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Sample records for advanced gasification-combustion agc

  1. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rizeq, George; West, Janice; Frydman, Arnaldo; Subia, Raul; Kumar, Ravi; Zamansky, Vladimir; Das, Kamalendu

    2001-11-06

    Electricity produced from hydrogen in fuel cells can be highly efficient relative to competing technologies and has the potential to be virtually pollution free. Thus, fuel cells may become an ideal solution to this nation's energy needs if one has a satisfactory process for producing hydrogen from available energy resources such as coal, and low-cost alternative feedstocks such as biomass. GE EER is developing an innovative fuel-flexible advanced gasification-combustion (AGC) technology for production of hydrogen for fuel cells or combustion turbines, and a separate stream of sequestration-ready CO2. The AGC module can be integrated into a number of Vision- 21 power systems. It offers increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems and near-zero pollution. The R&D on the AGC technology is being conducted under a Vision-21 award from the U.S. DOE NETL with co-funding from GE EER, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). The AGC technology converts coal and air into three separate streams of pure hydrogen, sequestration-ready CO2, and high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The three-year program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. Process and kinetic modeling studies as well as an economic assessment will also be performed. This paper provides an overview of the program and its objectives, and discusses first-year R&D activities, including design of experimental facilities and results from initial tests and modeling studies. In particular, the paper describes the design of the bench-scale facility and initial process modeling data. In addition, a process flow diagram is shown for a complete plant incorporating the AGC module with other Vision-21 plant components to maximize hydrogen production and process efficiency.

  2. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Ravi Kumar; Janice West; Vitali Lissianski; Neil Widmer; Vladimir Zamansky

    2001-01-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE-EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE-EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R and D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the 1st quarterly progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  3. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2002-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  4. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  5. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2002-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the second annual technical progress report for the Vision 21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1

  6. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  7. Status of the NGNP graphite creep experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) very high temperature gas reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have three different compressive loads applied to the top half of three diametrically opposite pairs of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment.

  8. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  9. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  10. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  11. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  12. AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

  13. FY-2010 AGC-1 Disassembly Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Philip L. Winston

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluencies, and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor and preirradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed.

  14. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  15. AGC-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Bratton

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC) irradiation test program supports the acquisition of irradiated graphite performance data to assist in the selection of the technology to be used for the VHTR. Six irradiations are planned to investigate compressive creep in graphite subjected to a neutron field and obtain irradiated mechanical properties of vibrationally molded, extruded, and iso-molded graphites for comparison. The experiments will be conducted at three temperatures: 600, 900, and 1200°C. At each temperature, two different capsules will be irradiated to different fluence levels, the first from 0.5 to 4 dpa and the second from 4 to 7 dpa. AGC-1 is the first of the six capsules designed for ATR and will focus on the prismatic fluence range.

  16. AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence C. Hull

    2012-07-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf

  17. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  18. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William Enoch; Swank, W. David; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Cottle, David L.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  19. AGC-1 Pre-Irradiation Data Report Status

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2011-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All samples in the experiment will be fully characterized before irradiation, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and then re-examined to determine the irradiation induced changes to key materials properties in the different graphite grades. The information generated during the AGC experiment will be utilized for NRC licensing of NGNP reactor designs, shared with international collaborators in the Generation IV Information Forum (GIF), and eventually utilized in ASME design code for graphite nuclear applications. This status report will describe the process the NGNP Graphite R&D program has developed to record the AGC1 pre-irradiation examination data.

  20. RF front end interface and AGC modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results indicate that the new front end automatic gain control (AGC) combination perform satisfactorily. Side by side bench tests with Trimble 10A and Texas Instruments 9900 LORAN-C receivers have proven that the proper time differences are being obtained. Further optimization of the AGC circuit will occur as software to track all of the stations in a LORAN-C chain is developed. The AGC circuit was designed to sample up to six separate LORAN-C stations. Along with expanded station tracking software, a more sophisticated search routine is also under development. A printed circuit board for the AGC is planned and will be enclosed with the RF front end in a sealed enclosure to reduce interference from the other digital circuits of the microcomputer.

  1. RF Front End Interface and AGC Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The latest RF front end built by Burhans (Mini-L-82) was successfully interfaced to the Ohio University LORAN-C receiver. In order for the front end to operate optimally, modifications were made to existing automatic gain control (AGC) circuitry already developed for the Ohio University LORAN-C receiver. The hardware modifications to the AGC and other interface circuitry, as well as some preliminary results are discussed.

  2. Robust AGC : Traditional Structure Versus Restructured Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevrani, Hassan; Mitani, Yasunori; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    In this paper, a decentralized robust approach is proposed for the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system based on a modified traditional AGC structure. This work addresses the new strategy to adapt well-tested classical AGC scheme to the changing environment of power system operation under deregulation. The effect of bilateral contracts is considered as a set of new input signals in each control area dynamical model. In practice, AGC systems use simple proportional-integral (PI) controllers. However, since the PI controller parameters are usually tuned based on classical or trial-and-error approaches, they are incapable of obtaining good dynamical performance for a wide range of operating conditions and various scenarios in deregulated environment. In this paper with regard to this problem, the AGC synthesis is formulated as an H∞ static output control problem and is solved using a developed iterative linear matrix inequalities (ILMI) algorithm to design of robust PI controllers in the restructured power system control areas. A three area power system example with possible contract scenarios and wide range of load changes is given to illustrate the proposed approach. The resulting controllers are shown to minimize the effect of disturbances and maintain the robust performance.

  3. Evaluation of coal-gasification - combustion-turbine power plants emphasizing low water consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazo, R.; Clemmer, A.B.; de la Mora, J.A.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Meissner, R.E.; Musso, A.; Roszkowski, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A cost and performance study was made of several integrated power plants using coal gasification technology now in advanced development and combustion turbines for power generation. The principal emphasis was placed on studying plants using air cooling and comparing costs and performance of those plants with water-cooled coal gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) and conventional coal-fired power plants. The major objective was to determine whether cost and performance penalties would be prohibitive for air-cooled plants that use yet-to-be-developed coal gasifiers and commercially available combustion turbines for topping cycle power. The results indicate the following: air-cooled GCC plants using conceptual designs of either the Texaco or the British Gas Corporation (BGC) slaging gasifier could have coal-to-net electric power efficiencies equivalent to that of a water-cooled conventional coal-fired plant; the air-cooled GCC plants could produce electricity at busbar cost 1 to 3 mills per kWh (1980 dollars) less than busbar cost in a water-cooled conventional plant and only up to 2 mills per kWh higher than busbar cost in a water-cooled Texaco GCC plant; and even a simple-cycle regenerative combustion turbine plant fueled with gas from the BGC gasifier could have a coal-to-net electric power efficiency of over 30% and a busbar cost competitive with that in a water cooled conventional plant. The principal reason that air-cooled power plants using combustion turbines could be competitive with conventional water-cooled, coal-fired steam plants is that a majority of net power is produced by the combustion turbines, which require no cooling water. This, in turn, leads to a reduced cost and performance penalty when bottoming steam-cycle condensers are air-cooled.

  4. AGC 226067: A possible interacting low-mass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A. K.; Cannon, J. M.; Rhode, K. L.; Janesh, W. F.; Janowiecki, S.; Leisman, L.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Salzer, J. J.; Zaidi, T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Arecibo, GBT, VLA, and WIYN/pODI observations of the ALFALFA source AGC 226067. Originally identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud and candidate Local Group galaxy, AGC 226067 is spatially and kinematically coincident with the Virgo cluster, and the identification by multiple groups of an optical counterpart with no resolved stars supports the interpretation that this systems lies at the Virgo distance (D = 17 Mpc). The combined observations reveal that the system consists of multiple components: a central H i source associated with the optical counterpart (AGC 226067), a smaller H i-only component (AGC 229490), a second optical component (AGC 229491), and extended low-surface brightness H i. Only ~1/4 of the single-dish H i emission is associated with AGC 226067; as a result, we find MHI/Lg ~ 6M⊙/L⊙ which is lower than previous work. At D = 17 Mpc, AGC 226067 has an H i mass of 1.5 × 107M⊙ and Lg = 2.4 × 106L⊙, AGC 229490 (the H i-only component) has MHI = 3.6 × 106M⊙, and AGC 229491 (the second optical component) has Lg = 3.6 × 105L⊙. The nature of this system of three sources is uncertain: AGC 226067 and AGC 229490 may be connected by an H i bridge, and AGC 229490 and AGC 229491 are separated by only 0.5'. The current data do not resolve the H i in AGC 229490 and its origin is unclear. We discuss possible scenarios for this system of objects: an interacting system of dwarf galaxies, accretion of material onto AGC 226067, or stripping of material from AGC 226067.

  5. Pulse-width-modulated attenuator for AGC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconnell, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Automatic-gain-control (AGC) circuit regulates gain of intermediate-frequency and radio-frequency signals over wide dynamic range with high linearity and very low phase shift. Device has potential uses in radio and television receivers, signal distribution systems, and test and measurement instruments.

  6. AGC1/2, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers.

    PubMed

    Amoedo, N D; Punzi, G; Obre, E; Lacombe, D; De Grassi, A; Pierri, C L; Rossignol, R

    2016-10-01

    In this review we discuss the structure and functions of the aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGC1-aralar and AGC2-citrin). Those proteins supply the aspartate synthesized within mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol in exchange for glutamate and a proton. A structure of an AGC carrier is not available yet but comparative 3D models were proposed. Moreover, transport assays performed by using the recombinant AGC1 and AGC2, reconstituted into liposome vesicles, allowed to explore the kinetics of those carriers and to reveal their specific transport properties. AGCs participate to a wide range of cellular functions, as the control of mitochondrial respiration, calcium signaling and antioxydant defenses. AGC1 might also play peculiar tissue-specific functions, as it was found to participate to cell-to-cell metabolic symbiosis in the retina. On the other hand, AGC1 is involved in the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neurons and AGC gene or protein alterations were discovered in rare human diseases. Accordingly, a mice model of AGC1 gene knock-out presented with growth delay and generalized tremor, with myelinisation defects. More recently, AGC was proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metabolism as observed from metabolomic studies showing that the asparate exported from the mitochondrion by AGC1 is employed in the regeneration of cytosolic glutathione. Therefore, given the central role of AGCs in cell metabolism and human pathology, drug screening are now being developed to identify pharmacological modulators of those carriers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou. PMID:27132995

  7. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

    2008-03-31

    and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs were benchmarked with IGCC polygen plants with similar level of CO{sub 2} capture. Based on the promising economic analysis comparison results (performed with the help from Worley Parsons), GE recommended a 'Go' decision in April 2006 to continue the experimental investigation of the UFP technology to address the remaining risks i.e. solids lifetime and the impact of impurities in the coal on overall system. Solids attrition and lifetime risk was addressed via bench-scale experiments that monitor solids performance over time and by assessing materials interactions at operating conditions. The product gas under the third reactor (high-temperature vitiated air) operating conditions was evaluated to assess the concentration of particulates, pollutants and other impurities relative to the specifications required for gas turbine feed streams. During this investigation, agglomeration of solids used in the UFP process was identified as a serious risk that impacts the lifetime of the solids and in turn feasibility of the UFP technology. The main causes of the solids agglomeration were the combination of oxygen transfer material (OTM) reduction at temperatures {approx}1000 C and interaction between OTM and CO{sub 2} absorbing material (CAM) at high operating temperatures (>1200 C). At the end of phase II, in March 2008, GEGR recommended a 'No-go' decision for taking the UFP technology to the next level of development, i.e. development of a 3-5 MW prototype system, at this time. GEGR further recommended focused materials development research programs on improving the performance and lifetime of solids materials used in UFP or chemical looping technologies. The scale-up activities would be recommended only after mitigating the risks involved with the agglomeration and overall lifetime of the solids. This is the final report for the phase II of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program entitled 'Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion

  8. Coupled AGC-Costas loops with AM/PM conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Costas loops are invariably designed in conjunction with an automatic gain control (AGC) loop for stabilizing performance. In such systems an inherent coupling between the AGC and Costas loops develops, complicating the standard phase referencing analysis. This coupling is further emphasized if the gain control amplifier introduces an AM/PM conversion, which causes power variations to enter the Costas loop as phase variations. In this paper the coupling effect between AGC and Costas loops is developed, leading to a pair of joint, interconnected dynamical tracking loops. Some degree of solution is attainable by assuming a first order AGC loop, and resorting to quasi-stationary analysis for evaluating the phase referencing generation. Results with and without AM/PM are presented, and illustrate how an improper AGC may in fact degrade the phase referencing from the expected performance.

  9. Influences to System and Superiority of Model Parameters in Dynamic Setting AGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, LI; Hao-yu, Zhang; Jin, Zhang; Jian-fei, Guo; Cui-hong, Liu; Ping-wen, Cheng

    Dynamic setting AGC is based on the improvement of the BISRA-AGC model. Based on the control algorithms and control models of dynamic setting AGC, the influences of the model parameters to system performance were analyzed using the GUI in MATLAB. At the same time, the superiority and limitation of the dynamic setting AGC were analyzed.

  10. The wheat AGC kinase TaAGC1 is a positive contributor to host resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Xuening; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Rong, Wei; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-11-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of AGC kinases in mammalian systems. However, very little is known about the roles of AGC kinases in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen of the destructive disease sharp eyespot of wheat. In this study, the wheat AGC kinase gene TaAGC1, responding to R. cerealis infection, was isolated, and its properties and role in wheat defence were characterized. R. cerealis-resistant wheat lines expressed TaAGC1 at higher levels than susceptible wheat lines. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the TaAGC1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) subgroup of AGC kinases. Kinase activity assays proved that TaAGC1 is a functional kinase and the Asp-239 residue located in the conserved serine/threonine kinase domain of TaAGC1 is required for the kinase activity. Subcellular localization assays indicated that TaAGC1 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Virus-induced TaAGC1 silencing revealed that the down-regulation of TaAGC1 transcripts significantly impaired wheat resistance to R. cerealis. The molecular characterization and responses of TaAGC1 overexpressing transgenic wheat plants indicated that TaAGC1 overexpression significantly enhanced resistance to sharp eyespot and reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wheat plants challenged with R. cerealis. Furthermore, ROS-scavenging and certain defence-associated genes were up-regulated in resistant plants overexpressing TaAGC1 but down-regulated in susceptible knock-down plants. These results suggested that the kinase TaAGC1 positively contributes to wheat immunity to R. cerealis through regulating expression of ROS-related and defence-associated genes. PMID:26220083

  11. The wheat AGC kinase TaAGC1 is a positive contributor to host resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Xuening; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Rong, Wei; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of AGC kinases in mammalian systems. However, very little is known about the roles of AGC kinases in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen of the destructive disease sharp eyespot of wheat. In this study, the wheat AGC kinase gene TaAGC1, responding to R. cerealis infection, was isolated, and its properties and role in wheat defence were characterized. R. cerealis-resistant wheat lines expressed TaAGC1 at higher levels than susceptible wheat lines. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the TaAGC1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) subgroup of AGC kinases. Kinase activity assays proved that TaAGC1 is a functional kinase and the Asp-239 residue located in the conserved serine/threonine kinase domain of TaAGC1 is required for the kinase activity. Subcellular localization assays indicated that TaAGC1 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Virus-induced TaAGC1 silencing revealed that the down-regulation of TaAGC1 transcripts significantly impaired wheat resistance to R. cerealis. The molecular characterization and responses of TaAGC1 overexpressing transgenic wheat plants indicated that TaAGC1 overexpression significantly enhanced resistance to sharp eyespot and reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wheat plants challenged with R. cerealis. Furthermore, ROS-scavenging and certain defence-associated genes were up-regulated in resistant plants overexpressing TaAGC1 but down-regulated in susceptible knock-down plants. These results suggested that the kinase TaAGC1 positively contributes to wheat immunity to R. cerealis through regulating expression of ROS-related and defence-associated genes. PMID:26220083

  12. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  13. AGC198606: A gas-bearing dark matter minihalo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A. K.; Faerman, Y.; Janesh, W. F.; Janowiecki, S.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Rhode, K. L.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Salzer, J. J.; Sternberg, A.; Cannon, J. M.; Muñoz, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We present neutral hydrogen (H i) imaging observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope of AGC198606, an H i cloud discovered in the ALFALFA 21cm survey. This object is of particular note as it is located 16 km s-1 and 1.̊2 from the gas-bearing ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Leo T while having a similar H i linewidth and approximately twice the flux density. The H i imaging observations reveal a smooth, undisturbed H i morphology with a full extent of 23' × 16' at the 5 × 1018 atoms cm-2 level. The velocity field of AGC198606 shows ordered motion with a gradient of ~25 km s-1 across ~20'. The global velocity dispersion is 9.3 km s-1 with no evidence for a narrow spectral component. No optical counterpart to AGC198606 is detected. The distance to AGC198606 is unknown, and we consider several different scenarios: physical association with Leo T, a minihalo at a distance of ~150 kpc based on the models of Faerman et al. (2013, ApJ, 777, 119), and a cloud in the Galactic halo. At a distance of 420 kpc, AGC198606 would have an H i mass of 6.2 × 105 M⊙, an H i radius of 1.4 kpc, and a dynamical mass within the H i extent of 1.5 × 108 M⊙.

  14. AGC-3 IRRADIATION DATA QUALIFICATION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-3 experiment. There was one interval between Dec 18, 2012 and Dec 20, 2012 where 10 NULL values were reported for various thermocouples. These NULL values were deleted from the database. All temperature data are Qualified. During Oct and Nov 2013, 135,849 helium and argon gas flow values were below 0. These negative gas flow values are not correct and are Failed. The remaining argon, helium, and total gas flow data are within expected ranges and are Qualified. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdowns. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle. When the capsule was reinstalled in the reactor for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens were subjected to one of two loads, 393 lbf or 589 lbf. The experiment plan included three loads, but problems with gas leaks in the rams applying the load to the stacks resulted in lower loads being applied to some of the stacks. While the loads applied are not the loads in the plan, the loads were consistently applied throughout the experiment. Therefore the reported loads are accurate and can be used in analysis of graphite creep. Loads were consistently within 5% of the specified values throughout the experiment. Stack displacement increased consistently throughout the experiment with total displacement ranging from 1 to 1.25 inches. No anomalous values were identified. During reactor outages, a set of pneumatic rams was used to raise the stacks of graphite creep specimens to ensure the specimens had not become stuck within the test train. This stack raising was performed three times; all stacks were raised successfully each time. The load and displacement data are

  15. Simulation and Analyzing on Model Parameters Effect of BISRA-AGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Shu-zong, Chen; De-shun, Du; Hua-xin, Chen; Dian-hua, Zhang

    According to the control principle of pressure AGC, the control thought and control model of BISRA-AGC were analyzed. By changing the external disturbance of rolling force and sampling time, the BISRA-AGC and Dynamic Set AGC were simulated under the conditions that the position control system was ideal by using GUI. Then, the advantages and disadvantages were analyzed combining the results of simulation, and the intrinsic factors were quantitatively analyzed.

  16. Evolutionary Adaptations of Plant AGC Kinases: From Light Signaling to Cell Polarity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Eike H.; Offringa, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Signaling and trafficking over membranes involves a plethora of transmembrane proteins that control the flow of compounds or relay specific signaling events. Next to external cues, internal stimuli can modify the activity or abundance of these proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). One such regulatory mechanism is protein phosphorylation by membrane-associated kinases, several of which are AGC kinases. The AGC kinase family is one of seven kinase families that are conserved in all eukaryotic genomes. In plants evolutionary adaptations introduced specific structural changes within the AGC kinases that most likely allow modulation of kinase activity by external stimuli (e.g., light). Starting from the well-defined structural basis common to all AGC kinases we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship in plant AGC kinases. Nine of the 39 Arabidopsis AGC kinases have now been shown to be involved in the regulation of auxin transport. In particular, AGC kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the auxin transporters ABCB1 and ABCB19 has been shown to regulate their activity, while auxin transporters of the PIN family are located to different positions at the PM depending on their phosphorylation status, which is a result of counteracting AGC kinase and PP6 phosphatase activities. We therefore focus on regulation of AGC kinase activity in this context. Identified structural adaptations of the involved AGC kinases may provide new insight into AGC kinase functionality and demonstrate their position as central hubs in the cellular network controlling plant development and growth. PMID:23162562

  17. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  18. Non-platinum-based chemotherapy for treatment of advanced gastric cancer: 5-fluorouracil, taxanes, and irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung Woog; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung; Chung, Ho Young; Yu, Wansik

    2014-05-14

    Despite numerous advances in treatment options, advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains a major public health issue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs for AGC and a doublet combination regimen of either cisplatin-based or 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy is generally used for treatment of patients with AGC. However, there is still no consensus on the best regimen for treating AGC. Recently, various new chemotherapeutic agents, including oral 5FU, taxanes, and irinotecan, have been identified as improving the outcomes for AGC when used as a single agent or in combination with non-platinum chemotherapy. Nonetheless, it is still unclear whether non-platinum-based chemotherapy is a viable treatment option for patients with AGC. Accordingly, this review focuses on the efficacy and tolerability of non-platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with AGC. PMID:24833869

  19. Non-platinum-based chemotherapy for treatment of advanced gastric cancer: 5-fluorouracil, taxanes, and irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung Woog; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung; Chung, Ho Young; Yu, Wansik

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous advances in treatment options, advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains a major public health issue and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs for AGC and a doublet combination regimen of either cisplatin-based or 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy is generally used for treatment of patients with AGC. However, there is still no consensus on the best regimen for treating AGC. Recently, various new chemotherapeutic agents, including oral 5FU, taxanes, and irinotecan, have been identified as improving the outcomes for AGC when used as a single agent or in combination with non-platinum chemotherapy. Nonetheless, it is still unclear whether non-platinum-based chemotherapy is a viable treatment option for patients with AGC. Accordingly, this review focuses on the efficacy and tolerability of non-platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with AGC. PMID:24833869

  20. The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high-performance low-power CMOS AGC for GPS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianqian, Lei; Qiming, Xu; Zhiming, Chen; Yin, Shi; Min, Lin; Hailong, Jia

    2010-02-01

    A wide tuning range, low power CMOS automatic gain control (AGC) with a simple architecture is proposed. The proposed AGC is composed of a variable gain amplifier (VGA), a comparator and a charge pump, and the dB-linear gain is controlled by the charge pump. The AGC was implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The dynamic range of the VGA is more than 55 dB, the bandwidth is 30 MHz, and the gain error is lower than ±1.5 dB over the full temperature and gain ranges. It is designed for GPS application and is fed from a single 1.8 V power supply. The AGC power consumption is less than 5 mW, and the area of the AGC is 700 × 450 μm2.

  2. Myotonin protein-kinase [AGC]n trinucleotide repeat in seven nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, G.; Sineo, L.; Pontieri, E. ||

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is due to a genomic instability of a trinucleotide [AGC]n motif, located at the 3{prime} UTR region of a protein-kinase gene (myotonin protein kinase, MT-PK). The [AGC] repeat is meiotically and mitotically unstable, and it is directly related to the manifestations of the disorder. Although a gene dosage effect of the MT-PK has been demonstrated n DM muscle, the mechanism(s) by which the intragenic repeat expansion leads to disease is largely unknown. This non-standard mutational event could reflect an evolutionary mechanism widespread among animal genomes. We have isolated and sequenced the complete 3{prime}UTR region of the MT-PK gene in seven primates (macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, gibbon, owl monkey, saimiri), and examined by comparative sequence nucleotide analysis the [AGC]n intragenic repeat and the surrounding nucleotides. The genomic organization, including the [AGC]n repeat structure, was conserved in all examined species, excluding the gibbon (Hylobates agilis), in which the [AGC]n upstream sequence (GGAA) is replaced by a GA dinucleotide. The number of [AGC]n in the examined species ranged between 7 (gorilla) and 13 repeats (owl monkeys), with a polymorphism informative content (PIC) similar to that observed in humans. These results indicate that the 3{prime}UTR [AGC] repeat within the MT-PK gene is evolutionarily conserved, supporting that this region has important regulatory functions.

  3. The Extremely Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John Joseph; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) sample, which consists of ultra-low HI mass galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast-Acting ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. SHIELD is a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas content and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 106-107 M⊙. Our spectral data were obtained using the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m telescope as part of a systematic study of the nebular abundances in the SHIELD galaxy sample. These observations enable measurement of the temperature sensitive [OIII]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxy with an oxygen abundance comparable to such objects as I Zw 18, SBS 0335-052W, Leo P, and DDO 68 - the lowest metallicity star-forming systems known. It is worth noting that two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies currently recognized were discovered via the ALFALFA blind HI survey. These XMD galaxies are potential analogues to the first star-forming systems, which through hierarchical accretion processes built up the large galaxies we observe today in the local Universe. Detailed analysis of such XMD systems offers observational constraint to models of galactic evolution and star formation histories to allow a better understanding of the processes that govern the chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies.

  4. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-01-01

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process. PMID:27483267

  5. Design and performance test of a MEMS vibratory gyroscope with a novel AGC force rebalance control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Woon-Tahk; Sung, Sangkyung; Lee, Jang Gyu; Kang, Taesam

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the development and performance test results of a laterally oscillating MEMS gyroscope using a novel force rebalance control strategy are presented. The micromachined structure and electrodes are fabricated using the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and anodic wafer bonding process. The high quality factor required for the resonance-based sensor is achieved using a vacuum-sealed device package. A systematic design approach of the force rebalance control is applied via a modified automatic gain control (AGC) method. The rebalance control design takes advantages of a novel AGC loop modification, which allows the approximation of the system's dynamics into a simple linear form. Using the proposed modification of AGC and the rebalance strategy that maintains a biased oscillation, a number of performance improvements including bandwidth extension and widened operating range were observed to be achieved. Finally, the experimental results of the gyroscope's practical application verify the feasibility and performance of the developed sensor.

  6. Multi-area adaptive LFC developed for a comprehensive AGC simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Shoults, R.R. . Energy Systems Research Center); Ibarra, J.A.J. )

    1993-05-01

    A multi-area adaptive Load Frequency Control (LFC) based on the Self-Tuning Regulator (STR) for a comprehensive Automatic Generator Control Simulator (AGCS) is investigated. A multi-area AGCS comprising the dynamic as well as the static solutions of an interconnected power system has been implemented to accommodate a control center with adaptive LFC features. Simulation results from a three-area system driven by realistic load compositions show that the STR presents better tracking properties than the integral or the combination of integral and STR controllers.

  7. Data Report on Post-Irradiation Dimensional Change of AGC-1 Samples

    SciTech Connect

    William Windes

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the initial dimensional changes for loaded and unloaded AGC-1 samples. The dimensional change for all samples is presented as a function of dose. The data is further presented by graphite type and applied load levels to illustrate the differences between graphite forming processes and stress levels within the graphite components. While the three different loads placed on the samples have been verified [ ref: Larry Hull’s report] verification of the AGC-1 sample temperatures and dose levels are expected in the summer of 2012. Only estimated dose and temperature values for the samples are presented in this report to allow a partial analysis of the results.

  8. RF Variable-Gain Amplifiers and AGC Loops for Digital TV Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Kunihiko; Koutani, Masato; Mitsunaka, Takeshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Toyoyama, Shinji; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Akira

    RF Variable Gain Amplifiers (RF-VGA) are important components for integrated TV broadcast receivers. Analog and digital controlled RF-VGAs are compared in terms of linearity and an AGC loop architecture suitable for digitally controlled RF-VGA is proposed. Further linearity enhancement applicable for CMOS implementation is also discussed.

  9. ASASSN-16ke: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in AGC 331536

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Bock, G.; Cruz, I.; Marples, P.; Post, R. S.

    2016-09-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy AGC 331536.

  10. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium.

    PubMed

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-30

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology. PMID:27560165

  11. SHIELD II: AGC 198507 - An Extremely Rare Low-Mass Galaxy Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolina Borg Stevens, Karin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. New HST imaging of one of these sample galaxies, AGC 198507, has revealed it to be a very rare interacting system; to our knowledge this is one of only a few known interactions in this extreme mass range. WSRT imaging indicates that the bulk of the HI is associated with the more luminous AGC 198507, while low surface brightness gas extends toward and coincides with the less luminous companion, which is separated by roughly 1.5 kpc from AGC 198507. Here we present new VLA B configuration HI imaging that allows us to localize the HI gas, to examine the rotational dynamics of AGC 198507, and to study the nature of star formation in this unique low-mass interacting system.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  12. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106–107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  13. Theoretical studies of the structure and stability of (Ag(C 6H 6) n+ ( n = 1 and 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, N. L.; Ng, K. M.; Tsang, C. W.

    1997-10-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital techniques are used to probe the structure and stability of Ag(C 6H 6) + and Ag(C 6H 6) 2+ recently observed in electrospray ionization mass spectra. Of all the Ag(C 6H 6) + structures investigated, the C 6v complex is the most stable. Our calculated first binding energy of benzene to Ag + is in agreement with the experimental value and the second binding enegy of benzene to Ag + is estimated to be 114 (10) kJ mol -1.

  14. AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell

    2006-08-01

    This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.

  15. Design and realization of an AEC&AGC system for the CCD aerial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai ying; Feng, Bing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yan; Wei, Hao yun

    2015-08-01

    An AEC and AGC(Automatic Exposure Control and Automatic Gain Control) system was designed for a CCD aerial camera with fixed aperture and electronic shutter. The normal AEC and AGE algorithm is not suitable to the aerial camera since the camera always takes high-resolution photographs in high-speed moving. The AEC and AGE system adjusts electronic shutter and camera gain automatically according to the target brightness and the moving speed of the aircraft. An automatic Gamma correction is used before the image is output so that the image is better for watching and analyzing by human eyes. The AEC and AGC system could avoid underexposure, overexposure, or image blurring caused by fast moving or environment vibration. A series of tests proved that the system meet the requirements of the camera system with its fast adjusting speed, high adaptability, high reliability in severe complex environment.

  16. Research of AGC technology in a digital optical fiber sensing system with PGC modulation and demodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Shuidong; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    The magnitude of light intensity on the photo-to-electric detector fluctuates all the time in an optic fiber sensing system, because of the influence of various factors in the fiber optic sensing system and from the external environment. As a result of the excessive intensity, the electric signal will be overload after the amplifier circuit with constant enlargement factor, and when the light intensity becames too small, it will reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the electric signal. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce an automatic gain control (AGC) module into the system, which can insure the electric signal in a reasonable magnitude. In order to solve the problem of optic intensity fluctuating in the optical fiber sensing system with PGC modulation and demodulation, in this paper, firstly, it is analyzed that the impact of different magnitudes of interferential intensity to the PGC demodulation in theory. Secondly, a reasonable control method is put forward and an AGC module based on the AD602 chip is designed and produced. Finally, it is proved that the optic fiber sensor system with an AGC module has strong ability to resist fluctuation of light intensity within 40dB.

  17. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    PubMed

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water. PMID:24928455

  18. NV Energy Large-Scale Photovoltaic Integration Study: Intra-Hour Dispatch and AGC Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Meng, Da; Guo, Xinxin; Jin, Chunlian; Samaan, Nader A.

    2013-01-02

    The uncertainty and variability with photovoltaic (PV) generation make it very challenging to balance power system generation and load, especially under high penetration cases. Higher reserve requirements and more cycling of conventional generators are generally anticipated for large-scale PV integration. However, whether the existing generation fleet is flexible enough to handle the variations and how well the system can maintain its control performance are difficult to predict. The goal of this project is to develop a software program that can perform intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulation, by which the balancing operations of a system can be simulated to answer the questions posed above. The simulator, named Electric System Intra-Hour Operation Simulator (ESIOS), uses the NV Energy southern system as a study case, and models the system’s generator configurations, AGC functions, and operator actions to balance system generation and load. Actual dispatch of AGC generators and control performance under various PV penetration levels can be predicted by running ESIOS. With data about the load, generation, and generator characteristics, ESIOS can perform similar simulations and assess variable generation integration impacts for other systems as well. This report describes the design of the simulator and presents the study results showing the PV impacts on NV Energy real-time operations.

  19. A digitally controlled AGC loop circuitry for GNSS receiver chip with a binary weighted accurate dB-linear PGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Jin; Yiqi, Zhuang; Yue, Yin; Miao, Cui

    2015-03-01

    A novel digitally controlled automatic gain control (AGC) loop circuitry for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver chip is presented. The entire AGC loop contains a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an AGC circuit and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is implemented in a 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and measured. A binary-weighted approach is proposed in the PGA to achieve wide dB-linear gain control with small gain error. With binary-weighted cascaded amplifiers for coarse gain control, and parallel binary-weighted trans-conductance amplifier array for fine gain control, the PGA can provide a 64 dB dynamic range from -4 to 60 dB in 1.14 dB gain steps with a less than 0.15 dB gain error. Based on the Gaussian noise statistic characteristic of the GNSS signal, a digital AGC circuit is also proposed with low area and fast settling. The feed-backward AGC loop occupies an area of 0.27 mm2 and settles within less than 165 μs while consuming an average current of 1.92 mA at 1.8 V.

  20. AGC System after Deregulation Considering TCPS in Series with the Tie-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Rajesh Joseph; Das, D.; Patra, A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the study of automatic generation control (AGC) of two area interconnected power system after deregulation, considering a thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with the tie-line. It is possible to minimize the system frequency and tie-power oscillations by controlling the phase angle of TCPS which is expected to provide a new ancillary service for the future power system. Effect of TCPS is examined for three different cases, i.e. (1) unilateral contract, (2) bilateral contract and (3) contract violation. Analysis reveals that a TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS.

  1. Borrmann Type 4 Advanced Gastric Cancer: Focus on the Development of Scirrhous Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Seun Ja

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Borrmann type 4 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is very important for improving the prognosis of AGC patients. Because there is no definite mass in most cases of Borrmann type 4 AGC, its accurate diagnosis via endoscopy requires an understanding of its pathogenesis and developmental process. Moreover, many people confuse linitis plastica (LP) type gastric cancer (GC), scirrhous GC, and Borrmann type 4 AGC. To distinguish each of these cancers, knowledge of their endoscopic and pathological differences is necessary, especially for LP type GCs in the developmental stage. In conclusion, diagnosis of pre-stage or latent LP type GC before progression to typical LP type GC requires the detection of IIc-like lesions in the fundic gland area. It is also crucial to identify any abnormalities such as sclerosis of the gastric wall and hypertrophy of the mucosal folds during endoscopy. PMID:27456608

  2. A wide dynamic range laser rangefinder with cm-level resolution based on AGC amplifier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feihu; Gong, Ke; Huo, Yujing

    2012-03-01

    A pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) laser rangefinder with a pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photo diode (APD) receiver is constructed and tested. Trigged by an avalanche transistor, the laser diode can emit a periodic pulse with rise time of ˜2 ns. A new structure with auto gain control (AGC) circuits both in the pre-amplifier and the post-amplifier is presented. Through this technology, not only the dynamic range of the receiver is extended, but also the walk error of timing discriminators is reduced. Large measurement range from 5 m to 500 m is achieved without any cooperative target. The single-shot precision is 3 cm for the weakest signal. Compared with previous laser rangefinders, the complexity of this system is greatly simplified.

  3. A CMOS low power, process/temperature variation tolerant RSSI with an integrated AGC loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianqian, Lei; Min, Lin; Yin, Shi

    2013-03-01

    A low voltage low power CMOS limiter and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) with an integrated automatic gain control (AGC) loop for a short-distance receiver are implemented in SMIC 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The RSSI has a dynamic range of more than 60 dB and the RSSI linearity error is within ±0.5 dB for an input power from -65 to -8 dBm. The RSSI output voltage is from 0.15 to 1 V and the slope of the curve is 14.17 mV/dB while consuming 1.5 mA (I and Q paths) from a 1.2 V supply. Auto LNA gain mode selection with a combined RSSI function is also presented. Furthermore, with the compensation circuit, the proposed RSSI shows good temperature-independent and good robustness against process variation characteristics.

  4. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  5. Controlling Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation: An Analysis of AGC Capabilities Under New Performance Based Compensation Policy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, J.; Pao, L. Y.; Fleming, P.; Ela, E.

    2015-02-01

    As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio there has been an increased interest for wind turbines to control their active power output to provide ancillary services which support grid reliability. One of these ancillary services is the provision of frequency regulation, also referred to as secondary frequency control or automatic generation control (AGC), which is often procured through markets which recently adopted performance-based compensation. A wind turbine with a control system developed to provide active power ancillary services can be used to provide frequency regulation services. Simulations have been performed to determine the AGC tracking performance at various power schedule set-points, participation levels, and wind conditions. The performance metrics used in this study are based on those used by several system operators in the US. Another metric that is analyzed is the damage equivalent loads (DELs) on turbine structural components, though the impacts on the turbine electrical components are not considered. The results of these single-turbine simulations show that high performance scores can be achieved when there is sufficient wind resource available. The capability of a wind turbine to rapidly and accurately follow power commands allows for high performance even when tracking rapidly changing AGC signals. As the turbine de-rates to meet decreased power schedule set-points there is a reduction in the DELs, and the participation in frequency regulation has a negligible impact on these loads.

  6. Regulation of planar growth by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN.

    PubMed

    Enugutti, Balaji; Kirchhelle, Charlotte; Oelschner, Maxi; Torres Ruiz, Ramón Angel; Schliebner, Ivo; Leister, Dario; Schneitz, Kay

    2012-09-11

    The spatial coordination of growth is of central importance for the regulation of plant tissue architecture. Individual layers, such as the epidermis, are clonally propagated and structurally maintained by symmetric cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer. The developmental control of this process is poorly understood. The simple cellular basis and sheet-like structure of Arabidopsis integuments make them an attractive model system to address planar growth. Here we report on the characterization of the Arabidopsis UNICORN (UCN) gene. Analysis of ucn integuments reveals localized distortion of planar growth, eventually resulting in an ectopic multicellular protrusion. In addition, ucn mutants exhibit ectopic growth in filaments and petals, as well as aberrant embryogenesis. We further show that UCN encodes an active AGC VIII kinase. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological data suggest that UCN suppresses ectopic growth in integuments by directly repressing the KANADI transcription factor ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE. Our findings indicate that UCN represents a unique plant growth regulator that maintains planar growth of integuments by repressing a developmental regulator involved in the control of early integument growth and polarity. PMID:22927420

  7. Regulation of planar growth by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN

    PubMed Central

    Enugutti, Balaji; Kirchhelle, Charlotte; Oelschner, Maxi; Torres Ruiz, Ramón Angel; Schliebner, Ivo; Leister, Dario; Schneitz, Kay

    2012-01-01

    The spatial coordination of growth is of central importance for the regulation of plant tissue architecture. Individual layers, such as the epidermis, are clonally propagated and structurally maintained by symmetric cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer. The developmental control of this process is poorly understood. The simple cellular basis and sheet-like structure of Arabidopsis integuments make them an attractive model system to address planar growth. Here we report on the characterization of the Arabidopsis UNICORN (UCN) gene. Analysis of ucn integuments reveals localized distortion of planar growth, eventually resulting in an ectopic multicellular protrusion. In addition, ucn mutants exhibit ectopic growth in filaments and petals, as well as aberrant embryogenesis. We further show that UCN encodes an active AGC VIII kinase. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological data suggest that UCN suppresses ectopic growth in integuments by directly repressing the KANADI transcription factor ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE. Our findings indicate that UCN represents a unique plant growth regulator that maintains planar growth of integuments by repressing a developmental regulator involved in the control of early integument growth and polarity. PMID:22927420

  8. Polymer Assisted Core-shell Ag-C nanoparticles Synthesis via Green hydrothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James; Mishra, Sanjay

    2009-03-01

    Core-Shell Ag-C nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of glucose through a one-pot green hydrothermal wet chemical process. An aqueous solution of glucose and Ag nitrate was hydrothermally treated to produce porous carbonaceous shell over silver core nanoparticles. The growth of carbon shells was regulated by either of the polymers (poly) vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) or poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The two polymers were compared to take a measure of different tunable sizes of cores, and shells. The effects of hydrothermal temperature, time, and concentration of reagents on the final formation of nanostructures were studied using UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. The polymer molecules were found to be incorporated into carbonaceous shell. The resulting opacity of the shell was found to be hydrothermal time and temperature dependent. The shell structure was found to be more uniform with PVP than PVA. Furthermore, the polymer concentration was found to influence size and shape of the core-silver particles as well. The core-shelled nanoparticles have surfaces with organic groups capable of assembling with different reagents that could be useful in drug-delivery, optical nanodevices or biochemistry.

  9. Transient response and stability of the AGC-PI closed-loop controlled MEMS vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Chi, X. Z.; Ding, H. T.; Lin, L. T.; Yang, Z. C.; Yan, G. Z.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the transient response and stability of the automatic gain control (AGC) with a proportion-integral (PI) controller for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope, which constructs a closed-loop control system to make the gyroscope achieve a constant amplitude vibration at its resonant frequency. The nonlinear mathematical model for the control system is established by applying the averaging and linearization method, which is evaluated through numerical simulations. The stability and convergence characteristics of the whole loop are investigated by using the phase plane method and Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The analysis provides a quantitative methodology for selecting the system parameters to approach stability and an optimal transient response. The negative impact induced by drift of the resonant frequency and Q-factor is also discussed. Simulation results predicted by the model are shown to be in close agreement with the experimental results carried out on a doubly decoupled bulk micromachined gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the measured rising time is less than 100 ms without obvious overshoot. The setting time of the whole loop is less than 200 ms with the relative fluctuation of velocity amplitude within approximately 16 ppm for an hour. The resulting overall performance of the gyroscope is tested under atmospheric pressure. The resonant frequencies and the Q-factor of the drive mode and sense mode are 2.986 kHz, 213 and 3.199 kHz, 233, respectively. The gyroscope achieves a scale factor of 27.6 mV/deg/s with nonlinearity less than 120 ppm in the full-scale range of 800° s-1. The threshold of sensitivity is measured to be about 0.005° s-1 with noise equivalent angular rate evaluated to be 0.001°/s/Hz1/2.

  10. Searching for Optical Counterparts to Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds: Possible Detection of a Counterpart to AGC 198606

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.

    2015-09-01

    We report initial results from a campaign to obtain optical imaging of Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hi survey. UCHVCs have properties consistent with their being low-mass dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume, but do not have identified optical counterparts. We are using the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to image these objects and search for an associated stellar population. Here we present our observational strategy and method for searching for resolved stellar counterparts to the UCHVCs. We combine careful photometry, a color-magnitude filter, and spatial smoothing techniques to search for stellar overdensities in the g- and i-band images. We also run statistical tests to quantify the likelihood that detected overdensities are real and not chance superpositions of sources. We demonstrate the method by applying it to WIYN imaging of two objects: Leo P, a UCHVC discovered by ALFALFA and shown to be a star-forming dwarf galaxy in the Local Volume and AGC 198606, an ALFALFA source near in position and velocity to the Local Group dwarf galaxy Leo T. Applying the search method to the Leo P data yields an unambiguous detection (>99% confidence) of the galaxy’s stellar population. Applying the method to the AGC 198606 imaging yields a possible detection (92% confidence) of an optical counterpart located ˜2.5 arcmin from the centroid of AGC 198606's Hi distribution and within the Hi disk. We estimate a distance to the stellar counterpart of 373-393 kpc, an absolute magnitude Mi = -4.67 ± 0.09, and an Hi-to-stellar mass ratio of ˜45-110.

  11. Searching for Optical Counterparts to Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds: Possible Detection of a Counterpart to AGC 198606

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.

    2015-09-01

    We report initial results from a campaign to obtain optical imaging of Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hi survey. UCHVCs have properties consistent with their being low-mass dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume, but do not have identified optical counterparts. We are using the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to image these objects and search for an associated stellar population. Here we present our observational strategy and method for searching for resolved stellar counterparts to the UCHVCs. We combine careful photometry, a color–magnitude filter, and spatial smoothing techniques to search for stellar overdensities in the g- and i-band images. We also run statistical tests to quantify the likelihood that detected overdensities are real and not chance superpositions of sources. We demonstrate the method by applying it to WIYN imaging of two objects: Leo P, a UCHVC discovered by ALFALFA and shown to be a star-forming dwarf galaxy in the Local Volume and AGC 198606, an ALFALFA source near in position and velocity to the Local Group dwarf galaxy Leo T. Applying the search method to the Leo P data yields an unambiguous detection (>99% confidence) of the galaxy’s stellar population. Applying the method to the AGC 198606 imaging yields a possible detection (92% confidence) of an optical counterpart located ∼2.5 arcmin from the centroid of AGC 198606's Hi distribution and within the Hi disk. We estimate a distance to the stellar counterpart of 373–393 kpc, an absolute magnitude Mi = ‑4.67 ± 0.09, and an Hi-to-stellar mass ratio of ∼45–110.

  12. Hybrid Stochastic Search Technique based Suboptimal AGC Regulator Design for Power System using Constrained Feedback Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Omveer, Hasan, N.

    2010-10-01

    A new hybrid stochastic search technique is proposed to design of suboptimal AGC regulator for a two area interconnected non reheat thermal power system incorporating DC link in parallel with AC tie-line. In this technique, we are proposing the hybrid form of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) based regulator. GASA has been successfully applied to constrained feedback control problems where other PI based techniques have often failed. The main idea in this scheme is to seek a feasible PI based suboptimal solution at each sampling time. The feasible solution decreases the cost function rather than minimizing the cost function.

  13. Requirement for a standardised definition of advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    DE SOL, ANGELO; TRASTULLI, STEFANO; GRASSI, VERONICA; CORSI, ALESSIA; BARILLARO, IVAN; BOCCOLINI, ANDREA; DI PATRIZI, MICOL SOLE; DI ROCCO, GIORGIO; SANTORO, ALBERTO; CIROCCHI, ROBERTO; BOSELLI, CARLO; REDLER, ADRIANO; NOYA, GIUSEPPE; KONG, SEONG-HO

    2014-01-01

    Each year, ~988,000 new cases of stomach cancer are reported worldwide. Uniformity for the definition of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is required to ensure the improved management of patients. Various classifications do actually exist for gastric cancer, but the classification determined by lesion depth is extremely important, as it has been shown to correlate with patient prognosis; for example, early gastric cancer (EGC) has a favourable prognosis when compared with AGC. In the literature, the definition of EGC is clear, however, there is heterogeneity in the definition of AGC. In the current study, all parameters of the TNM classification for AGC reported in each previous study were individually analysed. It was necessary to perform a comprehensive systematic literature search of all previous studies that have reported a definition of ACG to guarantee homogeneity in the assessment of surgical outcome. It must be understood that the term ‘advanced gastric cancer’ may implicate a number of stages of disease, and studies must highlight the exact clinical TNM stages used for evaluation of the study. PMID:24348842

  14. A 6 μW per channel analog biomimetic cochlear implant processor filterbank architecture with across channels AGC.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lyon, Richard F; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2015-02-01

    A new analog cochlear implant processor filterbank architecture of increased biofidelity, enhanced across-channel contrast and very low power consumption has been designed and prototyped. Each channel implements a biomimetic, asymmetric bandpass-like One-Zero-Gammatone-Filter (OZGF) transfer function, using class-AB log-domain techniques. Each channel's quality factor and suppression are controlled by means of a new low power Automatic Gain Control (AGC) scheme which is coupled across the neighboring channels and emulates lateral inhibition (LI) phenomena in the auditory system. Detailed measurements from a five-channel silicon IC prototype fabricated in a 0.35 μm AMS technology confirm the operation of the coupled AGC scheme and its ability to enhance contrast among channel outputs. The prototype is characterized by an input dynamic range of 92 dB while consuming only 28 μW of power in total ( ∼ 6 μW per channel) under a 1.8 V power supply. The architecture is well-suited for fully-implantable cochlear implants. PMID:25069120

  15. Learning guide for the terminal configured vehicle advanced guidance and control system mode select panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. A.; Callahan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This learning guide is designed to assist pilots in taking the PLATO presimulator training course on the advanced guidance and control system mode select panel. The learning guide is divided into five sections. The first section, the introduction, presents the course goals, prerequisites, definition of PLATO activities, and a suggested approach to completing the course. The remaining four sections present the purpose, learning activities and summary of each lesson of the AGCS PLATO course, which consists of (1) AGCS introduction; (2) lower order modes; (3) higher order modes; and (4) an arrival route exercise.

  16. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  17. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  18. A 2-mW 50-dB DR wideband hybrid AGC for a GNSS receiver in 65 nm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Baoyong, Chi; Yang, Xu; Nan, Qi; Zhihua, Wang

    2012-07-01

    A low-power wideband hybrid automatic gain control (AGC) loop for a GNSS receiver is presented. Single AGC in the I/Q path is composed of four-stage programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs), a differential peak detector, two comparators, a control algorithm logic, a decoder and the reference voltage source. Besides being controlled by an AGC loop, the gain of PGAs could alternatively be controlled by an off-chip digital baseband processor through the SPI interface. To obtain low power consumption and noise, an improved source degenerated amplifier is adopted, and the I/Q path phase mismatch within the ±5° range is calibrated with 0.2° accuracy. Implemented in 65 nm CMOS, the measured PGA total gains range from 9.8 to 59.5 dB with an average step of 0.95 dB and simulated bandwidth of more than 110 MHz. The settling time is about 180 μs with 80% AM input with measured signal power from -76.7 to -56.6 dBm from a radio-frequency amplifier (RFA) input port, and also reduces to 90 μs with clock frequency doubling. The single AGC consumes almost 0.8 mA current from the 2.5-V supply and occupies an area of 750 × 300 μm2.

  19. Electron transport properties and spin modulation effect analysis for C60, Au@C60 and Ag@C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Guiqin

    2016-04-01

    The electron transport properties of C60, Au@C60 and Ag@C60 junctions between Au electrodes are investigated with density functional theory and the first-principle nonequilibrium Greens function. Density of states and transmission possibility as functions of energy are examined, and current-voltage characteristics of all these models are calculated with and without spin correction. With spin correction, we find a spin-current difference in Au@C60 as large as an order of magnitude. It may be used to obtain high-purity arbitrary spin current. By comparing the calculation results with and without spin correction, we attribute this spin difference to the spin resonance between transmission electrons and the valence electron of endohedral Au atom.

  20. Range and AGC normalization in airborne discrete-return LiDAR intensity data for forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, Ilkka; Ørka, Hans Ole; Hyyppä, Juha; Heikkinen, Ville; Tokola, Timo

    Recently, the intensity characteristics of discrete-return LiDAR sensors were studied for vegetation classification. We examined two normalization procedures affecting LiDAR intensity through the scanning geometry and the system settings, namely, range normalization and the effects of the automatic gain control (AGC) in the Optech ALTM3100 and Leica ALS50-II sensors. Range normalization corresponds to weighting of the observed intensities with the term (, where R is the range, R is a mean reference range, and a∈[2,4] is the exponent that is, according to theory, dependent on the target geometry. LiDAR points belonging to individual tree crowns were extracted for 13 887 trees in southern Finland. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the intensity was analyzed for a range of values of exponent a. The tree species classification performance using 13 intensity variables was also used for sensitivity analysis of the effect of a. The results were in line with the established theory, since the optimal level of a was lower (a≈2) for trees with large or clumped leaves and higher (a≈3) for diffuse coniferous crowns. Different echo groups also showed varying responses. Single-return pulses that represented strong reflections had a lower optimal value of a than the first and all echoes in a pulse. The gain in classification accuracy from the optimal selection of the exponent was 2%-3%, and the optimum for classification was different from that obtained using the CV analysis. In the ALS50-II sensor, the combined and optimized AGC and R normalizations had a notably larger effect (6%-9%) on classification accuracy. Our study demonstrates the ambiguity of R normalization in vegetation canopies.

  1. An advanced dispatch simulator with advanced dispatch algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, R.J. ); Fink, L.H. ); Balu, N.J. ); Crim, H.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on an interactive automatic generation control (AGC) simulator. Improved and timely information regarding fossil fired plant performance is potentially useful in the economic dispatch of system generating units. Commonly used economic dispatch algorithms are not able to take full advantage of this information. The dispatch simulator was developed to test and compare economic dispatch algorithms which might be able to show improvement over standard economic dispatch algorithms if accurate unit information were available. This dispatch simulator offers substantial improvements over previously available simulators. In addition, it contains an advanced dispatch algorithm which shows control and performance advantages over traditional dispatch algorithms for both plants and electric systems.

  2. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  3. HER2 status in advanced gastric carcinoma: A retrospective multicentric analysis from Sicily

    PubMed Central

    IENI, A.; BARRESI, V.; GIUFFRÈ, G.; CARUSO, R.A.; LANZAFAME, S.; VILLARI, L.; SALOMONE, E.; ROZ, E.; CABIBI, D.; FRANCO, V.; CERTO, G.; LABATE, A.; NAGAR, C.; MAGLIOLO, E.; BROGGI, B.; FAZZARI, C.; ITALIA, F.; TUCCARI, G.

    2013-01-01

    According to the ToGA trial, HER2 has been shown to be predictive for the success of treatment with trastuzumab in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A number of studies have analyzed HER-2/neu overexpression in gastric carcinoma and identified the rate of HER2 positivity to be markedly varied. To date, the prevalence of HER2 overexpression in Sicilian people with AGC is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of HER2 was performed in a cohort of 304 AGC samples that were obtained from the archives of 10 Sicilian anatomopathological diagnostic units in order to verify the positive rate of HER2-positive cases. Furthermore, the characteristics of histotype, grade, stage and Ki-67 expression were also analyzed. HER2 overexpression was encountered in 17.43% of all the gastric adenocarcinomas, which was consistent with the results that have been reported elsewhere in the literature. A progressive increase in HER2 overexpression was observed, from the poorly cohesive histotype to the tubular adenocarcinomas and gastric hepatoid adenocarcinomas. HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with a high grade, advanced stage and high Ki-67 labeling index. Further investigations performed jointly by pathologists and oncologists within the geographical area of the present study should confirm that the association of trastuzumab with chemotherapy results in an improvement of survival in patients with AGC. PMID:24260051

  4. Effect of visible-light illumination on resistive switching characteristics in Ag/Ce2W3O12/FTO devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bai; Li, Xiaoping; Liang, Dandan; Chen, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The resistive switching device is a fascinating candidate for next generation nonvolatile memories. In this Letter, we report a simple hydrothermal way to prepare Ce2W3O12 powder. Furthermore, we fabricated a resistive switching memory device with Ag/Ce2W3O12/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) structure. Moreover, we observed the effect of visible-light illumination on resistive switching memory behaviour in Ag/Ce2W3O12/FTO devices. This Letter is useful for exploring the new potential materials for resistive switching memory device, and provides the visible-light as a new control method for resistive switching random access memory (RRAM).

  5. Phosphorylation of the amino-terminus of the AGC kinase Gad8 prevents its interaction with TORC2.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Forte, Gabriella M; Smith, Duncan; Petersen, Janni

    2016-03-01

    Cell proliferation, metabolism, migration and survival are coordinated through the tight control of two target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that a novel phosphorylation of fission yeast Gad8 (AGC kinase) on the evolutionarily conserved threonine 6 (Thr6) prevents the physical association between Gad8 and TORC2. Accordingly, this block to protein interactions by Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation decreases TORC2-controlled activation of Gad8. Likewise, phosphorylation of Gad8 Thr6, possibly by PKC, prevents the association of Gad8 with TORC2 thereby increasing TORC2 activity, because it reduces Gad8-mediated feedback inhibition of TORC2. Consistently, the introduction of a Gad8 T6D mutant, that mimics phosphorylation, increased TORC2 activity. Increased PKC(Pck2) expression prevented Gad8-TORC2 binding and so reduced the TORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Gad8 serine 546 that activates Gad8. Interestingly, independent of the Ser546 phosphorylation status, Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation is important for remodelling the actin cytoskeleton and survival upon potassium ion and heat stresses. In contrast, Ser546 phosphorylation is required for the control of G1 arrest, mating, cell length at division and vascular size. Finally, these findings reveal a novel mode of TORC2 activation that is essential for cell survival following stress. PMID:26935949

  6. Phosphorylation of the TOR ATP binding domain by AGC kinase constitutes a novel mode of TOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hálová, Lenka; Du, Wei; Kirkham, Sara; Smith, Duncan L; Petersen, Janni

    2013-11-25

    TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling coordinates cell growth, metabolism, and cell division through tight control of signaling via two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that fission yeast TOR kinases and mTOR are phosphorylated on an evolutionarily conserved residue of their ATP-binding domain. The Gad8 kinase (AKT homologue) phosphorylates fission yeast Tor1 at this threonine (T1972) to reduce activity. A T1972A mutation that blocked phosphorylation increased Tor1 activity and stress resistance. Nitrogen starvation of fission yeast inhibited TOR signaling to arrest cell cycle progression in G1 phase and promoted sexual differentiation. Starvation and a Gad8/T1972-dependent decrease in Tor1 (TORC2) activity was essential for efficient cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations, as mTOR was phosphorylated on T2173 in an AKT-dependent manner. In addition, a T2173A mutation increased mTOR activity. Thus, TOR kinase activity can be reduced through AGC kinase-controlled phosphorylation to generate physiologically significant changes in TOR signaling. PMID:24247430

  7. Phosphorylation of the amino-terminus of the AGC kinase Gad8 prevents its interaction with TORC2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Forte, Gabriella M.; Smith, Duncan; Petersen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation, metabolism, migration and survival are coordinated through the tight control of two target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that a novel phosphorylation of fission yeast Gad8 (AGC kinase) on the evolutionarily conserved threonine 6 (Thr6) prevents the physical association between Gad8 and TORC2. Accordingly, this block to protein interactions by Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation decreases TORC2-controlled activation of Gad8. Likewise, phosphorylation of Gad8 Thr6, possibly by PKC, prevents the association of Gad8 with TORC2 thereby increasing TORC2 activity, because it reduces Gad8-mediated feedback inhibition of TORC2. Consistently, the introduction of a Gad8 T6D mutant, that mimics phosphorylation, increased TORC2 activity. Increased PKCPck2 expression prevented Gad8–TORC2 binding and so reduced the TORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Gad8 serine 546 that activates Gad8. Interestingly, independent of the Ser546 phosphorylation status, Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation is important for remodelling the actin cytoskeleton and survival upon potassium ion and heat stresses. In contrast, Ser546 phosphorylation is required for the control of G1 arrest, mating, cell length at division and vascular size. Finally, these findings reveal a novel mode of TORC2 activation that is essential for cell survival following stress. PMID:26935949

  8. Catalytic dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride in liquid phase with methanol as H-donor over Ag/C catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mohong; Li, Xuebing; Chen, Bo; Li, Mingshi; Xin, Hongchuan; Song, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Catalytic hydrodechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an effective measure to remove CCl4 due to its pollutant character. The dechlorination of CCl4 to dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and chloroform (CHCl3) with a molar ratio of 3:2 was catalyzed by carbon-supported silver (Ag/C) catalyst in methanol solution. It was proposed from the catalytic results and characterization (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) data that, the chloride ion is abstracted from adsorbed CCl4 by Ag to form CCl3 and CCI2 radicals and silver chloride (AgCl), and meanwhile the dehydrogenation of methanol over Ag domains intrigues initial active Ag-H species and formaldehyde (HCHO); then the CCI3 and CCI, radicals are combined with Ag-H to generate reaction products (CHCl3 and CH2Cl2) and Ag, and the dehydrogenated product HCHO facilitates the regeneration of formed AgCl to Ag with formation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride. The catalyst can be recovered and recycled, and there was no significant decrease in catalytic activity and selectivity after 4th recycling. PMID:25924408

  9. Assignment of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) to 15q26 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.; Chen, X.N.; Doege, K.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    The large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Recent cDNA cloning of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) reveals a core protein of at least 2316 amino acids characterized by several distinct structural domains. Two globular domains, termed G1 and G2, are present at the amino terminus of the molecule and a third, termed G3, is present at the carboxy terminus. The G1 domain is homologous in structure to the cartilage link protein and accounts for the aggregating potential of aggrecan through its ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. The aggrecan gene is known to consist of 15 exons, with each exon encoding a distinct functional region of the mature protein. However, while the link protein gene is known to reside on chromosome 5 in the human, the location of the aggrecan gene is currently undetermined in any species. The probe (pAGG2) for the aggrecan gene was mapped on chromosome band 15q26, most likely in the subregion of 15q26.1, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clear signals were noted on both chromatids of chromosome band 15q26 in over 80% of the 300 metaphase cells examined in three independent experiments using pAGG2. No other sites of hybridization were noted on both chromatids of any other chromosome band. The precise band location was identified by using chromsomes of about 650 bands and employing fluorescence reverse banding with chromomycin A3 and distamycin. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  10. A Fully Digital AGC System with 100MHz Bandwidth and 35dB Dynamic Range Power Detectors for DVB-S2 Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Younggun; Lee, Kang-Yoon

    This paper presents a fully digital gain control system with a new high bandwidth and wide dynamic range power detector for DVB-S2 application. Because the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of DVB-S2 system is so high and the settling time requirement is so stringent, the conventional closed-loop analog gain control scheme cannot be used. The digital gain control is necessary for the robust gain control and the direct digital interface with the baseband modem. Also, it has several advantages over the analog gain control in terms of the settling time and insensitivity to the process, voltage and temperature variation. In order to have a wide gain range with fine step resolution, a new AGC system is proposed. The system is composed of high-bandwidth digital VGAs, wide dynamic range power detectors with RMS detector, low power SAR type ADC, and a digital gain controller. To reduce the power consumption and chip area, only one SAR type ADC is used, and its input is time-interleaved based on four power detectors. Simulation and measurement results show that the new AGC system converges with gain error less than 0.25dB to the desired level within 10µs. It is implemented in a 0.18µm CMOS process. The measurement results of the proposed IF AGC system exhibit 80-dB gain range with 0.25-dB resolution, 8nV/\\\\!\\\\sqrt{Hz} input referred noise, and 5-dBm IIP3 at 60-mW power consumption. The power detector shows the 35dB dynamic range for 100MHz input.

  11. Synthesis of single-crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes-loaded Ag@C core-shell matrix and their application for electrochemical sensing of nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-10-01

    A nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor was fabricated by combing the crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes and Ag@C core-shell matrix with their own superior characteristics. The morphology, size and electrochemical of the sensing interface materials and the relationship between the electrical catalytic properties and sensor response performance were also studied, established a new method for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structure and morphology of hollow tubular-like MnO2 and MnO2-Ag@C film were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the sensor were explored by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The investigation showed that the MnO2-Ag@C at the sensor exhibited a high electrocatalytic activity towards electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide; and under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of hydrogen peroxide were 0.5μM to 5.7mM with a low detection limit of 0.17μM (S/N=3) and high sensitivity of 127.2μAmM(-1)cm(-2). Compared with other nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor, the fabricated sensor own lower detection limit, demonstrating that MnO2-Ag@C nanocomposite film will be a new promising platform for the construction of hydrogen peroxide sensors. PMID:27474303

  12. AT13148, a first-in-class multi-AGC kinase inhibitor, potently inhibits gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yu; Niu, Jianhua; Shen, Yun; Li, Dongmei; Peng, Xinyu; Wu, Xiangwei

    2016-09-01

    The AGC kinase family is important cell proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of this family contributes to gastric cancer progression. Here, we evaluated the potential activity of AT13148, a first-in-class multi-AGC kinase inhibitor, against gastric cancer cells. Our results showed that AT13148 exerted potent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities against a panel human gastric cancer cell lines (HGC-27, AGS, SNU-601, N87 and MKN-28), possibly via inducing cancer cell apoptotic death. Apoptosis inhibition by the Caspase blockers dramatically attenuated AT13148-caused cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. Intriguingly, same AT13148 treatment was not cytotoxic/pro-apoptotic to the non-cancerous human gastric epithelial GEC-1 cells. At the signaling level, AT13148 treatment in gastric cancer cells dramatically suppressed activation of multiple AGC kinases, including Akt (at p-Thr-308), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). Our in vivo studies demonstrated that daily oral gavage of AT13148 at well-tolerated doses significantly inhibited HGC27 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. AGC activity was also dramatically decreased in AT13148-administrated HGC27 tumors. Therefore, targeting AGC kinases by AT13148 demonstrates superior anti-gastric cancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. The preclinical results of this study support the progression of this molecule into future evaluation as a valuable anti-gastric cancer candidate. PMID:26828267

  13. Preoperative administration of polysaccharide Kureha and reduced plasma transforming growth factor-β in patients with advanced gastric cancer: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, KEISHI; SAKURAMOTO, SHINICHI; MIENO, HIROAKI; NEMOTO, MASAYUKI; SHIBATA, TOMOTAKA; KATADA, NATSUYA; OHTSUKI, SHIGEAKI; SAKAMOTO, YASUTOSHI; HOSHI, KEIKA; WANG, GUOQIN; HEMMI, OSAMU; SATOH, TOSHIHIKO; KIKUCHI, SHIRO; WATANABE, MASAHIKO

    2015-01-01

    Systemic abrogation of TGF-β signaling results in tumor reduction through cytotoxic T lymphocytes activity in a mouse model. The administration of polysaccharide-Kureha (PSK) into tumor-bearing mice also showed tumor regression with reduced TGF-β. However, there have been no studies regarding the PSK administration to cancer patients and the association with plasma TGF-β. PSK (3 g/day) was administered as a neoadjuvant therapy for 2 weeks before surgery. In total, 31 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients were randomly assigned to group A (no neoadjuvant PSK; n=14) or B (neoadjuvant PSK therapy; n=17). Plasma TGF-β was measured pre- and postoperatively. The allocation factors were clinical stage (cStage) and gender. Plasma TGF-β ranged from 1.85–43.5 ng/ml (average, 9.50 ng/ml) in AGC, and 12 patients (38.7%) had a high value, >7.0 ng/ml. These patients were largely composed of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with pathological stage III/IV. All the six elevated cases in group B showed a significant reduction of plasma TGF-β (from 21.6 to 4.5 ng/ml, on average), whereas this was not exhibited in group A. The cases within the normal limits of TGF-β remained unchanged irrespective of PSK treatment. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant reduction in the difference of plasma TGF-β between groups A and B (P=0.019). PSK reduced the plasma TGF-β in AGC patients when the levels were initially high. The clinical advantage of PSK may, however, be restricted to specific histological types of AGC. Perioperative suppression of TGF-β by PSK may antagonize cancer immune evasion and improve patient prognosis in cases of AGC. PMID:26137253

  14. Doublet Versus Single Agent as Second-Line Treatment for Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Ma, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Tian; Li, Yan-Song; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhou-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the efficacy and safety of doublet versus single agent as second-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant RCTs. All clinical studies were independently identified by 2 authors for inclusion. Demographic data, treatment regimens, objective response rate (ORR), and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were extracted and analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2.0). Ten RCTs involving 1698 pretreated AGC patients were ultimately identified. The pooled results demonstrated that doublet combination therapy as second-line treatment for AGC significantly improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–0.97, P = 0.011), PFS (HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87, P < 0.001), and ORR (relative risk [RR] 1.57, 95% CI: 1.27–1.95, P < 0.001). Sub-group analysis according to treatment regimens also showed that targeted agent plus chemotherapy significantly improve OS, PFS, and ORR. However, no significant survival benefits had been observed in doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy when compared with single cytotoxic agent. Additionally, more incidences of grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression toxicities, diarrhea, and fatigue were observed in doublet combination groups, while equivalent frequencies of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia and nausea were found between the 2 groups. In comparison with single cytotoxic agent alone, the addition of targeted agent to mono-chemotherapy as salvage treatment for pretreated AGC patients provide substantial survival benefits, while no significant survival benefits were observed in doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. PMID:26937908

  15. Characterizing land condition variability in Ferlo, Senegal (2001-2009) using multi-temporal 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) SPOT Vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, B.; Gilabert, M. A.; García-Haro, F. J.; Faye, A.; Meliá, J.

    2011-04-01

    The ecosystem state or 'land condition' can be characterized by a set of attributes, which show variations at different temporal scales. A multi-resolution analysis (MRA) based on the wavelet transform (WT) has been implemented to examine the land condition of a dryland region in Ferlo (Senegal) over the period 2001-2009. This methodology has proven to be useful for smoothing time series while considering those temporal resolutions that incorporate information about the vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, time series of the 1-km Apparent Green Cover (AGC) from the 10-day composites SPOT Vegetation (VGT) data are analyzed. Two relevant outputs from the MRA, A1 (de-noised) and the A6 (inter-annual) components have served us for characterizing the annual vegetation production and assess the long-term variation, respectively. In a first stage, the vegetation seasonality (or intra-annual variation) over the area is described by using several metrics related to vegetation phenology derived from the de-noised time series ( A1). In a second phase, the temporal variability of the inter-annual component series ( A6) is accomplished to detect potential vegetation changes over the considered period. A Mann-Kendall test has been applied to confirm the significance of the observed inter-annual changes. A higher number of significant pixels (86%) are obtained when considering the inter-annual component in the trend analysis instead of the original time-series (47%). The results confirm a general greening up over the period 2001-2009, not fully explained by precipitation, as well as rather local negative trends. The Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE) ratio computed using the AGC as a proxy of vegetation production has been considered to further analyze the detected changes. Inter-annual changes in RUE provide a potential method of separating vegetation declines due to lack of rainfall from declines associated with degradation. Some spots of negative values in inter-annual RUE changes

  16. A fast Monte Carlo EM algorithm for estimation in latent class model analysis with an application to assess diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Le; Carter, Randy; Darcy, Kathleen; Kauderer, James; Liao, Shu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In this article we use a latent class model (LCM) with prevalence modeled as a function of covariates to assess diagnostic test accuracy in situations where the true disease status is not observed, but observations on three or more conditionally independent diagnostic tests are available. A fast Monte Carlo EM (MCEM) algorithm with binary (disease) diagnostic data is implemented to estimate parameters of interest; namely, sensitivity, specificity, and prevalence of the disease as a function of covariates. To obtain standard errors for confidence interval construction of estimated parameters, the missing information principle is applied to adjust information matrix estimates. We compare the adjusted information matrix based standard error estimates with the bootstrap standard error estimates both obtained using the fast MCEM algorithm through an extensive Monte Carlo study. Simulation demonstrates that the adjusted information matrix approach estimates the standard error similarly with the bootstrap methods under certain scenarios. The bootstrap percentile intervals have satisfactory coverage probabilities. We then apply the LCM analysis to a real data set of 122 subjects from a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) study of significant cervical lesion (S-CL) diagnosis in women with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC) to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a histology-based evaluation, a CA-IX biomarker-based test and a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test. PMID:24163493

  17. Deviations from one-electron behavior in the Ag and Pd M4,5-VV Auger spectra of AgcPd1-c alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariot, J.-M.; Hague, C. F.; Dufour, G.

    1981-04-01

    A systematic investigation of the Ag and Pd M4,5-VV Auger spectra in the pure metals and in the AgcPd1-c(0.1<=c<=0.9) alloys is presented. The shape of the Auger spectra is discussed in relation to the values of the effective Coulomb interaction Ueff between the two holes present in the final state of the Auger transition and of the width W of the one-electron local densities of states as obtained from Lβ2,15 soft-x-ray emission bands. The Auger spectra of Ag in the metal and the alloys have a pronounced quasiatomic character, as can be expected from the Ueff2W ratio which is found to be close to unity. The Auger spectrum of pure Pd (Ueff2W~0.4) can be explained in terms of an atomic model in which strong band effects are present. For alloys with low-Pd content where Pd forms an impurity state, it is shown that final states other than the localized [4d2] two-hole state have to be invoked to explain the line shape.

  18. Advanced Guidance and Control for Hypersonics and Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hall, Charles E.; Mulqueen, John A.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety, reliability, and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV), whether it is fully rocket-powered or has air- breathing components. This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies could have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where t h i s technology applies, and the costs and time associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is the point where we can look to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AWC, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality. There are a number of approaches to AG&C that have the potential for achieving the desired goals. For some of these methods, we compare the results of tests designed to demonstrate the achievement of the goals. Tests up to now have been focused on rocket-powered vehicles; application to hypersonic air-breathers is planned. We list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, briefly describe an automated test scoring method, and display results of the tests. Some of the technology components have reached the maturity level where they are ready for application to a new vehicle concept, while others are not far along in development.

  19. Modification of tobacco plant development by sense and antisense expression of the tomato viroid-induced AGC VIIIa protein kinase PKV suggests involvement in gibberellin signaling

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The serine-threonine protein kinase gene, designated pkv (protein kinase- viroid induced) was previously found to be transcriptionally activated in tomato plants infected with the plant pathogen Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). These plants exhibited symptoms of stunting, and abnormal development of leaf, root, and vascular tissues. The encoded protein, PKV, is a novel member of the AGC VIIIa group of signal-transducing protein kinases; however, the role of PKV in plant development is unknown. In this communication, we report the phenotypic results of over expression and silencing of pkv in transgenic tobacco. Results Over expression of pkv in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi (tobacco) resulted in stunting, reduced root formation, and delay in flowering, phenotypes similar to symptoms of PSTVd infection of tomato. In addition, homozygous T2 tobacco plants over expressing PKV were male sterile. Antisense expression of pkv, on the other hand, resulted in plants that were taller than non-transformed plants, produced an increased number of flowers, and were fertile. Exogenous application of GA3 stimulated stem elongation in the stunted, sense-expressing plants. PKV sense and antisense expression altered transcript levels of GA biosynthetic genes and genes involved in developmental and signaling pathways, but not genes involved in salicylic acid- or jasmonic acid-dependent pathways. Our data provide evidence suggesting that PKV plays an important role in a GA signaling pathway that controls plant height and fertility. Conclusion We have found that the over expression of the tomato protein kinase PKV resulted in stunting, modified vascular tissue development, reduced root formation, and male sterility in tobacco, and we propose that PKV regulates plant development by functioning in critical signaling pathways involved in gibberellic acid metabolism. PMID:19689802

  20. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads. PMID:23986233

  1. Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

  2. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 Regimen to Treat Advanced Gastric Cancer Improves Survival without Increasing Adverse Events: A Retrospective Cohort Study from a Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui-Juan; Yang, Gui-Fang; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of FOLFOX4 (5-fluomumcil/leucovorin combined and oxaliplatin) neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Patients and Methods. Fifty-eight AGC patients were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study, 23 in the neoadjuvant group and 35 in the adjuvant group. R0 resection, survival, and adverse events were compared. Results. The two groups were well-matched, with no significant differences in R0 resection rate (82.6% versus 82.0%) and number of lymph nodes dissection (16 (0–49) versus 13 (3–40)) between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of lymph node metastases in the neoadjuvant group (3 (0–14)) was significantly fewer than that in the adjuvant group (6 (0–27)) (P = 0.04). The neoadjuvant group had significantly better median overall survival (29.0 versus 22.0 months) and 3-year survival rate (73.9% versus 40.0%) than the adjuvant group (P = 0.013). The positive expression rate of Ki-67 in the neoadjuvant group (40.0%, 8/20) was lower than that in the adjuvant group (74.2%, 23/31; P = 0.015). Conclusion. The FOLFOX4 neoadjuvant chemotherapy could improve survival without increasing adverse events in patients with AGC. PMID:25136668

  3. [HER2-Positive Advanced Gastric Cancer with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Diffuse Bone Marrow Carcinomatosis Successfully Treated with S-1/Trastuzumab Chemotherapy--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Senoo, Satoru; Mannami, Tomohiko; Tamura, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Nobukiyo; Ikeda, Genyo; Komoda, Minori; Ohtawa, Yasuyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshimi; Sato, Naohiro; Kambara, Takeshi; Waku, Toshihiko; Kenmotsu, Masaichi; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Okada, Toshiaki; Harita, Shingo; Sonobe, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), has been proven to result in a survival benefit for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However, data are lacking for the treatment of those with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and diffuse bone marrow carcinomatosis. A 77-year-old woman presented with back pain and fatigue since 2 months. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a scirrhous lesion in the gastric corpus, which was biopsied and identified as signet-ring cell carcinoma with HER2 overexpression on immunohistochemistry. Laboratory testing, bone scintigraphy, and bone marrow biopsy were conducted, and she was diagnosed with HER2-positive AGC with DIC and diffuse bone marrow carcinomatosis. She underwent chemotherapy with the following regimen: oral administration of 80 mg/m2 S-1 for 2 weeks and 6 mg/kg trastuzumab infusion on day 6 every 3 weeks, which significantly improved the DIC. She was discharged from the hospital 73 days after admission and survived for 438 days after diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in which HER2-positive AGC complicated by DIC with diffuse bone marrow carcinomatosis was successfully treated with combined chemotherapy consisting of S-1 plus trastuzumab. PMID:26809307

  4. Doublet Versus Single Agent as Second-Line Treatment for Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 10 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Ma, Bing; Huang, Xiao-Tian; Li, Yan-Song; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhou-Lu

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the efficacy and safety of doublet versus single agent as second-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer (AGC).A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant RCTs. All clinical studies were independently identified by 2 authors for inclusion. Demographic data, treatment regimens, objective response rate (ORR), and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were extracted and analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2.0).Ten RCTs involving 1698 pretreated AGC patients were ultimately identified. The pooled results demonstrated that doublet combination therapy as second-line treatment for AGC significantly improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-0.97, P = 0.011), PFS (HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87, P < 0.001), and ORR (relative risk [RR] 1.57, 95% CI: 1.27-1.95, P < 0.001). Sub-group analysis according to treatment regimens also showed that targeted agent plus chemotherapy significantly improve OS, PFS, and ORR. However, no significant survival benefits had been observed in doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy when compared with single cytotoxic agent. Additionally, more incidences of grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression toxicities, diarrhea, and fatigue were observed in doublet combination groups, while equivalent frequencies of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia and nausea were found between the 2 groups.In comparison with single cytotoxic agent alone, the addition of targeted agent to mono-chemotherapy as salvage treatment for pretreated AGC patients provide substantial survival benefits, while no significant survival benefits were observed in doublet cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. PMID:26937908

  5. A Meta-analysis Reveals S-1-based Chemotherapy Improves the Survival of Patients With Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Lan; Lu, De-Cheng; Ying, Yan-Ping; Huang, Jin-Jiao; Zhou, Ai-Min; Jiang, Dun-Ke; Chen, Mao-Wei; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Jia; Huang, Hui-Qiao; Zeng, Hong-Yan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of S-1-based therapy versus non-S-1-based therapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients.Eligible studies stratifying objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events (AEs) in AGC patients were identified from Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. The STATA package (version 11.0) was used to pool the data from the eligible studies.Fifteen studies with 2973 AGC cases, of which 1497 (50.4%) received S-1-based therapy and 1476 (49.6%) received non-S-1-based therapy, were identified in the meta-analysis. AGC patients who had received S-1-based therapy had a higher median OS, median PFS, and ORR than those who had received 5-fluorouracil (FU)-based therapy (OS: hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.98, P = 0.015; PFS: HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, P = 0.016; ORR: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, P = 0.003, respectively). S-1-based therapy had similar efficacy to capecitabine-based therapy in terms of median OS (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.91-1.41, P = 0.253), median PFS (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.25, P = 0.927), and ORR (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.63-1.12, P = 0.226). Subgroup analysis for grade 3 to 4 toxicity showed higher incidence of neutropenia (relative risk [RR] = 0.827, P = 0.006), nausea (RR = 0.808, P = 0.040), and lower diarrhea (RR = 1.716, P = 0.012) in 5-FU-based arm, and higher diarrhea (RR = 0.386, P = 0.007) in capecitabine-based arm.S-1-based chemotherapy is favorable to AGC patients with better clinical benefit than 5-FU-based chemotherapy and with equivalent antitumor compare with capecitabine-based therapy. PMID:25906091

  6. HER2 Status in Premalignant, Early, and Advanced Neoplastic Lesions of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, A.; Barresi, V.; Rigoli, L.; Caruso, R. A.; Tuccari, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. HER2 expression in gastric cancer (GC) has received attention as a potential target for therapy with Trastuzumab. We reviewed the current knowledge on HER2 status in premalignant gastric lesions and in early (EGC) and advanced (AGC) GC to discuss the possible pathogenetic and prognostic roles of HER2 overexpression in GC. Results. HER2 overexpression was documented in gastric low-grade (LG) and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-IEN), with higher frequency in gastric type dysplasia. HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis in EGC representing an independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. HER2 overexpression was more frequent in AGC characterized by high grade, advanced stage, and high Ki-67 labeling index. The discordance in HER2 status was evidenced between primitive GC and synchronous or metachronous metastases. Conclusions. HER2 overexpression in premalignant gastric lesions suggests its potential involvement in the early steps of gastric carcinogenesis. The assessment of HER2 status in EGC may be helpful for the identification of patients who are at low risk for developing nodal metastases. Finally, the possible discordance in HER2 status between primary GC and its synchronous metastases support routine assessment of HER2 both in the primary GC and in its metastatic lesions. PMID:26494937

  7. Paclitaxel combined with capecitabine as first-line chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meiqin; Yang, Yunshan; Lv, Wangxia; Song, Zhengbo; Zhong, Haijun

    2014-07-01

    Chemotherapy is of crucial importance in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients, in order to obtain palliation of symptoms and improve survival. To date, no standard chemotherapy regimen has been established for AGC. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the combination regimen of paclitaxel and capecitabine (PX) as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. Patients with advanced or recurrent gastric cancer who were treated with PX as first-line chemotherapy between January 2001 and December 2012 at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital (Hangzhou, China) were retrospectively investigated. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. In total, 36 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 53.5 years and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of ≥80. A median of 4 PX cycles were administered (range, 2-8 cycles). The median progression-free survival time was 3.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-4.5 months) and the median overall survival time was 12.0 months (95% CI, 9.8-14.1 months). From the 36 patients evaluated, one (2.8%) achieved a complete response, seven (19.4%) achieved a partial response, 24 (66.7%) exhibited stable disease and four (11.1%) exhibited progressive disease. The objective response rate was 22.2% (8/36), and the disease control rate was 88.9% (32/36). All 36 patients were assessed for treatment toxicity. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events included neutropenia (2.8% of patients), hand-foot syndrome (2.8%) and vomiting (2.8%). No neutropenic fever or treatment-related mortalities were observed. PX combination chemotherapy may be a valuable first-line therapy for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. PMID:24959275

  8. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2004-04-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fourteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting January 1, 2004 and ending March 31, 2004. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale shakedown and performance testing, program management and technology transfer.

  9. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling with best-case scenario assumptions, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2003 and ending June 30, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale assembly, and program management.

  10. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

    2005-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be benchmarked with IGCC polygen costs for plants of similar size. Sorbent attrition and lifetime will be addressed via bench-scale experiments that monitor sorbent performance over time and by assessing materials interactions at operating conditions. The product gas from the third reactor (high-temperature vitiated air) will be evaluated to assess the concentration of particulates, pollutants and other impurities relative to the specifications required for gas turbine feed streams. This is the eighteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the Phase II period starting July 01, 2005 and ending September 30, 2005. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including process modeling, scale-up and economic analysis.

  11. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Raul Subia; Arnaldo Frydman; Parag Kulkarni; Jennifer Schwerman; Valadimir Zamansky; John Reinker; Kanchan Mondal; Lubor Stonawski; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2005-02-28

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy technology for coal gasification with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into three separate streams of hydrogen-rich gas, sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in gas turbines. This is the draft final report for the first stage of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program. The UFP technology development program encompassed lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP concept. Modeling and economic assessments were also key parts of this program. The chemical and mechanical feasibility were established via lab and bench-scale testing, and a pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated, demonstrating the major UFP features. Experimental and preliminary modeling results showed that 80% H{sub 2} purity could be achieved, and that a UFP-based energy plant is projected to meet DOE efficiency targets. Future work will include additional pilot plant testing to optimize performance and reduce environmental, operability and combined cycle integration risks. Results obtained to date have confirmed that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  12. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; K. Mondal; L. Stonawski; Krzysztof Piotrowski; T. Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2004-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program has determined the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrated experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2004 and ending June 30, 2004. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale testing, kinetic modeling, program management and technology transfer.

  13. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-10-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on Aspen Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the third annual technical progress report for the UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2002 and ending September 30, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, bench-scale experimental testing, process modeling, pilot-scale system design and assembly, and program management.

  14. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-01-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the ninth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2002 and ending December 31, 2002. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab- and bench-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale design and assembly, and program management.

  15. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-04-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting January 1, 2003 and ending March 31, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale assembly, and program management.

  16. Oncologic value of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aurello, Paolo; Sagnotta, Andrea; Terrenato, Irene; Berardi, Giammauro; Nigri, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Francesco; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The oncologic validity of laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains controversial. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed between 2008 and 2014 to identify comparative studies evaluating morbidity/mortality, oncologic surgery-related outcomes, recurrence and survival rates. Data synthesis and statistical analysis were carried out using RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 1456 patients were included in this analysis. The complication rate was lower in LADG [odds ratio (OR) 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-0.83; P < 0.002]. The in-hospital mortality rate was comparable (OR 1.22; 95% CI = 0.28-5-29, P = 0.79). There was no significant difference in the number of harvested lymph nodes, resection margins, cancer recurrence rate, cancer-related mortality or overall and disease-free survival (OS and DFS, respectively) rates between the laparoscopic and the open groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The current study supports the view that LADG for AGC is a feasible, safe and effective procedure in selected patients. Adequate lymphadenectomy, resection margins, recurrence, cancer-related mortality and long-term outcomes appear equivalent to open distal gastrectomy (ODG). PMID:27279389

  17. Theranostic, pH-Responsive, Doxorubicin-Loaded Nanoparticles Inducing Active Targeting and Apoptosis for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huanrong; Liu, Yuqing; Shi, Min; Shao, Xuebing; Zhong, Wen; Liao, Wangjun; Xing, Malcolm M Q

    2015-12-14

    This study developed a kind of magnetic-polymer nanocarrier with folate receptor-targeting and pH-sensitive multifunctionalities to carry doxorubicin (DOX) for treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Folate-conjugated, pH-sensitive, amphiphilic poly(β-aminoester) self-assembled with hydrophobic oleic acid-modified iron oxide nanoparticles, and the resulting hydrophobic interaction area is a reservoir for lipophilic DOX (F-P-DOX). Confocal microscopy illustrated that F-P-DOX treatment could keep higher DOX accumulation in cells than P-DOX (without folate conjugation), and therefore get a higher efficiency of DOX internalization at pH 6.5 than at pH 7.4. Electron microscope characterization and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed cell apoptosis promoted by F-P-DOX. The better efficacy of F-P-DOX on GC than free DOX and P-DOX was determined by MTT assay and xenograft model. Moreover, the accumulation of F-P-DOX in the tumor site was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All those observations suggest F-P-DOX could be a promising theranostic candidate for AGC treatment. PMID:26477267

  18. Prospective phase II trial of pazopanib plus CapeOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) in previously untreated patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Jeeyun; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Se Hoon; Jung, Sin-Ho; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Joon Oh

    2016-04-26

    We designed a single-arm, open label phase II study to determine the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of pazopanib with CapeOx (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) in metastatic /recurrent advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. Previously untreated AGC patients received capecitabine (850 mg/m2 bid, day 1-14) plus oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2, day 1) in combination with pazopanib (800 mg, day 1-21) every three weeks. Treatment was continued until progression of the disease or intolerable toxicity was observed. In all, 66 patients were treated with pazopanib plus CapeOx. The median age of the patients was 51.5 years (range, 23.0-77), and the median ECOG performance status was 1 (0-1). Among all 66 patients, one complete response and 37 partial responses were observed (overall response rate, 62.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 45.7-73.5% accounting for the 2-stage design of this trial). Stable disease was observed in 23 patients (34.8%), revealing a 92.4% disease control rate. The median progression free survival and overall survival were 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.6-7.4) and 10.5 months (95% CI, 8.1-12.9), respectively. Thirty-four patients (51.5%) experienced a treatment-related toxicity of grade 3 or more. The most common toxicities of grade 3 or more were neutropenia (15.1%), anemia (10.6%), thrombocytopenia (10.6%), anorexia (7.6%), nausea (3.0%), and vomiting (3.0%). There were no treatment-related deaths. The combination of pazopanib and CapeOx showed moderate activity and an acceptable toxicity profile as a first-line treatment in metastatic / recurrent AGC patients (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130805). PMID:27003363

  19. HER2-positive patients receiving trastuzumab treatment have a comparable prognosis with HER2-negative advanced gastric cancer patients: a prospective cohort observation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miao-Zhen; Li, Qian; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Tian-Shu; Liu, Qing; Wei, Xiao-Li; Jin, Ying; Wang, De-Shen; Ren, Chao; Bai, Long; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Feng-Hua; Li, Yu-Hong; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-05-15

    The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab has brought survival benefit to patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) that have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over expression or amplification. This study was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of HER2-negative and HER2-positive AGC patients with or without trastuzumab treatment. There were three groups of patients enrolled for analysis. Group A was 51 HER2-positive AGC patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy; group B was a matched control group of 47 HER2-positive patients who received chemotherapy only; group C was a matched group of 251 HER2-negative patients who received chemotherapy. All the patients were enrolled at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between January 2010 and December 2012. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The median duration of follow-up was 13.5 months (range 5-18.6 months). The median OS of these three groups of patients was 14.8 months, 11.3 months and 14.4 months respectively (p < 0.001). The survival difference between group A and B was significant, p < 0.001. Similarly, there was significant difference between group B and C, p < 0.001. Moreover the survival between group A and C was comparable, p = 0.281. The median progression-free survival for these three groups was 7.4, 6.0 and 7.2 months. Multivariate analysis confirmed that trastuzumab treatment was an independent prognostic factor in group A and B patients (p = 0.017). HER2 positive was an independent adverse prognostic factor in group B and C patients (p = 0.013). PMID:24155030

  20. Mitomycin C plus S-1 as second-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer: a noncomparative phase II study.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Hoon; Kim, Young Saing; Hong, Junshik; Park, Jinny; Nam, Eunmi; Cho, Eun Kyung; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Woon Kee; Chung, Min

    2008-03-01

    S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine consisting of the 5-fluorouracil prodrug tegafur combined with two modulating substances, gimeracil and potassium oxonate. On the basis of the potential additive effect between mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil as a continuous infusion, we conducted a phase II study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of S-1 and MMC as second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Patients with measurable AGC, progressive after one prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, received MMC (7 mg/m2) on day 1 and S-1 (40 mg/m2) twice daily as an intermittent regimen of 4 weeks of treatment followed by a 2-week rest. Treatment was repeated every 6 weeks. The primary objective was the response rate. For 43 patients registered, 42 patients were treated with MMC plus S-1. A total of 121 chemotherapy cycles were delivered (median: 2; range: 1-6). The patients' median age was 53 years (range: 31-75) and nine (21%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. In an intent-to-treat analysis, nine patients (21%) achieved an objective response, which was maintained for 4.1 months. The median progression-free and overall survivals were 3.4 months (95% confidence interval: 2.3-4.5) and 8.0 months (95% confidence interval: 6.1-9.9), respectively. Although fatigue was the most frequently encountered toxicity safety profiles were generally predictable and manageable. One patient developed hemolytic anemia, which was resolved spontaneously. Grade > or = 2 hand-foot syndrome was observed in only three patients. Second-line chemotherapy with MMC and S-1 is an active and tolerable regimen for AGC patients with good performance status. PMID:18510177

  1. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as prophylaxis of peritoneal carcinosis from advanced gastric cancer—effects on overall and disease free survival

    PubMed Central

    Celotti, Andrea; Ceresoli, Marco; Montori, Giulia; Marini, Michele; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background The possibility to enlarge criteria for intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (IPC) to all patients at high-risk to develop peritoneal carcinosis (i.e., with serosal invasion) is still discussed. Methods Retrospective case-control study. Three-groups: advanced-gastric-cancer (AGC) (pT4) without proven carcinosis: prophylactic group (PG), those with PC: treatment group (TG), AGC (pT3–pT4) operated without hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), surgery alone group (SG T3, SG T4). Results Forty four patients. 26 (59.1%) were male. Sixteen (36%) patients underwent 16 HIPEC: 6 (38%) had AGC (pT4) without PC (PG), 10 (62%) had carcinosis (TG), 28 were operated without HIPEC (SG T3, SG T4). The mean disease free survival (DFS): TG: 7.7 months, SG T4: 21.6 months, SG T3: 27.7 months, PG: 34.5 months. DFS was significantly different for TG (P=0.03, P=0.021, P=0.013 respectively). The mean OS TG: 10 months, SG T4: 27.1 months, SG T3: 28.2 months, PG: 34.6 months. OS was significantly different for TG (P=0.04, P=0.04, P=0.045 respectively). Severe complication rate: TG: 60%, PG: 16.7%, SG T3: 7.7% and SG T4: 25% (P=0.035). Length-of-stay differs significantly (P=0.003); overall length-of-stay: 19.41 days [standard deviation (SD) ±15.03]; TG: 33.01 (SD ±23.08), PG: 20.17 (SD ±6.21), SG T3: 11.33 (SD ±3.22), SG T4: 15.36 (SD ±5.48). Conclusions Prophylactic intraperitoneal chemotherapy associated to neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases the DFS and OS in patients with AGC without carcinosis. More data are needed in order to confirm these results.

  2. An advanced dispatch simulator with advanced dispatch algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, R.J.; Crim, H.G. Jr. ); Fink, L.H. ); Balu, N.J. . Electrical Systems Div.)

    1989-10-01

    This article describes the development of an automatic generation control algorithm, which is capable of using accurate real-time unit data and has control performance advantages over existing algorithms. Utilities use automatic generation control to match total generation and total laod at minimum cost. Since it is impractical to measure total load directly, it is determined from total generation for a control area, the total tie-line flow error, and a component proportional to the frequency error. One part of the AGC system then assigns this total generation requirement to all the generators in the control area in an economic manner by using an economic dispatch algorithm. Another part of the AGC system keeps track of each generator and attempts to correct individual unit errors and total system errors that can be caused by unit response problems, normal changes in system load, metering errors, and system disturbances.

  3. The efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel plus S-1 compared with paclitaxel plus 5-FU for advanced gastric cancer: a PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Chen, Xiaowan; Sun, Jingxu; Gao, Peng; Song, Yongxi; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Xiaoli; Xu, Huimian; Wang, Zhenning

    2014-11-01

    The standard treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is still a matter of debate. The chemotherapy regimen of paclitaxel (PTX) combined with S-1 has been used to treat AGC or metastatic gastric cancer.We conducted a meta-analysis to compare oral S-1 and infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to determine which agent was more efficacious and less toxic in combination with PTX. A systematic review with a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched to select randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PTX plus S-1 and PTX plus 5-FU in patients with AGC.Three RCTs were eligible and 352 patients were analyzed. PTX plus S-1 increased the disease control rate (risk ratio [RR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.30, P = 0.04) and reduced the progressive disease rate (RR = 0.62, 95% CI] = 0.39-0.98, P = 0.04) compared with PTX plus 5-FU. There was a significant decrease in nausea (RR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.43-0.82, P = 0.001) and vomiting (RR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.33-0.91, P = 0.02) in patients treated with PTX plus S-1.PTX plus S-1 was associated with almost equivalent safety and a lower progressive disease rate compared with PTX plus 5-FU. PTX plus S-1 is a good alternative strategy for patients who cannot tolerate a continuous intravenous infusion. PMID:25437030

  4. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins - MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 - using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  5. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  6. Status of the AGC Booster project

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    To meet the needs of new experiments in high energy and nuclear physics, a rapid-cycling Booster for the AGS has been under construction at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues that need special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. And finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  8. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  9. S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Min, Ke; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Ni

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: We extracted reported endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects, from randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EMBASE and American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings. Stata software was used to calculate the pooled values. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 2176 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to non-S-1-based regimens, the use of S-1-based regimens were associated with an increase in ORR (RR = 1.300; 95%CI: 1.028-1.645); OS (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.99; P = 0.025), TTF (HR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92; P = 0.000), and a lower risk of febrile neutropenia (RR = 0.225; P = 0.000) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032). OS, PFS and TTF were prolonged, especially in the Asian population. In subgroup analysis, statistically significant increases in ORR (RR = 1.454; P = 0.029), OS (HR = 0.895; P = 0.041) and TTF (HR = 0.832; P = 0.000) were found when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. The incidence of leukopenia (RR = 0.584; P = 0.002) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032) was higher in the 5-FU-based arm. S-1-based regimens had no advantage in ORR, OS, PFS, TTF and grade 3 or 4 adverse events over capecitabine-based regimens. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy may be a good choice for AGC because of longer survival times, better tolerance and more convenient use. PMID:25206296

  10. Role of chemotherapy for advanced/recurrent gastric cancer: an individual-patient-data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oba, Koji; Paoletti, Xavier; Bang, Yung-Jue; Bleiberg, Harry; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Fuse, Nozomu; Michiels, Stefan; Morita, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Rougier, Philippe; Sakamoto, Junichi; Sargent, Daniel; Sasako, Mitsuru; Shitara, Kohei; Tsuburaya, Akira; Van Cutsem, Eric; Buyse, Marc

    2013-05-01

    We conducted an individual-patient-data meta-analysis of the efficacy of chemotherapy on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in advanced/recurrent gastric cancer (AGC). Our primary research question was whether the experimental arms of the trials included in the meta-analysis showed a benefit as compared with their corresponding control arms. MEDLINE (up to 2010), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, National Institutes of Health (NIH) trial registry and proceedings of major oncologic and gastrointestinal cancer meetings were searched. Randomised controlled trials for AGC closed to patient accrual before the end of 2006 were eligible. As of December 2010, individual patient data were available from 22 trials (4245 patients, representing 47% of the targeted data) of 55 eligible trials. The overall comparison of experimental arms with the corresponding control arms showed statistically significant differences in terms of both OS and PFS. Hazard ratio was 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.94, P<0.0001) for OS and 0.81 (0.76-0.88, P<0.0001) for PFS. The results of the sub-analysis of adding a given chemotherapeutic agent to any chemotherapy confirm the results of the overall analysis, with a hazard reduction of 11% for OS (P<0.01) and 26% for PFS (P<0.0001). This meta-analysis of individual patient data shows that the additions of experimental chemotherapeutic agents to pre-existing control or standard regimens have produced a modest improvement in OS and PFS. Median survival remained below 1 year for all investigated chemotherapy regimens and none emerged as a clear standard. PMID:23352439

  11. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  12. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  13. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  14. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  15. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  16. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  17. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  18. Comparison of laparoscopy-assisted and open radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yingxue; Yu, Peiwu; Qian, Feng; Zhao, Yongliang; Shi, Yan; Tang, Bo; Zeng, Dongzhu; Zhang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) has gained international acceptance for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, the use of laparoscopic surgery in the management of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) has not attained widespread acceptance. This retrospective large-scale patient study in a single center for minimally invasive surgery assessed the feasibility and safety of LAG for T2 and T3 stage AGC. A total of 628 patients underwent LAG and 579 patients underwent open gastrectomy (OG) from Jan 2004 to Dec 2011. All cases underwent radical lymph node (LN) dissection from D1 to D2+. This study compared short- and long-term results between the 2 groups after stratifying by pTNM stages, including the mean operation time, volume of blood loss, number of harvested LNs, average days of postoperative hospital stay, mean gastrointestinal function recovery time, intra- and post-operative complications, recurrence rate, recurrence site, and 5-year survival curve. Thirty-five patients (5.57%) converted to open procedures in the LAG group. There were no significant differences in retrieved LN number (30.4 ± 13.4 vs 28.1 ± 17.2, P = 0.43), proximal resection margin (PRM) (6.15 ± 1.63 vs 6.09 ± 1.91, P = 0.56), or distal resection margin (DRM) (5.46 ± 1.74 vs 5.40 ± 1.95, P = 0.57) between the LAG and OG groups, respectively. The mean volume of blood loss (154.5 ± 102.6 vs 311.2 ± 118.9 mL, P < 0.001), mean postoperative hospital stay (7.6 ± 2.5 vs 10.7 ± 3.6 days, P < 0.001), mean time for gastrointestinal function recovery (3.3 ± 1.4 vs 3.9 ± 1.5 days, P < 0.001), and postoperative complications rate (6.4% vs 10.5%, P = 0.01) were clearly lower in the LAG group compared to the OG group. However, the recurrence pattern and site were not different between the 2 groups, even they were stratified by the TNM stage. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 85.38%, 79

  19. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  20. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  1. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  2. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  3. Can S-1 replace fluorouracil for advanced gastric cancer? A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Dong; He, Fu-Qian; Chen, Mi; Tang, Ling-Chao; Tang, Xiao-Li

    2016-06-01

    It remains to be seen whether S-1 can be a replacement for infusional fluorouracil (5-FU) for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of S-1 with 5-FU in AGC.PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses comparing S-1 with 5-FU for AGC were eligible. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2.Seven trials involving 2443 patients were included. Compared with 5-FU, S-1 showed no significant prolongation of overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.83-1.01], P = 0.07) and progression-free survival (HR = 0.89, 95% CI [0.70-1.13], P = 0.35), but longer time to treatment failure (HR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.56-0.97], P = 0.03). The objective response rates were comparable (risk ratio [RR] = 1.36, 95% CI [0.95, 1.96], P = 0.10). Regarding treatment-related deaths and hematological toxicities, there was significant heterogeneity between Asian and non-Asian trials, and subgroup analysis was applied. In Asian patients, there was a significant increase in hematological toxicities such as leukopenia (grade 1-4: RR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.08, 1.37], P = 0.001; grade 3-4: RR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.52, 3.21], P < 0.0001), neutropenia (grade 1-4: RR = 1.29, 95% CI [1.11, 1.48], P = 0.0005; grade 3-4: RR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.11, 3.17], P = 0.02), and thrombocytopenia (grade 1-4: RR = 1.71, 95% CI [1.22, 2.41], P = 0.002) in S-1-containing regimens compared with 5-FU-containing regimens, but without significant difference in treatment-related mortality rate (risk difference [RD] = 0.00, 95% CI [-0.01, 0.01], P = 0.68). In non-Asian patients, S-1-containing regimens were, however, associated with significantly fewer treatment-related deaths (RD = -0.02, 95% CI [-0.05, -0.00], P = 0.04), as well as less all grade 1-4 and grade 3-4 hematological toxicities except anemia. There was no significant heterogeneity in nonhematologic toxicities between Asian and non

  4. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  5. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  6. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  7. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  8. The AGCE related studies of baroclinic flows in spherical geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyun, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Steady state, axisymmetric motions of a Boussineaq fluid continued in rotating spherical anmulus are considered. The motions are driven by latitudinally varying temperature gradient at the shells. Linearized formulations for a narrow gap are derived and the flow field is divided into the Ekman layers and the geostrophic interior. The Ekman layer flows are consistent with the known results for cylindrical geometries. Within the framework of rather restrictive assumptions, the interior flows are solved by a series of associated Legendre polynomials. The solutions show qualitative features valid at midlatitudes.

  9. Comparison of laparoscopy-assisted and open radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer: A retrospective study in a single minimally invasive surgery center.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yingxue; Yu, Peiwu; Qian, Feng; Zhao, Yongliang; Shi, Yan; Tang, Bo; Zeng, Dongzhu; Zhang, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) has gained international acceptance for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). However, the use of laparoscopic surgery in the management of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) has not attained widespread acceptance. This retrospective large-scale patient study in a single center for minimally invasive surgery assessed the feasibility and safety of LAG for T2 and T3 stage AGC. A total of 628 patients underwent LAG and 579 patients underwent open gastrectomy (OG) from Jan 2004 to Dec 2011. All cases underwent radical lymph node (LN) dissection from D1 to D2+. This study compared short- and long-term results between the 2 groups after stratifying by pTNM stages, including the mean operation time, volume of blood loss, number of harvested LNs, average days of postoperative hospital stay, mean gastrointestinal function recovery time, intra- and post-operative complications, recurrence rate, recurrence site, and 5-year survival curve. Thirty-five patients (5.57%) converted to open procedures in the LAG group. There were no significant differences in retrieved LN number (30.4 ± 13.4 vs 28.1 ± 17.2, P = 0.43), proximal resection margin (PRM) (6.15 ± 1.63 vs 6.09 ± 1.91, P = 0.56), or distal resection margin (DRM) (5.46 ± 1.74 vs 5.40 ± 1.95, P = 0.57) between the LAG and OG groups, respectively. The mean volume of blood loss (154.5 ± 102.6 vs 311.2 ± 118.9 mL, P < 0.001), mean postoperative hospital stay (7.6 ± 2.5 vs 10.7 ± 3.6 days, P < 0.001), mean time for gastrointestinal function recovery (3.3 ± 1.4 vs 3.9 ± 1.5 days, P < 0.001), and postoperative complications rate (6.4% vs 10.5%, P = 0.01) were clearly lower in the LAG group compared to the OG group. However, the recurrence pattern and site were not different between the 2 groups, even they were stratified by the TNM stage. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 85.38%, 79.70%, 57

  10. Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making. PMID:23586906

  11. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  12. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  13. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  14. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  16. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  17. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  18. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  19. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  20. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  1. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  2. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  3. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  4. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  5. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  6. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  7. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  8. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  9. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  10. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  11. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  12. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  13. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  14. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity. PMID:21133977

  15. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  16. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  18. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  19. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  20. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  1. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  2. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  3. Cascaded humidified advanced turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swenson, E.C.; Cohn, A.; Bradshaw, D.; Taylor, R.; Wilson, J.M.; Gaul, G.; Jahnke, F.; Polsky, M.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes how, by combining the best features of simple- and combined-cycle gas turbine power plants, the CHAT cycle concept offers power producers a clean, more efficient and less expensive alternative to both. The patented cascaded advanced turbine and its cascaded humidified advanced turbine (CHAT) derivative offer utilities and other power producers a practical advanced gas turbine power plant by combining commercially-available gas turbine and industrial compressor technologies in a unique way. Compared to combined-cycle plants, a CHAT power plant has lower emissions and specific capital costs-approximately 20 percent lower than what is presently available. Further, CHAT`s operating characteristics are especially well-suited to load following quick start-up scenarios and they are less susceptible to power degradation from higher ambient air temperature conditions.

  4. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  5. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  6. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  7. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  8. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  9. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  10. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  11. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  12. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  13. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  14. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  15. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  16. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  17. Technological advances in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Orphanoudakis, S C; Kaldoudi, E; Tsiknakis, M

    1996-06-01

    Teleradiology consists of a set of added-value telematic services, implemented over an advanced telecommunications infrastructure and supported by different information technologies and related applications. The main goal of teleradiology is to provide different levels of support for remote diagnostic imaging procedures. This paper considers technological advances in this important area, including a discussion of the various added-value telematic services, applications supporting these services, and the required information technology and telecommunications infrastructure. Teleradiology is also considered in the general context of an integrated regional health telematics network, emphasizing its role and its interaction with other information and networking services. PMID:8832235

  18. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  19. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  20. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  1. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  2. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Technological advances transforming rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.; Mao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the past decade have revolutionized many areas of rheumatology, ranging from diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development to the mechanistic understanding of rheumatic diseases. This overview highlights key technological innovations and discusses the major impact that these developments are having on research and clinical practice. PMID:26439404

  4. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  5. Advances in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Elma D; Kirkland, Eugene B; Domingo, Diana Santo

    2008-08-01

    Major advancements in the realm of photoprotection have occurred over the last decade providing potential means to reduce the prevalence of ultraviolet radiation-related skin problems. This review elucidates current photoprotective methods and recent developments that may hold future promise. PMID:18819220

  6. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  7. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  8. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  9. Impedance cardiography: recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Gerard; Strasz, Anna; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Gąsiorowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of recent advancements in impedance cardiography regarding methodical approach, applied equipment and clinical or research implementations. The review is limited to the papers which were published over last 17 months (dated 2011 and 2012) in well recognised scientific journals. PMID:23042327

  10. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  11. NIST ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Not-yet-possible technologies are the domain of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Technology Program. The ATP is a unique partnership between government and private industry to accelerate the development of high-risk technologies that promise sign...

  12. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  13. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  14. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  15. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  16. Management of advanced melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma.

  17. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  18. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  19. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  20. Advances in satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. The Advancement Checkup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that an external audit of a college advancement program is analogous to a periodic physical examination that offers objectivity and expertise. Audits are appropriate at the time of administrative transitions, performance difficulties, and even periods of sustained success. Guidelines and expectations are discussed. (MSE)

  3. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  4. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  5. Cartoons as Advance Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Williams, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated student reaction to the use of cartoons as advance organizers for online discussions in an online course. A convenience sample of 15 students participated in the study by contributing cartoons, participating in online discussions, and completing a survey. Overall, survey results indicated student reaction to the…

  6. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  8. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  9. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  10. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  11. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  12. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  13. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  14. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  15. Where Advancement Fails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtman, Leon E.

    1987-01-01

    Faculty members and advancement officers tend to come from different environments and to inhabit different worlds. The failure of the two to understand one another and work together in the interest of their institutions is discussed. The central administration must serve as a bridge between the two. (MLW)

  16. Interfaces for Advanced Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the coming generation of supercomputers that will have the power to make elaborate "artificial realities" that facilitate user-computer communication. Illustrates these technological advancements with examples of the use of head-mounted monitors which are connected to position and orientation sensors, and gloves that track finger and…

  17. Horizontal drilling technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-04

    Horizontal drilling technology is making further advances in the Texas Austin chalk play as such drilling continues to spread in many U.S. land areas. One company has completed a Cretaceous Austin chalk oil well with the longest horizontal well bore in Texas and what at 1 1/6 miles is believed to be the world's longest medium radius horizontal displacement.

  18. Targeted therapies in gastric cancer and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ozan; Sendur, M Ali Nahit; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Aksoy, Sercan

    2016-01-01

    Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is associated with a high mortality rate and, despite multiple new chemotherapy options, the survival rates of patients with AGC remains poor. After the discovery of targeted therapies, research has focused on the new treatment options for AGC. In the last two decades, many targeted molecules were developed against AGC. Currently, two targeted therapy molecules have been approved for patients with AGC. In 2010, trastuzumab was the first molecule shown to improve survival in patients with HER2-positive AGC as part of a first-line combination regimen. In 2014, ramucirumab was the second targeted molecule to improve survival rates and was suggested as treatment for patients with AGC who had progressed after first-line platinum plus fluoropyrimidine with or without anthracycline chemotherapy. Ramucirumab was the first targeted therapy acting as a single agent in patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancers. Although these two molecules were introduced into clinical use, many other promising molecules have been tested in phase I-II trials. It is obvious that in the near future many different targeted therapies will be in use for treatment of AGC. In this review, the current status of targeted therapies in the treatment of AGC and gastroesophageal junction tumors, including HER (2-3) inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, c-MET inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, agents against other molecular pathways fibroblast growth factor, Claudins, insulin-like growth factor, heat shock proteins, and immunotherapy, will be discussed. PMID:26811601

  19. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, L.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the performance and reliability characteristics of chemical propulsion systems requires research and testing of higher-performance propellants, higher efficiency thrusters, cryogenics technology, lightweight components and advancements in propulsion system design and assessment. Propellants are being investigated to identify practical combinations with higher efficiencies and better thermal properties to reduce thermal control requirements. This includes combinations with modest increases, such as LOX-hydrazine, as well as a new evaluation of major improvements available from fluorine-bearing oxidizers. Practical ways of implementing cryogenic propulsion to further increase efficiency are also being studied. Some potential advances include small pump-fed engines, and improvements in cryocooler technology and tank pressure control. Gelled propellants will be tested to determine the practicality of letting propellants freeze at low environmental temperatures and thawing them only when required for use. The propellant tank is typically the single highest non-expendable mass in a chemical propulsion system. Lightweight tank designs, materials and methods of fabrication are being investigated. These are projected to offer a 45-50 percent decrease in tank mass, representing the potential inert system mass savings. Mission and systems analyses are being conducted to guide the technology research and set priorities for technology investment, based on estimated gains in payload and mission capabilities. This includes development of advanced assessment tools and analyses of specific missions selected from Science Missions' Directorate. The goal is to mature a suite of reliable advanced propulsion technologies that will promote more cost efficient missions through the reduction of interplanetary trip time, increased scientific payload mass fraction and longer on-station operations. This talk will review the Advanced Chemical technology development roadmap, current

  20. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  1. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  2. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Green, Kim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing towards generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. PMID:24922570

  3. Recent Advances in Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of 'nano-impacts'. PMID:26246984

  4. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  5. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  6. Epilepsy: new advances.

    PubMed

    Moshé, Solomon L; Perucca, Emilio; Ryvlin, Philippe; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy affects 65 million people worldwide and entails a major burden in seizure-related disability, mortality, comorbidities, stigma, and costs. In the past decade, important advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and factors affecting its prognosis. These advances have translated into new conceptual and operational definitions of epilepsy in addition to revised criteria and terminology for its diagnosis and classification. Although the number of available antiepileptic drugs has increased substantially during the past 20 years, about a third of patients remain resistant to medical treatment. Despite improved effectiveness of surgical procedures, with more than half of operated patients achieving long-term freedom from seizures, epilepsy surgery is still done in a small subset of drug-resistant patients. The lives of most people with epilepsy continue to be adversely affected by gaps in knowledge, diagnosis, treatment, advocacy, education, legislation, and research. Concerted actions to address these challenges are urgently needed. PMID:25260236

  7. Advanced Separation Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was formed in 2001 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to conduct fundamental research in advanced separation and to develop technologies that can be used to produce coal and minerals in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The CAST consortium consists of seven universities - Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Montana Tech, University of Utah, University of Nevada-Reno, and New Mexico Tech. The consortium brings together a broad range of expertise to solve problems facing the US coal industry and the mining sector in general. At present, a total of 60 research projects are under way. The article outlines some of these, on topics including innovative dewatering technologies, removal of mercury and other impurities, and modelling of the flotation process. 1 photo.

  8. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  9. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  10. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  11. Technical advances power neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, M.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques are helping researchers study the development of nerve cells in cell cultures and in vivo. These new methods are offering insights into the brain that were not available even a couple of years ago. Among the new advances discussed are imaging technology for evaluating the thinking human brain. One area in which researchers have made recent progress is the quest for ways to create immortal cell lines from specific types of nerve cells. Other projects using genetically engineered retroviruses and tumor-inducing genes, as well as gene regulation are discussed. Recent advances in neuroscience techniques apply not only to neurons, but also to whole brains as well. One example is a high-resulution electroencephalogram (EEG). Although the EEG cannot pin down the actual sites of activity as precisely as static brain imaging methods, it complements them with real-time recording that can keep up with the very rapid pace of brain activity.

  12. Advanced Sensor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Concepts project was conducted under the Center Director's Discretionary Fund at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Its objective was to advance the technology originally developed for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology project. The objective of this effort was to develop and test several new motion sensors. To date, the investigators have invented seven new technologies during this endeavor and have conceived several others. The innovative basic sensor technology is an absolute position sensor. It employs only two active components, and it is simple, inexpensive, reliable, repeatable, lightweight, and relatively unobtrusive. Two sensors can be utilized in the same physical space to achieve redundancy. The sensor has micrometer positional accuracy and can be configured as a two- or three-dimensional sensor. The sensor technology has the potential to pioneer a new class of linear and rotary sensors. This sensor is the enabling technology for autonomous assembly of modular structures in space and on extraterrestrial locations.

  13. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  14. Advanced Virgo: AN Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafone, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years on the development of gravitational wave detectors. Several km-scale interferometers have already operated at interesting sensitivity levels. In particular, the interferometric detector for gravitational waves Virgo completed its fourth science run in August 2011, when the upgrade toward the second-generation detector Advanced Virgo started. This major upgrade is planned to be completed by 2015. The expected final sensitivity of Advanced Virgo is about ten times better than the sensitivity reached by its predecessor. Many of the components of the detector will be changed to meet this goal, including new core optics, a more powerful laser, an improved vacuum system, the implementation of the signal-recycling technique. In this paper the description of the project and the expected schedule are presented.

  15. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  16. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler–Volmer and Marcus–Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of ‘nano-impacts’. PMID:26246984

  17. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  18. Advanced composites X

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In the past ten years, high volume, high performance applications of advanced composites in transportation have grown substantially. The 10th annual ASM/ESD Advanced Composites Conference and Exposition presents the latest developments in composite applications and technologies with over 70 papers presented. The conference is organized in tracks covering body, chassis, powertrain and infrastructure applications, material sciences, manufacturing processes and recycling. Polymer composite and metal matrix composite technologies are included throughout. Body sessions feature adhesive bonding, analysis and test methods and crash energy absorption. The Chassis sessions showcase polymer and metal composite applications. The Powertrain/Propulsion track includes emerging materials as well as design and processing case studies. The Materials Science track features papers on new materials, their performance and theoretical treatment. Manufacturing Processes sessions cover process, modelling, fiber preforming and emerging manufacturing methods. The Infrastructure and Recycling track includes a panel discussion of infrastructure applications and technical papers on the recycling of polymer composites and nondestructive testing.

  19. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  20. Advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, D. J.

    1985-12-01

    A collection of papers on advanced signal processing in radar, sonar, and communications is presented. The topics addressed include: transmitter aerials, high-power amplifier design for active sonar, radar transmitters, receiver array technology for sonar, new underwater acoustic detectors, diversity techniques in communications receivers, GaAs IC amplifiers for radar and communication receivers, integrated optical techniques for acoustooptic receivers, logarithmic receivers, CCD processors for sonar, acoustooptic correlators, designing in silicon, very high performance integrated circuits, and digital filters. Also discussed are: display types, scan converters in sonar, display ergonomics, simulators, high throughput sonar processors, optical fiber systems for signal processing, satellite communications, VLSI array processor for image and signal processing, ADA, future of cryogenic devices for signal processing applications, advanced image understanding, and VLSI architectures for real-time image processing.

  1. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  2. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation. PMID:25345035

  3. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  4. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  5. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  6. Advanced studies program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in view graph form and include the following: (1) Space Station Engineering; (2) level 1 engineering organization; (3) advanced studies program organization; (4) NASA Center support areas; (5) work breakdown; (6) Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program Phases; (7) distributed systems evolution; (8) Space Shuttle ET mating analogy to on-orbit tank mating; (9) reference growth concept; (10) technology assessment process; (11) SSF technology priorities; (12) accomplishments; and (13) near term direction.

  7. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  8. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  9. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  10. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  11. Recent advances in dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Teresa; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The use of dermoscopy has offered a new morphological dimension of skin lesions and has provided an effective diagnostic tool to differentiate melanoma from other benign or malignant skin tumors but also to support the clinical diagnosis in general dermatology. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent and important advances in the rising world of dermoscopy. PMID:26949523

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  13. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

  14. The Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  16. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  17. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  18. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  19. Advanced composites for windmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquardez, G.

    A development status assessment is conducted for advanced composite construction techniques for windmill blade structures which, as in the case of composite helicopter rotors, promise greater reliability, longer service life, superior performance, and lower costs. Composites in wind turbine applications must bear aerodynamic, inertial and gravitational loads in complex interaction cycles. Attention is given to large Darrieus-type vertical axis windmills, to which composite construction methods may offer highly effective pitch-control mechanisms, especially in the 'umbrella' configuration.

  20. Advanced geothermal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Murphy, H.D.; Hanold, R.J.; Myers, C.W.; Dunn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the US Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was producing 10 MW thermal - and still climbing - proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction has been demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive. Noteworthy among these technological advances are techniques in computer simulation of geothermal reservoirs, new means for well stimulation, new high-temperature logging tools and packers, new hard-rock penetration techniques, and new methods for mapping fracture flow paths across large underground areas in reservoirs. In addition, many of these same technological advances can be applied by the petroleum industry to help lower production costs in domestic oil and gas fields. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  2. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  3. Advanced gearbox technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Cedoz, R. W.; Salama, E. E.; Wagner, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced 13,000 HP, counterrotating (CR) gearbox was designed and successfully tested to provide a technology base for future designs of geared propfan propulsion systems for both commercial and military aircraft. The advanced technology CR gearbox was designed for high efficiency, low weight, long life, and improved maintainability. The differential planetary CR gearbox features double helical gears, double row cylindrical roller bearings integral with planet gears, tapered roller prop support bearings, and a flexible ring gear and diaphragm to provide load sharing. A new Allison propfan back-to-back gearbox test facility was constructed. Extensive rotating and stationary instrumentation was used to measure temperature, strain, vibration, deflection and efficiency under representative flight operating conditions. The tests verified smooth, efficient gearbox operation. The highly-instrumented advanced CR gearbox was successfully tested to design speed and power (13,000 HP), and to a 115 percent overspeed condition. Measured CR gearbox efficiency was 99.3 percent at the design point based on heat loss to the oil. Tests demonstrated low vibration characteristics of double helical gearing, proper gear tooth load sharing, low stress levels, and the high load capacity of the prop tapered roller bearings. Applied external prop loads did not significantly affect gearbox temperature, vibration, or stress levels. Gearbox hardware was in excellent condition after the tests with no indication of distress.

  4. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  5. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  6. Advanced battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  7. Advances in Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, W. R.

    This is the first volume of Advances in Irrigation, a new serial publication by the publishers of Advances in Agronomy and Advances in Hydroscience and designed to follow the same format. The editor is a well-known researcher and writer on irrigation and related subjects and has assembled a collection of highly regarded and respected authors for the initial volume. The readership for this volume will probably be mainly specialists and students interested in irrigation and an occasional design engineer.The seven contributions in this volume fall roughly into two classes: research and practice. Three papers (“Conjunctive Use of Rainfall and Irrigation in Semi-arid Regions,” by Stewart and Musik, “Irrigation Scheduling Using Soil Moisture Measurements: Theory and Practice,” by G. S. and M. D. Campbell, and “Use of Solute Transport Models to Estimate Salt Balance Below Irrigated Cropland,” by Jury) cover topics that have been the subject of a number of reviews. The contributions here provide brief, well-written, and authoritative summaries of the chosen topics and serve as good introductions or reviews. They should lend themselves well to classroom use in various ways. They also should be helpful to the nonspecialist interested in getting a sense of the subject without going into great detail.

  8. Advances in surgery. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the advancements made in surgery. The topics discussed are: Diagnostic uses of computerized tomography of abdomen; kidney surgery advancements, evaluation and management of pheochromocytomas; trauma of spleen and liver and microsurgery applications.

  9. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Started State by State Info FAQs Educational Webcasts Links Current Research In the News Legal Issues ... How to write a Psychiatric Advance Directive?" View webcast (15:04) What are Psychiatric Advance Directives? View ...

  10. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  11. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  12. TIMSS Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden, Robert A.; Lie, Svein; Robitaille, David F.; Angell, Carl; Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2006-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks was a collaborative venture involving mathematics and physics experts from around the world. The document contains two frameworks for implementing TIMSS Advanced 2008--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics. It also contains…

  13. TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The "TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks" provides the foundation for the two international assessments to take place as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) Advanced 2015--Advanced Mathematics and Physics. Chapter 1 (Liv…

  14. Advances in ice mechanics - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.; Hallam, S.D.; Maatanen, M.; Sinha, N.K.; Sodhi, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the interaction of icebergs with offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included advances in ice mechanics in the United Kingdom, ice mechanics in Finland, recent advances in ice mechanics in Canada, advances in sea ice mechanics in the USA, foundations, monitoring, hazards, risk assessment, and deformation.

  15. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  16. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  17. Advanced composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Smith, Peter J.; Horton, Ray E.

    1993-01-01

    Boeing's ATCAS program has completed its third year and continues to progress towards a goal to demonstrate composite fuselage technology with cost and weight advantages over aluminum. Work on this program is performed by an integrated team that includes several groups within The Boeing Company, industrial and university subcontractors, and technical support from NASA. During the course of the program, the ATCAS team has continued to perform a critical review of composite developments by recognizing advances in metal fuselage technology. Despite recent material, structural design, and manufacturing advancements for metals, polymeric matrix composite designs studied in ATCAS still project significant cost and weight advantages for future applications. A critical path to demonstrating technology readiness for composite transport fuselage structures was created to summarize ATCAS tasks for Phases A, B, and C. This includes a global schedule and list of technical issues which will be addressed throughout the course of studies. Work performed in ATCAS since the last ACT conference is also summarized. Most activities relate to crown quadrant manufacturing scaleup and performance verification. The former was highlighted by fabricating a curved, 7 ft. by 10 ft. panel, with cocured hat-stiffeners and cobonded J-frames. In building to this scale, process developments were achieved for tow-placed skins, drape formed stiffeners, braided/RTM frames, and panel cure tooling. Over 700 tests and supporting analyses have been performed for crown material and design evaluation, including structural tests that demonstrated limit load requirements for severed stiffener/skin failsafe damage conditions. Analysis of tests for tow-placed hybrid laminates with large damage indicates a tensile fracture toughness that is higher than that observed for advanced aluminum alloys. Additional recent ATCAS achievements include crown supporting technology, keel quadrant design evaluation, and

  18. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  19. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1995-09-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind generated electricity may be possible.

  20. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  1. Advanced SCADA concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sciacca, S.C. ); Block, W.R. )

    1995-01-01

    The typical utility system planner faces a wide variety of concepts and applications to consider when procuring a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The system's performance requirements are influenced by an arena of rapidly advancing technologies and a highly competitive business environment. Unlike other elements of the electric utility industry, these changes are not evolving specifically for the SCADA industry; they are being driven by other technology forums, with a profound impact on the SCADA system of the future. This article explores some of these concepts and suggests technology and business issues to consider when planning for the SCADA system of tomorrow.

  2. Advanced turboprop project

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, R.D.; Vrabel, D.

    1988-01-01

    At the direction of Congress, a task force headed by NASA was organized in 1975 to identify potential fuel saving concepts for aviation. The result was the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program implemented in 1976. An important part of the program was the development of advanced turboprop technology for Mach 0.65 to 0.85 applications having the potential fuel saving of 30 to 50 percent relative to existing turbofan engines. A historical perspective is presented of the development and the accomplishments that brought the turboprop to successful flight tests in 1986 and 1987.

  3. Advances in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prakashchand; Jindal, Ankita; Saini, V.K.; Jindal, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of long-term diabetes mellitus (DM). Over the last 2 decades lot of work has been on early diagnosis of DR and screening programs have been designed to help the masses. Large numbers of clinical studies have been done for patients of diabetes and DR wherein the role of blood sugar control, metabolic control, role of oral medicines for DR, role of imaging, fluorescein angiography, and retinal photocoagulation has been studied. Newer treatment modalities are being devised and studied for better patient care. We discuss these issues in our review highlight and newer advances over the last few years. PMID:25364670

  4. Advanced composites technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. Critical technology issues that must be addressed and solved to develop composite primary structures for transport aircraft are delineated. The program schedule and milestones are included. Work completed in the first 3 years of the program indicates the potential for achieving composite structures that weigh less and are cost effective relative to conventional aluminum structure. Selected technical accomplishments are noted. Readers who are seeking more in-depth technical information should study the other papers included in these proceedings.

  5. [Advance in imaging spectropolarimeter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-quan; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Jin-song; Jing, Juan-juan

    2011-07-01

    Imaging spectropolarimeter (ISP) is a type of novel photoelectric sensor which integrated the functions of imaging, spectrometry and polarimetry. In the present paper, the concept of the ISP is introduced, and the advances in ISP at home and abroad in recent years is reviewed. The principles of ISPs based on novel devices, such as acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), are illustrated. In addition, the principles of ISPs developed by adding polarized components to the dispersing-type imaging spectrometer, spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, and computer tomography imaging spectrometer are introduced. Moreover, the trends of ISP are discussed too. PMID:21942063

  6. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  7. Advances in Therapeutic Cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Renata Nobre; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, cholangioscopy is an established modality in diagnostic and treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. The more widespread use and the recent development of new technologies and accessories had renewed the interest of endoscopic visualization of the biliary tract, increasing the range of indications and therapeutic procedures, such as diagnostic of indeterminate biliary strictures, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative techniques for intraductal malignancies, removal of foreign bodies and gallbladder drainage. These endoscopic interventions will probably be the last frontier in the near future. This paper presents the new advances in therapeutic cholangioscopy, focusing on the current clinical applications and on research areas. PMID:27403156

  8. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  9. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  10. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  11. Advanced Turboprop Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Roy D.; Vrabel, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    At the direction of Congress, a task force headed by NASA was organized in 1975 to identify potential fuel saving concepts for aviation. The result was the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program implemented in 1976. An important part of the program was the development of advanced turboprop technology for Mach 0.65 to 0.85 applications having the potential fuel saving of 30 to 50 percent relative to existing turbofan engines. A historical perspective is presented of the development and the accomplishments that brought the turboprop to successful flight tests in 1986 and 1987.

  12. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Vaderhobli, Ram M

    2011-07-01

    The use of materials to rehabilitate tooth structures is constantly changing. Over the past decade, newer material processing techniques and technologies have significantly improved the dependability and predictability of dental material for clinicians. The greatest obstacle, however, is in choosing the right combination for continued success. Finding predictable approaches for successful restorative procedures has been the goal of clinical and material scientists. This article provides a broad perspective on the advances made in various classes of dental restorative materials in terms of their functionality with respect to pit and fissure sealants, glass ionomers, and dental composites. PMID:21726695

  13. Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  14. Advanced information society (10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Informationalization in Japan has spread among various fields of industrial and social life in wide and depth by drastic advancement in technology and networking. Looking at the change in industrial structure as well as international trend in information the Japanese Government regards the role of information and communication technology as infrastructure to be important, and is under the way of constructing various measures with ministries and agencies concerned with them. This paper describes how administrative agencies involved in information and communication such as Ministry of Postal Services, Ministry of International Trade and Industry cope with informationalization, and mentions future direction in information policies.

  15. Mandibular Advancement Splints.

    PubMed

    Bamagoos, Ahmad A; Sutherland, Kate; Cistulli, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    Although mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are not as efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing obstructive respiratory events, patient adherence and preference are greater than CPAP. Additionally, the effectiveness of both treatments on general health outcomes, cognitive function, and quality of life appears to be equivalent. The main barrier for the implementation of MAS treatment in clinical practice is the interindividual variability in response to MAS treatment. Several prediction tools have been proposed to enhance patient selection for MAS treatment. Phenotyping obstructive sleep apnea patients may reveal patient characteristics that enable the prediction of response to MAS treatment. PMID:27542880

  16. Advanced radiographic imaging techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, J. B.; Brown, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of the nature and operational constraints of conventional X-radiographic and neutron imaging methods, providing a foundation for a discussion of advanced radiographic imaging systems. Two types of solid-state image amplifiers designed to image X rays are described. Operational theory, panel construction, and performance characteristics are discussed. A closed-circuit television system for imaging neutrons is then described and the system design, operational theory, and performance characteristics are outlined. Emphasis is placed on a description of the advantages of these imaging systems over conventional methods.

  17. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  18. Advanced desiccant materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czanderna, A. W.; Thomas, T. M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  19. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  20. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  1. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  2. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  3. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  4. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  5. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  6. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  7. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  8. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  9. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  10. Advanced Geosynchronous Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    For improved understanding of chaotic processes and the diurnal cycle, an advanced GOES imager must also have the multi-spectral spectral bands used by low earth orbit (LEO) imagers, with on-orbit calibration for all bands. A synergy between GEO and LEO radiometry would enable earth system scientists to fuse the remote sensing data from all the spaceborne platforms. These additional radiometric capabilities are designed to observe important physical processes that vary rapidly and unpredicably: smoke, fires, precipitation, ozone, volcanic ash, cloud phase and height, and surface temperature. We believe the technology now exists to develop an imaging system that can meet future weather reporting and earth system science needs. To meet this need, we propose a design for a comprehensive geosynchronous atmospheric imager. This imager is envisioned to fly on a GOES-N class spacecraft, within the volume, weight and power constraints of a platform similar to GOES-N while delivering 100 times more data and radiometric quality than the GOES-N imager. The higher data rate probably requires its own ground station, which could serve as a systems prototype for NOAA's next generation of operational satellites. For operational compatibility, our proposed advanced GOES imaging system contains the GOES-R requirements as a subset, and the GOES-N imager capabilities (and the sounder's imaging channels) as a further subset.

  11. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  12. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  13. USMC UGS technology advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartup, David C.; Barr, Michael E.; Hirz, Philip M.; Kipp, Jason; Fishburn, Thomas A.; Waller, Ezra S.; Marks, Brian A.

    2008-04-01

    Technology advancements for the USMC UGS system are described. Integration of the ARL Blue Radio/CSR into the System Controller and Radio Repeater permit the TRSS system to operate seamlessly within the Family of UGS concept. In addition to the Blue Radio/CSR, the TRSS system provides VHF and SATCOM radio links. The TRSS system is compatible with a wide range of imagers, including those with both analog and digital interfaces. The TRSS System Controller permits simultaneous monitoring of 2 camera inputs. To complement enhanced compatibility and improved processing, the mechanical housing of the TRSS System Controller has been updated. The SDR-II, a system monitoring device, also incorporates four Blue Radio/CSRs along with other communication capabilities, making it an ideal choice for a monitoring station within the Family of UGS. Field testing of L-3 Nova's UGS system at YPG has shown flawless performance, capturing all 126 targets.

  14. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  15. Advancing family psychology.

    PubMed

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. PMID:26845635

  16. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  17. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  18. TOOLKIT FOR ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION

    2000-10-13

    The TAO project focuses on the development of software for large scale optimization problems. TAO uses an object-oriented design to create a flexible toolkit with strong emphasis on the reuse of external tools where appropriate. Our design enables bi-directional connection to lower level linear algebra support (for example, parallel sparse matrix data structures) as well as higher level application frameworks. The Toolkist for Advanced Optimization (TAO) is aimed at teh solution of large-scale optimization problemsmore » on high-performance architectures. Our main goals are portability, performance, scalable parallelism, and an interface independent of the architecture. TAO is suitable for both single-processor and massively-parallel architectures. The current version of TAO has algorithms for unconstrained and bound-constrained optimization.« less

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  20. Advanced Hysteroscopic Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Glenda R.; Erian, Anna-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Hysteroscopic surgery is pivotal in management of many gynecological pathologies. The skills required for performing advanced hysteroscopic surgery (AHS), eg, transcervical hysteroscopic endometrial resection (TCRE), hysteroscopic polypectomy and myomectomy in the management of menorrhagia, hysteroscopic septulysis in fertility-related gynecological problems and hysteroscopic removal of chronically retained products of conception and excision of intramural ectopic pregnancy ought to be practiced by contemporary gynecological surgeons in their day-to-day clinical practice. AHS is a minimally invasive procedure that preserves the uterus in most cases. Whilst the outcome is of paramount importance, proper training should be adopted and followed through so that doctors, nurses, and institutions may deliver the highest standard of patient care. PMID:25392678

  1. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  2. Advanced strategic missile development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, R. L.

    1981-05-01

    The M-X program is taking two paths: (1) the current development and projected deployment of a survivable land based ICBM (the M-X) in a multiple protective structure system, and (2) a building block development of readiness posture and strategic futures technology that could be used for a wide range of projected needs in the event of major changes in the threat or the political climate. The blend of aerospace and civil engineering technologies which has resulted in the systems concept necessary to assure the continued survivability of the land based strategic missile force is summarized. Recent advanced technology development activities, which have been focused on systems upgrade options to the current ICBM force, basing options which may be required for special force elements, small missile options for airborne applications, penetration technology to counter SAM and ABM threats, and systems concepts for unique targeting requirements are reviewed.

  3. Advances in Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Traub, Matthew C; Longsine, Whitney; Truskett, Van N

    2016-06-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a molding process, can replicate features <10 nm over large areas with long-range order. We describe the early development and fundamental principles underlying the two most commonly used types of NIL, thermal and UV, and contrast them with conventional photolithography methods used in the semiconductor industry. We then describe current advances toward full commercial industrialization of UV-curable NIL (UV-NIL) technology for integrated circuit production. We conclude with brief overviews of some emerging areas of research, from photonics to biotechnology, in which the ability of NIL to fabricate structures of arbitrary geometry is providing new paths for development. As with previous innovations, the increasing availability of tools and techniques from the semiconductor industry is poised to provide a path to bring these innovations from the lab to everyday life. PMID:27070763

  4. [Advanced pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis].

    PubMed

    Triebel, H J; von Hülst, M; Schofer, M

    1987-09-01

    A severe course of microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum in a 28-year old patient is described. The disease, which had progressed to a very advanced stage at the time of examination, produced in the plain radiograph of the thorax an extensive, homogeneous, ground-glass like shadow of practically all organs of the thorax. The typical miliary (spot-like) shadow ("sandstorm lung") is visible only in the lateral and apical parts of the lung. CT revealed massive calcareous deposits which increased in craniocaudal and ventrodorsal direction. Bullous metaplasia of the lung was particularly striking in the apical region. No effective therapy is known so far. A combined heart and lung transplantation might be the only therapy that could prolong the patient's life. PMID:3659783

  5. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  6. The Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John N.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996.

  7. Recent advances in VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-09-01

    Within the last two decades, vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) have attracted rising interest from both industry and science. They have proven to be versatile lasers which can be specifically designed for research and applications that require a particular regime of operation. Various emission schemes ranging from narrow-linewidth emission, pulsed light or multimode emission to a frequency-converted output are feasible owing to remarkable device features. Being composed of a semiconductor gain mirror and an external cavity, not only is a unique access to high-brightness output and a high-beam quality is provided, but also wavelength flexibility. Moreover, the exploitation of intra-cavity frequency conversion further extends the accessible spectral range from the ultraviolet (UV) to the terahertz (THz). In this work, recent advances in the field of VECSELs are highlighted.

  8. Advanced turbine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of an advanced convective cooling concept applied to rocket turbine airfoils which operate in a high pressure hydrogen and methane environment was investigated. The concept consists of a central structural member in which grooves are machined. The grooves are temporarily filled with a removable filler and the entire airfoil is covered with a layer of electroformed nickel, or nickel base alloy. After removal of the filler, the low thermal resistance of the nickel closure causes the wall temperature to be reduced by heat transfer to the coolant. The program is divided in the following tasks: (1) turbine performance appraisal; (2) coolant geometry evaluation; (3) test hardware design and analysis; and (4) test airfoil fabrication.

  9. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed.

  10. The Advanced Helical Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-10-26

    A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.

  11. Advanced Ceramics Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George; Gonczy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of ceramic bodies can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. The Advanced Ceramics Committee of ASTM, C-28, has developed dozens of consensus test standards and practices to measure various properties of a ceramic monolith, composite, or coating. The standards give the "what, how, how not, and why" for measurement of many mechanical, physical, thermal, and performance properties. Using these standards will provide accurate, reliable, and complete data for rigorous comparisons with other test results from your test lab, or another. The C-28 Committee has involved academics, producers, and users of ceramics to write and continually update more than 45 standards since the committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the C-28 standards and information on how to obtain individual copies with full details or the complete collection of standards in one volume.

  12. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1988-10-25

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.

  13. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, William E.; Kuban, Daniel P.; Martin, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.

  14. Advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    The concept design for a small (less than 10 MWe) solar thermal electric generating plant was completed using projected 1985 technology. The systems requirements were defined and specified. The components, including an engineering prototype for one 15 kWe module of the generating plant, were conceptually designed. Significant features of the small solar thermal power plant were identified as the following: (1) 15 kWe Stirling-cycle engine/alternator with constant power output; (2) 10 meter point-focusing paraboloidal concentrator with cantilevered cellular glass reflecting panels; (3) primary heat pipe with 800 C output solar cavity receiver; (4) secondary heat pipe with molten salt thermal energy storage unit; (5) electric energy transport system; and (6) advanced battery energy storage capability.

  15. Advanced glycation end products

    PubMed Central

    Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Böhm, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of damage to an organism over time leading to disease and death. Aging research has been very intensive in the last years aiming at characterizing the pathophysiology of aging and finding possibilities to fight age-related diseases. Various theories of aging have been proposed. In the last years advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received particular attention in this context. AGEs are formed in high amounts in diabetes but also in the physiological organism during aging. They have been etiologically implicated in numerous diabetes- and age-related diseases. Strategies inhibiting AGE accumulation and signaling seem to possess a therapeutic potential in these pathologies. However, still little is known on the precise role of AGEs during skin aging. In this review the existing literature on AGEs and skin aging will be reviewed. In addition, existing and potential anti-AGE strategies that may be beneficial on skin aging will be discussed. PMID:23467327

  16. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  17. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  18. Room for advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Carrio, L.A. ); Sharpe, R. ); Bizzarri, R.E. ); Wilson, T.E. )

    1993-12-01

    The advanced biological nutrient removal (ABNR) process is a viable nutrient removal choice for wastewater treatment plants where site limitations and energy costs are a concern. Specifically, ABNR plants: can remove more than 60% of total nitrogen; achieve a high degree of phosphorus removal - primarily by chemical additions; use step aeration (step feed) to save tank volume and site space and to eliminate mixed liquor recirculation requirements; use less energy; use a supplemental source of carbon (typically, methanol) in small quantities to achieve higher levels of nitrogen removal; take advantage of the highest denitrification rates of raw wastewater; allow nitrification of low alkalinity wastewater with no chemical supplement; can be created from existing step aeration plants with only minor modifications; and can retain all the flexibility and wet-weather flow stability of conventional step aeration systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily. PMID:27318470

  20. Advances in autism.

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic liability. It is not a unitary entity but a clinical syndrome, with variable deficits in social behavior and language, restrictive interests, and repetitive behaviors. Recent advances in the genetics of autism emphasize its etiological heterogeneity, with each genetic susceptibility locus accounting for only a small fraction of cases or having a small effect. Therefore, it is not surprising that no unifying structural or neuropathological features have been conclusively identified. Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), approaches based on studying heritable components of the disorder, or endophenotypes, such as language or social cognition, provide promising avenues for genetic and neurobiological investigations. Early intensive behavioral and cognitive interventions are efficacious in many cases, but autism does not remit in the majority of children. Therefore, development of targeted therapies based on pathophysiologically and etiologically defined subtypes of ASD remains an important and achievable goal of current research. PMID:19630577

  1. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  2. Advanced Telemetry Data Capturing

    SciTech Connect

    Paschke, G.A.

    2000-05-16

    This project developed a new generation or advanced data capturing process specifically designed for use in future telemetry test systems at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Although similar data capturing processes are performed both commercially and at other DOE weapon facilities, the equipment used is not specifically designed to perform acceptance testing requirements unique to the KCP. Commercially available equipment, despite very high cost (up to $125,000), is deficient in reliability and long-term maintainability necessary in test systems at this facility. There are no commercial sources for some requirements, specifically Terminal Data Analyzer (TDA) data processing. Although other custom processes have been developed to satisfy these test requirements, these designs have become difficult to maintain and upgrade.

  3. Advanced practice registered nurse certification.

    PubMed

    Alleman, Kim; Houle, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in nephrology began to be certified through the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC) in 2006. Since that time, the APRN Consensus Model has been developed, which addresses licensure, accreditation, certification, and education and which strongly recommends specialty certification for advanced practice nurses. This article discusses NNCC certification for advanced practice in nephrology nursing and describes the major components of the APRN Consensus Model. PMID:23923801

  4. Advanced turbocharger design study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  5. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Coats' disease and retinoblastoma can both present with the triad of a retinal detachment, the appearance of a subretinal mass, and dilated retinal vessels. Thus, even the most experienced observer may not be able to differentiate these entities on ophthalmoscopic findings alone. Coats' disease is the most common reason for which eyes are enucleated with the misdiagnosis of retinoblastoma. Ultrasonography is the auxiliary diagnostic test most easily incorporated into the clinical examination, and can be utilized repeatedly without biologic tissue hazard. Ultrasonically identifiable features allowing differentiation between Coats' disease and retinoblastoma include the topography and character of retinal detachment and presence or absence of subretinal calcifications. Ultrasonography is of lesser use in poorly calcified retinoblastoma and in detecting optic nerve or extraocular extension in heavily calcified retinoblastoma. CT is perhaps the single most valuable test because of its ability to: (a) delineate intraocular morphology, (b) quantify subretinal densities, (c) identify vascularities within the subretinal space through the use of contrast enhancement, and (d) detected associated orbital or intracranial abnormalities. Optimal computed tomographic studies, however, require multiple thin slices both before and after contrast introduction and expose the child to low levels of radiation if studies are repeated periodically. MR imaging is valuable for its multiplanar imaging capabilities, its superior contrast resolution, and its ability to provide insights into the biochemical structure and composition of tissues. It is limited in its ability to detect calcium, which is the mainstay of ultrasonic and CT differentiation. Aqueous LDH and isoenzyme levels were not valuable in distinguishing between Coats' disease and retinoblastoma. The value of aqueous NSE levels in the differentiation of advanced Coats' disease and exophytic retinoblastoma deserves

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  7. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  8. 5-Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and mitomycin C versus 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, mitomycin C, and leucovorin in advanced gastric carcinoma. A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tsavaris, N B; Tentas, K; Kosmidis, P; Mylonakis, N; Sakelaropoulos, N; Kosmas, C; Lisaios, B; Soumilas, A; Mandrekois, D; Tsetis, A; Klonaris, C

    1996-10-01

    Leucovorin (LV) enhances the activity of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Based on these data, we performed a randomized trial with 5FU, epirubicin (EPI), mitomycin C(MMC) with/ without LV in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). The purpose of our study was to investigate if the addition of LV improved the response rate of the combination 5FU EPI, MMC (FEM) over FEM. From January 1988 until April 1994, 88 patients with recurrent or metastatic AGC were randomly received 5FU, EPI, MMC with (group A) or without (group B) LV. Between the two arms of the study no difference was noticed in sex, performance status, primary site of tumor, and lymph node metastases. Therapy included group A (5FU 600 mg/m2/day, i.v. bolus, on days 1, 8, 29, 36, and EPI 45 mg/m2/day, i.v. bolus, on days 1 and 29, MMC 10 mg/m2/day, i.v. bolus, on day 1) and group B (the same as group A plus LV 200 mg/m2/day by 2 h intravenous infusion with 5FU intravenous push at midinfusion). No significant difference in response rate was noticed between the two treatment arms; there were two (5%) patients with complete response in group A, and five (12%) in A and 11 (26%) partial responders in group B (p < 0.1). A significantly higher number of patients achieving stable disease was observed in group B; 19 (44%) in comparison to group A 10 (24%) (p < 0.048). There were more patients with progressive disease in group A 25 (59%) than in group B 12 (28%) (p < 0.003) (Table 2). No difference was noted in mean duration of response: group A, 15.8 (6-31) weeks; and group B, 17.6 (6-28) weeks. The mean time to progression was for group A [11.4 (6-35) weeks] and for group B [17.6 (8-33) weeks]. Mean survival was for group A [27.4 (12-59) weeks] and for group B [30.6 (17-53) weeks], for 50% of patients. Causes of death were, for group A, 40 patients from disease progression and two sudden deaths; for group B, causes of death were for 41 patients disease progression and two sudden deaths. There were two patients in group A and one in

  9. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  10. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  11. Advances in influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenically variable regions of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which requires regular updates to match circulating seasonal influenza A and B virus strains. Given the relatively limited protection induced by current seasonal influenza vaccines, a more universal influenza vaccine that would protect against more—if not all—influenza viruses is among the largest unmet medical needs of the 21st century. New insights into correlates of protection from influenza and into broad B- and T-cell protective anti-influenza immune responses offer promising avenues for innovative vaccine development as well as manufacturing strategies or platforms, leading to the development of a new generation of vaccines. These aim at the rapid and massive production of influenza vaccines that provide broad protective and long-lasting immunity. Recent advances in influenza vaccine research demonstrate the feasibility of a wide range of approaches and call for the initiation of preclinical proof-of-principle studies followed by clinical trials in humans. PMID:24991424

  12. Advanced Production Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; KJELDGAARD,EDWIN A.; WRIGHT,STEPHEN TROY; TURNQUIST,MARK A.; NOZICK,LINDA K.; LIST,GEORGE F.

    2000-12-01

    >This report describes the innovative modeling approach developed as a result of a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The overall goal of this project was to provide an effective suite of solvers for advanced production planning at facilities in the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). We focused our development activities on problems related to operations at the DOE's Pantex Plant. These types of scheduling problems appear in many contexts other than Pantex--both within the NWC (e.g., Neutron Generators) and in other commercial manufacturing settings. We successfully developed an innovative and effective solution strategy for these types of problems. We have tested this approach on actual data from Pantex, and from Org. 14000 (Neutron Generator production). This report focuses on the mathematical representation of the modeling approach and presents three representative studies using Pantex data. Results associated with the Neutron Generator facility will be published in a subsequent SAND report. The approach to task-based scheduling described here represents a significant addition to the literature for large-scale, realistic scheduling problems in a variety of production settings.

  13. Advances in Urine Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gavin J; Garigali, Giuseppe; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Urine microscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of several conditions affecting the kidneys and urinary tract. In this review, we describe the automated instruments, based either on flow cytometry or digitized microscopy, that are currently in use in large clinical laboratories. These tools allow the examination of large numbers of samples in short periods. We also discuss manual urinary microscopy commonly performed by nephrologists, which we encourage. After discussing the advantages of phase contrast microscopy over bright field microscopy, we describe the advancements of urine microscopy in various clinical conditions. These include persistent isolated microscopic hematuria (which can be classified as glomerular or nonglomerular on the basis of urinary erythrocyte morphology), drug- and toxin-related cystalluria (which can be a clue for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury associated with intrarenal crystal precipitation), and some inherited conditions (eg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalluria, and Fabry disease, which is characterized by unique urinary lamellated fatty particles). Finally, we describe the utility of identifying "decoy cells" and atypical malignant cells, which can be easily done with phase contrast microscopy in unfixed samples. PMID:26806004

  14. Advanced positron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variola, A.

    2014-03-01

    Positron sources are a critical system for the future lepton colliders projects. Due to the large beam emittance at the production and the limitation given by the target heating and mechanical stress, the main collider parameters fixing the luminosity are constrained by the e+ sources. In this context also the damping ring design boundary conditions and the final performance are given by the injected positron beam. At present different schemes are being taken into account in order to increase the production and the capture yield of the positron sources, to reduce the impact of the deposited energy in the converter target and to increase the injection efficiency in the damping ring. The final results have a strong impact not only on the collider performance but also on its cost optimization. After a short introduction illustrating their fundamental role, the basic positron source scheme and the performance of the existing sources will be illustrated. The main innovative designs for the future colliders advanced sources will be reviewed and the different developed technologies presented. Finally the positrons-plasma R&D experiments and the futuristic proposals for positron sources will reviewed.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  16. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  17. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  19. Recent advances of nanodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Grosswendt, B

    2004-01-01

    The early damage to genes and cells due to ionizing radiation is initiated by the overlay of the track structure of charged particles and of the structure of radiosensitive sub-cellular volumes. As a result of this overlay, a specified number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) is formed per primary particle. Therefore, one of the aims of nanodosimetry is to determine ionization cluster-size distributions in nanometric volumes of liquid water, as a substitute to sub-cellular structures. After a short description of the main aspects of cluster-size formation by charged particles, an overview of the advanced measuring techniques that use millimetric target volumes filled with a low-pressure gas to simulate nanometric target volumes at unit density is given. Afterwards, physical principles are discussed which are applicable to convert ionization cluster-size distributions measured in gases into those for liquid water. Finally, a tentative possibility is proposed of how to relate parameters derived from cluster-size distributions in liquid water to parameters derived from radiation-induced radiobiological experiments. PMID:15353748

  20. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Dixit, V.B.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  2. Advances in cholangiocyte immunobiology

    PubMed Central

    Syal, Gaurav; Fausther, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Cholangiocytes, or bile duct epithelia, were once thought to be the simple lining of the conduit system comprising the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. Growing experimental evidence demonstrated that cholangiocytes are in fact the first line of defense of the biliary system against foreign substances. Experimental advances in recent years have unveiled previously unknown roles of cholangiocytes in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Cholangiocytes can release inflammatory modulators in a regulated fashion. Moreover, they express specialized pattern-recognizing molecules that identify microbial components and activate intracellular signaling cascades leading to a variety of downstream responses. The cytokines secreted by cholangiocytes, in conjunction with the adhesion molecules expressed on their surface, play a role in recruitment, localization, and modulation of immune responses in the liver and biliary tract. Cholangiocyte survival and function is further modulated by cytokines and inflammatory mediators secreted by immune cells and cholangiocytes themselves. Because cholangiocytes act as professional APCs via expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens and secrete antimicrobial peptides in bile, their role in response to biliary infection is critical. Finally, because cholangiocytes release mediators critical to myofibroblastic differentiation of portal fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells, cholangiocytes may be essential in the pathogenesis of biliary cirrhosis. PMID:22961800

  3. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  4. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  7. Advanced communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The increase in demand for satellite communications services brought about shortages in available transponder capacity, especially at C-band. Interest shifted to the Ku-band frequency and currently carriers are rapidly moving to secure orbital slots for future satellite development. Projections of communications service demands over the next decade indiate growth in voice, data, and video services such that saturation of both C-band and Ku-band will occur by 1990. Emphasis must and will shift to Ka-band (20/30 GHz) frequency for fixed-satellite service. Advanced technologies such as multibeam antennas coupled with on-board satellite switching to allow implementation in this band of very high capacity satellite systems will be applied to meet the demand. Satellite system concepts that are likely in the 1990's and are likely to bring a new dimension to satellite delivered communication service are presented. The NASA 30/20 GHz communications satellite system demonstration program is discussed with emphasis on the related technology development.

  8. Advanced Pressure Boundary Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L; Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperatures of fossil power plants is fundamental to improving thermal efficiencies and reducing undesirable emissions such as CO{sub 2}. One group of alloys with the potential to satisfy the conditions required of higher operating temperatures is the advanced ferritic steels such as ASTM Grade 91, 9Cr-2W, and 12Cr-2W. These are Cr-Mo steels containing 9-12 wt% Cr that have martensitic microstructures. Research aimed at increasing the operating temperature limits of the 9-12 wt% Cr steels and optimizing them for specific power plant applications has been actively pursued since the 1970's. As with all of the high strength martensitic steels, specifying upper temperature limits for tempering the alloys and heat treating weldments is a critical issue. To support this aspect of development, thermodynamic analysis was used to estimate how this critical temperature, the A{sub 1} in steel terminology, varies with alloy composition. The results from the thermodynamic analysis were presented to the Strength of Weldments subgroup of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code and are being considered in establishing maximum postweld heat treatment temperatures. Experiments are also being planned to verify predictions. This is part of a CRADA project being done with Alstom Power, Inc.

  9. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  10. Advances in cholangiocyte immunobiology.

    PubMed

    Syal, Gaurav; Fausther, Michel; Dranoff, Jonathan A

    2012-11-15

    Cholangiocytes, or bile duct epithelia, were once thought to be the simple lining of the conduit system comprising the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. Growing experimental evidence demonstrated that cholangiocytes are in fact the first line of defense of the biliary system against foreign substances. Experimental advances in recent years have unveiled previously unknown roles of cholangiocytes in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Cholangiocytes can release inflammatory modulators in a regulated fashion. Moreover, they express specialized pattern-recognizing molecules that identify microbial components and activate intracellular signaling cascades leading to a variety of downstream responses. The cytokines secreted by cholangiocytes, in conjunction with the adhesion molecules expressed on their surface, play a role in recruitment, localization, and modulation of immune responses in the liver and biliary tract. Cholangiocyte survival and function is further modulated by cytokines and inflammatory mediators secreted by immune cells and cholangiocytes themselves. Because cholangiocytes act as professional APCs via expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens and secrete antimicrobial peptides in bile, their role in response to biliary infection is critical. Finally, because cholangiocytes release mediators critical to myofibroblastic differentiation of portal fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells, cholangiocytes may be essential in the pathogenesis of biliary cirrhosis. PMID:22961800

  11. Recent advances in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Iannuzzi, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology, is characterized by a variable clinical presentation and course. During the past decade, advances have been made in the study of sarcoidosis. The multicenter ACCESS (A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis) trial recruited > 700 subjects with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis and matched control subjects. Investigators were unable to identify a single cause of sarcoidosis, but ACCESS paved the way for subsequent etiologic studies. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase protein has been identified as a potential sarcoidosis antigen. Genetic aspects of the disease have been elucidated further. Genome-wide scans have identified candidate genes. Gene expression analyses have defined cytokine dysregulation in sarcoidosis more clearly. Although the criteria for diagnosis have not changed, sarcoidosis remains a diagnosis of exclusion best supported by a tissue biopsy specimen that demonstrates noncaseating granulomas in a patient with compatible clinical and radiologic features of the disease. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes has facilitated diagnosis, often eliminating the need for more invasive procedures, such as mediastinoscopy. PET scanning has proven valuable in locating occult sites of active disease. Currently, no reliable prognostic biomarkers have been identified. The tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, a relatively new class of agents, have been used in patients with refractory disease. It is unclear whether phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, prostaglandin analogs, or endothelin antagonists should be used for the treatment of sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension. PMID:21208877

  12. Advanced Crew Escape Suit.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    Design of the S1032 Launch Entry Suit (LES) began following the Challenger loss and NASA's decision to incorporate a Shuttle crew escape system. The LES (see Figure 1) has successfully supported Shuttle missions since NASA's Return to Flight with STS-26 in September 1988. In 1990, engineers began developing the S1035 Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) to serve as a replacement for the LES. The ACES was designed to be a simplified, lightweight, low-bulk pressure suit which aided self donning/doffing, provided improved comfort, and enhanced overall performance to reduce crew member stress and fatigue. Favorable crew member evaluations of a prototype led to full-scale development and qualification of the S1035 ACES between 1990 and 1992. Production of the S1035 ACES began in February 1993, with the first unit delivered to NASA in May 1994. The S1035 ACES first flew aboard STS-68 in August 1994 and will become the primary crew escape suit when the S1032 LES ends its service life in late 1995. The primary goal of the S1035 development program was to provide improved performance over that of the S1032 to minimize the stress and fatigue typically experienced by crew members. To achieve this, five fundamental design objectives were established, resulting in various material/configuration changes. PMID:11540717

  13. Advances in metabolite identification.

    PubMed

    Wishart, David S

    2011-08-01

    One of the central challenges to metabolomics is metabolite identification. Regardless of whether one uses so-called 'targeted' or 'untargeted' metabolomics, eventually all paths lead to the requirement of identifying (and quantifying) certain key metabolites. Indeed, without metabolite identification, the results of any metabolomic analysis are biologically and chemically uninterpretable. Given the chemical diversity of most metabolomes and the character of most metabolomic data, metabolite identification is intrinsically difficult. Consequently a great deal of effort in metabolomics over the past decade has been focused on making metabolite identification better, faster and cheaper. This review describes some of the newly emerging techniques or technologies in metabolomics that are making metabolite identification easier and more robust. In particular, it focuses on advances in metabolite identification that have occurred over the past 2 to 3 years concerning the technologies, methodologies and software as applied to NMR, MS and separation science. The strengths and limitations of some of these approaches are discussed along with some of the important trends in metabolite identification. PMID:21827274

  14. Advances in infrared fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Guangming; Abouraddy, Ayman F.

    2015-05-01

    Infrared (IR) fibers that transmit radiation at wavelengths from ~ 2 μm up to ~ 25 μm, a spectrum that extends across both the mid-IR (MIR) and far-IR (FIR), has gained extensive attention concomitant with the recent availability of MIR semiconductors sources and detectors. Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) are a leading candidate for IR fibers by virtue of their wide optical transmission windows and high nonlinearity in the IR region. After extensive studies since the 1960s, the development and applications of ChG IR fibers are primarily hindered by their unfavorable mechanical properties. Here, we summarize our recent advances in low-cost, robust multimaterial ChG IR fibers with broad transmission windows and low optical losses, based on our multimaterial fiber preforms produced by several fabrication methodologies. Hundreds of meters of fibers are thermally drawn in an ambient atmosphere with desired step-index structure from a macroscopic multimaterial preform that contains few grams of ChG. These simple and efficient processes overcome many of the traditional obstacles, and therefore enable rapid production in an industrial setting.

  15. Recent advances in SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    1998-08-28

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a medical imaging modality that combines conventional nuclear medicine imaging technique and methods of computed tomography (CT). From images that represent the biodistribution of the injected radiopharmaceutical in the patient, SPECT provides functional information that is unique. The first SPECT system was developed in the sixties. However, early progress of SPECT was hampered by the lack of adequate image reconstruction methods. The development of x-ray CT and image reconstruction methods in the seventies spurred a renewed interest in SPECT. In 1981, the first commercial SPECT system based on a single rotating camera was available for clinical use. Today, most modern SPECT systems consist of multiple cameras that rotate around the patients. They have better spatial resolution and higher detection efficiency as compared to the earlier single camera systems. Recently, a new generation of dual camera systems allowing for coincidence imaging of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals has emerged in the commercial market. Additionally, new quantitative image reconstruction methods are under development. They compensate for image degrading factors including attenuation, collimator-detector blurring and scatter. Also, they result in SPECT images with improved image quality and more accurately represent the three-dimensional radioactivity distribution in the patient. Such advances in radiopharmaceuticals, instrumentation, image reconstruction, compensation methods, and clinical applications have fueled a steady growth of SPECT as an important diagnostic tool in patient management.

  16. Materials for advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.W.; Broadhead, J.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements of battery systems are considered along with some recent studies of materials of importance in aqueous electrochemical energy-storage systems, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries, solid electrolytes, molten salt electrolytes in secondary batteries, the recharging of the lithium electrode in organic electrolytes, intercalation electrodes, and interface phenomena in advanced batteries. Attention is given to a lead-acid battery overview, the design and development of micro-reference electrodes for the lithium/metal-sulfide cell system, molten salt electrochemical studies and high energy density cell development, a selenium (IV) cathode in molten chloroaluminates, and the behavior of hard and soft ions in solid electrolytes. Other topics explored are related to the use of the proton conductor hydrogen uranyl phosphate tetrahydrate as the solid electrolyte in hydride-air batteries and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, the behavior of the passivating film in Li/SOCl2 cells under various conditions, and the analysis of surface insulating films in lithium nitride crystals.

  17. Advanced cement solidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kuribayashi, H.; Todo, F.

    1993-12-31

    In order to easily and economically store and transport radioactive waste generated at nuclear power stations, it is essential to reduce the waste volume to the maximum extent. It is also necessary to transform the waste into a stable form for final disposal which will maintain its chemical and physical stability over a long period of time. For this purpose, the Advanced Cement Solidification Process (AC-process) was developed. The AC-process, which utilizes portland cement, can be applied to several kinds of waste such as boric acid waste, laboratory drain waste, incineration ash and spent ion exchange resin. In this paper, the key point of the AC-process, the pretreatment concept for each waste, is described. The AC-process has been adopted for two Japanese PWR stations: the Genkai Nuclear Power Station (Kyushu Electric Power Co.) and the Ikata Nuclear Power Station (Shikoku Electric Power Co.). Construction work has almost finished and commissioning tests are under way at both power stations.

  18. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  19. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  20. [Advances in Molecular Cloning].

    PubMed

    Ashwini, M; Murugan, S B; Balamurugan, S; Sathishkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    "Molecular cloning" meaning creation of recombinant DNA molecules has impelled advancement throughout life sciences. DNA manipulation has become easy due to powerful tools showing exponential growth in applications and sophistication of recombinant DNA technology. Cloning genes has become simple what led to an explosion in the understanding of gene function by seamlessly stitching together multiple DNA fragments or by the use of swappable gene cassettes, maximizing swiftness and litheness. A novel archetype might materialize in the near future with synthetic biology techniques that will facilitate quicker assembly and iteration of DNA clones, accelerating the progress of gene therapy vectors, recombinant protein production processes and new vaccines by in vitro chemical synthesis of any in silico-specified DNA construct. The advent of innovative cloning techniques has opened the door to more refined applications such as identification and mapping of epigenetic modifications and high-throughput assembly of combinatorial libraries. In this review, we will examine the major breakthroughs in cloning techniques and their applications in various areas of biological research that have evolved mainly due to easy construction of novel expression systems. PMID:27028806

  1. Advanced software algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, K.; Dayton, S.

    1996-10-28

    Citibank was using a data collection system to create a one-time-only mailing history on prospective credit card customers that was becoming dated in its time to market requirements and as such was in need of performance improvements. To compound problems with their existing system, the assurance of the quality of the data matching process was manpower intensive and needed to be automated. Analysis, design, and prototyping capabilities involving information technology were areas of expertise provided by DOE-LMES Data Systems Research and Development (DSRD) program. The goal of this project was for Data Systems Research and Development (DSRD) to analyze the current Citibank credit card offering system and suggest and prototype technology improvements that would result in faster processing with quality as good as the current system. Technologies investigated include: a high-speed network of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processors for loosely coupled parallel processing, tightly coupled, high performance parallel processing, higher order computer languages such as `C`, fuzzy matching algorithms applied to very large data files, relational database management system, and advanced programming techniques.

  2. Advanced stitching technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardino, Frank L.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of textile composites, the selection of materials and constructional techniques must be matched with product performance, productivity, and cost requirements. Constructional techniques vary. A classification of various textile composite systems is given. In general, the chopped fiber system is not suitable for structural composite applications because of fiber discontinuity, uncontrolled fiber orientation and a lack of fiber integration or entanglement. Linear filament yarn systems are acceptable for structural components which are exposed to simple tension in their applications. To qualify for more general use as structural components, filament yarn systems must be multi-directionally positioned. With the most sophisticated filament winding and laying techniques, however, the Type 2 systems have limited potential for general load-bearing applications because of a lack of filament integration or entanglement, which means vulnerability to splitting and delamination among filament layers. The laminar systems (Type 3) represented by a variety of simple fabrics (woven, knitted, braided and nonwoven) are especially suitable for load-bearing panels in flat form and for beams in a roled up to wound form. The totally integrated, advanced fabric system (Type 4) are thought to be the most reliable for general load-bearing applications because of fiber continuity and because of controlled multiaxial fiber orientation and entanglement. Consequently, the risk of splitting and delamination is minimized and practically omitted. Type 4 systems can be woven, knitted, braided or stitched through with very special equipment. Multiaxial fabric technologies are discussed.

  3. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  5. Space station advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Donald

    1990-01-01

    In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

  6. Advanced Toroidal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a new magnetic confinement plasma device under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that will lead to improvements in toroidal magnetic fusion reactors. The ATF is a type of stellerator, known as a ''torsatron'' which theoretically has the capability to operate at greater than or equal to8% beta in steady state. The ATF plasma has a major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a field of 2 T for a 2 s duration or 1 T steady state. The ATF device consists of a helical field (HF) coil set, a set of poloidal field (PF) coils, an exterior shell structure to support the coils, and a thin, helically contoured vacuum vessel inside the coils. The ATF replaces the Impurities Studies Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B auxiliary systems including 4 MW of electron cyclotron heating. The ATF is scheduled to start operation in late 1986. An overview of the ATF device is presented, including details of the construction process envisioned. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John H.

    The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

  8. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  9. Advancing toward Shared Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Lisa; Thorn, Judi

    2007-01-01

    In May 2004, a group of 25 teachers at Jenks High School in Oklahoma received an invitation to the Summer 2004 Advance. Although many organizations hold retreats for their employees, the administrators wanted to send a different message: we're not retreating; we're advancing! Like many states, Oklahoma suffered a school budget crisis during the…

  10. Advancements in analyzing food quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial provides insight on investigations regarding advancement in the application of technology and it’s advancement to food quality. The discussion elaborates on the advantages of recent analytical technologies and techniques, along with their impact on food safety, characterization of its...

  11. Advance directives in family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Kohut, N.; Singer, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians can play an important role in helping patients and their families to discuss life-sustaining treatments and to complete advance directives. This article reviews the legal status of, and empirical studies on, advance directives and addresses some important clinical questions about their use relevant to family practice. PMID:8499789

  12. Advance directives and living wills.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, K.; Bowker, L.

    1998-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, living wills or advance directives may carry legal force in the UK. This paper traces the development of advance directives, clarifies their current legal position and discusses potential problems with their use. Case histories are used to illustrate some of the common dilemmas which doctors may face. PMID:9640440

  13. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  14. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy Resources, (5

  15. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  16. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  17. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

  18. Advancements in asphere manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric optics can pose as a challenge to the manufacturing community due to the surface shape and level of quality required. The aspheric surface may have inflection points that limit the usable tool size during manufacturing, or there may be a stringent tolerance on the slope for mid-spatial frequencies that may be problematic for sub-aperture finishing techniques to achieve. As aspheres become more commonplace in the optics community, requests for more complex aspheres have risen. OptiPro Systems has been developing technologies to create a robust aspheric manufacturing process. Contour deterministic microgrinding is performed on a Pro80 or eSX platform. These platforms utilize software and the latest advancements in machine motion to accurately contour the aspheric shape. Then the optics are finished using UltraForm Finishing (UFF), which is a sub-aperture polishing process. This process has the capability to adjust the diameter and compliance of the polishing lap to allow for finishing over a wide range of shapes and conditions. Finally, the aspheric surfaces are qualified using an OptiTrace contact profilometer, or an UltraSurf non-contact 3D surface scanner. The OptiTrace uses a stylus to scan across the surface of the part, and the UltraSurf utilizes several different optical pens to scan the surface and generate a topographical map of the surface under test. This presentation will focus on the challenges for asphere manufacturing, how OptiPro has implemented its technologies to combat these challenges, and provide surface data for analysis.

  19. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  20. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  1. [Advance medical directives].

    PubMed

    Sonnenblick, Moshe

    2002-02-01

    A patient's rights to autonomy and to participate in the decision making process is a fundamental ethical principle. However, for the non-competent patient, participation in decision-making is more problematic. A survey carried out in Israel found that less than half of the offspring of terminally ill elderly patients knew the request of their parents regarding life-supporting measures. A solution to this problem is the use of medical advance directives (MADs). In the U.S.A (in 1991) it was required by a federal law to inform every hospitalized patient of his right to use MADs. The experience from the use of MADs in the USA during the last 10 years show that: 1) Most lay persons as well as medical staff support the use of MADs 2) The rate of the use of MADs is about 20%, and among long term care hospitalized patients it is even higher. 3) Sex, age, level of education, morbidity and income were found to be significant factors. 4) Education on the use of the MADs raised the rate of use. 5) Most of the patients who had MADs did not discuss the issue of life supporting treatment with their physicians. 6) Patients who had MADs received less aggressive treatment with reduced medical cost. 7) There is a preference to write generic MADs. Arguments supporting the use of MADs state that they: extend patient autonomy; relieve patient anxiety regarding unwanted treatment; relieve physicians' anxiety concerning legal liability; reduce interfamily conflicts, and they also lower health care costs. Arguments opposing the use claim that they: violate sanctity of life; promote an adversarial physician-patient relationship; may lead to euthanasia; fail to express the patient's current wishes and may even counteract physicians' values. On the basis of experience in the USA and the positive attitude regarding MADs, it appears that MADs can also be applicable in Israel. PMID:11905092

  2. Chemotherapy advances in locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Georges, Peter; Rajagopalan, Kumar; Leon, Chady; Singh, Priya; Ahmad, Nadir; Nader, Kamyar; Kubicek, Gregory J

    2014-12-10

    The management of locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) continues to improve. One of the major advances in the treatment of HNSCC was the addition of chemotherapy to radiation in the treatment of non-surgical patients. The majority of the data regarding chemotherapy in HNSCC involve cisplatin chemotherapy with concurrent radiation. However, several new approaches have included targeted therapy against epidermal growth factor receptor and several recent studies have explored the role of induction chemotherapy in the treatment of HNSCC. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced HNSCC. PMID:25493232

  3. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  4. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  5. Advanced Process Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

    2005-03-07

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM

  6. Advanced Aerogel Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Aerogel Laboratory has made aerogels for NASA flight missions, e.g., Stardust, 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers and the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory, as well as NASA research projects for the past 14 years. During that time it has produced aerogels of a range of shapes, sizes, densities and compositions. Research is ongoing in the development of aerogels for future sample capture and return missions and for thermal insulation for both spacecraft and scientific instruments. For the past several years, the JPL Aerogel Laboratory has been developing, producing and testing a new composite material for use as the high temperature thermal insulation in the Advanced Sterling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) being developed by Lockheed Martin and NASA. The composite is made up of a glass fiber felt, silica aerogel, Titania powder, and silica powder. The oxide powders are included to reduce irradiative heat transport at elevated temperatures. These materials have thermal conductivity values that are the same as the best commercially produced high temperature insulation materials, and yet are 40% lighter. By greatly reducing the amount of oxide powder in the composite, the density, and therefore for the value of the thermal conductivity, would be reduced. The JPL Aerogel Laboratory has experimented with using glass fiber felt, expanded glass fiber felt and loose fibers to add structural integrity to silica aerogels. However, this work has been directed toward high temperature applications. By conducting a brief investigation of the optimal combination of fiber reinforcement and aerogel density, a durable, extremely efficient thermal insulation material for ambient temperature applications would be produced. If a transparent thermal insulation is desired, then aerogel is an excellent candidate material. At typical ambient temperatures, silica aerogel prevents the transport of heat via convection and conduction due to its highly porous nature. To prevent irradiative thermal

  7. ADVANCED STEAM GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Geo. A.; Casleton, Kent H.; Lewis, Robie E.; Rogers, William A.; Woike, Mark R.; Willis; Brian P.

    2001-11-06

    1480 K. A potential concern is the possibility of quenching non-equilibrium levels of CO or unburned fuel in the mixing process. Inadequate residence times in the combustor and/or slow kinetics could possibly result in unacceptably high emissions. Thus, the reheat combustor design must balance the need for minimal excess oxygen with the need to oxidize the CO. This paper will describe the progress made to date in the design, fabrication, and simulation of a reheat combustor for an advanced steam generator system, and discuss planned experimental testing to be conducted in conjunction with NASA Glenn Research Center-Plumb Brook Station.

  8. 28 CFR 104.22 - Advance Benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance Benefits. 104.22 Section 104.22... Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.22 Advance Benefits. (a) Advance Benefits. Eligible Claimants may apply for immediate “Advance Benefits” in a fixed amount as follows: (1) $50,000...

  9. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  10. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  11. Advances in surgery. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advancements made in surgery. Specifically discussed are--NMR imaging--its uses in diagnostic radiology; anal tumors and surgical therapy; aneurysms and theoretical aspects of NMR imaging.

  12. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  13. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10% to 30% more energy than conventional blades. 6 refs.

  14. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute`s (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10% to 30% more energy than conventional blades. 6 refs.

  15. Preparation for Advanced Nursing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frik, Seigina M.; Pollock, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    Lehman College's graduate nursing program uses theory-based courses to prepare advanced nurse practitioners. Students increase scholarly inquiry skills and clinical decision making; use of nursing conceptual models helped them plan and evaluate their practice. (SK)

  16. Advancement Planning: An Objectives View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druck, Kalman B.

    1986-01-01

    Planning must revolve around objectives related to students, faculty, money, and political support. When it is understood that all of the institution's advancement activity should help produce these four things, planning is easy. (MLW)

  17. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote overall industry

  18. SERI advanced wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J.; Smith, B.; Jager, D.

    1992-02-01

    The primary goal of the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) advanced wind turbine blades is to convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy in an inexpensive and efficient manner. To accomplish this goal, advanced wind turbine blades have been developed by SERI that utilize unique airfoil technology. Performance characteristics of the advanced blades were verified through atmospheric testing on fixed-pitch, stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Of the various wind turbine configurations, the stall-regulated HAWT dominates the market because of its simplicity and low cost. Results of the atmospheric tests show that the SERI advanced blades produce 10 percent to 30 percent more energy than conventional blades.

  19. Advanced extravehicular mobility unit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.

    1982-01-01

    Components of the advanced extravehicular mobility unit (suit) are described. Design considerations for radiation protection, extravehicular operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effector, anthropometric definition, lighting, and equipment turnaround are addressed.

  20. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  1. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  3. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  4. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  5. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  6. Visualizing MCNP Tally Segment Geometry and Coupling Results with ABAQUS

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Parry; J. A. Galbraith

    2007-11-01

    The Advanced Graphite Creep test, AGC-1, is planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. The experiment requires very detailed neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses to show compliance with programmatic and ATR safety requirements. The MCNP model used for the neutronics analysis required hundreds of tally regions to provide the desired detail. A method for visualizing the hundreds of tally region geometries and the tally region results in 3 dimensions has been created to support the AGC-1 irradiation. Additionally, a method was created which would allow ABAQUS to access the results directly for the thermal analysis of the AGC-1 experiment.

  7. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  8. Evolution paths for advanced automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healey, Kathleen J.

    1990-01-01

    As Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolves, increased automation and autonomy will be required to meet Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) objectives. As a precursor to the use of advanced automation within the SSFP, especially if it is to be used on SSF (e.g., to automate the operation of the flight systems), the underlying technologies will need to be elevated to a high level of readiness to ensure safe and effective operations. Ground facilities supporting the development of these flight systems -- from research and development laboratories through formal hardware and software development environments -- will be responsible for achieving these levels of technology readiness. These facilities will need to evolve support the general evolution of the SSFP. This evolution will include support for increasing the use of advanced automation. The SSF Advanced Development Program has funded a study to define evolution paths for advanced automaton within the SSFP's ground-based facilities which will enable, promote, and accelerate the appropriate use of advanced automation on-board SSF. The current capability of the test beds and facilities, such as the Software Support Environment, with regard to advanced automation, has been assessed and their desired evolutionary capabilities have been defined. Plans and guidelines for achieving this necessary capability have been constructed. The approach taken has combined indepth interviews of test beds personnel at all SSF Work Package centers with awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technology and technology insertion methodologies. Key recommendations from the study include advocating a NASA-wide task force for advanced automation, and the creation of software prototype transition environments to facilitate the incorporation of advanced automation in the SSFP.

  9. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  10. Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the publication includes papers entitled: (1) Coupled growth in hypermonotectics; (2) Directional solidification of refined Al-4 wt.% Cu alloys; (3) Effects of convection on interface curvature during growth of concentrated ternary compounds; (4) Directional solidification of Al-1.5 wt.% Ni alloys; (5) Interactive response of advancing phase boundaries to particles; (6) INTeractive Response of Advancing Phase boundaries to Particles-INTRAPP; and (7) Particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces.

  11. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  12. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  13. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  14. Improving Advanced High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spital, Robin David

    2003-04-01

    A National Research Council study committee recently commissioned a "Physics Panel" to evaluate and make recommendations for improving advanced physics education in American high schools [1]. The Physics Panel recommends the creation of a nationally standardized Newtonian Mechanics Unit that would form the foundation of all advanced physics programs. In a one-year program, the Panel recommends that advanced physics students study at most one other major area of physics, so that sufficient time is available to develop the deep conceptual understanding that is the primary goal of advanced study. The Panel emphasizes that final assessments must be improved to focus on depth of understanding, rather than technical problem-solving skill. The Physics Panel strongly endorses the inclusion of meaningful real-world experiences in advanced physics programs, but believes that traditional "cook-book" laboratory exercises are not worth the enormous amount of time and effort spent on them. The Physics Panel believes that the talent and preparation of teachers are the most important ingredients in effective physics instruction; it therefore calls for a concerted effort by all parts of the physics community to remedy the desperate shortage of highly qualified teachers. [1] Jerry P. Gollub and Robin Spital, "Advanced Physics in the High Schools", Physics Today, May 2002.

  15. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Roger

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of

  16. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776

  17. Dementia, death and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This article considers the ethics of advance directives, especially in relation to conditions such as dementia. For some choices, such as over whether one's life should end at home or in a hospice, advance directives can be very enlightened and helpful. For others, such as those to end the life of an autonomous subject, against their will, have no moral appeal and would rightly be ignored. In a wide range of intermediate cases, given our typical lack of insight into how changes in our health condition will affect us in other ways, we should be very cautious indeed in promoting the use of advance directives in end-of-life decisions, at least where a reasonable quality of life remains. There may be some reasons for giving priority to the earlier autonomous self over a later, contented but non-autonomous self, but these reasons seem far from compelling. PMID:23079306

  18. Advanced Launch Development Program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgrove, Roger

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System is a joint NASA - Air Force program originally directed to define the concept for a modular family of launch vehicles, to continue development programs and preliminary design activities focused primarily on low cost to orbit, and to offer maturing technologies to existing systems. The program was restructed in the spring of 1990 as a result of funding reductions and renamed the Advanced Launch Development Program. This paper addresses the program's status following that restructuring and as NASA and the Air Force commence a period of deliberation over future space launch needs and the budgetary resources available to meet those needs. The program is currently poised to protect a full-scale development decision in the mid-1990's through the appropriate application of program resources. These resources are concentrated upon maintaining the phase II system contractor teams, continuing the Space Transportation Engine development activity, and refocusing the Advanced Development Program demonstrated activities.

  19. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  20. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccardi, D. P.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust. Contract work began 27 Apr. 1990. During 1992, a major milestone was achieved with the review of the final design of the oxidizer turbopump in Sep. 1992.

  1. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  2. Creating advanced health informatics certification.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Cynthia S; Williamson, Jeffrey J; Steen, Elaine B; Fridsma, Douglas B

    2016-07-01

    In 2005, AMIA leaders and members concluded that certification of advanced health informatics professionals would offer value to individual practitioners, organizations that hire them, and society at large. AMIA's work to create advanced informatics certification began by leading a successful effort to create the clinical informatics subspecialty for American Board of Medical Specialties board-certified physicians. Since 2012, AMIA has been working to establish advanced health informatics certification (AHIC) for all health informatics practitioners regardless of their primary discipline. In November 2015, AMIA completed the first of 3 key tasks required to establish AHIC, with the AMIA Board of Directors' endorsement of proposed eligibility requirements. This AMIA Board white paper describes efforts to establish AHIC, reports on the current status of AHIC components, and provides a context for the proposed AHIC eligibility requirements. PMID:27358327

  3. ISAAC Advanced Composites Research Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication capability to support the Center's advanced research and technology mission. The system introduced in this paper is named ISAAC (Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites). The initial operational capability of ISAAC is automated fiber placement, built around a commercial system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a purpose-built fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of the advanced materials, structures, structural concepts, fabrication processes and technology development that may be enabled using the ISAAC system. The fiber placement end effector may be used directly or with appropriate modifications for these studies, or other end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  4. Plans for Advanced LIGO Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    The proposed Advanced LIGO detector will have an increase in sensitivity over initial LIGO by a factor of ten, with an increased bandwidth in the region of highest sensitivity and the ability to tune for specific astrophysical sources. Advanced LIGO will achieve the equivalent of the one-year integrated observation time of initial LIGO in just several hours, allowing observation of astrophysical gravitational waves on a regular basis. The Advanced LIGO detector will replace the existing detector at the LIGO Observatories while retaining the existing building and vacuum system infrastructure. The new instruments build on the initial LIGO Fabry-Perot Michelson Interferometer layout and take advantage of significant advances in technology since the design of initial LIGO in the 1990's. Signal strength/sensitivity will be improved by increasing the laser power, lowering optical absorption, and adding signal recycling to the Fabry-Perot arm cavities. Stray forces on the test masses will be controlled by reducing thermal noise sources in the suspensions and optics and using a multi-staged seismic isolation system with inertial sensing and feedback control. The LIGO laboratory, the LIGO Science Collaboration, and international partners have undertaken a structured program of research and development, including testing of full-scale prototypes in context. Significant progress has been made on several of the detector subsystems. The Advanced LIGO project has been through National Science Foundation peer review and the National Science Board has recommended it for funding. Based on a proposed funding start in 2007, detector installation will begin in 2010, with observations at an advanced level of commissioning in 2013.

  5. Russian: Advanced Course. Advanced Grammar, Lessons 1-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume of an advanced Russian course designed by the Defense Language Institute seeks to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of the structural features of Russian and an enlarged vocabulary. The learning accomplished orally in class is reinforced in written exercises at home. Instructional materials concentrate on morphology, syntax, and…

  6. Advancing Educational Policy by Advancing Research on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the impact of "instructional regimes" on student learning is central to advancing educational policy. Research on instructional regimes has parallels with clinical trials in medicine yet poses unique challenges because of the social nature of instruction: A child's potential outcome under a given regime depends on peers and teachers,…

  7. Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.

  8. All Students Need Advanced Mathematics. Math Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…

  9. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  10. Handheld advanced nucleic acid analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Bodtker, Brian H.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Koopman, Ronald P.; Belgrader, Philip

    2000-12-01

    There is a growing need for portable, lightweight, battery operated instruments capable of detecting and identifying bio-warfare and bio-terrorism agents in the field. To address this need, we have developed a handheld PCR instrument. LLNLs advanced thermal cycling technology and expertise with portable, field tested biological instrumentation, combined with the development of real-time, fluorescence based PCR assays, has enabled the development of a very portable, versatile, power efficient PCR instrument with a simplified operating system designed for use by first responders. The heart of the instrument is the sample module, which incorporates the advanced silicon thermal cycler developed at LLNL.

  11. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  12. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The proof of concept, feasibility, and verification of the advanced prop fan and of the integrated advanced prop fan aircraft are established. The use of existing hardware is compatible with having a successfully expedited testbed ready for flight. A prop fan testbed aircraft is definitely feasible and necessary for verification of prop fan/prop fan aircraft integrity. The Allison T701 is most suitable as a propulsor and modification of existing engine and propeller controls are adequate for the testbed. The airframer is considered the logical overall systems integrator of the testbed program.

  13. The Advanced Expander Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Arthur I.; Tabata, William K.

    1990-01-01

    The principal goals and design concepts of the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) program are briefly reviewed. The AETB is planned as the focal point for the development and demonstration of high-performance oxygen/hydrogen engine technology and advanced component technology for the next space engine. The engine will operate at pressures up to 1200 psia over a wide range of conditions, easily accommodating mission-focused components. The discussion covers design requirements, design approach, conceptual design, the AETB cycle, and the AETB control system.

  14. Turbine pyrometry for advanced engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1987-06-01

    The turbine pyrometry requirements for advanced engine designs are examined. The practical use of current optical pyrometer systems is limited to situations where the reflected radiation comprises not more than 50 percent of the total signal. Alternative approaches, including techniques known as 'Advanced Dual Spectral Area Pyrometer', 'Active Pyrometry', passive synchronous detection pyrometry, and techniques that use thermographic phosphors, are discussed. It is suggested that the methods that use thermographic phosphors at low temperatures can be extended to high temperatures and gas turbine engine environment and can be adapted to the vane scanning pyrometer application.

  15. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  16. Frailty in Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Emer

    2016-07-01

    Frailty is defined as a biological syndrome reflecting impaired physiologic reserve and heightened vulnerability to stressors. The evolving profile of heart failure (HF), increased survival of aging patients with complex comorbidities in parallel with the growing population undergoing mechanical circulatory support as lifetime therapy, means that advanced HF specialists are becoming aware of the burden of frailty and its downstream consequences on postintervention outcomes in these patients. The limited data available to date suggest that frailty is highly prevalent in patients with advanced HF and appears to provide prognostic information not captured by traditional risk assessment. PMID:27371513

  17. Palliative care in advanced dementia.

    PubMed

    Merel, Susan E; Merel, Susan; DeMers, Shaune; Vig, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Because neurodegenerative dementias are progressive and ultimately fatal, a palliative approach focusing on comfort, quality of life, and family support can have benefits for patients, families, and the health system. Elements of a palliative approach include discussion of prognosis and goals of care, completion of advance directives, and a thoughtful approach to common complications of advanced dementia. Physicians caring for patients with dementia should formulate a plan for end-of-life care in partnership with patients, families, and caregivers, and be prepared to manage common symptoms at the end of life in dementia, including pain and delirium. PMID:25037291

  18. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  19. Advanced ATC - An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Williams, D. H.; Howell, W. E.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. This paper describes efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  20. Advances in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Darge, Alicia; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Germano, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common and costly medical problem.1–3 Given the disappointing efficacy and side effects associated with pharmacological therapy for AF, new treatment options are needed. Over the last decade, advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of AF, coupled with iterative improvements in catheter ablation techniques, have spurred the evolution of catheter ablation for AF from an experimental procedure to an increasingly important treatment option.4 This paper will review recent advances in the approaches and outcomes of AF ablation. PMID:19411729

  1. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  2. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  3. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  4. Advanced defect and metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Cost, weight, performance, and lifetime requirements for precision components used throughout the aerospace and defense industries are driving innovative mechanical designs, manufacturing processes and use of new materials. In turn, these advanced components typically require tighter dimensional and surface tolerances to function as designed. Scratch testers, microscope-based systems, and other traditional metrology systems are inadequate for roughness, small-scale geometry, and defect determination on many of these parts. This talk will examine the advantages and disadvantages of some of the new technologies developed to provide more robust, versatile, and sensitive measurements of precision components for advanced manufacturing environments.

  5. Management of advanced corneal ectasias.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Dubey, Aditi; Jhanji, Vishal; Sharma, Namrata; Das, Sujata; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-01-01

    Corneal ectasias include a group of disorders characterised by progressive thinning, bulging and distortion of the cornea. Keratoconus is the most common disease in this group. Other manifestations include pellucid marginal degeneration, Terrien's marginal degeneration, keratoglobus and ectasias following surgery. Advanced ectasias usually present with loss of vision due to high irregular astigmatism. Management of these disorders is difficult due to the peripheral location of ectasia and associated severe corneal thinning. Newer contact lenses such as scleral lenses are helpful in a selected group of patients. A majority of these cases requires surgical intervention. This review provides an update on the current treatment modalities available for management of advanced corneal ectasias. PMID:26294106

  6. Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G

    2008-04-01

    This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories. PMID:18378823

  7. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  8. Advances in lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, D.W.; Owens, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in lattice gauge theory. Topics covered include fermion Monte Carlo algorithms, portrait of a proton, critical behavior in QCD, the standard Higgs-model on the lattice, analytic calculation of mass gaps, and simulation of discrete Euclidean quantum gravity.

  9. Using Steffe's Advanced Fraction Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Andrea V.; Norton, Anderson H.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing schemes, which are different from strategies, can help teachers understand their students' thinking about fractions. Using Steffe's advanced fraction schemes, the authors describe a progression of development that upper elementary and middle school students might follow in understanding fractions. Each scheme can be viewed as a…

  10. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  11. Advanced Placement: Access Not Exclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne; Dorans, Neil J.; Morgan, Rick; Myford, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the assertion by W. Lichten (2000) that increased access to advanced placement (AP) courses in high school has led to a decline in AP quality. Suggests that increased access exposes students to college-level course material, encourages teachers to expand their knowledge domains, increases curriculum rigor, and give students new challenges.…

  12. Advances in Teacher Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere E.

    2010-01-01

    Classroom research on process-outcome relationships had burgeoned in recent years, revealing notable methodological advances and sensible, replicated findings. The studies of the early 1970s supporting direct instruction as particularly effective for producing achievement in basic skills in the early grades have been replicated and extended to…

  13. Neuroinflammation in advanced canine glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing; Harper, Matthew M.; Kecova, Helga; Adamus, Grazyna; Kardon, Randy H.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The pathophysiological events that occur in advanced glaucoma are not well characterized. The principal purpose of this study is to characterize the gene expression changes that occur in advanced glaucoma. Methods Retinal RNA was obtained from canine eyes with advanced glaucoma as well as from healthy eyes. Global gene expression patterns were determined using oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed by real-time PCR. The presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors was evaluated by immunolabeling. Finally, we evaluated the presence of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal epitopes using western blot analyses. Results We identified over 500 genes with statistically significant changes in expression level in the glaucomatous retina. Decreased expression levels were detected for large number of functional groups, including synapse and synaptic transmission, cell adhesion, and calcium metabolism. Many of the molecules with decreased expression levels have been previously shown to be components of retinal ganglion cells. Genes with elevated expression in glaucoma are largely associated with inflammation, such as antigen presentation, protein degradation, and innate immunity. In contrast, expression of many other pro-inflammatory genes, such as interferons or interleukins, was not detected at abnormal levels. Conclusions This study characterizes the molecular events that occur in the canine retina with advanced glaucoma. Our data suggest that in the dog this stage of the disease is accompanied by pronounced retinal neuroinflammation. PMID:21042562

  14. Advanced Technology for Engineering Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Technology for Engineering Education, held at the Peninsula Graduate Engineering Center, Hampton, Virginia, February 24-25, 1998. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced technologies for engineering education and to explore the possibility of forming a consortium of interested individuals/universities for curriculum reform and development using advanced technologies. The presentations covered novel delivery systems and several implementations of new technologies for engineering education. Certain materials and products are identified in this publication in order to specify adequately the materials and products that were investigated in the research effort. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement of products by NASA, nor does it imply that the materials and products are the only ones or the best ones available for this purpose. In many cases equivalent materials and products are available and would probably produce equivalent results.

  15. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  16. Turnover in the Advancement Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarrobino, Jon D.

    2006-01-01

    Recruitment and retention is an area with which most organizations are concerned. Excessive turnover has exorbitant costs and wastes valuable time. Institutions of higher education are no exception. One of the most vital operations in nonprofit colleges and universities is its Office of Institutional Advancement. More and more, an institution of…

  17. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  18. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  19. Advanced Placement Course Description. Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program is a cooperative educational effort of secondary schools, colleges, and the College Board that consists of 30 college-level courses and examinations in 17 academic disciplines for highly motivated students in secondary schools. AP courses are offered in more than 11,000 high schools and are recognized by nearly…

  20. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.