Griswold, G.H.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Kastner, C.E.; Pontium, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    Efficiencies in advanced power generation systems such as integrated gasification combined cycle, pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification fuel cells can be maximized by feeding hot fuel gas or flue gas to the power block. However, advanced gas turbines have strict particulate requirements to minimize wear on the blades due to the close tolerances used to maximize the efficiency of the turbomachinery. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells also have strict particulate requirements to prevent blinding of the electrodes. Therefore, one of the main barriers to developing these advanced power generation systems is the removal of particulates in a hot gas stream. Although the development of several high temperature/pressure PCD systems has been ongoing for the past several years, long term operation under realistic conditions for advanced power generation has been limited. The demonstration of reliable operation is critical to the commercialization of PCD technology for advanced power generation. The conceptual design of the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Project was expanded to include additional modules to better address the scope of the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE/METC. The expanded test facility, referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility, will provide a flexible test location in which the development of advanced power system components, the evaluation of advanced turbine and fuel cell configurations, and the integration and control issues of these systems. The facility is intended to provide direct support for upcoming DOE demonstrations of power generation technologies utilizing hot stream cleanup and will provide a resource for rigorous testing and performance assessment of hot stream cleanup devices now being developed with the support of DOE/METC.

  12. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Gary Stiegel

    2010-01-08

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  14. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  15. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  16. Eastern Stream Advance Notification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Oneonta. Coll. at Oneonta. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training.

    This directory contains instructions for using the advanced notification form designed to help identify migrant interstate children as they move between states. The form contains spaces for entering information about the children in the migrant family including each child's date of birth, last school name, grade level, and Migrant Education Record…

  17. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  18. Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

  19. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  20. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  1. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  3. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  4. Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Kaukler, Donna; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will report risk issues associated with designing, manufacturing, and testing the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD). The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) will be developed as a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. This technology will add to the knowledge base for selection for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), Space Based Laser (SBL), Research Laboratory mission (AFRL), and other government agency programs.

  5. Advanced technology applications for second and third generation coal gasification systems. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen coal conversion processes are described and their projected goals listed. Tables show the reactants used, products derived, typical operating data, and properties of the feed coal. A history of the development of each process is included along with a drawing of the chemical reactor used.

  6. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems: Greenfield assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Both the KRW fluidized-bed gasifier and the transport gasifier case studies were used for this assessment. The transport technology is a high-velocity circulating fluidized-bed reactor currently under development by The M.W. Kellogg Company. In the earlier assessment, seven design concepts or cases were identified; a process design was developed; major equipment items were identified; estimates of capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and cost of electricity were developed; reliability was predicted; and development issues were identified for six studies. Three of the most probable cases were further evaluated for a Greenfield assessment in this report to adequately determine all costs independent of facilities at Plant Wansley.

  7. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  8. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  9. Comparative description of coal feeding systems for fixed bed pressure gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, E.; Reimert, R.

    1977-01-01

    Coal feeding systems are discussed which are capable of feeding 20-100 T/H and the range of pressure is up to 100 bar. Most emphasis is placed on dry feeding systems. The systems outlined are subdivided into continuous and intermittent and the influence of each system on lock gas losses and reactor design is shown. Finally a cost estimate is presented which indicates the areas of preferred application and permits conclusions to be drawn regarding the economics of the various systems.

  10. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  11. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-09-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  14. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.; Allan, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems; (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions; and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions. Results are presented and discussed on the partitioning of trace metals and the model design for predicting trace metals behavior.

  15. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  16. Trace metal transformation in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Allen, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Holcombe, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to 1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, 2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and 3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  17. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  18. Pilot gasification and hot gas cleanup operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Galloway, E.; Thomson, T.A.; Rutten, J.; Lui, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has an integrated gasification hot gas cleanup facility to develop gasification, hot particulate and desulfurization process performance data for IGCC systems. The objective of our program is to develop fluidized-bed process performance data for hot gas desulfurization and to further test promising sorbents from lab-scale screening studies at highpressure (300 psia), and temperatures (1,200{degrees}F) using coal-derived fuel gases from a fluid-bed gasifier. The 10-inch inside diameter (ID), nominal 80 lb/hr, air blown gasifier is capable of providing about 300 lb/hr of low BTU gas at 1,000{degrees}F and 425 psig to downstream cleanup devices. The system includes several particle removal stages, which provide the capability to tailor the particle loading to the cleanup section. The gas pressure is reduced to approximately 300 psia and filtered by a candle filter vessel containing up to four filter cartridges. For batch-mode desulfurization test operations, the filtered coal gas is fed to a 6-inch ID, fluid-bed reactor that is preloaded with desulfurization sorbent. Over 400 hours of gasifier operation was logged in 1993 including 384 hours of integration with the cleanup rig. System baseline studies without desulfurization sorbent and repeatability checks with zinc ferrite sorbent were conducted before testing with the then most advanced zinc titanate sorbents, ZT-002 and ZR-005. In addition to the desulfurization testing, candle filters were tested for the duration of the 384 hours of integrated operation. One filter was taken out of service after 254 hours of filtering while another was left in service. At the conclusion of testing this year it is expected that 3 candles, one each with 254, 530, and 784 hours of filtering will be available for analysis for effects of the exposure to the coal gas environment.

  19. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  20. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1982. [Weight increase due to absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-10-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and estimating costs to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report briefly summarizes efforts previously completed on thermodynamic projections and system performance projections, together with current work on getter selection and qualification completed during the sixth quarter of the project. Work on the thermodynamic projections has been completed and includes an update of the data base, development of alkali phase diagrams, and projections for several gasification processes. Getter selection and qualification effforts involved six tests - five with Emathlite and activated bauxite on the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system and one with Emathlite on the bench-scale unit. Finally, system performance projections entailed examination of available kinetic data to ascertain the rate-controlling step, along with modeling efforts to determine the size requirements of a commercial-sized unit.

  1. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Annual technical progress report, April 1981 through March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-05-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and estimating costs to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report describes work completed on thermodynamic projections, getter selection and qualification, and system performance projections during the first year of the project. Work on the thermodynamic projections has been completed and includes an update of the data base, development of alkali phase diagrams, and projections for several gasification processes. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved 23 kinetic tests on our bench-scale reactor and 25 kinetic tests on our thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. A key series of tests on both units involved comprehensive getter screening tests in which 20 alternative getters were evaluated. System performance projections involved development of models using available kinetic data and subsequent projections of the size requirements for full-scale units.

  2. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  3. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  4. Nonelastomeric Rod Seals for Advanced Hydraulic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, W. F.; Waterman, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced high temperature hydraulic system rod sealing requirements can be met by using seals made of nonelastomeric (plastic) materials in applications where elastomers do not have adequate life. Exploratory seal designs were optimized for advanced applications using machinable polyimide materials. These seals demonstrated equivalent flight hour lives of 12,500 at 350 F and 9,875 at 400 F in advanced hydraulic system simulation. Successful operation was also attained under simulated space shuttle applications; 96 reentry thermal cycles and 1,438 hours of vacuum storage. Tests of less expensive molded plastic seals indicated a need for improved materials to provide equivalent performance to the machined seals.

  5. Advances in uncooled systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Gonzalez, H.; Hegg, Ronald G.; Kostrzewa, K.; Le Pere, C.; Ton, S.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Miller, James E.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2003-09-01

    The Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program recently demonstrated state-of-the-art imagery in a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 x 480 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The 640 x 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions. The intent of this DUS&T effort was to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging. In addition, the Advanced Uncooled Thermal Imaging Sensors (AUTIS) Program extended this development to light-weight, compact unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications.

  6. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  7. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D)program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  8. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  9. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  10. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  11. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  12. Development and Application of Optimal Design Capability for Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao; Michael B. Berkenpas

    2007-05-31

    The basic objective of this research is to develop a model to simulate the performance and cost of oxyfuel combustion systems to capture CO{sub 2} at fossil-fuel based power plants. The research also aims at identifying the key parameters that define the performance and costs of these systems, and to characterize the uncertainties and variability associated with key parameters. The final objective is to integrate the oxyfuel model into the existing IECM-CS modeling framework so as to have an analytical tool to compare various carbon management options on a consistent basis.

  13. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an integrated avionics system suitable for general aviation was determined. A design of reliable integrated avionics which provides expanded functional capability that significantly enhances the utility and safety of general aviation at a cost commensurate with the general aviation market was developed. The use of a data bus, microprocessors, electronic displays and data entry devices, and improved function capabilities were emphasized. An avionics system capable of evaluating the most critical and promising elements of an integrated system was designed, built and flight tested in a twin engine general aviation aircraft.

  15. Surface Gasification Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this semiannual progress report include: (1) corrosion studies of plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories - application/evaluation; (3) protective coatings and claddings - application/evaluation; (4) corrosion of structural ceramics in coal gasification environments; (5) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (6) electroslag component casting; (7) production and evaluation of electroslag castings; (8) cost reduction of electroslag casting manufacturing process; and (9) quantitative microstructural characterization of steel casting.

  16. Surface Gasification Materials Program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this report include the following: (1) plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories; (3) protective coatings and claddings; (4) ceramic fabrication/application technology; (5) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (6) electroslag component casting; (7) production and evaluation of electroslag castings; (8) cost reduction of the electroslag casting manufacturing process; (9) quantitative microstructural characterization of steel casting; and (10) materials review and component failure analysis in support of coal gasification processes and plants.

  17. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  18. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix E: Cost estimation and economic evaluation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The cost estimation and economic evaluation methodologies presented are consistent with industry practice for assessing capital investment requirements and operating costs of coal conversion systems. All values stated are based on January, 1980 dollars with appropriate recognition of the time value of money. Evaluation of project economic feasibility can be considered a two step process (subject to considerable refinement). First, the costs of the project must be quantified and second, the price at which the product can be manufacturd must be determined. These two major categories are discussed. The summary of methodology is divided into five parts: (1) systems costs, (2)instant plant costs, (3) annual operating costs, (4) escalation and discounting process, and (5) product pricing.

  19. Advanced Power System Analysis Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As a continuing effort to assist in the design and characterization of space power systems, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power and Propulsion Office developed a powerful computerized analysis tool called System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE). This year, SPACE was used extensively in analyzing detailed operational timelines for the International Space Station (ISS) program. SPACE was developed to analyze the performance of space-based photovoltaic power systems such as that being developed for the ISS. It is a highly integrated tool that combines numerous factors in a single analysis, providing a comprehensive assessment of the power system's capability. Factors particularly critical to the ISS include the orientation of the solar arrays toward the Sun and the shadowing of the arrays by other portions of the station.

  20. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. PMID:6389110

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays. The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  3. Advanced Sensor Systems for Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Inventor); Somps, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ricks, Robert D. (Inventor); Mundt, Carsten W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to telemetry-based sensing systems that continuously measures physical, chemical and biological parameters. More specifically, these sensing systems comprise a small, modular, low-power implantable biotelemetry system capable of continuously sensing physiological characteristics using implantable transmitters, a receiver, and a data acquisition system to analyze and record the transmitted signal over several months. The preferred embodiment is a preterm labor and fetal monitoring system. Key features of the invention include Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) that is used to send temperature and pressure information out of the biological environment. The RF carrier frequency is 174-216 MHz and a pair of RF bursts (pulses) is transmitted at a frequency of about 1-2 Hz. The transmission range is 3 to 10 feet, depending on the position of the transmitter in the body and its biological environment. The entire transmitter is encapsulated in biocompatible silicone rubber. Power is supplied by on-board silver-oxide batteries. The average power consumption of the current design is less than 30 microW, which yields a lifetime of approximately 6 - 9 months. Chip-on-Board technology (COB) drastically reduces the size of the printed circuit board from 38 x 28 mm to 22 x 8 mm. Unpackaged dies are flip-chip bonded directly onto the printed circuit board, along with surface mount resistors and capacitors. The invention can monitor additional physiological parameters including, but not limited to, ECG, blood gases, glucose, and ions such as calcium, potassium, and sodium.

  4. Steam supply system for superposed turbine and process chamber, such as coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Menger, W.M.

    1986-08-26

    A steam supply system is described for a process chamber consuming superheated steam at a pressure of about 600 psi or below which is driven by a boiler operating at a pressure of about 2000 psi, a pressure range above that needed by the process chamber for also driving a superposed turbine. The system consists of: (a) a high pressure boiler feed pump for supplying highly purified water to the boiler; (b) a condensing reboiler connected to receive steam from the superposed turbine in a high pressure side; (c) the condensing reboiler also having a low pressure side, essentially isolated from fluid contact with the high pressure side, for receiving water for use in the lower operating pressure steam processes; (d) the condensing reboiler further comprising integral superheating means for heating the water received in the low pressure side into superheated low pressure steam with the steam received in the high pressure side; (e) means for conveying fluid from the high pressure side of the condensing reboiler to the boiler feed pump; and (f) means for conveying the low pressure superheated steam from the condensing reboiler to the process chamber.

  5. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-15

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million.

  6. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  7. Advanced action manipulator system (ADAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugath, D. A.; Dane, D. H.; Blaise, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    Manipulator offers improved performance over other models in its category. It features larger force and reach capabilities and is readily convertible for underwater use. Unique kinematic arrangement provides extremely large working envelope. System has six degrees of motion: azimuth joint, shoulder joint, upper arm rotating joint, elbow joint, wrist pitch, and wrist twist.

  8. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix C: Alternate product facility designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The study of the production of methane, methanol, gasoline, and hydrogen by an add-on facility to a Koppers-Totzek based MBG plant is presented. Applications to a Texaco facility are inferred by evaluation of delta effects from the K-T cases. The production of methane from an add-on facility to a Lurgi based MBG plant and the co-production of methane and methanol from a Lurgi based system is studied. Studies are included of the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced in an integrated K-T based plant and the production of methane from up to 50 percent of the MBG produced from an integrated plant in which module 1 is based on K-T technology and modules 2, 3, and 4 are based on Texaco technology.

  9. Advanced sensor systems for biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Inventor); Somps, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ricks, Robert D. (Inventor); Mundt, Carsten W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to telemetry-based sensing systems that continuously measures physical, chemical and biological parameters. More specifically, these sensing systems comprise a small, modular, low-power implantable biotelemetry system capable of continuously sensing physiological characteristics using implantable transmitters, a receiver, and a data acquisition system to analyze and record the transmitted signal over several months. The preferred embodiment is a preterm labor and fetal monitoring system. Key features of the invention include Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) that is used to send temperature and pressure information out of the biological environment. The RF carrier frequency is 174-216 MHz and a pair of RF bursts (pulses) is transmitted at a frequency of about 1-2 Hz. The transmission range is 3 to 10 feet, depending on the position of the transmitter in the body and its biological environment. The entire transmitter is encapsulated in biocompatible silicone rubber. Power is supplied by on-board silver-oxide batteries. The average power consumption of the current design is less than 30 .mu.W., which yields a lifetime of approximately 6-9 months. Chip-on-Board technology (COB) drastically reduces the size of the printed circuit board from 38.times.28 mm to 22.times.8 mm. Unpackaged dies are flip-chip bonded directly onto the printed circuit board, along with surface mount resistors and capacitors. The invention can monitor additional physiological parameters including, but not limited to, ECG, blood gases, glucose, and ions such as calcium, potassium, and sodium.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    On November 6, 1991, a meeting was held at the AMAX Research and Development Center in Golden, Colorado. Those in attendance at the meeting included Brian Runge and Robert Ness of the EERC, Scott McFeely of Xoi, Frank Hogsett and Mahesh Jha of AMAX, and Jerry Sinor and Trevor Ellis of J.E- Sinor Consultants. Items on the agenda included framing the scope of work to be conducted by Sinor on the market assessment for mild gasification products. An attempt was made to draft an integrated time line for the completion of all subcontracts issued under the project. The commercial process flowsheet under development by XBi was presented for review. The goals to be achieved by the technical and economic assessment to be performed by XBi were outlined. Frank Hogsett reported on the progress of the coal cleaning being conducted by AMAX. As soon as sufficient coal has been cleaned, the mild gasification reactors at the EERC will be run to generate sufficient quantities of products to allow testing of product upgrading and utilization methods. The next project review meeting was held on December 12, 1991, in the Houston, Texas, offices of XBi. The major work conducted during this meeting focused on review of the preliminary process flow diagrams (PFOS) prepared by XBi. Several modifications were discussed and will be reflected in the updated PFDs.

  11. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal from Clarion County, PA. The period of the gasification test was April 30 to May 4, 1983. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Second quarterly project report, January 1984-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1984-05-23

    In previous programs, emathlite - an inexpensive, readily available mineral - was identified as the leading getter candidate for high-temperature, high-pressure alkali removal in pressurized gasification and PFBC systems. It was also shown that a packed bed getter reactor is the most feasible contacting technique for this hot gas cleaning unit operation. This program represents an attempt to use those findings to develop a packed bed emathlite getter reactor to the stage of readiness for demonstration on a gasification or PFBC system. In addition, one of the program tasks is aimed at more fundamental studies to identify and/or develop alternative or better getter materials. This report summarizes efforts on the five program tasks during the first quarter of 1984. The five tasks include: getter fabrication studies; alkali getter reaction mechanism definition (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Ti); getter capacity measurements; bench-scale process development unit studies; and engineering definition of hardware requirements for concept scale-up. 2 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  17. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  18. Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

  19. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  20. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  1. The Advanced Technology Operations System: ATOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Laue, H. A.; Poulter, K.; Smith, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mission control systems supporting new space missions face ever-increasing requirements in terms of functionality, performance, reliability and efficiency. Modern data processing technology is providing the means to meet these requirements in new systems under development. During the past few years the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has carried out a number of projects to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced software technology, in particular, knowledge based systems, to support mission operations. A number of advances must be achieved before these techniques can be moved towards operational use in future missions, namely, integration of the applications into a single system framework and generalization of the applications so that they are mission independent. In order to achieve this goal, ESA initiated the Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) program, which will develop the infrastructure to support advanced software technology in mission operations, and provide applications modules to initially support: Mission Preparation, Mission Planning, Computer Assisted Operations, and Advanced Training. The first phase of the ATOS program is tasked with the goal of designing and prototyping the necessary system infrastructure to support the rest of the program. The major components of the ATOS architecture is presented. This architecture relies on the concept of a Mission Information Base (MIB) as the repository for all information and knowledge which will be used by the advanced application modules in future mission control systems. The MIB is being designed to exploit the latest in database and knowledge representation technology in an open and distributed system. In conclusion the technological and implementation challenges expected to be encountered, as well as the future plans and time scale of the project, are presented.

  2. Converting moving-grate incineration from combustion to gasification - numerical simulation of the burning characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Waste incineration is a politically sensitive issue in the UK. The major current technology is based on direct combustion of wastes in a moving-grate furnace. However, general public opinion prefers non-direct burning technologies. Waste gasification is one of those nearest technologies available. By reducing the primary air-flow rate through the grate of a packed-bed system, operation of the existing solid-waste incineration equipment can be easily converted from combustion mode to gasification mode without major modification of the hardware. The potential advantages of this are lower dust carry-over in the flue gases, lower bed temperature (and therefore lower NO(x) formation in the bed), simplified gas-treatment procedures and lower running cost, among other benefits. The major disadvantages are, however, reduced throughput of the wastes and possibly higher carbon in the ash at exit. In this study, numerical simulation of both combustion and gasification of municipal solid wastes in a full-scale moving grate furnace is carried out employing advanced mathematical models. Burning characteristics, including burning rate, gas composition, temperature and burning efficiency as a function of operating parameters are investigated. Detailed comparisons between the combustion mode and gasification mode are made. The study helps to explore new incineration technology and optimise furnace operating conditions. PMID:16730435

  3. Topping combustor application to the Wilsonville Advanced Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Domeracki, W.F.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Crumm, C.J.; Morton, F.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Advanced Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located at Wilsonville Alabama is a Department of Energy (DOE) and Industry cost-shared facility which will be operated by Southern Company Services. This facility is designed to provide long-term hot gas cleanup and process testing for an Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Gasification System. It incorporates carbonization with a circulating fluidized bed and topping combustion system. The plant will produce 4 MW of electricity. It is being designed by Foster Wheeler and is scheduled to commence operation in 1998. As in any new technology or project there is usually a number of critical components whose successful development form the foundation for the overall success of the concept. In the development of advanced (PFBC) power generation plants, one of those critical components is the topping combustion system. This paper presents the criteria for the Westinghouse developed Topping Combustor that will fire a coal derived high temperature, ammonia-rich syngas into a high temperature vitiated air stream to drive an Allison Model 501-KM gas turbine.

  4. Technical Considerations for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews concerns involving advanced propulsion systems. The problems involved with the use of Am-242m, is that it has a high "eta" plus an order of magnitude larger fission cross section than other fissionable materials, and that it is extremely rare. However other americium isotopes are much more common, but extremely effective isotopic separation is required. Deuterium-Tritium fusion is also not attractive for space propulsion applications. Because the pulsed systems cannot breed adequate amounts of tritium and it is difficult and expensive to bring tritium from Earth. The systems that do breed tritium have severely limited performance. However, other fusion processes should still be evaluated. Another problem with advanced propellants is that inefficiencies in converting the total energy generated into propellant energy can lead to tremendous heat rejection requirements. Therefore Many. advanced propulsion concepts benefit greatly from low-mass radiators.

  5. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  6. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.; Parks, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research & Development (R&D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R&D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  7. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A. ); Parks, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research Development (R D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  8. Advanced Asia's health systems in comparison.

    PubMed

    Gauld, Robin; Ikegami, Naoki; Barr, Michael D; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Gould, Derek; Kwon, Soonman

    2006-12-01

    There is growing interest in comparing patterns of social and health service development in advanced Asian economies. Most publications concentrate broadly on a range of core social services such as education, housing, social security and health care. In terms of those solely focused on health, most discuss arrangements in specific countries and territories. Some take a comparative approach, but are focused on presentation and discussion of expenditure, resourcing and service utilization data. This article extends the comparative analysis of advanced Asian health systems, considering the cases of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. The article provides basic background information, and delves into common concerns among the world's health systems today including primary care organization, rationing and cost containment, service quality, and system integration. Conclusions include that problems exist in 'classifying' the five diverse systems; that the systems face common pressures; and that there are considerable opportunities to enhance primary care, service quality and system integration. PMID:16517000

  9. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is part of the Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical (MEMS) acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical-sensor-based systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used in characterizing both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data has cross-disciplinary utility to the microgravity life and physical sciences and the structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, while providing enhanced stability.

  10. Advanced Turbine Systems Program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    The Allison Gas Turbine Division (Allison) of General Motors Corporation conducted the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program feasibility study (Phase I) in accordance with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) contract DE-AC21-86MC23165 A028. This feasibility study was to define and describe a natural gas-fired reference system which would meet the objective of {ge}60% overall efficiency, produce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions 10% less than the state-of-the-art without post combustion controls, and cost of electricity of the N{sup th} system to be approximately 10% below that of the current systems. In addition, the selected natural gas-fired reference system was expected to be adaptable to coal. The Allison proposed reference system feasibility study incorporated Allison`s long-term experience from advanced aerospace and military technology programs. This experience base is pertinent and crucial to the success of the ATS program. The existing aeroderivative technology base includes high temperature hot section design capability, single crystal technology, advanced cooling techniques, high temperature ceramics, ultrahigh turbomachinery components design, advanced cycles, and sophisticated computer codes.

  11. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  12. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  13. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  14. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  15. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  16. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  17. Advanced Computed-Tomography Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Lowell D.; Gupta, Nand K.; Smith, Charles R.; Bernardi, Richard T.; Moore, John F.; Hediger, Lisa

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System (ACTIS) is computed-tomography x-ray apparatus revealing internal structures of objects in wide range of sizes and materials. Three x-ray sources and adjustable scan geometry gives system unprecedented versatility. Gantry contains translation and rotation mechanisms scanning x-ray beam through object inspected. Distance between source and detector towers varied to suit object. System used in such diverse applications as development of new materials, refinement of manufacturing processes, and inspection of components.

  18. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    . An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified

  19. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. First quarterly project report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Lippert, T.E.

    1981-07-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, system designs, and cost estimates to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report describes work completed on thermodynamic projections, getter selection and qualification, and system performance projections during the first three months of the project, as well as work applicable to this program under two companion DOE projects at Westinghouse. These latter efforts occurred in the interim between the current and a previous contract on alkali gettering.

  20. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  1. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  2. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  3. Task 3.0 -- Advanced power systems: Subtask 3.18 -- Ash behavior in power systems. Semi-annual report, June 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Swanson, M.L.; Musich, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced power systems such as integrated gasifier combined cycle systems and fluidized bed systems are at the forefront of power industry research because of the need for increased efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Ash behavior in power systems can have a significant impact on the design and performance of these systems. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a focused research initiative aimed at filling gaps in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of ash behavior, which has relevance to commercial application and marketable products associated with advanced power systems. This program develops methods and means to better understand and mitigate adverse coal ash behavior in advanced power systems and can act to relieve the US reliance on diminishing recoverable oil resources and other greenhouse-producing fossil fuels. Subtask 3.18 is structured as three tasks. Task 1 pertains to summarizing the critical issues in ash behavior, especially for advanced power systems. Task 2 focuses on fundamental ash sintering and viscosity-ash composition relationships that are critical for developing a better mechanistic understanding of ash deposit formation and for predicting ash behavior. Task 3 is aimed primarily at determining the role of the ash chemistry and phase relationships for specific ash interactions in advanced power systems. The role of sulfides in the formation of ash deposits in gasification systems and the factors that influence alloy corrosion in supercritical boilers will be specifically analyzed. Task results to date are presented.

  4. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  5. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The development of parametric cost estimating methods for advanced space systems in the conceptual design phase is discussed. The process of identifying variables which drive cost and the relationship between weight and cost are discussed. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested using a historical data base of research and development projects.

  6. Microprocessor controlled advanced battery management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The advanced battery management system described uses the capabilities of an on-board microprocessor to: (1) monitor the state of the battery on a cell by cell basis; (2) compute the state of charge of each cell; (3) protect each cell from reversal; (4) prevent overcharge on each individual cell; and (5) control dual rate reconditioning to zero volts per cell.

  7. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Ebert, Thomas; Cox, Rachel; Rahmatian, Laila; Wood, James; Schuler, Jason; Nick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) excavator robot is a teleoperated mobility platform with a space regolith excavation capability. This more compact, lightweight design (<50 kg) has counterrotating bucket drums, which results in a net-zero reaction horizontal force due to the self-cancellation of the symmetrical, equal but opposing, digging forces.

  8. Verification testing of advanced environmental monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Riggs, K.B.; Fuerst, R.G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) pilot project, one of 12 pilots comprising the US EPA`s Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The aim of ETV is to promote the acceptance of environmental technologies in the marketplace, through objective third-party verification of technology performance.

  9. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  10. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  11. Overview of Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, H. A.; Bajura, R. A.

    The US Department of Energy initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbine systems to serve both central power and industrial power generation markets. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will lead to commercial offerings by the private sector by 2002. ATS will be developed to fire natural gas but will be adaptable to coal and biomass firing. The systems will be: highly efficient (15 percent improvement over today's best systems); environmentally superior (10 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides over today's best systems); and cost competitive (10 percent reduction in cost of electricity). The ATS Program has five elements. Innovative cycle development will lead to the demonstration of systems with advanced gas turbine cycles using current gas turbine technology. High temperature development will lead to the increased firing temperatures needed to achieve ATS Program efficiency goals. Ceramic component development/demonstration will expand the current DOE/CE program to demonstrate industrial-scale turbines with ceramic components. Technology base will support the overall program by conducting research and development (R&D) on generic technology issues. Coal application studies will adapt technology developed in the ATS program to coal-fired systems being developed in other DOE programs.

  12. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  13. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  14. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  15. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  16. Advances in mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Dema, Barbara; Charles, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease associated with hormonal, environmental, and genetic factors and linked to the tolerance breakdown of B and T cells to self-antigens. SLE is characterized by the presence in patient serum of autoantibodies raised against nuclear components. Association of these antibodies to self-antigens, complement factors, DNA, and particular proteins will form circulating immune complexes (CIC) which can deposit in several organs, causing tissue damage and clinical manifestations. Historically, SLE is considered as an adaptive immune system disorder. Over the past decade, advances in the understanding of SLE pathogenesis placed the innate immune system as a key player in perpetuating and amplifying this systemic disease. In this review, we summarize some recent key advances in understanding the SLE immune-pathogenesis with a particular focus on newly discovered key factors from the innate immune system and how they influence the pathogenic adaptive immune system: neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and type I interferons, basophils and autoreactive IgE, monocytes/macrophages and the inflammasome. Recent advances on B and T cell involvement in the SLE pathogenesis mechanisms are also discussed. Although the disease is clinically, genetically, and immunologically heterogeneous between affected individuals, the latest discoveries are offering new promising therapeutic strategies. PMID:24882716

  17. The NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Bennett, William R.; Lvovich, Vadim F.; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Advanced Space Power Systems Project is to develop advanced, game changing technologies that will provide future NASA space exploration missions with safe, reliable, light weight and compact power generation and energy storage systems. The development effort is focused on maturing the technologies from a technology readiness level of approximately 23 to approximately 56 as defined in the NASA Procedural Requirement 7123.1B. Currently, the project is working on two critical technology areas: High specific energy batteries, and regenerative fuel cell systems with passive fluid management. Examples of target applications for these technologies are: extending the duration of extravehicular activities (EVA) with high specific energy and energy density batteries; providing reliable, long-life power for rovers with passive fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems that enable reduced system complexity. Recent results from the high energy battery and regenerative fuel cell technology development efforts will be presented. The technical approach, the key performance parameters and the technical results achieved to date in each of these new elements will be included. The Advanced Space Power Systems Project is part of the Game Changing Development Program under NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  18. Advanced launch system. Advanced development oxidizer turbopump program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    On May 19, 1989, Pratt & Whitney was awarded contract NAS8-37595 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Alabama for an Advanced Development Program (ADP) to design, develop and demonstrate a highly reliable low cost, liquid oxygen turbopump for the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The ALS had an overall goal of reducing the cost of placing payloads in orbit by an order of magnitude. This goal would require a substantial reduction in life cycle costs, with emphasis on recurring costs, compared to current launch vehicles. Engine studies supporting these efforts were made for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The emphasis on low cost required design simplification of components and subsystems such that the ground maintenance and test operations was minimized. The results of the Oxygen Turbopump ADP technology effort would provide data to be used in the STME. Initially the STME baseline was a gas generator cycle engine with a vacuum thrust level of 580,000 lbf. This was later increased to 650,000 lbf and the oxygen turbopump design approach was changed to reflect the new thrust level. It was intended that this ADP program be conducted in two phases. Phase 1, a basic phase, would encompass the preliminary design effort, and Phase II, an optional contract phase to cover design, fabrication and test evaluation of an oxygen turbopump at a component test facility at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The basic phase included preliminary design and analysis, evaluation of low cost concepts, and evaluation of fabrication techniques. The option phase included design of the pump and support hardware, analysis of the final configuration to ensure design integrity, fabrication of hardware to demonstrate low cost, DVS Testing of hardware to verify the design, assembly of the turbopump and full scale turbopump testing. In December 1990, the intent of this ADP to support the design and development was

  19. Advanced launch system. Advanced development oxidizer turbopump program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On May 19, 1989, Pratt & Whitney was awarded contract NAS8-37595 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Alabama for an Advanced Development Program (ADP) to design, develop and demonstrate a highly reliable low cost, liquid oxygen turbopump for the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The ALS had an overall goal of reducing the cost of placing payloads in orbit by an order of magnitude. This goal would require a substantial reduction in life cycle costs, with emphasis on recurring costs, compared to current launch vehicles. Engine studies supporting these efforts were made for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The emphasis on low cost required design simplification of components and subsystems such that the ground maintenance and test operations was minimized. The results of the Oxygen Turbopump ADP technology effort would provide data to be used in the STME. Initially the STME baseline was a gas generator cycle engine with a vacuum thrust level of 580,000 lbf. This was later increased to 650,000 lbf and the oxygen turbopump design approach was changed to reflect the new thrust level. It was intended that this ADP program be conducted in two phases. Phase 1, a basic phase, would encompass the preliminary design effort, and Phase II, an optional contract phase to cover design, fabrication and test evaluation of an oxygen turbopump at a component test facility at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The basic phase included preliminary design and analysis, evaluation of low cost concepts, and evaluation of fabrication techniques. The option phase included design of the pump and support hardware, analysis of the final configuration to ensure design integrity, fabrication of hardware to demonstrate low cost, DVS Testing of hardware to verify the design, assembly of the turbopump and full scale turbopump testing. In December 1990, the intent of this ADP to support the design and development was

  20. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  1. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  2. Electronic spark advance-type ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, H.

    1986-12-09

    An electronic spark advance-type ignition system is described for an internal combustion engine comprising: an ignition coil; a magnetic pickup for generating a pair of pulse signals with a time interval therebetween substantially corresponding to a maximum advance angle in terms of crankshaft rotation degrees for each rotation of a crankshaft of the engine; signal generating means responsive to the pair of pulse signals for the pickup for generating a pair of comparison signals of different levels within each of the crankshaft rotation degrees of the maximum advance angle and the other crankshaft rotation degrees; and control means for comparing the signal levels of each of the pairs of comparison signals to generate an energization starting position signal and an ignition timing determining ignition position signal for the ignition coil, the signal generating means including means for controlling the waveform of one of the pair of comparison signals so that the ignition position signal is advanced in angle with respect to the energization starting position signal. The energization starting position signal is generated under all conditions prior to the timing of generation of the earlier one of the next pair of pulse signals generated from the pickup. The ignition position signal is generated within the maximum advance angle at a point in time following generation of the earlier one of the next pair of pulse signals by at least a predetermined amount.

  3. Advanced Technology System Scheduling Governance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, Jim; Carnes, Brian; Hoang, Thuc; Vigil, Manuel

    2015-06-11

    In the fall of 2005, the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program appointed a team to formulate a governance model for allocating resources and scheduling the stockpile stewardship workload on ASC capability systems. This update to the original document takes into account the new technical challenges and roles for advanced technology (AT) systems and the new ASC Program workload categories that must be supported. The goal of this updated model is to effectively allocate and schedule AT computing resources among all three National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories for weapons deliverables that merit priority on this class of resource. The process outlined below describes how proposed work can be evaluated and approved for resource allocations while preserving high effective utilization of the systems. This approach will provide the broadest possible benefit to the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP).

  4. Advanced turbine blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

  5. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  6. Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.

    2001-11-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  7. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  8. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    PubMed

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. PMID:25755167

  9. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  10. Modal testing of advanced wind turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Osgood, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the US wind industry, is supporting the development of technology for advanced, higher efficiency wind energy conversion systems. Under the Advanced Wind Turbine (AAWT) Program, the DOE, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), will assist US industry in incorporating advanced wind turbine technology into utility-grade wind turbines. As part of the AWT Program, NREL is conducting a range of activities aimed at assisting the wind industry with system design analysis and testing. One major activity is NREL`s Full System Model Testing (FSMT) task. In 1993 and 1994, NREL`s FSMT team conducted model surveys on several wind turbine systems developed by industry, including Atlantic Orient Corporation`s AOC 15/50, R. Lynette and Associates` AWT-26 P1, and Carter Wind Turbines Incorporated`s CWT-300. This paper describes how these model surveys were carried out and how industry and NREL wind researchers used the experimental results to validate their analytical models.

  11. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  12. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  13. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  14. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  15. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  16. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  17. Advances in Structures for Large Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    2004-01-01

    The development of structural systems for scientific remote sensing and space exploration has been underway for four decades. The seminal work from 1960 to 1980 provided the basis for many of the design principles of modern space systems. From 1980- 2000 advances in active materials and structures and the maturing of composites technology led to high precision active systems such those used in the Space Interferometry Mission. Recently, thin-film membrane or gossamer structures are being investigated for use in large area space systems because of their low mass and high packaging efficiency. Various classes of Large Space Systems (LSS) are defined in order to describe the goals and system challenges in structures and materials technologies. With an appreciation of both past and current technology developments, future technology challenges are used to develop a list of technology investments that can have significant impacts on LSS development.

  18. NASDA's Advanced On-Line System (ADOLIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu; Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeo; Hirata, Nobuyuki; Komatsu, Shigenori; Nishihata, Seiji; Oniyama, Akio

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft operations including ground system operations are generally realized by various large or small scale group work which is done by operators, engineers, managers, users and so on, and their positions are geographically distributed in many cases. In face-to-face work environments, it is easy for them to understand each other. However, in distributed work environments which need communication media, if only using audio, they become estranged from each other and lose interest in and continuity of work. It is an obstacle to smooth operation of spacecraft. NASDA has developed an experimental model of a new real-time operation control system called 'ADOLIS' (ADvanced On-Line System) adopted to such a distributed environment using a multi-media system dealing with character, figure, image, handwriting, video and audio information which is accommodated to operation systems of a wide range including spacecraft and ground systems. This paper describes the results of the development of the experimental model.

  19. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  20. Behavior of trace metals in simulated gasification conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The fate of trace metals is being investigated in two emerging coal gasification electric power-generating systems: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC). Some of the trace metals in coal are considered air toxics when released into the atmosphere and can also cause the degradation of fuel cell efficiency as a result of contamination. The fate of trace metals during coal conversion in GCC and IGFC systems is closely tied to how the trace metals are associated in the coal and gasification conditions. Bench- and pilot-scale gasification experiments were performed using Illinois No. 6 coal to determine the partitioning of mercury, selenium, arsenic, nickel, cadmium, lead, and chromium into gas, liquid, and solid phases as a function of gasification conditions and coal composition. Entrained ash was collected from the small-scale reactor using a multicyclone and impinger sampling train. Coal analysis revealed arsenic, mercury, nickel, lead, and selenium to be primarily associated with pyrite. Chromium was associated primarily with clay minerals, and cadmium appeared to have mostly an organic association. The partitioning during gasification indicated that chromium, lead, and nickel were enriched in the small ash particulate fraction (less than 1.5 {mu}m), while arsenic, selenium, and mercury were depleted in the particulate and more enriched in the vapor-phase fraction (collected in the impingers). Oxygen contents were varied to represent both combustion and gasification systems. Most of the work was conducted at lower oxygen-to-carbon ratios. Lower oxygen-to-carbon ratios resulted in more reducing environments in the gasification system, which appeared to drive more mercury to the vapor phase. Under constant oxygen-to-carbon ratios, mercury, selenium, and cadmium showed increasing volatility with increasing reaction zone temperature.

  1. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  2. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  3. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  4. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  5. System calculation of integrated coal gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell combined cycle. Reflection of electricity generating performances of practical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    Materials and heat balance of integrated coal gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (IG/MCFC) combined system are calculated considering the electricity generating performance of the practical cell. The considered gas conditions that are required to stabilise the electricity generation of MCFCs are the non-carbon deposition condition, the lower limit of H 2 concentration at the anode outlet of 1 mol% and the upper limit of CO 2 partial pressure on the cathode inlet gas of 0.1 MPa. The anode gas recycling system and the anode heat exchange system have been studied supposing a not-equilibrium state of water-gas shift reaction in anode gas channel. From the investigation on carbon deposition at the anode inlet gas, the anode gas recycling system requires approximately 80% re-circulation of the anode outlet gas, whereas the anode heat exchange system needs 60% humidity of the fuel gas. The fuel utilisation in the anode gas recycling system should be set lower than in the anode heat exchange system. The net thermal efficiency of the anode gas recycling system has a peak for CO 2 partial pressure where the net thermal efficiency of the anode heat exchange system increases as the CO 2 partial pressure of the cathode gas decreases.

  6. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Studies of in-situ calcium-based sorbents in advanced pressurized coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Katta, S.; Shires, P.J.; O'Donnell, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to obtain experimental data on the reactions of calcium-based sorbents in gasification systems and to evaluate or develop kinetic models applicable to the commercial design of such systems. Both air-blown coal gasification systems and second generation fluid bed combustion systems (partial gasification) will be investigated, as well as subsequent stabilization of the solid wastes (calcium sulfide/ash) produced. More specifically, the objectives are to: Develop data on kinetics of in-situ desulfurization reactions; study the effect of calcium on the kinetics of carbon conversion rate; study kinetics of oxidation of CaS to CaSO[sup 4]; Develop and identify viable techniques to stabilize CaS; and, carry out further development work on most promising method and determine its commercial economics.

  8. Studies of in-situ calcium-based sorbents in advanced pressurized coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Katta, S.; Shires, P.J.; O`Donnell, J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objective of the project is to obtain experimental data on the reactions of calcium-based sorbents in gasification systems and to evaluate or develop kinetic models applicable to the commercial design of such systems. Both air-blown coal gasification systems and second generation fluid bed combustion systems (partial gasification) will be investigated, as well as subsequent stabilization of the solid wastes (calcium sulfide/ash) produced. More specifically, the objectives are to: Develop data on kinetics of in-situ desulfurization reactions; study the effect of calcium on the kinetics of carbon conversion rate; study kinetics of oxidation of CaS to CaSO{sup 4}; Develop and identify viable techniques to stabilize CaS; and, carry out further development work on most promising method and determine its commercial economics.

  9. Systems engineering and integration: Advanced avionics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop the new generation of avionics which will be necessary for upcoming programs such as the Lunar/Mars Initiative, Advanced Launch System, and the National Aerospace Plane, new Advanced Avionics Laboratories are required. To minimize costs and maximize benefits, these laboratories should be capable of supporting multiple avionics development efforts at a single location, and should be of a common design to support and encourage data sharing. Recent technological advances provide the capability of letting the designer or analyst perform simulations and testing in an environment similar to his engineering environment and these features should be incorporated into the new laboratories. Existing and emerging hardware and software standards must be incorporated wherever possible to provide additional cost savings and compatibility. Special care must be taken to design the laboratories such that real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance is not sacrificed in the pursuit of these goals. A special program-independent funding source should be identified for the development of Advanced Avionics Laboratories as resources supporting a wide range of upcoming NASA programs.

  10. Degradation of TBC Systems in Environments Relevant to Advanced Gas Turbines for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, Brian

    2014-09-30

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to provide thermal insulation for the hottest components in gas turbines. Zirconia stabilized with 7wt% yttria (7YSZ) is the most common ceramic top coat used for turbine blades. The 7YSZ coating can be degraded from the buildup of fly-ash deposits created in the power-generation process. Fly ash from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system can result from coal-based syngas. TBCs are also exposed to harsh gas environments containing CO2, SO2, and steam. Degradation from the combined effects of fly ash and harsh gas atmospheres has the potential to severely limit TBC lifetimes. The main objective of this study was to use lab-scale testing to systematically elucidate the interplay between prototypical deposit chemistries (i.e., ash and its constituents, K2SO4, and FeS) and environmental oxidants (i.e., O2, H2O and CO2) on the degradation behavior of advanced TBC systems. Several mechanisms of early TBC failure were identified, as were the specific fly-ash constituents responsible for degradation. The reactivity of MCrAlY bondcoats used in TBC systems was also investigated. The specific roles of oxide and sulfate components were assessed, together with the complex interplay between gas composition, deposit chemistry and alloy reactivity. Bondcoat composition design strategies to mitigate corrosion were established, particularly with regard to controlling phase constitution and the amount of reactive elements the bondcoat contains in order to achieve optimal corrosion resistance.

  11. Advanced laser systems for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Gross, Daniel; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development of laser systems for advanced photoacoustic imaging (PAI). We discuss the characteristics of these laser systems and their particular benefits for soft tissue imaging and next-generation breast cancer diagnostics. We provide an overview of laser performance and compare this with other laser systems that have been used for early-stage development of PAI. These advanced systems feature higher pulse energy output at clinically relevant repetition rates, as well as a novel wavelength-cycling output pulse format. Wavelength cycling provides pulse sequences for which the output repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths that provide differential imaging. This capability improves co-registration of captured differential images. We present imaging results of phantoms obtained with a commercial ultrasound detector system and a wavelength-cycling laser source providing ~500 mJ/pulse at 755 and 797 nm, operating at 25 Hz. The results include photoacoustic images and corresponding pulse-echo data from a tissue mimicking phantom containing inclusions, simulating tumors in the breast. We discuss the application of these systems to the contrast-enhanced detection of various tissue types and tumors.

  12. Process screening study of alternative gas treating and sulfur removal systems for IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biasca, F.E.; Korens, N.; Schulman, B.L.; Simbeck, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    One of the inherent advantages of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) over other coal-based electric generation technologies is that the sulfur in the coal is converted into a form which can be removed and recovered. Extremely low sulfur oxide emissions can result. Gas treating and sulfur recovery processes for the control of sulfur emissions are an integral part of the overall IGCC plant design. There is a wide range of commercially proven technologies which are highly efficient for sulfur control. In addition, there are many developing technologies and new concepts for applying established technologies which offer potential improvements in both technical and economic performance. SFA Pacific, Inc. has completed a screening study to compare several alternative methods of removing sulfur from the gas streams generated by the Texaco coal gasification process for use in an IGCC plant. The study considered cleaning the gas made from high and low sulfur coals to produce a low sulfur fuel gas and a severely desulfurized synthesis gas (suitable for methanol synthesis), while maintaining a range of low levels of total sulfur emissions. The general approach was to compare the technical performance of the various processes in meeting the desulfurization specifications laid out in EPRI's design basis for the study. The processing scheme being tested at the Cool Water IGCC facility incorporates the Selexol acid gas removal process which is used in combination with a Claus sulfur plant and a SCOT tailgas treating unit. The study has identified several commercial systems, as well as some unusual applications, which can provide efficient removal of sulfur from the fuel gas and also produce extremely low sulfur emissions - so as to meet very stringent sulfur emissions standards. 29 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. The Petrocarb pneumatic feeding system: A proven method for feeding particulate solids at controlled rates. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reintjes, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the principal features of the Petrocarb Pneumatic Feeding System is given. Early development and various commercial applications are included. It is concluded that the Petrocarb Injection System is capable of feeding dry solids into most of the processes being developed for utilizing coal.

  14. Airborne Advanced Reconfigurable Computer System (ARCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjurman, B. E.; Jenkins, G. M.; Masreliez, C. J.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Templeman, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer subsystem fault-tolerant concept was defined, and the potential benefits and costs of such a subsystem were assessed when used as the central element of a new transport's flight control system. The derived advanced reconfigurable computer system (ARCS) is a triple-redundant computer subsystem that automatically reconfigures, under multiple fault conditions, from triplex to duplex to simplex operation, with redundancy recovery if the fault condition is transient. The study included criteria development covering factors at the aircraft's operation level that would influence the design of a fault-tolerant system for commercial airline use. A new reliability analysis tool was developed for evaluating redundant, fault-tolerant system availability and survivability; and a stringent digital system software design methodology was used to achieve design/implementation visibility.

  15. Assessment of the labor impacts of coal gasification systems: Project No. 61027. Final report. [Considers a 250 billion Btu/day coal gasification plant, in each of 17 counties with sufficient coal, in terms of available labor and in-migration necessary

    SciTech Connect

    Donakowski, T.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has estimated the labor requirements and their impacts for construction and operation of coal gasification systems (mine and plant). Commercial-size high-, medium-, and low-Btu systems were studied. For the high-Btu system (1000 Btu/SCF) producing 250 billion Btu/day, the labor requirements are shown in Table ES-1. For small, low-Btu systems (150 Btu/SCF) producing 1.5 billion Btu/day, we determined that about 300 systems have equivalent labor requirements to one high-Btu system. Requirements include both mining and gasifying coal. Both basic and secondary (supportive) labor were considered during the 4-year construction and 20-year operation phases of the system. The requirements are expected values based on a sample of 17 counties that we consider as potential sites for gasification. Labor availability at the county level was obtained from the Social and Economic Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This model allowed us to estimate in-migration requirements. If one assmes a commercialization scenario of ten systems under construction simultaneously, the average number of workers required during the 4-year construction period is the sum of basic and secondary labor, or about 77,830. If ten systems are operating simultaneously, about 47,000 workers are required for 20 years. In-migration (or training) impacts during the construction phase of this scenario is about 49,270 workers; during the operation phase, it is about 13,900. A qualitative evaluation of future labor supply by types of occupations indicates that shortages are possible for engineers, painters, pipefitters, ironworkers, and cement masons as coal gasification technology becomes increasingly commercialized.

  16. Advanced laser stratospheric monitoring systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the software support supplied by Systems and Applied Sciences Corporation for the study of Advanced Laser Stratospheric Monitoring Systems Analyses under contract No. NAS1-15806. This report discusses improvements to the Langley spectroscopic data base, development of LHS instrument control software and data analyses and validation software. The effect of diurnal variations on the retrieved concentrations of NO, NO2 and C L O from a space and balloon borne measurement platform are discussed along with the selection of optimum IF channels for sensing stratospheric species from space.

  17. Rotorcraft Digital Advanced Avionics System (rodaas)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taira, B.

    1985-01-01

    A simulator is being built to determine the practicality of using an advanced avionics system in a helicopter. Features include an autopilot; a navigation and flight planning component; an advisory system built into the computer; conventional gages and displays; a clock function; a fuel totalizer; a weight and balance computator; a performance evaluator; and emergency and normal checklists. The translation of a computer program written in PASCAL into a form that can be read by the graphics package for the simulator and basic electronic work in simulator construction are discussed.

  18. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  19. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  20. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  1. Surface gasification materials program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1983. [Mountain fuel resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this report are: (1) plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories; (3) protective coatings and claddings; (4) ceramic fabrication/application technology; (5) ceramic application technology - brittle material design; (6) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (7) electroslag component casting; (8) production and evaluation of electroslag castings; (9) cost reduction of the electroslag casting manufacturing process; (10) quantitative microstructural characterization of steel castings; (11) materials review and component failure analysis in support of coal gasification process and plants; and (12) process plant materials review, evaluation, and support.

  2. Advanced airborne ISR demonstration system (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Daniel J.

    2005-05-01

    Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) is developing an advanced airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) demonstration system based upon the proven ROI technology used in the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) for the U.S. Navy F/A-18. The demonstration system, which includes several state-of-the-art technology enhancements for next-generation ISR, is scheduled for flight testing in the summer of 2005. The demonstration system contains a variant of the SHARP medium altitude CA-270 camera, comprising an inertially stabilized Visible/NIR 5Kx5K imager and MWIR 2Kx2K imager to provide simultaneous high resolution/wide area coverage dual-band operation. The imager has been upgraded to incorporate a LN-100G GPS/INS within the sensor passive isolation loop to improve the accuracy of the NITF image metadata. The Image Processor is also based upon the SHARP configuration, but the demo system contains several enhancements including increased image processing horsepower, Ethernet-based Command & Control, next-generation JPEG2000 image compression, JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) network data server/client architecture, bi-directional RF datalink, advanced image dissemination/exploitation, and optical Fibrechannel I/O to the solid state recorder. This paper describes the ISR demonstration system and identifies the new network centric CONOPS made possible by the technology enhancements.

  3. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  4. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  5. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26475775

  6. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  7. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS) function description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Demonstration Advanced Avionics System, DAAS, is an integrated avionics system utilizing microprocessor technologies, data busing, and shared displays for demonstrating the potential of these technologies in improving the safety and utility of general aviation operations in the late 1980's and beyond. Major hardware elements of the DAAS include a functionally distributed microcomputer complex, an integrated data control center, an electronic horizontal situation indicator, and a radio adaptor unit. All processing and display resources are interconnected by an IEEE-488 bus in order to enhance the overall system effectiveness, reliability, modularity and maintainability. A detail description of the DAAS architecture, the DAAS hardware, and the DAAS functions is presented. The system is designed for installation and flight test in a NASA Cessna 402-B aircraft.

  8. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of NASA's Advanced Space Transportation System plans, with a view to the support systems that must be evolved in order to implement such long-term mission requirements; these encompass space-based infrastructure for orbital transfer operations between LEO and GEO, and for operations from LEO to lunar orbit and to Mars. These mission requirements are addressed by the NASA Civil Needs Data Base in order to promote multiple applications. The requisite near-term lift capacity to LEO could be achieved through the development of the Shuttle-derived, unmanned Shuttle-C cargo launch system. Longer-term transportation studies are concerned with the Next Manned Transportation System and Space Transfer Vehicles.

  9. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  10. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  11. Recent design and cost studies for air blown gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Welford, G.B.; Otter, N.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) (formerly known as the British Coal Topping Cycle) is a high efficiency low cost system for producing power with excellent environmental performance. High efficiency is achieved without the complexity associated with other advanced cycles and the technology can be introduced in a modular fashion. Being a simple air blown fluid bed gasifier and combustor combination it is capable of using a wide range of fuels and is particularly suited for dealing with high ash melting point fuels found in areas of the world short of natural gas. An extensive program of pilot plant testing of a variety of fuels is now being completed on the test facility at the Coal Technology Development Division (CTDD) of British Coal as part of a UK program to develop the Air Blown Gasification Cycle. This program is supplying data to produce a design specification for a Prototype Integrated Plant (PIP) of around 90 MWe, and is managed by a consortium, the Clean Coal Power Generation Group. The paper summarizes recent results and operating experience for the pilot plant including fuel behavior studies, research in hot gas cleaning (particulate and gaseous contaminants), and gas combustion experience. The various cost studies undertaken on the ABGC are outlined and compared, including recent studies by EPRI.

  12. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Final technical progress report, April 1981-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, deriving system designs, and estimating costs to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report describes work completed on the four technical program tasks: Thermodynamic projections; Getter Selection and Qualification; System Performance Projections; and Program Definition for Concept Scale-up during the 27-month contract performance period. Work completed on the thermodynamic projections includes a data base update, development of alkali phase diagrams, and system performance projections. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved over 70 kinetic studies in which a leading candidate getter - emathlite - was selected and characterized. System performance projections identified a packed-bed configuration containing relatively large getter pellets as the preferred contacting device for a full-scale unit. For emathlite, we concluded that full-scale unit bed heights of 2 m or less would be required if we assume annual replacement on the basis of bed saturation capacity. Concept scale-up work involved defining the hardware and test program requirements for further development of the emathlite packed-bed system. 56 references, 80 figures, 74 tables.

  13. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  14. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  16. Simultaneous high-temperature removal of alkali and particulates in a pressurized gasification system. Second quarterly project report, July 1981-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mulik, P.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1981-12-01

    This program is directed at performing experimental and analytical investigations, system designs, and cost estimates to ascertain the feasibility of using aluminosilicate-based getters for controlling alkali in pressurized gasification systems. Its overall objective is to develop a comprehensive plan for evaluating a scaled-up version of the gettering process as a unit operation or as an integral part of a particulate removal device. This report describes work completed on thermodynamic projections, getter selection and qualification, and system performance projections during the second three months of the project. Work on the thermodynamic projections is complete with one exception: estimating alkali stabilities as a function of trace contaminants for various process systems. Getter selection and qualification efforts involved additional kinetic studies utilizing both our bench-scale and TGA units. Finally, system performance projections entailed using available kinetic data on activated bauxite to evaluate two models based on reversible reaction mechanisms. In turn, the models were used to update the size requirements of a full-scale packed bed.

  17. A European advanced data relay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Agostini, Agostino; Puccio, Antonio; Zanotti, Glullo

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to select the most attractive configuration(s) for an advanced data relay system to be employed at the beginning of the next century. A users scenario with such user classes as a manned in-orbit infrastructure and related support, launchers/transit vehicles, earth observation spacecraft, automatic microgravity free flyers, and scientific spacecraft is considered. System architecture is discussed in terms of configuration analysis and resources definition. The analysis of the space segment contains the definition of link requirements and payloads, as well as mass/power budget and accommodations on space platforms, and the ground segment is assessed from the system-facility and user earth-terminal points of view. Cost analysis and trade-offs are presented, and the key parameters such as the zone of exclusion, service availability, service continuity, intersatellite link implementation, feeder link, platform configuration, ground infrastructure, and economic viability are considered.

  18. An advanced domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated traffic projection for U.S. domestic satellite communications service covering a period of 15 years; mid-1980 to mid-1995 was prepared. This model takes into account expected technology advances and reductions in transmission costs, legislative and regulatory changes permitting increased competition, and rising energy costs which will encourage more extensive substitution of telecommunications for travel. The historical development and current status of satellite systems are discussed as well as the characteristics of follow-on systems. Orbital arc utilization, spacecraft configuration for single shuttle launch, Earth station configuration, and system costs are examined. Areas which require technology development include multiple beam frequency reuse antennas, on-board switching, intersatellite links, and ka-band operation. Packing and deployment schemes for enclosing the satellite within the shuttle orbiter bay must also be devised.

  19. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  20. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  1. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  2. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  3. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  4. Advanced Querying Features for Disease Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated disease surveillance systems notify users of increases in the prevalence of reports in syndrome categories and allow users to view patient level data related to those increases. Occasionally, a more dynamic level of control is required to properly detect an emerging disease in a community. Dynamic querying features are invaluable when using existing surveillance systems to investigate outbreaks of newly emergent diseases or to identify cases of reportable diseases within data being captured for surveillance. The objective of the Advance Querying Tool (AQT) is to build a more flexible query interface for most web-based disease surveillance systems. This interface allows users to define and build their query as if they were writing a logical expression for a mathematical computation. The AQT allows users to develop, investigate, save, and share complex case definitions. It provides a flexible interface that accommodates both advanced and novice users, checks the validity of the expression as it is built, and marks errors for users. PMID:23569575

  5. Advanced electronics for the CTF MEG system.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, J; Vrba, J; Spear, P; McKenzie, D; Willis, R; Loewen, R; Robinson, S E; Fife, A A

    2004-01-01

    Development of the CTF MEG system has been advanced with the introduction of a computer processing cluster between the data acquisition electronics and the host computer. The advent of fast processors, memory, and network interfaces has made this innovation feasible for large data streams at high sampling rates. We have implemented tasks including anti-alias filter, sample rate decimation, higher gradient balancing, crosstalk correction, and optional filters with a cluster consisting of 4 dual Intel Xeon processors operating on up to 275 channel MEG systems at 12 kHz sample rate. The architecture is expandable with additional processors to implement advanced processing tasks which may include e.g., continuous head localization/motion correction, optional display filters, coherence calculations, or real time synthetic channels (via beamformer). We also describe an electronics configuration upgrade to provide operator console access to the peripheral interface features such as analog signal and trigger I/O. This allows remote location of the acoustically noisy electronics cabinet and fitting of the cabinet with doors for improved EMI shielding. Finally, we present the latest performance results available for the CTF 275 channel MEG system including an unshielded SEF (median nerve electrical stimulation) measurement enhanced by application of an adaptive beamformer technique (SAM) which allows recognition of the nominal 20-ms response in the unaveraged signal. PMID:16012695

  6. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  7. Advanced high frequency partial discharge measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karady, George G.

    1994-01-01

    This report explains the Advanced Partial Discharge Measuring System in ASU's High Voltage Laboratory and presents some of the results obtained using the setup. While in operation an insulation is subjected to wide ranging temperature and voltage stresses. Hence, it is necessary to study the effect of temperature on the behavior of partial discharges in an insulation. The setup described in this report can be used to test samples at temperatures ranging from -50 C to 200 C. The aim of conducting the tests described herein is to be able to predict the behavior of an insulation under different operating conditions in addition to being able to predict the possibility of failure.

  8. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for the reporting period October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 are described in this quarterly report. No new membership, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, six research progress reports were received (3 final reports and 3 semi-annual reports). The University of Central Florida contract SR080 was terminated during this period, as UCF was unable to secure research facilities. AGTSR now projects that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately 340-350K$.

  9. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  11. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  12. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie; Stetson, Howard K.

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide single button intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system on-board the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System [1] , along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System [2] , this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  13. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  14. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  15. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  16. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing

  17. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  18. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  19. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  20. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.