Science.gov

Sample records for advanced generation iv

  1. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delage, F.; Carmack, J.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Pelletier, M.; Somers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  3. Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Zr Alloys for High Burnup and Generation IV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Motta; Yong Hwan Jeong; R.J. Comstock; G.S. Was; Y.S. Kim

    2006-10-31

    The objective of this collaboration between four institutions in the US and Korea is to demonstrate a technical basis for the improvement of the corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys in more extreme operating environments (such as those present in severe fuel duty,cycles (high burnup, boiling, aggressive chemistry) andto investigate the feasibility (from the point of view of corrosion rate) of using advanced zirconium-based alloys in a supercritical water environment.

  4. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  5. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  6. The Advanced Helical Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-10-26

    A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.

  7. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  8. From NDE to Prognostics: A Revolution in Asset Management for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-06-01

    For Generation IV nuclear power plants (NPP) to achieve operational goals it is necessary to adopt new on-line monitoring and prognostic methodologies, giving operators better plant situational awareness and reliable predictions of remaining service life. Such techniques can improve plant economics, reduce unplanned outages, improve safety and provide probabilistic risk assessments. This paper reviews the state of the art and the potential impact from monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics on advanced NPP, with a focus on the needs of Generation IV systems.

  9. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    To meet future energy needs, ten countries--Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States--have agreed on a framework for international cooperation in research for an advanced generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation IV. These ten countries have joined together to form the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide competitively priced and reliable energy products while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation, and public perception concerns. The objective for Generation IV nuclear energy systems is to be available for international deployment before the year 2030, when many of the world's currently operating nuclear power plants will be at or near the end of their operating licenses.

  10. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  12. Second generation PFB for advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J.

    1995-11-01

    Research is being conducted under a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) contract to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant-called an advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plant-offers the promise of 45-percent efficiency (HHV), with emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant. Although pilot plant testing is still underway, preliminary estimates indicate the commercial plant Will perform better than originally envisioned. Efficiencies greater than 46 percent are now being predicted.

  13. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  14. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Halsey, William; Hayner, George; Katoh, Yutai; Klett, James William; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Stoller, Roger E; Wilson, Dane F

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  15. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-10-06

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

  17. Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-10-13

    This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.

  18. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  19. Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vincent; Wong, Albert; Kim, Kilyoo; Dhir, Vijay

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than unity. Such nozzle and the MHD power generator replace the turbogenerator of a high temperature Rankine turboelectric cycle concept. As a result, the power generation system contains no movable parts. This provides high reliability, which is a very important factor in space application.

  20. Advanced piggyback water power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, B.R.

    1988-02-16

    A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

  1. Optical Harmonic Generation from Interfaces with Group IV Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, David John

    Nonlinear optical techniques have been used to investigate the symmetry properties of interfaces between media comprising at least one Group IV semiconductor. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) have been performed for s and p polarization states of the fundamental and harmonic beams as a function of sample azimuthal angle at a fixed fundamental wavelength of 775 nm. In addition to these experimental measurements, the thesis contains theoretical calculations of the optical harmonic response from such media with vicinal surfaces, that is surfaces miscut from a low-index face by {<}{~}10^ circ. The phenomenological theory of Sipe, Moss and van Driel (Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129 (1987)) for SHG and THG in reflection from the low-index faces of cubic centrosymmetric media has been extended to all faces of both cubic centrosymmetric and cubic noncentrosymmetric media. This theory is applied in many parts of the thesis to interpreting the symmetry information present in nonlinear optical data. Experimentally, measurements of SHG and THG from vicinal semiconductor wafers have been performed, and using the above theory the wafer orientations have been obtained to within +/-0.1^circ . In addition, the above theory has been applied to achieve an approximate separation of bulk and surface contributions to SHG measurements from vincinal Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces which Sipe et al. showed is not possible on the low-index faces. The SiO_2/Si interface on vicinal Si(001) has been studied with SHG, and evidence has been obtained for the presence of noncentrosymmetric phases of c-SiO_2 at this interface whose relative concentrations are influenced by the oxidation conditions. For oxidation temperatures below 600 ^circC, the SHG data is shown to be consistent with the presence of tridymite at the buried interface, whereas for oxidation at 900^ circC the SHG data is consistent with the presence of cristobalite. Finally, SHG has been measured from odd

  2. Hybrid mesh generation using advancing reduction technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents an extension of the application of the advancing reduction technique to the hybrid mesh generation. The proposed algorithm is based on a pre-generated rectangle mesh (RM) with a certain orientation. The intersection points between the two sets of perpendicular mesh lines in RM an...

  3. A Project Management and Systems Engineering Structure for a Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Gorski; Dennis Harrell; Finis Southworth

    2004-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) will be an advanced, very high temperature (approximately 1000o C. coolant outlet temperature), gas cooled nuclear reactor and is the nearest term of six Generation IV reactor technologies for nuclear assisted hydrogen production. In 2001, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), a ten nation international forum working together with the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC), agreed to proceed with the development of a technology roadmap and identified the next generation of nuclear reactor systems for producing new sources of power. Since a new reactor has not been licensed in the United States since the 1970s, the risks are too large for a single utility to assume in the development of an unprecedented Generation IV reactor. The government must sponsor and invest in the research to resolve major first of a kind (FOAK) issues through a full-scale demonstration prior to industry implementation. DOE’s primary mission for the VHTR is to demonstrate nuclear reactor assisted cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen while meeting the Generation IV goals for safety, sustainability, proliferation resistance and physical security and economics. The successful deployment of the VHTR as a demonstration project will aid in restarting the now atrophied U.S. nuclear power industry infrastructure. It is envisioned that VHTR project participants will include DOE Laboratories, industry partners such as designers, constructors, manufacturers, utilities, and Generation IV international countries. To effectively mange R&D, engineering, procurement, construction, and operation for this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. Although the VHTR is an unprecedented FOAK system, the R&D, when assessed using the Office of Science and Technology Gate Model, falls primarily in the 3rd - Exploratory

  4. Technology advancement of an oxygen generation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. K.; Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An oxygen generation subsystem based on water electrolysis was developed and tested to further advance the concept and technology of the spacecraft air revitalization system. Emphasis was placed on demonstrating the subsystem integration concept and hardware maturity at a subsystem level. The integration concept of the air revitalization system was found to be feasible. Hardware and technology of the oxygen generation subsystem was demonstrated to be close to the preprototype level. Continued development of the oxygen generation technology is recommended to further reduce the total weight penalties of the oxygen generation subsystem through optimization.

  5. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Sevilla Torres, Galo A.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-06-01

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective.

  6. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  7. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  8. Advanced clinical interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: prevalence of low scores varies by level of intelligence and years of education.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Holdnack, James A; Iverson, Grant L

    2011-06-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Results indicated that healthy people obtain some low scores on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV, with prevalence rates increasing with fewer years of education and lower predicted intelligence. When applying the base rates information to the clinical sample, the TBI patients were 13 times more likely to be identified as having a low cognitive profile compared with the controls. Using the base rates information is a psychometrically advanced method for establishing criteria to determine low cognitive abilities on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

  9. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  10. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry; Hunag, C.-K.; Cheng, S.; Chi, S. C.; Gogna, P.; Paik, J.; Ravi, V.; Firdosy, S.; Ewell, R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress and processes involved in creating new and advanced thermoelectric materials to be used in the design of new radioiootope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). In a program with Department of Energy, NASA is working to develop the next generation of RTGs, that will provide significant benefits for deep space missions that NASA will perform. These RTG's are planned to be capable of delivering up to 17% system efficiency and over 12 W/kg specific power. The thermoelectric materials being developed are an important step in this process.

  11. A Synthetic High-Spin Oxoiron(IV) Complex: Generation, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.; Martinho, M; Farquhar, E; Frisch, J; Bominaar, E; Munck, E; Que, L

    2009-01-01

    The high-yield generation of a synthetic high-spin oxoiron(IV) complex, (Fe{sup IV}(O)(TMG{sub 3}tren)){sup 2+} (TMG{sub 3}tren = 1,1,1-tris{l_brace}2-(N2-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidino))ethyl{r_brace}amine), has been achieved by using the very bulky tetradentate TMG{sub 3}tren ligand, in order to both sterically protect the oxoiron(IV) moiety and enforce a trigonal bipyramidal geometry at the iron center, for which an S=2 ground state is favored.

  12. Benchmark Development in Support of Generation-IV Reactor Validation (IRPhEP 2010 Handbook)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs

    2010-06-01

    The March 2010 edition of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) Handbook includes additional benchmark data that can be implemented in the validation of data and methods for Generation IV (GEN-IV) reactor designs. Evaluations supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) efforts include the initial isothermal tests of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site, the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) 10B and 10C experiments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the burn-up reactivity coefficient of Japan’s JOYO reactor. An assessment of Russia’s BFS-61 assemblies at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) provides additional information for lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) systems. Benchmarks in support of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) project include evaluations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland and the start-up core physics tests of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. The critical configuration of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the INL which used ternary ceramic fuel, U(18)O2-CaO-ZrO2, is of interest for fuel cycle research and development (FCR&D) and has some similarities to “inert-matrix” fuels that are of interest in GEN-IV advanced reactor design. Two additional evaluations were revised to include additional evaluated experimental data, in support of light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (HWR) research; these include reactor physics experiments at Brazil’s IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor Facility and the French High Flux Reactor (RHF), respectively. The IRPhEP Handbook now includes data from 45 experimental series (representing 24 reactor facilities) and represents contributions from 15 countries. These experimental measurements represent large investments of infrastructure, experience, and cost that have been evaluated and preserved as benchmarks for the validation of methods and collection of

  13. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Katoh, Yutai; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Wilson, Dane F

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural

  14. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  15. ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2002-01-31

    Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic candles for use in the APF

  16. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans David

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  17. The Generation in Between: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick M; Bliss, Erika; Dunn, Aaron; Edgoose, Jennifer; Elliott, Tricia C; Maxwell, Lisa C; Morris, Carl G; Phillips, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Keystone IV affirmed the value of relationships in family medicine, but each generation of family physicians took away different impressions and lessons. "Generation III," between the Baby Boomers and Millennials, reported conflict between their professional ideal of family medicine and the realities of current practice. But the Keystone conference also helped them appreciate core values of family medicine, their shared experience, and new opportunities for leadership.

  18. Advanced staged combustion system for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Goyal, A.

    1993-12-31

    To respond to the increasing market need for a new generation of plants with a substantial improvement in efficiency and a reduction in capital cost, the Institute of Gas Technology has developed an advanced staged, fluidized-bed combustion system concept. The staged fluidized-bed partial combustor produces the fuel gas at about 1500 F. The fuel gas, after particulate removal, is directed to a gas turbine followed by a steam cycle. Adequate sulfur capture and solids waste stabilization are attained by separating calcination, carbonization, and gasification/combustion steps in the staged fluidized beds. Intermediate gas cooling is avoided during the process to maximize the power production. The coal-to-electricity conversion efficiency of the system approaches 49 percent, which exceeds the efficiencies of the other emerging technologies.

  19. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  20. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  1. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Tom; Johnson, Jimmie; Robertson, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. The United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport. Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). AVGS has a proven pedigree, based on extensive ground testing and flight demonstrations. The AVGS on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART)mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km. The first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS. units, and the next generation sensor must be updated to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor is being redesigned to update parts and add additional. capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next, Generation AVGS (NGAVGS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities might include greater sensor range, auto ranging, and real-time video output. This paper presents an approach to sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It will also discuss approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, parts selection and test plans for the NGAVGS will be addressed to provide a highly reliable flight qualified sensor. Expanded capabilities through innovative use of existing capabilities will also be

  2. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  3. Generation IV reactors and the ASTRID prototype: Lessons from the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauché, François

    2012-05-01

    In France, the ASTRID prototype is a sodium-cooled fast neutron industrial demonstrator, fulfilling the criteria for Generation IV reactors. ASTRID will meet safety requirements as stringent as for 3rd generation reactors, and take into account lessons from the Fukushima accident. The objectives are to reinforce the robustness of the safety demonstration for all safety functions. ASTRID will feature an innovative core with a negative sodium void coefficient, take advantage of the large thermal inertia of SFRs for decay heat removal, and provide for a design either eliminating the sodium-water reaction, or guaranteeing no consequences for safety in case such reaction would take place.

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  5. High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) and Converter Advancement (CAP) programs. Final reports

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, C.B.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R.; Desplat, J.L.; Hansen, L.K.; Hatch, G.L.; McVey, J.B.; Rasor, N.S.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains the final report of the High Efficiency Thermionics (HET-IV) Program, Attachment A, performed at Rasor Associates, Inc. (RAI); and the final report of the Converter Advancement Program (CAP), performed at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Attachment B. The phenomenology of cesium-oxygen thermionic converters was elucidated in these programs, and the factors that had prevented the achievement of stable, enhanced cesium-oxygen converter performance for the previous thirty years were identified. Based on these discoveries, cesium-oxygen vapor sources were developed that achieved stable performance with factor-of-two improvements in power density and thermal efficiency, relative to conventional, cesium-only ignited mode thermionic converters. Key achievements of the HET-IV/CAP programs are as follows: a new technique for measuring minute traces of oxygen in cesium atmospheres; the determination of the proper range of oxygen partial pressures for optimum converter performance--10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}9} torr; the discovery, and analysis of the cesium-oxygen liquid migration and compositional segregation phenomena; the successful use of capillary forces to contain the migration phenomenon; the use of differential heating to control compositional segregation, and induce vapor circulation; the development of mechanically and chemically stable, porous reservoir structures; the development of precise, in situ oxygen charging methods; stable improvements in emitter performance, up to effective emitter bare work functions of 5.4 eV; stable improvements in barrier index, to value below 1.8 Volts; the development of detailed microscopic models for cesium-oxygen reservoir dynamics and collector work function behavior; and the discovery of new relationships between electrode geometry and Schock Instability.

  6. Recent advances in RF power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the progress and methods used in RF generation for particle accelerators. The frequencies of interest are from a few megahertz to 100 GHz, and the powers are for super linear collider applications, but in this case the pulses are short, generally below 1 {mu}s. The very high-power, short-pulse generators are only lightly reviewed here, and for more details the reader should follow the specialized references. Different RF generators excel over various parts of the frequency spectrum. Below 100 MHz solid-state devices and gridded tubes prevail, while the region between 400 MHz and 3 GHz, the cyclotron-resonant devices predominate, and above 250 GHz, Free-Electron Lasers and ubitrons are the most powerful generators. The emphasis for this review is on microwave generation at frequencies below 20 GHz, so the cyclotron-resonant devices are only partially reviewed, while the progress on free-electron laser and ubitrons is not reviewed in this paper. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  8. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  9. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  10. Advancing-layers method for generation of unstructured viscous grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach for generating highly stretched grids which is based on a modified advancing-front technique and benefits from the generality, flexibility, and grid quality of the conventional advancing-front-based Euler grid generators is presented. The method is self-sufficient for the insertion of grid points in the boundary layer and beyond. Since it is based on a totally unstructured grid strategy, the method alleviates the difficulties stemming from the structural limitations of the prismatic techniques.

  11. Mangostanaxanthones III and IV: advanced glycation end-product inhibitors from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with a non-enzymatic reaction between the amino group of a protein and the carbonyl group of a sugar during hyperglycemia. The precipitation of AGEs in different tissues leads to many complications, such as endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and Alzheimer's disease. Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) (GM) was selected owing to the ability of its polar and non-polar fractions to inhibit AGE formation. For the first time, the bioguided fractionation of its pericarp MeOH extract (GMT) gave rise to two new xanthones, namely, mangostanaxanthones III (1) and IV (3), in addition to six known compounds, β-mangostin (2), garcinone E (4), rubraxanthone (5), α-mangostin (6), garcinone C (7), and 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (8), from the non-polar faction. Their structures were verified by various spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR studies and high-resolution MS data. All of the isolated xanthones significantly inhibited both sugar (ribose) and dicarbonyl compound (methylglyoxal)-induced protein glycation in a dose-dependent manner. This is explained by the ability of the isolated xanthones to inhibit protein oxidation, as indicated by the decreases in dityrosine and N'-formylkynurenine formation.

  12. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  13. Advanced Singlet Oxygen Generator for a Coil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    19) where n is the molar flow rate, Pgen is the generator pressure, and NA is the Avogadro constant . The values of UCl, evaluated for given...Cl2 on BHP surface γCl = 0.0075 Sticking probability of O2( 1∆g) on BHP surface γ∆ = 0.003 Henry constant of chlorine HCl2 = 1 Henry... constant of oxygen HO2 = 20 Rate constant of reaction (3) K3 = 5 x 10 8 m3 kmol-1 s-1 Lifetime of O2( 1∆g) in liquid t ? = 2 x 10 -6 s

  14. Advanced spray generator of singlet oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalek, Otomar; Hrubý, Jan; Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena

    2007-05-01

    A spray type singlet oxygen generator (SOG) for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied. Mathematical modeling has shown that a high O II(1Δ) yield can be attained with BHP (basic hydrogen peroxide) spray in the Cl II-He atmosphere. It was found experimentally that O II(1Δ) was produced with a >=50% yield at a total pressure up to 50 kPa (375 Torr). A rotating separator was developed that can segregate even very small droplets (>=0.5 μm) from O II(1Δ) flow.

  15. Unstructured viscous grid generation by advancing-front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A new method of generating unstructured triangular/tetrahedral grids with high-aspect-ratio cells is proposed. The method is based on new grid-marching strategy referred to as 'advancing-layers' for construction of highly stretched cells in the boundary layer and the conventional advancing-front technique for generation of regular, equilateral cells in the inviscid-flow region. Unlike the existing semi-structured viscous grid generation techniques, the new procedure relies on a totally unstructured advancing-front grid strategy resulting in a substantially enhanced grid flexibility and efficiency. The method is conceptually simple but powerful, capable of producing high quality viscous grids for complex configurations with ease. A number of two-dimensional, triangular grids are presented to demonstrate the methodology. The basic elements of the method, however, have been primarily designed with three-dimensional problems in mind, making it extendible for tetrahedral, viscous grid generation.

  16. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  17. Prospect of advanced generation technologies in a competitive market place

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, M.; Singh, A.

    1999-07-01

    The US Electric utility industry is undergoing tremendous changes for meeting the challenge of deregulation and customer demands for a free competitive market. Two major forces are driving this market: the deregulation of the industry and customer demands for achieving the lowest cost for electricity, forcing utility companies to position themselves as the low-cost producers. This paper will briefly discuss the status of various advanced generation technologies with respect to their costs, applicability and limitations, where these technologies are expected to be cost-effective and how they compare with the combined cycle plants. Advanced generation technologies may benefit as the environment regulations are tightened. This paper will examine how, when and where the advanced generation technologies would play a role in penetrating the market on their own merits.

  18. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  19. Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

  20. Advanced Quality of Service Management for Next Generation Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS ADVANCED QUALITY OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT FOR NEXT GENERATION INTERNET by Paulo R... Management for Next Generation Internet Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Paulo R. Silva Project Number Task Number Work...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC

  1. Carpet Specifiers Guide. Ultron, Advanced Generation Nylon Carpet Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsanto Textiles Co., Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist specifiers in properly specifying carpet made of Monsanto Ultron advanced generation nylon fiber. The guide describes a variety of conditions that should be considered in arriving at the proper selection and provides reference information and data, ranging from varying regulatory requirements, performance and…

  2. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  3. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  4. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  5. Lead-cooled system design and challenges in the frame of Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinotti, Luciano; Smith, Craig F.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Mansani, Luigi; Reale, Marco; Sienicki, James J.

    2011-08-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Technology Roadmap identified the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) as a technology well suited for electricity generation, hydrogen production and actinide management in a closed fuel cycle. One of the most important features of the LFR is the fact that lead is a relatively inert coolant, a feature that conveys significant advantages in terms of safety, system simplification, and the consequent potential for economic performance. In 2004, the GIF LFR Provisional System Steering Committee was organized and began to develop the LFR System Research Plan. The committee selected two pool-type reactor concepts as candidates for international cooperation and joint development in the GIF framework: these are the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY). The high boiling point (1745 °C) of lead has a beneficial impact to the safety of the system, whereas its high melting point (327.4 °C) requires new engineering strategies, especially for In-Service-Inspection and refuelling. Lead, especially at high temperatures, is also relatively corrosive towards structural materials. This necessitates that coolant purity and the level of dissolved oxygen be carefully controlled, in addition to the proper selection of structural materials. For the GIF LFR concepts, lead has been chosen as the coolant rather than Lead-Bismuth Eutectic primarily because of its greatly reduced generation of the alpha-emitting 210Po isotope formed in the coolant. This results in significantly reduced levels of radioactive contamination of the coolant while minimizing the effect of decay power in the coolant from such contaminants; an additional consideration is the desire to eliminate dependence on bismuth which might be a limited resource. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the LFR, a summary of the advantages and challenges associated with heavy liquid metal coolants, and an

  6. Advances in generating functional diversity for directed protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Amol V; Marienhagen, Jan; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schenk, Alexander; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2009-02-01

    Despite advances in screening technologies, only a very small fraction of theoretical protein sequence can be sampled in directed evolution experiments. At the current state of random mutagenesis technologies mutation frequencies have often been adjusted to values that cause a limited number of amino acid changes (often one to four amino acid changes per protein). For harvesting the power of directed evolution algorithms it is therefore important that generated mutant libraries are rich in diversity and enriched in active population. Insufficient knowledge about protein traits, mutational robustness of protein folds and technological limitations in diversity generating methods are main challenges for managing the complexity of protein sequence space. This review covers computational and experimental advances for high quality mutant library generation that have been achieved in the past two years.

  7. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  8. GE power generation technology challenges for advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Nourse, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    The GE Utility ATS is a large gas turbine, derived from proven GEPG designs and integrated GEAE technology, that utilizes a new turbine cooling system and incorporates advanced materials. This system has the potential to achieve ATS objectives for a utility sized machine. Combined with use of advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC`s), the new cooling system will allow higher firing temperatures and improved cycle efficiency that represents a significant improvement over currently available machines. Developing advances in gas turbine efficiency and emissions is an ongoing process at GEPG. The third generation, ``F`` class, of utility gas turbines offers net combined cycle efficiencies in the 55% range, with NO{sub x} programs in place to reduce emissions to less than 10 ppM. The gas turbines have firing temperatures of 2350{degree}F, and pressure ratios of 15 to 1. The turbine components are cooled by air extracted from the cycle at various stages of the compressor. The heat recovery cycle is a three pressure steam system, with reheat. Throttle conditions are nominally 1400 psi and 1000{degree}F reheat. As part of GEPG`s ongoing advanced power generation system development program, it is expected that a gas fired advanced turbine system providing 300 MW power output greater than 58% net efficiency and < 10 ppM NO{sub x} will be defined. The new turbine cooling system developed with technology support from the ATS program will achieve system net efficiency levels in excess of 60%.

  9. Efficient Generation of Chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaplev, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid in an H2SO4-AcOH medium are studied. Kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are used to determine the profiles of change in the concentrations of Mn(IV) and Mn(III) ions during the reaction. The results from kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are compared to the light yield kinetics. The quantum chemiluminescence and chemiexcitation yields reach record values.

  10. Fabrication of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials by Hierarchical Nanovoid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare an advanced thermoelectric material has hierarchical structures embedded with nanometer-sized voids which are key to enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Solution-based thin film deposition technique enables preparation of stable film of thermoelectric material and void generator (voigen). A subsequent thermal process creates hierarchical nanovoid structure inside the thermoelectric material. Potential application areas of this advanced thermoelectric material with nanovoid structure are commercial applications (electronics cooling), medical and scientific applications (biological analysis device, medical imaging systems), telecommunications, and defense and military applications (night vision equipments).

  11. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  12. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

  13. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  14. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  15. Advanced DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, R.; Raggam, H.; Gutjahr, K. H.; Schardt, M.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simple filtering approach that can be applied to digital surface models in order to extract digital terrain models. The method focusses on robustness and computational efficiency and is in particular tailored to filter DSMs that are extracted from satellite stereo images. It represents an evolution of an existing DTM generation method and includes distinct advancement through the integration of multi-directional processing as well as slope dependent filtering, thus denoted "MSD filtering". The DTM generation workflow is fully automatic and requires no user interaction. Exemplary results are presented for a DSM generated from a Pléiades tri-stereo image data set. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations with respect to highly accurate reference LiDAR data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Advanced Clinical Interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: Prevalence of Low Scores Varies by Level of Intelligence and Years of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian L.; Holdnack, James A.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients…

  17. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  18. Recent Advances with the AMPX Covariance Processing Capabilities in PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, D. Arbanas, G.; Leal, L.; Dunn, M.E.

    2008-12-15

    The program PUFF-IV is used to process resonance parameter covariance information given in ENDF/B File 32 and point wise covariance matrices given in ENDF/B File 33 into group-averaged covariances matrices on a user-supplied group structure. For large resonance covariance matrices, found for example in {sup 235}U, the execution time of PUFF-IV can be quite long. Recently the code was modified to take advantage of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) routines for the most time-consuming matrix multiplications. This led to a substantial decrease in execution time. This faster processing capability allowed us to investigate the conversion of File 32 data into File 33 data using a larger number of user-defined groups. While conversion substantially reduces the ENDF/B file size requirements for evaluations with a large number of resonances, a trade-off is made between the number of groups used to represent the resonance parameter covariance as a point wise covariance matrix and the file size. We are also investigating a hybrid version of the conversion, in which the low-energy part of the File 32 resonance parameter covariances matrix is retained and the correlations with higher energies as well as the high energy part are given in File 33.

  19. Recent Advances with the AMPX Covariance Processing Capabilities in PUFF-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Wiarda, Dorothea; Arbanas, Goran; Leal, Luiz C; Dunn, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    The program PUFF-IV is used to process resonance parameter covariance information given in ENDF/B File 32 and point-wise covariance matrices given in ENDF/B File 33 into group-averaged covariances matrices on a user-supplied group structure. For large resonance covariance matrices, found for example in 235U, the execution time of PUFF-IV can be quite long. Recently the code was modified to take advandage of Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) routines for the most time-consuming matrix multiplications. This led to a substantial decrease in execution time. This faster processing capability allowed us to investigate the conversion of File 32 data into File 33 data using a larger number of user-defined groups. While conversion substantially reduces the ENDF/B file size requirements for evaluations with a large number of resonances, a trade-off is made between the number of groups used to represent the resonance parameter covariance as a point-wise covariance matrix and the file size. We are also investigating a hybrid version of the conversion, in which the low-energy part of the File 32 resonance parameter covariances matrix is retained and the correlations with higher energies as well as the high energy part are given in File 33.

  20. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  1. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program (NERI) Quarterly Progress Report; New Design Equations for Swelling and Irradiation Creep in Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W G; Surh, M P; Garner, F A; Chrzan, D C; Schaldach, C; Sturgeon, J B

    2003-02-13

    The objectives of this research project are to significantly extend the theoretical foundation and the modeling of radiation-induced microstructural changes in structural materials used in Generation IV nuclear reactors, and to derive from these microstructure models the constitutive laws for void swelling, irradiation creep and stress-induced swelling, as well as changes in mechanical properties. The need for the proposed research is based on three major developments and advances over the past two decades. First, new experimental discoveries have been made on void swelling and irradiation creep which invalidate previous theoretical models and empirical constitutive laws for swelling and irradiation creep. Second, recent advances in computational methods and power make it now possible to model the complex processes of microstructure evolution over long-term neutron exposures. Third, it is now required that radiation-induced changes in structural materials over extended lifetimes be predicted and incorporated in the design of Generation IV reactors. Our approach to modeling and data analysis is a dual one in accord with both the objectives to simulate the evolution of the microstructure and to develop design equations for macroscopic properties. Validation of the models through data analysis is therefore carried out at both the microscopic and the macroscopic levels. For the microstructure models, we utilize the transmission electron microscopy results from steels irradiated in reactors and from model materials irradiated by neutrons as well as ion bombardments. The macroscopic constitutive laws will be tested and validated by analyzing density data, irradiation creep data, diameter changes of fuel elements, and post-irradiation tensile data. Validation of both microstructure models and macroscopic constitutive laws is a more stringent test of the internal consistency of the underlying science for radiation effects in structural materials for nuclear reactors.

  2. A non-iterative technique for determination of solar cell parameters from the light generated I-V characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Panchal, Ashish K.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate information about electrical parameters of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is many times essential for evaluating the performance of the cell when delivering power at its full capacity. This paper presents a technique for determining the cell parameters from the light generated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic with a valid assumption for any kind of cells. The technique neither involves any initial approximations nor iteration processes. The technique is employed for various PV cell technologies such as silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, organic, dye sensitized solar cell, and organic tandem cells, previously available in the literatures. Obtained I-V characteristics for the cells using the present technique are in well agreement with those of reported in the literature. The technique is further extended for the analysis of a silicon cell and a silicon module tested in the laboratory and the results obtained are very close to those of the experimental data.

  3. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  4. Case Study IV: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Networked Improvement Communities (NICs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2015-01-01

    The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is a nonprofit, operating foundation with a long tradition of developing and studying ways to improve teaching practice. For the past three years, the Carnegie Foundation has initiated three different Networked Improvement Communities (NICs). The first, Quantway, is addressing the high…

  5. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  6. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Sean; Duncan, Keith; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena; Neal, Luke; Sanchez, Jose; Paul, Heather L.; Wachsman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied. However, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight for life support if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida devel- oped novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer elec- trolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth ox- ide (ESB) for NASA's future exploration of Mars. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. The strategy discussed here for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer com- bined with a COG cell so that CO2 is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen without carbon buildup on the COG cell and subsequent deactivation.

  7. Development of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wood, J. Gary; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology is being developed for potential future space missions. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, and New Horizons) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in PuO2 fuel, thereby saving cost and reducing radiation exposure to support personnel. With the advancement of state-of-the-art Stirling technology development under the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project, the Stirling Radioisotope Generator program has evolved to incorporate the advanced Stirling convertor (ASC), provided by Sunpower, into an engineering unit. Due to the reduced envelope and lighter mass of the ASC compared to the previous Stirling convertor, the specific power of the flight generator is projected to increase from 3.5 to 7 We/kg, along with a 25 percent reduction in generator length. Modifications are being made to the ASC design to incorporate features for thermal, mechanical, and electrical integration with the engineering unit. These include the heat collector for hot end interface, cold-side flange for waste heat removal and structural attachment, and piston position sensor for ASC control and power factor correction. A single-fault tolerant, active power factor correction controller is used to synchronize the Stirling convertors, condition the electrical power from AC to DC, and to control the ASCs to maintain operation within temperature and piston stroke limits. Development activities at Sunpower and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are also being conducted on the ASC to demonstrate the capability for long life, high reliability, and flight qualification needed for use in future missions.

  8. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  9. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  10. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Carroll, Laura; Sham, Sam

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  11. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  12. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-09

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive.

  13. Advanced numerical methods in mesh generation and mesh adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantine; Danilov, A; Vassilevski, Y; Agonzal, A

    2010-01-01

    Numerical solution of partial differential equations requires appropriate meshes, efficient solvers and robust and reliable error estimates. Generation of high-quality meshes for complex engineering models is a non-trivial task. This task is made more difficult when the mesh has to be adapted to a problem solution. This article is focused on a synergistic approach to the mesh generation and mesh adaptation, where best properties of various mesh generation methods are combined to build efficiently simplicial meshes. First, the advancing front technique (AFT) is combined with the incremental Delaunay triangulation (DT) to build an initial mesh. Second, the metric-based mesh adaptation (MBA) method is employed to improve quality of the generated mesh and/or to adapt it to a problem solution. We demonstrate with numerical experiments that combination of all three methods is required for robust meshing of complex engineering models. The key to successful mesh generation is the high-quality of the triangles in the initial front. We use a black-box technique to improve surface meshes exported from an unattainable CAD system. The initial surface mesh is refined into a shape-regular triangulation which approximates the boundary with the same accuracy as the CAD mesh. The DT method adds robustness to the AFT. The resulting mesh is topologically correct but may contain a few slivers. The MBA uses seven local operations to modify the mesh topology. It improves significantly the mesh quality. The MBA method is also used to adapt the mesh to a problem solution to minimize computational resources required for solving the problem. The MBA has a solid theoretical background. In the first two experiments, we consider the convection-diffusion and elasticity problems. We demonstrate the optimal reduction rate of the discretization error on a sequence of adaptive strongly anisotropic meshes. The key element of the MBA method is construction of a tensor metric from hierarchical edge

  14. Investigation of advancing front method for generating unstructured grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1992-06-01

    The advancing front technique is used to generate an unstructured grid about simple aerodynamic geometries. Unstructured grids are generated using VGRID2D and VGRID3D software. Specific problems considered are a NACA 0012 airfoil, a bi-plane consisting of two NACA 0012 airfoil, a four element airfoil in its landing configuration, and an ONERA M6 wing. Inviscid time dependent solutions are computed on these geometries using USM3D and the results are compared with standard test results obtained by other investigators. A grid convergence study is conducted for the NACA 0012 airfoil and compared with a structured grid. A structured grid is generated using GRIDGEN software and inviscid solutions computed using CFL3D flow solver. The results obtained by unstructured grid for NACA 0012 airfoil showed an asymmetric distribution of flow quantities, and a fine distribution of grid was required to remove this asymmetry. On the other hand, the structured grid predicted a very symmetric distribution, but when the total number of points were compared to obtain the same results it was seen that structured grid required more grid points.

  15. Investigation of advancing front method for generating unstructured grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    The advancing front technique is used to generate an unstructured grid about simple aerodynamic geometries. Unstructured grids are generated using VGRID2D and VGRID3D software. Specific problems considered are a NACA 0012 airfoil, a bi-plane consisting of two NACA 0012 airfoil, a four element airfoil in its landing configuration, and an ONERA M6 wing. Inviscid time dependent solutions are computed on these geometries using USM3D and the results are compared with standard test results obtained by other investigators. A grid convergence study is conducted for the NACA 0012 airfoil and compared with a structured grid. A structured grid is generated using GRIDGEN software and inviscid solutions computed using CFL3D flow solver. The results obtained by unstructured grid for NACA 0012 airfoil showed an asymmetric distribution of flow quantities, and a fine distribution of grid was required to remove this asymmetry. On the other hand, the structured grid predicted a very symmetric distribution, but when the total number of points were compared to obtain the same results it was seen that structured grid required more grid points.

  16. High temperature, harsh environment sensors for advanced power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Credle, S.; Buric, M.; Lewis, R.; Seachman, S.

    2015-05-01

    One mission of the Crosscutting Technology Research program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory is to develop a suite of sensors and controls technologies that will ultimately increase efficiencies of existing fossil-fuel fired power plants and enable a new generation of more efficient and lower emission power generation technologies. The program seeks to accomplish this mission through soliciting, managing, and monitoring a broad range of projects both internal and external to the laboratory which span sensor material and device development, energy harvesting and wireless telemetry methodologies, and advanced controls algorithms and approaches. A particular emphasis is placed upon harsh environment sensing for compatibility with high temperature, erosive, corrosive, and highly reducing or oxidizing environments associated with large-scale centralized power generation. An overview of the full sensors and controls portfolio is presented and a selected set of current and recent research successes and on-going projects are highlighted. A more detailed emphasis will be placed on an overview of the current research thrusts and successes of the in-house sensor material and device research efforts that have been established to support the program.

  17. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  18. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Payne; Lary Swanson; Antonio Marquez; Ary Chang; Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-09-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The twelfth reporting period in Phase II (July 3-October 15, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task No.2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  19. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky

    2000-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eleventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task 2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  20. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  1. Clonal forestry, heterosis and advanced-generation breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.

  2. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  3. Advanced targets, diagnostics and applications of laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity sub-nanosecond-pulsed lasers irradiating thin targets in vacuum permit generation of electrons and ion acceleration and high photon yield emission in non-equilibrium plasmas. At intensities higher than 1015 W/cm2 thin foils can be irradiated in the target-normal sheath acceleration regime driving ion acceleration in the forward direction above 1 MeV per charge state. The distributions of emitted ions in terms of energy, charge state and angular emission are controlled by laser parameters, irradiation conditions, target geometry and composition. Advanced targets can be employed to increase the laser absorption in thin foils and to enhance the energy and the yield of the ion acceleration process. Semiconductor detectors, Thomson parabola spectrometer and streak camera can be employed as online plasma diagnostics to monitor the plasma parameters, shot by shot. Some applications in the field of the multiple ion implantation, hadrontherapy and nuclear physics are reported.

  4. Reliability Demonstration Approach for Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, CHuong; Zampino, Edward; Penswick, Barry; Spronz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Developed for future space missions as a high-efficiency power system, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) has a design life requirement of 14 yr in space following a potential storage of 3 yr after fueling. In general, the demonstration of long-life dynamic systems remains difficult in part due to the perception that the wearout of moving parts cannot be minimized, and associated failures are unpredictable. This paper shows a combination of systematic analytical methods, extensive experience gained from technology development, and well-planned tests can be used to ensure a high level reliability of ASRG. With this approach, all potential risks from each life phase of the system are evaluated and the mitigation adequately addressed. This paper also provides a summary of important test results obtained to date for ASRG and the planned effort for system-level extended operation.

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  6. Challenges to Integration of Safety and Reliability with Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Khalil; P. F. Peterson; R. Bari; G. -L. Fiorini; T. Leahy; R. Versluis

    2012-07-01

    The optimization of a nuclear energy system's performance requires an integrated consideration of multiple design goals - sustainability, safety and reliability (S&R), proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP), and economics - as well as careful evaluation of trade-offs for different system design and operating parameters. Design approaches motivated by each of the goal areas (in isolation from the other goal areas) may be mutually compatible or in conflict. However, no systematic methodology approach has yet been developed to identify and maximize synergies and optimally balance conflicts across the possible design configurations and operating modes of a nuclear energy system. Because most Generation IV systems are at an early stage of development, design, and assessment, designers and analysts are only beginning to identify synergies and conflicts between PR&PP, S&R, and economics goals. The close coupling between PR&PP and S&R goals has motivated early attention within the Generation IV International Forum to their integrated consideration to facilitate the optimization of their effects and the minimization of potential conflicts. This paper discusses the status of this work.

  7. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  8. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007–2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances. Methods The guiding principle of the CHNRI method is to expose the potential of many competing health research ideas to reduce disease burden and inequities that exist in the population in a feasible and cost–effective way. Results The CHNRI method introduced three key conceptual advances that led to its increased popularity in comparison to other priority–setting methods and processes. First, it proposed a systematic approach to listing a large number of possible research ideas, using the “4D” framework (description, delivery, development and discovery research) and a well–defined “depth” of proposed research ideas (research instruments, avenues, options and questions). Second, it proposed a systematic approach for discriminating between many proposed research ideas based on a well–defined context and criteria. The five “standard” components of the context are the population of interest, the disease burden of interest, geographic limits, time scale and the preferred style of investing with respect to risk. The five “standard” criteria proposed for prioritization between research ideas are answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for disease burden reduction and the effect on equity. However, both the context and the criteria can be flexibly changed to meet the specific needs of each priority–setting exercise. Third, it facilitated consensus development through measuring collective optimism on each component of each research idea among a larger group of experts using a simple

  9. Flight evaluation of advanced third-generation midwave infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chyau N.; Donn, Matthew

    1998-08-01

    In FY-97 the Counter Drug Optical Upgrade (CDOU) demonstration program was initiated by the Program Executive Office for Counter Drug to increase the detection and classification ranges of P-3 counter drug aircraft by using advanced staring infrared sensors. The demonstration hardware is a `pin-for-pin' replacement of the AAS-36 Infrared Detection Set (IRDS) located under the nose radome of a P-3 aircraft. The hardware consists of a 3rd generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor integrated into a three axis-stabilized turret. The sensor, when installed on the P- 3, has a hemispheric field of regard and analysis has shown it will be capable of detecting and classifying Suspected Drug Trafficking Aircraft and Vessels at ranges several factors over the current IRDS. This paper will discuss the CDOU system and it's lab, ground, and flight evaluation results. Test targets included target templates, range targets, dedicated target boats, and targets of opportunity at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division and at operational test sites. The objectives of these tests were to: (1) Validate the integration concept of the CDOU package into the P-3 aircraft. (2) Validate the end-to-end functionality of the system, including sensor/turret controls and recording of imagery during flight. (3) Evaluate the system sensitivity and resolution on a set of verified resolution targets templates. (4) Validate the ability of the 3rd generation MWIR sensor to detect and classify targets at a significantly increased range.

  10. Eugene P. Wigner's Visionary Contributions to Generations-I through IV Fission Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Among Europe's greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.

  11. Generator coordinate method and nuclear collective motions (IV)-TDGCM versus ATDHF

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.

    1982-04-01

    Considering the time-dependent generator coordinate method, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for nuclear collective motions is obtained. It is then possible to obtain through the Wigner matrix a variational expression for mean collective properties q-bar(t) and p-bar(t) in classical limits. Under adiabatic approximation this is just the expression by which Villars has obtained the ATDHF results.

  12. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  13. validation and Enhancement of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer Predictive Capabilities for Generation IV Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Spall; Barton Smith; Thomas Hauser

    2008-12-08

    Nationwide, the demand for electricity due to population and industrial growth is on the rise. However, climate change and air quality issues raise serious questions about the wisdom of addressing these shortages through the construction of additional fossil fueled power plants. In 1997, the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology Energy Research and Development Panel determined that restoring a viable nuclear energy option was essential and that the DOE should implement a R&D effort to address principal obstacles to achieving this option. This work has addressed the need for improved thermal/fluid analysis capabilities, through the use of computational fluid dynamics, which are necessary to support the design of generation IV gas-cooled and supercritical water reactors.

  14. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  15. Next-generation sequencing: advances and applications in cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Serratì, Simona; De Summa, Simona; Pilato, Brunella; Petriella, Daniela; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Tommasi, Stefania; Pinto, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in cancer investigation. NGS allows massive parallel sequencing that affords maximal tumor genomic assessment. NGS approaches are different, and concern DNA and RNA analysis. DNA sequencing includes whole-genome, whole-exome, and targeted sequencing, which focuses on a selection of genes of interest for a specific disease. RNA sequencing facilitates the detection of alternative gene-spliced transcripts, posttranscriptional modifications, gene fusion, mutations/single-nucleotide polymorphisms, small and long noncoding RNAs, and changes in gene expression. Most applications are in the cancer research field, but lately NGS technology has been revolutionizing cancer molecular diagnostics, due to the many advantages it offers compared to traditional methods. There is greater knowledge on solid cancer diagnostics, and recent interest has been shown also in the field of hematologic cancer. In this review, we report the latest data on NGS diagnostic/predictive clinical applications in solid and hematologic cancers. Moreover, since the amount of NGS data produced is very large and their interpretation is very complex, we briefly discuss two bioinformatic aspects, variant-calling accuracy and copy-number variation detection, which are gaining a lot of importance in cancer-diagnostic assessment. PMID:27980425

  16. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The third reporting period in Phase II (April 1--June 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and comparison of the results with full-scale data. The pilot scale tests were performed with the objective of simulating furnace conditions of ongoing full-scale tests at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and defining the processes controlling AR performance to subsequently improve the performance. The tests were conducted in EER' s Boiler Simulator Facility. The main fuel pulsing system was used at the BSF to control the degree of unmixedness, thus providing control over furnace gas O{sub 2} and CO concentrations. Results on AR-Lean, presented in the previous quarterly report, were compared with full-scale data. Performance of reburn+SNCR was tested to predict NO{sub x} control at Greenidge. The results of the BSF reburn+SNCR simulation tests demonstrated that there are synergistic advantages of using these two technologies in series. In particular, injection of overfire air provides additional mixing that reduces negative effects on AR performance at the temperature regime of the Greenidge boiler.

  17. The next generation in aircraft protection against advanced MANPADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the advanced and novel technologies and underlying systems capabilities that Selex ES has applied during the development, test and evaluation of the twin head Miysis DIRCM System in order to ensure that it provides the requisite levels of protection against the latest, sophisticated all-aspect IR MANPADS. The importance of key performance parameters, including the fundamental need for "spherical" coverage, rapid time to energy-on-target, laser tracking performance and radiant intensity on seeker dome is covered. It also addresses the approach necessary to ensure that the equipment is suited to all air platforms from the smallest helicopters to large transports, while also ensuring that it achieves an inherent high reliability and an ease of manufacture and repair such that a step change in through-life cost in comparison to previous generation systems can be achieved. The benefits and issues associated with open architecture design are also considered. Finally, the need for extensive test and evaluation at every stage, including simulation, laboratory testing, platform and target dynamic testing in a System Integration Laboratory (SIL), flight trial, missile live-fire, environmental testing and reliability testing is also described.

  18. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  19. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  20. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    Rising global energy demands coupled with increased environmental concerns point to one solution; they must reduce their dependence on fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. As the global community faces the challenge of maintaining sovereign nation security, reducing greenhouse gases, and addressing climate change nuclear power will play a significant and likely growing role. In the US, nuclear energy already provides approximately one-fifth of the electricity used to power factories, offices, homes, and schools with 104 operating nuclear power plants, located at 65 sites in 31 states. Additionally, 19 utilities have applied to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operating licenses for 26 new reactors at 17 sites. This planned growth of nuclear power is occurring worldwide and has been termed the 'nuclear renaissance.' As major industrial nations craft their energy future, there are several important factors that must be considered about nuclear energy: (1) it has been proven over the last 40 years to be safe, reliable and affordable (good for Economic Security); (2) its technology and fuel can be domestically produced or obtained from allied nations (good for Energy Security); and (3) it is nearly free of greenhouse gas emissions (good for Environmental Security). Already an important part of worldwide energy security via electricity generation, nuclear energy can also potentially play an important role in industrial processes and supporting the nation's transportation sector. Coal-to-liquid processes, the generation of hydrogen and supporting the growing potential for a greatly increased electric transportation system (i.e. cars and trains) mean that nuclear energy could see dramatic growth in the near future as we seek to meet our growing demand for energy in cleaner, more secure ways. In order to address some of the prominent issues associated with nuclear power generation (i.e., high capital costs, waste management, and

  1. Calculation of stellar structure. IV. Results using a detailed energy generation subroutine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, C. A.

    1995-12-01

    The results from two solar model calculations using the "energy.for" energy generation and neutrino flux code (Bahcall & Pinsonneault 1992) are presented. The models of the present Sun were generated using the program described in the first three papers of this series and using only the helium abundance profile from the Bahcall & Ulrich (1988) (BU) standard model in the present model structure calculations. One model is a simulation of the BU model and yields a ^37^Cl solar neutrino counting rate of 7.0SNU (compared to 7.9SNU for the BU model) and a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 112 and 137SNU (compared to 132SNU for the BU model). The second model has a postulated small high-Z core (Rouse 1983) and yields a ^37^Cl neutrino experiment counting rate of 2.45SNU that is within one sigma of the Homestake Collaboration observed rate of (2.55+/-0.25)SNU (see Parke 1995). It yields a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 89 and 103SNU that is within one sigma of the GALLEX Collaboration neutrino experiment observed rate of (79+/-12)SNU (see Parke 1995). The theoretical ^8^B solar neutrino flux and the observed Kamiokande ^8^B flux (Hirata et al. 1989) are discussed regarding the puzzle of explaining both the chlorine experiment results and the Kamiokande results. The modification of the energy.for code for use in the current Rouse program is described. Consistency of a high-Z core solar model with theories of star formation from pre-stellar nuclei (Krat 1952; Urey 1956; Huang 1957) is suggested.

  2. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  3. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  4. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  5. Lifetime prediction modeling of airfoils for advanced power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaivanov, Ventzislav Gueorguiev

    The use of gases produced from coal as a turbine fuel offers an attractive means for efficiently generating electric power from our Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine concepts promise increased efficiency and low emissions on the expense of increased turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and different working fluid. Developing the turbine technology and materials is critical to the creation of these near-zero emission power generation technologies. A computational methodology, based on three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) and damage mechanics is presented for predicting the evolution of creep and fatigue in airfoils. We took a first look at airfoil thermal distributions in these advanced turbine systems based on CFD analysis. The damage mechanics-based creep and fatigue models were implemented as user modified routine in commercial package ANSYS. This routine was used to visualize the creep and fatigue damage evolution over airfoils for hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines concepts, and regions most susceptible to failure were indentified. Model allows for interaction between creep and fatigue damage thus damage due to fatigue and creep processes acting separately in one cycle will affect both the fatigue and creep damage rates in the next cycle. Simulation results were presented for various thermal conductivity of the top coat. Surface maps were created on the airfoil showing the development of the TGO scale and the Al depletion of the bond coat. In conjunction with model development, laboratory-scale experimental validation was executed to evaluate the influence of operational compressive stress levels on the performance of the TBC system. TBC coated single crystal coupons were exposed isothermally in air at 900, 1000, 1100oC with and without compressive load. Exposed samples were cross-sectioned and evaluated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Performance data was collected based on image analysis

  6. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, s. R.; Duncan, K. L.; Hagelin-Weaver, H. E.; Neal, L.; Paul, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of CO2 using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and has been studied. Conventional COGs use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes and operate at temperatures greater than 700 C (1, 2). Operating at a lower temperature has the advantage of reducing the mass of the ancillary components such as insulation. Moreover, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida developed ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) for NASA s future exploration of Mars (3). The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal is an issue. This strategy for CO2 removal in advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that the CO2 is reduced completely to solid carbon and oxygen. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature, a thin, bilayer electrolyte was employed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, a catalytic carbon deposition layer was designed and the cathode utilized materials shown to be coke resistant. Third, a composite anode was used consisting of bismuth ruthenate (BRO) and ESB that has been shown to have high performance (4). The inset of figure 1 shows the conceptual design of the tubular COG and the rest of the figure shows schematically the test apparatus. Figure 2 shows the microstructure of a COG tube prior to testing. During testing, current is applied across the cell and initially CuO is reduced to copper metal by electrochemical pumping. Then the oxygen source becomes the CO/CO2. This presentation

  7. Development of third generation advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Meghan Colleen

    Lightweight duplex steels with combinations of either bainite, acicular ferrite, and austenite or martensite and austenite were investigated as third generation advanced high strength steels targeted for automotive applications. Large additions of manganese (> 13 wt%) and carbon (<0.2wt%) were employed to stabilize the austenite phase. Silicon additions between 1 and 2 wt% were added to suppress cementite formation. Strength and ductility were increased while density was decreased with aluminum additions between 2.4 and 5.5 wt% to the steel. This research addressed the dependence of alloying on microstructures and mechanical behavior for high manganese and aluminum duplex steels that were cast and subsequently hot rolled. Duplex steels with different volume fractions of primary delta-ferrite were used to study the crystallography of austenite fanned during the peritectic reaction. Solute profiles across the peritectic interface showed aluminum segregated near the interface which promoted bainitic ferrite formation. Thermal treatments were used to manipulate the concentration and type of oxides and the ferrite plate density was found to correlate with inclusions of low misfit in steels with austenite grain size of 16.5 microm. A steel with bainite and acicular ferrite produced an ultimate tensile strength of 970 MPa and elongation of 40%. The mechanical prope1iies depended on the strengths and size of the microstructural constituents. Work hardening behavior was examined in a steel exhibiting multiple martensitic transformation induced plasticity (gamma-austenite→epsilon-smartensite→alpha-martensite). A strain hardening exponent as high as 1.4 was observed with ultimate tensile strength and elongation as high as 1,165 MPa and 34%.

  8. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The fourth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on gas reburning. The pilot scale tests reported in previous Quarterly Reports QR-2 and QR-3 were continued. The objective was to simulate furnace conditions at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and to improve the process performance. The tests were conducted in EER's Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). During the reporting period, measurements of CO and ammonia emissions were conducted for reburn + SNCR conditions, as well as tests on the effect of sodium on NO{sub x} control efficiency. Exhaust levels of CO remained below 100 ppm in all tests. Prospective process conditions for the full-scale facility have been identified that can provide over 80% NO{sub x} reduction while maintaining ammonia slip below 4 ppm. Addition of sodium resulted in NO{sub x} control improvement of about 7-10 percentage points. The objective of modeling work was to further understand the influence of the mixing process on gas reburning and to identify factors that can increase the effectiveness of NO reduction. Modeling results demonstrated that the main features of gas reburning could be described using a detailed chemical mechanism with one-dimensional representation of mixing.

  9. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. NGC 4216: A Bombarded Spiral in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Ferriere, Etienne; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Michel-Dansac, Leo; van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  10. FLUOMEG: a planar finite difference mesh generator for fluid flow problems with parallel boundaries. [In FORTRAN IV

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinstreuer, C.; Patterson, M.R.

    1980-05-01

    A two- or three-dimensional finite difference mesh generator capable of discretizing subrectangular flow regions (planar coordinates) with arbitrarily shaped bottom contours (vertical dimension) was developed. This economical, interactive computer code, written in FORTRAN IV and employing DISSPLA software together with graphics terminal, generates first a planar rectangular grid of variable element density according to the geometry and local kinematic flow patterns of a given fluid flow problem. Then subrectangular areas are deleted to produce canals, tributaries, bays, and the like. For three-dimensional problems, arbitrary bathymetric profiles (river beds, channel cross section, ocean shoreline profiles, etc.) are approximated with grid lines forming steps of variable spacing. Furthermore, the code works as a preprocessor numbering the discrete elements and the nodal points. Prescribed values for the principal variables can be automatically assigned to solid as well as kinematic boundaries. Cabinet drawings aid in visualizing the complete flow domain. Input data requirements are necessary only to specify the spacing between grid lines, determine land regions that have to be excluded, and to identify boundary nodes. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  11. PLC/CAMK IV-NF-kappaB involved in the receptor for advanced glycation end products mediated signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    You, Jie; Peng, Wei; Lin, Xu; Huang, Qing-Ling; Lin, Jian-Yin

    2010-05-14

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) play an important role in diabetic vascular complications. The current study demonstrated that AGEs significantly increased RAGE expression and the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human umbilical vein endothelial cell-derived line ECV304 cells. RAGE antisense RNA partially inhibited the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 induced by AGEs. Oligonucleotide microarray was used to identify the genes that respond to RAGE activation. Phospholipase C beta 1 (PLC beta 1), phospholipase C beta 4 (PLC beta 4) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK IV) which associated with Ca(2+) signaling were upregulated. The rise of intracellular calcium and the NF-kappaB promoter activity induced by AGEs were suppressed by RAGE antisense RNA, PLC inhibitor U73122 and dominant negative CAMK IV, respectively. These findings suggest that PLC/CAMK IV-NF-kappaB is involved in RAGE mediated signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.

  12. Advanced materials and methods for next generation spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Gene Phillip

    The modern age is filled with ever-advancing electronic devices. The contents of this dissertation continue the desire for faster, smaller, better electronics. Specifically, this dissertation addresses a field known as "spintronics", electronic devices based on an electron's spin, not just its charge. The field of spintronics originated in 1990 when Datta and Das first proposed a "spin transistor" that would function by passing a spin polarized current from a magnetic electrode into a semiconductor channel. The spins in the channel could then be manipulated by applying an electrical voltage across the gate of the device. However, it has since been found that a great amount of scattering occurs at the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface due to the large impedance mismatch that exists between the two materials. Because of this, there were three updated versions of the spintronic transistor that were proposed to improve spin injection: one that used a ferromagnetic semiconductor electrode, one that added a tunnel barrier between the ferromagnet and semiconductor, and one that utilized a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier which would act like a spin filter. It was next proposed that it may be possible to achieve a "pure spin current", or a spin current with no concurrent electric current (i.e., no net flow of electrons). One such method that was discovered is the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in 2008 by Uchida et al., in which a thermal gradient in a magnetic material generates a spin current which can be injected into adjacent material as a pure spin current. The first section of this dissertation addresses this spin Seebeck effect (SSE). The goal was to create such a device that both performs better than previously reported devices and is capable of operating without the aid of an external magnetic field. We were successful in this endeavor. The trick to achieving both of these goals was found to be in the roughness of the magnetic layer. A rougher magnetic

  13. Advanced High-Power Generator for Airborne Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Generators 40 AOSTRACT (Con, ..... ..rn e d.., &.#d it ^.*.C..4 aIdef.tll by 4101414h n .umbf. This report summarizes the work accomplished through Phase ...II of a four- phase prcgram to design and build the stator and housing for a 5-Mw generator and test the complete 5-Mw generator. The PM rotor for this...airborne electrical power supply technology. Phases I and II encompassed a 10-ironth period from April 1981 to January 1982. DDJN7 1473 EDITION OF Nov5 -o

  14. Advancements in Distributed Generation Issues: Interconnection, Modeling, and Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Treanton, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    The California Energy Commission is cost-sharing research with the Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address distributed energy resources (DER) topics. These efforts include developing interconnection and power management technologies, modeling the impacts of interconnecting DER with an area electric power system, and evaluating possible modifications to rate policies and tariffs. As a result, a DER interconnection device has been developed and tested. A workshop reviewed the status and issues of advanced power electronic devices. Software simulations used validated models of distribution circuits that incorporated DER, and tests and measurements of actual circuits with and without DER systems are being conducted to validate these models. Current policies affecting DER were reviewed and rate making policies to support deployment of DER through public utility rates and policies were identified. These advancements are expected to support the continued and expanded use of DER systems.

  15. Advanced Material Intelligent Processing Center: Next Generation Scalable Lean Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-04

    machines and have made significant advances to automated tape laying (ATL) and automated fiber placement (AFP) technologies. Companies are moving...beyond standard thermoplastic and thermoset prepregs and are looking at placing 00A prepregs as well as dry fabrics. Today. Automated Tape Laying (ATL...References [1] Michael N. Grimshaw, " Automated Tape Laying ." in ASM Handbook Vol. 21 Composites.. ASM International, 2001. [2] Obaid Younossi. Michael

  16. Physico-chemical properties of the new generation IV iron preparations ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose.

    PubMed

    Neiser, Susann; Rentsch, Daniel; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Wilhelm, Maria; Braitsch, Michaela; Funk, Felix; Philipp, Erik; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    The advantage of the new generation IV iron preparations ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) is that they can be administered in relatively high doses in a short period of time. We investigated the physico-chemical properties of these preparations and compared them with those of the older preparations iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), and low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID). Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated akaganeite structures (β-FeOOH) for the cores of FCM, IIM and IS, and a maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) structure for that of FMX. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the structure of the carbohydrate of FMX as a reduced, carboxymethylated, low molecular weight dextran, and that of IIM as a reduced Dextran 1000. Polarography yielded significantly different fingerprints of the investigated compounds. Reductive degradation kinetics of FMX was faster than that of FCM and IIM, which is in contrast to the high stability of FMX towards acid degradation. The labile iron content, i.e. the amount of iron that is only weakly bound in the polynuclear iron core, was assessed by a qualitative test that confirmed decreasing labile iron contents in the order SFG ≈ IS > LMWID ≥ FMX ≈ IIM ≈ FCM. The presented data are a step forward in the characterization of these non-biological complex drugs, which is a prerequisite to understand their cellular uptake mechanisms and the relationship between the structure and physiological safety as well as efficacy of these complexes.

  17. Characterization of Three Rice Multiparent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) Populations for Quantitative Trait Loci Identification.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lijun; Guo, Longbiao; Ponce, Kimberly; Zhao, Xiangqian; Ye, Guoyou

    2016-07-01

    Three new rice ( L.) multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations were developed using eight elite rice varieties from different breeding programs. These three populations were two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from two 4-way crosses, DC1 and DC2, and one RIL population derived from an 8-way cross. These populations were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium rice 6K SNP chip. The potential of the three MAGIC populations in identifying marker-trait associations was demonstrated using the plant height (PH) and heading date (HD) measured in 2014. A population of 248 IRRI breeding lines and a population of 323 Chinese breeding lines were also included to compare genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern. Our study discovered that (i) the 8-way population had a higher gene diversity than the DC1, DC2, and IRRI populations; (ii) all three MAGIC populations showed no clear population structure; (iii) LD decayed to < 0.2 at about 2.5, 2.5, 1.25, 1.75, and 4.0 Mb for the DC1, DC2, 8-way, IRRI, and Chinese populations, respectively; and (iv) the 8-way population was more powerful than the DC1, DC2, and IRRI populations on QTL identification. The association analysis identified two and three QTL for PH and HD, respectively. Four of the five QTL had peak markers close to known genes. A novel QTL for PH was identified on chromosome 12 using the 8-way population. Therefore, our study suggests that the three new MAGIC populations are valuable resources for QTL identification.

  18. Aromatic Ring Currents Illustrated--NMR Spectra of Tin(IV) Porphyrin Complexes. An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Dennis P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to show that in the closed loops of cyclic structures the protons situated in conic regions above and below the ring will be shielded. Uses the diamagnetic and air stable octahedral tin(IV) complexes of porphyrins for study. Notes complexes crystallize easily and offer spectacular purple colors. (MVL)

  19. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  20. Advanced Computer Image Generation Techniques Exploiting Perceptual Characteristics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenger, Anthony J.; And Others

    This study suggests and identifies computer image generation (CIG) algorithms for visual simulation that improve the training effectiveness of CIG simulators and identifies areas of basic research in visual perception that are significant for improving CIG technology. The first phase of the project entailed observing three existing CIG simulators.…

  1. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  2. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  3. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on Tribes in the lower 48 states selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  4. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native governments selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  5. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides generated by tryptic hydrolysis of a whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Silvana T; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Recio, Isidra; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2013-11-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease involved in the degradation and inactivation of incretin hormones that act by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion after meal ingestion. DPP-IV inhibitors have emerged as new and promising oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of β-lactoglobulin as natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. A whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed with trypsin and fractionated using a chromatographic separation at semipreparative scale. Two of the six collected fractions showed notable DPP-IV inhibitory activity. These fractions were analysed by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify peptides responsible for the observed activity. The most potent fragment (IPAVF) corresponded to β-lactoglobulin f(78-82) which IC50 value was 44.7μM. The results suggest that peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin would be beneficial ingredients of foods against type 2 diabetes.

  7. Recent Advances in the Development of Ferroelectric Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    microwave sources such as the magnetron.  Demonstrating higher power, multi-element FEGs.  Developing an empirical simulated pressure-to- open ...transverse FEGs that can generate in excess of 100 kV across capacitive loads using only a few grams of high explosives.  Demonstrating that the open ...STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM002371. 2013 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Digest

  8. Generation of three-dimensional unstructured grids by the advancing-front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohner, Rainald; Parikh, Paresh

    1988-01-01

    The generation of three-dimensional unstructured grids using the advancing-front technique is described. While this generation technique has been shown to be effective for the generation of unstructured grids in two dimensions, its extension to three-dimensional regions required the development of surface definition software and sophisticated data structures to avoid excessive CPU-time overheads for the search operations involved. After obtaining an initial triangulation of the surfaces, tetrahedrons are generated by successively deleting faces from the generation front. Details of the mesh generation algorithm are given, together with examples and timings.

  9. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  10. Advanced Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2008-01-01

    A new approach for distribution of grid points on the surface and in the volume has been developed and implemented in the NASA unstructured grid generation code VGRID. In addition to the point and line sources of prior work, the new approach utilizes surface and volume sources for automatic curvature-based grid sizing and convenient point distribution in the volume. A new exponential growth function produces smoother and more efficient grids and provides superior control over distribution of grid points in the field. All types of sources support anisotropic grid stretching which not only improves the grid economy but also provides more accurate solutions for certain aerodynamic applications. The new approach does not require a three-dimensional background grid as in the previous methods. Instead, it makes use of an efficient bounding-box auxiliary medium for storing grid parameters defined by surface sources. The new approach is less memory-intensive and more efficient computationally. The grids generated with the new method either eliminate the need for adaptive grid refinement for certain class of problems or provide high quality initial grids that would enhance the performance of many adaptation methods.

  11. Advancing Lidar Sensors Technologies for Next Generation Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Brewster, Paul F.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Missions to solar systems bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "precision landing", and "hazard avoidance" capabilities. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Missions aimed at paving the path for colonization of the Moon and human landing on Mars need to execute onboard hazard detection and precision maneuvering to ensure safe landing near previously deployed assets. Asteroid missions require precision rendezvous, identification of the landing or sampling site location, and navigation to the highly dynamic object that may be tumbling at a fast rate. To meet these needs, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a set of advanced lidar sensors under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. These lidar sensors can provide precision measurement of vehicle relative proximity, velocity, and orientation, and high resolution elevation maps of the surface during the descent to the targeted body. Recent flights onboard Morpheus free-flyer vehicle have demonstrated the viability of ALHAT lidar sensors for future landing missions to solar system bodies.

  12. A New Generation Advanced I.R. Linescan Sensor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, D. B.; McQueen, G. B.; Adams, P. V.

    1984-12-01

    Effective enetrative low altitude tactical reconnaissance requires small, high. performance sensors backed up by flexible processing. Such systems require high quality information over a field of view wide enough to ensure that all targets are observed in order to justify mission risk. They should impose little or no penalty on aircraft performance or weapon, carrying capability and they must be supported by airborne and ground communication and processing systems to ensure rapid access to the information gained. An advanced Ili Linescan Sensor which satisfies these criteria in high speed, low level flight, currently under development at British. Aerospace, will be described. Features of the electro-optical and electronics systems will be discussed and the effects of scan geometry on imagery will be considered. Examples of imagery taken during flight trials with development models will be used to illustrate some of these effects. The essential features of an airborne image management, recording and display system using this Linescan Sensor, will be described. Information display formats and associated viewing ti es for real-time or near real-time infra-red imagery display will be analysed. Finally, the requirements for an associated airborne data link will be established.

  13. Modelling Aerodynamically Generated Sound: Recent Advances in Rotor Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the modeling of aerodynamically generated sound for rotors over the past decade. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H ) equation has been the foundation for much of the development. Both subsonic and supersonic quadrupole noise formulations have been developed for the prediction of high-speed impulsive noise. In an effort to eliminate the need to compute the quadrupole contribution, the FW-H has also been utilized on permeable surfaces surrounding all physical noise sources. Comparison of the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces with the FW-H equation have shown that the Kirchhoff formulation for moving surfaces can give erroneous results for aeroacoustic problems.

  14. Generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro: Methodological advances.

    PubMed

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Marchetto, Maria C; Mertens, Jerome; Gage, Fred H

    2016-11-01

    Technologies for deriving human neurons in vitro have transformed our ability to study cellular and molecular components of human neurotransmission. Three groups, including our own, have recently published methods for efficiently generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro. Remarkably, serotonergic neurons derived from each method robustly produce serotonin, express raphe genes, are electrically active, and respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in vitro. Two of the methods utilize transdifferentiation technology by overexpressing key serotonergic transcription factors. The third and most recent method involves differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to serotonergic neurons using developmental patterning cues. In this mini-review, we briefly describe the developmental programs governing serotonergic specification in vivo and how they have been harnessed to achieve serotonergic differentiation in vitro. We discuss the distinct and overlapping features of the recently published methodologies and their value in the context of in vitro disease modeling. Also see the video abstract here.

  15. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Next <span class=Generation of Risk Assessment Final report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> This final report, "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Recent Advances in Molec...

  16. Advanced Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex Aerodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for distribution of grid points on the surface and in the volume has been developed. In addition to the point and line sources of prior work, the new approach utilizes surface and volume sources for automatic curvature-based grid sizing and convenient point distribution in the volume. A new exponential growth function produces smoother and more efficient grids and provides superior control over distribution of grid points in the field. All types of sources support anisotropic grid stretching which not only improves the grid economy but also provides more accurate solutions for certain aerodynamic applications. The new approach does not require a three-dimensional background grid as in the previous methods. Instead, it makes use of an efficient bounding-box auxiliary medium for storing grid parameters defined by surface sources. The new approach is less memory-intensive and more efficient computationally. The grids generated with the new method either eliminate the need for adaptive grid refinement for certain class of problems or provide high quality initial grids that would enhance the performance of many adaptation methods.

  17. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  18. Domain Decomposition By the Advancing-Partition Method for Parallel Unstructured Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Zagaris, George

    2009-01-01

    A new method of domain decomposition has been developed for generating unstructured grids in subdomains either sequentially or using multiple computers in parallel. Domain decomposition is a crucial and challenging step for parallel grid generation. Prior methods are generally based on auxiliary, complex, and computationally intensive operations for defining partition interfaces and usually produce grids of lower quality than those generated in single domains. The new technique, referred to as "Advancing Partition," is based on the Advancing-Front method, which partitions a domain as part of the volume mesh generation in a consistent and "natural" way. The benefits of this approach are: 1) the process of domain decomposition is highly automated, 2) partitioning of domain does not compromise the quality of the generated grids, and 3) the computational overhead for domain decomposition is minimal. The new method has been implemented in NASA's unstructured grid generation code VGRID.

  19. Advances Made in the Next Generation of Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the unique networking characteristics of communications satellites, global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing national and global information infrastructures. Simultaneously, broadband data services, which are emerging as the major market driver for future satellite and terrestrial networks, are being widely acknowledged as the foundation for an efficient global information infrastructure. In the past 2 years, various task forces and working groups around the globe have identified pivotal topics and key issues to address if we are to realize such networks in a timely fashion. In response, industry, government, and academia undertook efforts to address these topics and issues. A workshop was organized to provide a forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. The Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies Workshop was hosted by the Space Communication Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Nearly 300 executives and technical experts from academia, industry, and government, representing the United States and eight other countries, attended the event (June 2 to 4, 1998). The program included seven panels and invited sessions and nine breakout sessions in which 42 speakers presented on technical topics. The proceedings covers a wide range of topics: access technology and protocols, architectures and network simulations, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite networks, Internet over satellite networks, interoperability experiments and applications, multicasting, NASA interoperability experiment programs, NASA mission applications, and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over satellite: issues, relevance, and experience.

  20. Advanced designs for the next generation of electromagnetic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yu-Liang

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation refers to original features for designing the future generation of electromagnetic actuators in technologies to be implemented and used in industrial systems well into the next century. The first feature is represented by the method of premagnetization. In this study, this method is applied as a generalized method of affecting the global conversion cycle for the electromagnet, linear or rotational, for improving the total electromechanical energy converted. It takes advantage of the nonlinearity of ferromagnetic material, augments the range of parameters of state, and consequently increases the area of one conversion cycle. The second feature is the sensorless control method which replaces a concrete position sensor or a position sensor system with an intelligent process which characterizes implicitly the sensing process and thus substitutes for the sensor itself. The electromagnets which are simple, reliable, and inexpensive, when equipped with sensorless control will be capable of performing complex duties and will replace a series of expensive devices, which are also difficult to be manufactured and maintained. An experimental chapter reinforces the theoretical and computational work developed in the second part of this work. The idea of a fusion of the principle of electromagnetic actuators-as simple devices work with the other principle of magnetic amplifiers in the light of premagnetization and sensorless control is listed at the end of this research as leading to new actuators of increased complexity but achieving a higher payoff. In the light of some importance to the issues related to the design of high performance actuators, the chapters on thermal analysis, optimization process, and an integrated approach for numerical calculations together with the source codes developed by the author for this study are listed in the appendix section.

  1. Efficient generation of volatile cadmium species using Ti(III) and Ti(IV) and application to determination of cadmium by cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CVG-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Arslan, Zikri; Yilmaz, Vedat; Rose, LaKeysha

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a highly efficient chemical vapor generation (CVG) approach is reported for determination of cadmium (Cd). Titanium (III) and titanium (IV) were investigated for the first time as catalytic additives along with thiourea, L-cysteine and potassium cyanide (KCN) for generation of volatile Cd species. Both Ti(III) and Ti(IV) provided the highest enhancement with KCN. The improvement with thiourea was marginal (ca. 2-fold), while L-cysteine enhanced signal slightly only with Ti(III) in H2SO4. Optimum CVG conditions were 4% (v/v) HCl + 0.03 M Ti(III) + 0.16 M KCN and 2% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.03 M Ti(IV) + 0.16 M KCN with a 3% (m/v) NaBH4 solution. The sensitivity was improved about 40-fold with Ti(III) and 35-fold with Ti(IV). A limit of detection (LOD) of 3.2 ng L(-1) was achieved with Ti(III) by CVG-ICP-MS. The LOD with Ti(IV) was 6.4 ng L(-1) which was limited by the blank signals in Ti(IV) solution. Experimental evidence indicated that Ti(III) and Ti(IV) enhanced Cd vapor generation catalytically; for best efficiency mixing prior to reaction with NaBH4 was critical. The method was highly robust against the effects of transition metal ions. No significant suppression was observed in the presence of Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) up to 1.0 μg mL(-1). Among the hydride forming elements, no interference was observed from As(III) and Se(IV) at 0.5 μg mL(-1) level. The depressive effects from Pb(II) and Sb(III) were not significant at 0.1 μg mL(-1) while those from Bi(III) and Sn(II) were marginal. The procedures were validated with determination of Cd by CVG-ICP-MS in a number certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4), Mussel tissue (SRM 2976) and Domestic Sludge (SRM 2781).

  2. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  3. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Generation of oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes by m-CPBA oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C. Evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X = Cl-, Br-), by Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, T; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Müther, M; Mandon, D; Winkler, H; Trautwein, A X; Weiss, R

    2000-01-30

    The generation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-caption radical complexes by m-CPBA (meta-chloroperbenzoic acid) oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was investigated. UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies indicate that the axial ligand present in the ferric starting derivatives is retained in the high-valent iron complexes. Indirect evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X=Cl-, Br-) by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was also obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Direct confirmation of the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in these high-valent iron species was obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The EXAFS spectra of the samples obtained by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) were refined using two different coordination models including both four porphyrinato-nitrogens and the axial oxo group. The two models include (model I) or exclude (model II) the axial halogen. The statistical tests indicate the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in both derivatives. The refinements led to the following bond distances: FeIV=O(tmp*)Cl(3):Fe-O=1.66(1),Fe-Cl=2.39(2) and Fe-Np=1.99(1) A;FeIV=O(tmp*)Br(4):Fe-O=1.65(1),Fe-Br=2.93(2), Fe-Np=2.02(1) A. The lengthening of the Fe-X(X=Cl-, Br-) distances relative to those occurring in the ferric precursor porphyrins is, most probably, related to the strong trans influence of the oxoiron(IV) fragment present in 3 or 4.

  5. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  6. Advancing Design-for-Assembly: The Next Generation in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.

    1998-12-09

    At the 1995 IEEE Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning, Sandia National Laboratories introduced the Archimedes 2 Software Tool [2]. The system was described as a second-generation assembly planning system that allowed preliminmy application of awembly planning for industry, while solidly supporting further research in planning techniques. Sandia has worked closely with indust~ and academia over the last four years. The results of these working relationships have bridged a gap for the next generation in assembly planning. Zke goal of this paper is to share Sandia 's technological advancements in assembly planning over the last four years and the impact these advancements have made on the manufacturing communip.

  7. Advances in Parallelization for Large Scale Oct-Tree Mesh Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connell, Matthew; Karman, Steve L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advancements in the parallelization of numerical simulation codes over the last 20 years, it is still common to perform grid generation in serial. Generating large scale grids in serial often requires using special "grid generation" compute machines that can have more than ten times the memory of average machines. While some parallel mesh generation techniques have been proposed, generating very large meshes for LES or aeroacoustic simulations is still a challenging problem. An automated method for the parallel generation of very large scale off-body hierarchical meshes is presented here. This work enables large scale parallel generation of off-body meshes by using a novel combination of parallel grid generation techniques and a hybrid "top down" and "bottom up" oct-tree method. Meshes are generated using hardware commonly found in parallel compute clusters. The capability to generate very large meshes is demonstrated by the generation of off-body meshes surrounding complex aerospace geometries. Results are shown including a one billion cell mesh generated around a Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle geometry, which was generated on 64 processors in under 45 minutes.

  8. Our experiences with erlotinib in second and third line treatment patients with advanced stage IIIB/ IV non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehić, Bakir; Stanetić, Mirko; Tinjić, Ljuljeta; Smoljanović, Vlatka

    2008-11-01

    HeadHER1/EGFR is known to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and is overexpressed in up to 80% of NSCLCs. The study of an Expanded Access Clinical Program of Erlotinib in NSCLC is a phase IV open-label, non-randomized, multicenter trial in patients with advanced (inoperable stage IIIb/IV) NSCLC who were eligible for treatment with erlotinib but had no access to trial participation. Patients for the study from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) were selected from two Clinical centres (Sarajevo and Banja Luka). The aim of study was to evaluated efficacy and tolerability of erlotinib monotherapy in this setting. All patients who received at least one dose of erlotinib and data were entered in the database as of the CRF cut-off date of 14th May 2008 were included in analysis of data (n = 19). This population is defined as the Intent to Treat (ITT) population and includes all patients who had at least one dose of erlotinib regardless of whether major protocol violations were incurred. The findings are consistent with the results of the randomized, placebo-controlled BR.21 study. Indicating that erlotinib is an effective option for patients with advanced NSCLC who are unsuitable for, or who have previously failed standard chemotherapy. In B&H group of patients DCR was almost 84%, and PFS was approximately 24,7 weeks (compared with 44% and 9,7 weeks for erlotinib reported in phase III). Almost three quarter of the patients received erlotinib as their second line of therapy. Overall, erlotinib was well tolerated; there were no patients who withdrew due to a treatment-related AE (mainly rash) and there were few dose reductions. 24% of patients experienced an SAE (most commonly gastrointestinal (GI) disorders).

  9. Unconstrained plastering : all-hexahedral mesh generation via advancing front geometry decomposition (2004-2008).

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, Teddy Dean; Staten, Matthew L.; Kerr, Robert A.; Owen, Steven James

    2010-03-01

    The generation of all-hexahedral finite element meshes has been an area of ongoing research for the past two decades and remains an open problem. Unconstrained plastering is a new method for generating all-hexahedral finite element meshes on arbitrary volumetric geometries. Starting from an unmeshed volume boundary, unconstrained plastering generates the interior mesh topology without the constraints of a pre-defined boundary mesh. Using advancing fronts, unconstrained plastering forms partially defined hexahedral dual sheets by decomposing the geometry into simple shapes, each of which can be meshed with simple meshing primitives. By breaking from the tradition of previous advancing-front algorithms, which start from pre-meshed boundary surfaces, unconstrained plastering demonstrates that for the tested geometries, high quality, boundary aligned, orientation insensitive, all-hexahedral meshes can be generated automatically without pre-meshing the boundary. Examples are given for meshes from both solid mechanics and geotechnical applications.

  10. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Low Risk Rendezvous and Docking Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Carrington, Connie; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Thomas; Howard, Ricky T.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is being built and tested at MSFC. This paper provides an overview of current work on the NGAVGS, a summary of the video guidance heritage, and the AVGS performance on the Orbital Express mission. This paper also provides a discussion of applications to ISS cargo delivery vehicles, CEV, and future lunar applications.

  11. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  12. Advanced Virgo Interferometer: a Second Generation Detector for Gravitational Waves Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Agathos, M.; Allocca, A.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Boer, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dereli, H.; De Rosa, R.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Virgilio, A.; Drago, M.; Endrőczi, G.; Fafone, V.; Farinon, S.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Groot, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Jaranowski, P.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kéfélian, F.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Kutynia, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martinelli, L.; Masserot, A.; Meacher, D.; Meidam, J.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Mours, B.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Nocera, F.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prijatelj, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosińska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Shah, S.; Siellez, K.; Sperandio, L.; Straniero, N.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Ter Braack, A. P. M.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; Vasúth, M.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Wei, L.-W.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2015-03-01

    In the last ten years great improvements have been done in the development and operation of ground based detectors for Gravitational Waves direct observation and study. The second generation detectors are presently under construction in Italy, United States and Japan with a common intent to create a worldwide network of instruments able to start a new era in astronomy and astrophysics, a century after the development of the General Relativity theory predicting the existence of Gravitational Waves. The design sensitivity of the advanced detectors will be approximately ten times better with respect to the previous generation corresponding to an increment of a factor one thousand in the observational volume of the Universe where black holes, neutron stars and other enigmatic sources of these weak signals are spread around. In this paper we present a general overview of the advanced detectors with particular emphasis on Advanced VIRGO, the largest European interferometer located at the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) site in the Pisa countryside (Italy).

  13. Second generation 2-aminoimidazole based advanced glycation end product inhibitors and breakers.

    PubMed

    Furlani, Robert E; Richardson, Mike A; Podell, Brendan K; Ackart, David F; Haugen, Jessica D; Melander, Roberta J; Basaraba, Randall J; Melander, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) as a result of the action of reducing sugars on host macromolecules plays a role in increased morbidity of diabetic patients. There are currently no clinically available therapeutics for the prevention or eradication of AGEs. Following our previous identification of 2-aminoimidazole (2-AI) based AGE inhibitors and breakers, we now report the use of a rapid, scalable, two-step procedure to access a second generation of 2-AI based anti-AGE compounds from commercially available amino acids. Several second generation compounds exhibit increased AGE inhibition and breaking activty compared to the first generation compounds and to the known AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine.

  14. Advanced technology optical telescopes IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Tucson, AZ, Feb. 12-16, 1990. Parts 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Lawrence D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on the current status of large, advanced-technology optical telescope development and construction projects discusses topics on such factors as their novel optical system designs, the use of phased arrays, seeing and site performance factors, mirror fabrication and testing, pointing and tracking techniques, mirror thermal control, structural design strategies, mirror supports and coatings, and the control of segmented mirrors. Attention is given to the proposed implementation of the VLT Interferometer, the first diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics, a fiber-optic telescope using a large cross-section image-transmitting bundle, the design of wide-field arrays, Hartmann test data reductions, liquid mirrors, inertial drives for telescope pointing, temperature control of large honeycomb mirrors, evaporative coatings for very large telescope mirrors, and the W. M. Keck telescope's primary mirror active control system software.

  15. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, F. J.

    A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

  16. Stage IV and age over 45 years are the only prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Score for the outcome of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the Spanish Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group series.

    PubMed

    Guisado-Vasco, Pablo; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Canales, Miguel; Cánovas, Araceli; Garcia-Laraña, José; García-Sanz, Ramón; Lopez, Andrés; López, José Luis; Llanos, Marta; Moraleda, José Maria; Rodriguez, José; Rayón, Consuelo; Sabin, Pilar; Salar, Antonio; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; Tomás, José Francisco; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Victor; Piris, Miguel A; Garcia, Juán F; Montalban, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.

  17. Molecular characterization and polyclonal antibody generation against core component CagX protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish; Pal, Jagannath; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer, duodenal cancer, and found in almost half of the world’s residents. The protein responsible for this disease is secreted through type IV secretion system (TFSS) of H. pylori. TFSS is encoded by 40-kb region of chromosomal DNA known as cag-pathogenicity island (PAI). TFSS comprises of three major components: cytoplasmic/inner membrane ATPase, transmembrane core-complex and outer membranous pilli, and associated subunits. Core complex consists of CagX, CagT, CagM, and Cag3(δ) proteins as per existing knowledge. In this study, we have characterized one of the important component of core-complex forming sub-unit protein, i.e., CagX. Complete ORF of CagX except signal peptide coding region was cloned and expressed in pET28a vector. Purification of CagX protein was performed, and polyclonal anti-sera against full-length recombinant CagX were raised in rabbit model. We obtained a very specific and high titer, CagX anti-sera that were utilized to characterize endogenous CagX. Surface localization of CagX was also seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. In short for the first time a full-length CagX was characterized, and we showed that CagX is the part of high molecular weight core complex, which is important for assembly and function of H. pylori TFSS. PMID:24637488

  18. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  19. Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

    2013-06-01

    Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

  20. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative - Projected Linear Heat Generation Rate and Burnup Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray S. Chang; Debbie J. Utterbeck

    2005-02-01

    This report provides documentation of the physics analysis performed to determine the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) and burnup calculations for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) tests, AFC-1D, AFC-1H, and AFC-1G. The AFC-1D and AFC-1H tests consists of low-fertile metallic fuel compositions and the AFC-1G test consists of non-fertile and low-fertile nitride compositions. These tests will be irradiated in the East Flux Trap (EFT) positions E1, E2, and E3, respectively, during Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 135B.

  1. The Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. IV. The Star Formation History of NGC 2976

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Roškar, Rok; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Skillman, Evan; Holtzman, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We present resolved stellar photometry of NGC 2976 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program. The data cover the radial extent of the major axis of the disk out to 6 kpc, or ~6 scale lengths. The outer disk was imaged to a depth of M F606W ~ 1, and an inner field was imaged to the crowding limit at a depth of M F606W ~ -1. Through detailed analysis and modeling of the resulting color-magnitude diagrams, we have reconstructed the star formation history (SFH) of the stellar populations currently residing in these portions of the galaxy, finding similar ancient populations at all radii but significantly different young populations at increasing radii. In particular, outside of the well-measured break in the disk surface brightness profile, the age of the youngest population increases with distance from the galaxy center, suggesting that star formation is shutting down from the outside-in. We use our measured SFH, along with H I surface density measurements, to reconstruct the surface density profile of the disk during previous epochs. Comparisons between the recovered star formation rates and reconstructed gas densities at previous epochs are consistent with star formation following the Schmidt law during the past 0.5 Gyr, but with a drop in star formation efficiency at low gas densities, as seen in local galaxies at the present day. The current rate and gas density suggest that rapid star formation in NGC 2976 is currently in the process of ceasing from the outside-in due to gas depletion. This process of outer disk gas depletion and inner disk star formation was likely triggered by an interaction with the core of the M81 group gsim1 Gyr ago that stripped the gas from the galaxy halo and/or triggered gas inflow from the outer disk toward the galaxy center.

  2. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IV. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF NGC 2976

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Roskar, Rok; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon E-mail: jd@astro.washington.ed E-mail: stephanie@astro.washington.ed E-mail: dweisz@astro.umn.ed E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.co

    2010-01-20

    We present resolved stellar photometry of NGC 2976 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program. The data cover the radial extent of the major axis of the disk out to 6 kpc, or approx6 scale lengths. The outer disk was imaged to a depth of M{sub F606W} approx 1, and an inner field was imaged to the crowding limit at a depth of M{sub F606W} approx -1. Through detailed analysis and modeling of the resulting color-magnitude diagrams, we have reconstructed the star formation history (SFH) of the stellar populations currently residing in these portions of the galaxy, finding similar ancient populations at all radii but significantly different young populations at increasing radii. In particular, outside of the well-measured break in the disk surface brightness profile, the age of the youngest population increases with distance from the galaxy center, suggesting that star formation is shutting down from the outside-in. We use our measured SFH, along with H I surface density measurements, to reconstruct the surface density profile of the disk during previous epochs. Comparisons between the recovered star formation rates and reconstructed gas densities at previous epochs are consistent with star formation following the Schmidt law during the past 0.5 Gyr, but with a drop in star formation efficiency at low gas densities, as seen in local galaxies at the present day. The current rate and gas density suggest that rapid star formation in NGC 2976 is currently in the process of ceasing from the outside-in due to gas depletion. This process of outer disk gas depletion and inner disk star formation was likely triggered by an interaction with the core of the M81 group approx>1 Gyr ago that stripped the gas from the galaxy halo and/or triggered gas inflow from the outer disk toward the galaxy center.

  3. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Symptomatic Subjects With Advanced Vascular Atherosclerosis of the Carotid Artery (Type III and IV b Findings Using Ultrasound)

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ansgar; Bojara, Waldemar; Schunk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) in symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was more successful using ultrasound technology than exercise electrocardiography (ECG). Methods Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study, the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM scores of 3,513 healthy men and 2,088 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 65 were determined. During the subsequent follow-up study, 36 subjects developed symptoms such as exertional dyspnea, atypical angina pectoris (AP) or typical AP. Four patients displayed no symptoms. The initial cardiac diagnostic testing was conducted on 31 patients using an exercise ECG, four patients were assessed using a coronary angiogram, and five further patients were assessed using a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram. An ultrasound examination of the carotid artery of 39 patients revealed a type IV b finding and in one patient, the examination revealed a type III finding. Results In 17 patients, the PROCAM score was < 10%, 13 patients had a score of 10-20% and 10 patients had a score of > 20%. In the final analysis, only two patients had entirely smooth coronary arteries, seven had coronary sclerosis, seven had a 30% stenosis, one had a 30-40% stenosis, one had a 40% stenosis, and 22 patients had a stenosis ≥ 50%, and in extreme cases, a left main coronary artery stenosis with three-vessel disease was shown. The exercise ECG only achieved a true positive result in four patients, and in 21 patients, the result was false negative. Conclusions Symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery (type III and type IV b findings) had a high risk for CHD. The diagnosis of CHD is better achieved by

  4. Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a high-efficiency generator being developed for potential use on a Discovery 12 space mission. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit was delivered to NASA Glenn Research Center in 2008 and has been undergoing extended operation testing to generate long-term performance data for an integrated system. It has also been used for tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs, both when controlled with an alternating current (AC) bus and with a digital controller. The ASRG EU currently has over 27,000 hours of operation. This paper summarizes all of the tests that have been conducted on the ASRG EU over the past 3 years and provides an overview of the test results and what was learned.

  5. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG engineering unit (EU), was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently under extended operation test at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for the ASRG EU. This paper summarizes details of the test facility design, including the mechanical mounting, heat-rejection system, argon system, control systems, and maintenance. The effort proceeded from requirements definition through design, analysis, build, and test. Initial testing and facility performance results are discussed.

  6. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  7. Selection of the reference steam generator for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Eric P.; Boardman, Chuck

    2007-07-01

    In February 2006 President Bush announced the Advanced Energy Initiative, which included the Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). GNEP has seven broad goals; one of the major elements being to develop and deploy advanced nuclear fuel recycling technology that includes consuming spent nuclear fuel in an Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR). DOE is contemplating accelerating the deployment of these technologies to achieve the construction of a commercial scale application of these technologies. DOE now defines this approach as 'two simultaneous tracks: (1) deployment of commercial scale facilities for which advanced technologies are available now or in the near future, and (2) further research and development of transmutation fuels technologies'. GEHitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GHNEA) believes an integrated technical solution is achievable in the near term to accelerate the commercial demonstration of GNEP infrastructure. The GHNEA ARR concept involves a single integrated recycling facility sized to service a single reactor module ARR capable of destroying light water and fast reactor sourced actinides. This paper describes the bases and rationale behind the selection of the helical coil steam generator (HCSG) as the reference steam generator concept for the ALMR and S-PRISM reactor concepts. (authors)

  8. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  9. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  10. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  11. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  12. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination on an automated platform: application in the generation of urea and amide libraries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Fan, L; Vo, L; Labadie, J

    2000-04-01

    Amine libraries and their derivatives are important targets for high throughput synthesis because of their versatility as medicinal agents and agrochemicals. As a part of our efforts towards automated chemical library synthesis, a titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination protocol was successfully translated to automation on the Trident(TM) library synthesizer of Argonaut Technologies. An array of 24 secondary amines was prepared in high yield and purity from 4 primary amines and 6 carbonyl compounds. These secondary amines were further utilized in a split synthesis to generate libraries of ureas, amides and sulfonamides in solution phase on the Trident(TM). The automated runs included 192 reactions to synthesize 96 ureas in duplicate and 96 reactions to synthesize 48 amides and 48 sulfonamides. A number of polymer-assisted solution phase protocols were employed for parallel work-up and purification of the products in each step.

  13. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  14. Development and Validation of Temperature Dependent Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws for Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman Hawari

    2008-06-20

    The overall obljectives of this project are to critically review the currently used thermal neutron scattering laws for various moderators as a function of temperature, select as well documented and representative set of experimental data sensitive to the neutron spectra to generate a data base of benchmarks, update models and models parameters by introducing new developments in thermalization theory and condensed matter physics into various computational approaches in establishing the scattering laws, benchmark the results against the experimentatl set. In the case of graphite, a validation experiment is performed by observing nutron slowing down as a function of temperatures equal to or greater than room temperature.

  15. State-of-the-Art Assessment of Testing and Testability of Custom LSI/VLSI Circuits. Volume IV. Test Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    containing 240 gates and 36 flip-flops [Hill & Huey 1977]. It 13 S tart aults Fault (1)-AgorithmI (2) Sensitization Searchj o. , ye F nauls no -- - Delet...Conf., Cherry Hill, NJ, pp. 37-41, October 1979. [Lesser & Shedletsky 1980] J.D. Lesser & J.J. Shedletsky: "An experimental delay test generator for...patterns within a structured sequential logic network," Digest Semiconductor Test Symp., Cherry Hill, NJ, pp. 19-27, October 1977. [Yamada et al. 1977

  16. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  17. Development of a Power Electronics Controller for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, Douglas K.; Priest, Joel F.; Keiter, Douglas E.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Energy program for radioisotope power systems, Lockheed Martin is developing an Engineering Unit of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This is an advanced version of the previously reported SRG110 generator. The ASRG uses Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Incorporated under a NASA Research Announcement contract. The ASRG makes use of a Stirling controller based on power electronics that eliminates the tuning capacitors. The power electronics controller synchronizes dual-opposed convertors and maintains a fixed frequency operating point. The controller is single-fault tolerant and uses high-frequency pulse width modulation to create the sinusoidal currents that are nearly in phase with the piston velocity, eliminating the need for large series tuning capacitors. Sunpower supports this effort through an extension of their controller development intended for other applications. Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports this effort through system dynamic modeling, analysis and test support. The ASRG design arrived at a new baseline based on a system-level trade study and extensive feedback from mission planners on the necessity of single-fault tolerance. This paper presents the baseline design with an emphasis on the power electronics controller detailed design concept that will meet space mission requirements including single fault tolerance.

  18. Advanced Seal Technology Role in Meeting Next Generation Turbine Engine Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Munson, John

    1999-01-01

    Cycle studies have shown the benefits of increasing engine pressure ratios and cycle temperatures to decrease engine weight and improve performance in next generation turbine engines. Advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight, emissions, durability and operating costs. NASA and the industry are identifying and developing engine and sealing technologies that will result in dramatic improvements and address the goals for engines entering service in the 2005-2007 time frame. This paper provides an overview of advanced seal technology requirements and highlights the results of a preliminary design effort to implement advanced seals into a regional aircraft turbine engine. This study examines in great detail the benefits of applying advanced seals in the high pressure turbine region of the engine. Low leakage film-riding seals can cut in half the estimated 4% cycle air currently used to purge the high pressure turbine cavities. These savings can be applied in one of several ways. Holding rotor inlet temperature (RIT) constant the engine specific fuel consumption can be reduced 0.9%, or thrust could be increased 2.5%, or mission fuel burn could be reduced 1.3%. Alternatively, RIT could be lowered 20 'F resulting in a 50% increase in turbine blade life reducing overall regional aircraft maintenance and fuel bum direct operating costs by nearly 1%. Thermal, structural, secondary-air systems, safety (seal failure and effect), and emissions analyses have shown the proposed design is feasible.

  19. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-08-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft{sup 2}, the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft{sup 2}-degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation.

  20. BESTIA - the next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    DOE PAGES

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; ...

    2015-12-02

    Over the last two decades, BNL’s ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. In addition, our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particlemore » acceleration of ions and electrons.« less

  1. BESTIA - The next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  2. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  3. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  4. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  5. Generation of optimum vertical profiles for an advanced flight management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Waters, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Algorithms for generating minimum fuel or minimum cost vertical profiles are derived and examined. The option for fixing the time of flight is included in the concepts developed. These algorithms form the basis for the design of an advanced on-board flight management system. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff mass, and range-to-destination are presented. Fuel savings due to optimum climb, free cruise altitude, and absorbing delays enroute are examined.

  6. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  7. Generation of high-quality electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. M. Elsied; Nasr, A. M. Hafz; Li, Song; Mohammad, Mirzaie; Thomas, Sokollik; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams of reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared. Supported by 973 National Basic Research Program of China (2013CBA01504) and Natural Science Foundation of China NSFC (11121504, 11334013, 11175119, 11374209)

  8. Recent Patents and Advances in the Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Biaoyang; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Yin

    2010-01-01

    We are now witnessing a new genomic revolution due to the arrival and continued advancements in the next-generation high-throughput sequencing technologies, which encompass sequencing by synthesis including fluorescent in situ sequencing (FISSEQ) and pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation including using polony amplification and supported oligonucleotide detection (SOLiD), sequencing by hybridization in combination with sequencing-by-ligation and nanopore technology, nanopore sequencing and other novel sequencing technologies using nano-transistor array, scanning tunneling microscopy and nanowire molecule sensors etc. We review here major technologies and recent patents for achieving high-throughput, ultra-fast, extremely cheap, and highly accurate sequencing. We will see enormous impacts of these next-generation sequencing methods for solving complex biological problems and for ushering in the practice of personalized medicine. PMID:21709726

  9. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  10. Advanced Development Projects for Constellation From The Next Generation Launch Technology Program Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Saiyed, Naseem H.; Swith, Marion Shayne

    2005-01-01

    When United States President George W. Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration in January 2004, twelve propulsion and launch system projects were being pursued in the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. These projects underwent a review for near-term relevance to the Vision. Subsequently, five projects were chosen as advanced development projects by NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). These five projects were Auxiliary Propulsion, Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator, Propulsion Technology and Integration, Vehicle Subsystems, and Constellation University Institutes. Recently, an NGLT effort in Vehicle Structures was identified as a gap technology that was executed via the Advanced Development Projects Office within ESMD. For all of these advanced development projects, there is an emphasis on producing specific, near-term technical deliverables related to space transportation that constitute a subset of the promised NGLT capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the relevancy review process and provide a status of the aforementioned projects. For each project, the background, objectives, significant technical accomplishments, and future plans will be discussed. In contrast to many of the current ESMD activities, these areas are providing hardware and testing to further develop relevant technologies in support of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  11. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Eficiency NO(x) Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Maly, P.M.; Sheldon, M.S.; Moyeda, D.; Gardiner, W.C., Jr.; Lissianski, V.V.

    1997-04-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The sixth reporting period (January I - March 31, 1997) included both experimental and modeling activities. New kinetic experimental data for high-temperature decomposition of sodium carbonate were obtained in a flow reactor at the University of Texas in Austin. Pilot scale combustion tests in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility were continued with firing coal and using natural gas as reburn fuel. The results demonstrate that over 90% NO control is achievable by injecting one or two N-agents with sodium promoters into the reburning zone and with the overfire air. Advanced reburning technologies does not cause significant byproduct emissions. The AR kinetic model was updated to include chemical reactions of sodium carbonate decomposition. Modeling was conducted on evaluation of the effect of sodium on process kinetics in the rebuming zone. This study revealed that increasing or decreasing radical concentrations in the presence of sodium can significantly affect the reactions responsible for NO reduction under fuel-rich conditions. The effect of mixing time on performance with sodium was also evaluated. Initial activities on engineering design methodology for second generation AR improvements are described.

  12. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-03-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998.

  13. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  14. Novel actions of next-generation taxanes benefit advanced stages of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Renée; Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Schiewer, Matthew J; Ciment, Stephen J; Den, Robert B; Dicker, Adam P; Kelly, William K; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Lallas, Costas D; Gomella, Leonard G; Knudsen, Karen E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve the outcomes of patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), there is an urgent need for more effective therapies and approaches that individual specific treatments for patients with CRPC. The current studies compared the novel taxane, cabazitaxel with the previous generation docetaxel, and aimed to determine which tumors are most likely to respond. Experimental design Cabazitaxel (CBTX) and docetaxel (DCTX) were compared via in vitro modeling to determine molecular mechanism, biochemical and cell biological impact, and cell proliferation, which was further assessed ex vivo in human tumor explants. Isogenic pairs of RB knockdown and control cells were interrogated in vitro, and in xenograft tumors for cabazitaxel response. Results The data herein show that i. CBTX exerts stronger cytostatic and cytotoxic response compared to DCTX, especially in CRPC; ii. CBTX induces aberrant mitosis, leading to pyknotic and multinucleated cells; iii. taxanes do not act through the androgen receptor (AR); iv. Gene expression profiling reveals distinct molecular actions for CBTX v. tumors that have progressed to castration resistance via loss of RB show enhanced sensitivity to CBTX. Conclusions CBTX not only induces improved cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, but also impacts distinct molecular pathways, compared to DCTX, which could underlie its efficacy after DCTX treatment has failed in CRPC patients. Finally, RB is identified as the first potential biomarker that could define the therapeutic response to taxanes in metastatic CRPC. This would suggest that loss of RB function induces sensitization taxanes, which could benefit up to 50% of CRPC cases. PMID:25691773

  15. I-V and DLTS study of generation and annihilation of deep-level defects in an oxygen-ion irradiated bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, K. V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

    A commercial bipolar junction transistor (2N 2219A, npn) irradiated with 84 MeV O6+-ions with fluence of the order of 1013 ions cm-2 is studied for radiation-induced gain degradation and deep-level defects or recombination centers. I-V measurements are made to study the gain degradation as a function of ion fluence. Properties such as activation energy, trap concentration and capture cross section of deep levels are studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Minority carrier trap energy levels with energies ranging from EC -0.17 eV to EC -0.55 eV are observed in the base-collector junction of the transistor. Majority carrier defect levels are also observed with energies ranging from EV +0.26 eV to EV +0.44 eV. The irradiated device is subjected to isothermal and isochronal annealing. The defects are seen to anneal above 250 °C. The defects generated in the base region of the transistor by displacement damage appear to be responsible for an increase in base current through Shockley-Read-Hall or multi-phonon recombination and consequent transistor gain degradation.

  16. Angiotensin IV possibly acts through PKMzeta in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2015-10-01

    Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus.

  17. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH HYDRODYNAMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW AND ON-LINE REDUCTION OF SELENIUM(VI) TO SELENIUM(IV) WITH HYDRIDE GENERATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine four arsenicals and two selenium species. Selenate (SeVI) was reduced on-line to selenite (SeIV') by mixing the CE effluent with concentrated HCl. A microporo...

  18. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Nov. 15, 2001 - Feb. 15,2002) ''Design and Layout Concepts for Compact, Factory-Produced, Transportable, Generation IV Reactor Systems''

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Mohammed Khan; Joe McConn; Lawrence Townsend; Wesley Williams; Martin Williamson

    2002-03-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. Three nuclear power plant concepts are being studied representing water, helium and lead-bismuth coolants. This is the sixth quarterly progress report.

  19. Advanced Glycation End Products Activate a Chymase-Dependent Angiotensin II Generating Pathway in Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Vijay; Wang, Wansheng; Huang, Xiao Ru; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Truong, Luan D.; Lan, Hui Y

    2006-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin II is a key mediator of diabetes-related vascular disease. It is now recognized that in addition to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), chymase is an important alternative angiotensin II generating enzyme in hypertension and diabetes. However, the mechanism of induction of chymase in diabetes remains unknown. Methods and Results: Here we report that chymase is upregulated in coronary and renal arteries in patients with diabetes by immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of vascular chymase is associated with deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), increase in expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), and activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase. In vitro, AGEs can induce chymase expression and chymase-dependent angiotensin II generation in human vascular smooth muscle cells via the RAGE-ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. This is confirmed by blockade of AGE-induced vascular chymase expression with a neutralizing RAGE antibody and an inhibitor to ERK1/2, and by overexpression of the dominant negative-ERK1/2. Compared to ACE, chymase contributes to the majority of angiotensin II production (more than 70%, p<0.01) in response to AGEs. Further more, AGE-induced Angiotensin II production is blocked by the anti-RAGE antibody and by inhibition of ERK1/2 MAP kinase activities. Conclusions: Advanced glycation end products, a hallmark of diabetes, induce chymase via the RAGE-ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. Chymase initiates an important alternative angiotensin II generating pathway in diabetes and may play a critical role in diabetic vascular disease. PMID:16520412

  20. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  1. Advances in understanding the cell types and approaches used for generating induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Song, Wei; Pan, Guangjin; Zhou, Jun

    2014-07-19

    Successfully reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state generates induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (or iPSCs), which have extensive self-renewal capacity like embryonic stem cells (ESCs). iPSCs can also generate daughter cells that can further undergo differentiation into various lineages or terminally differentiate to reach their final functional state. The discovery of how to produce iPSCs opened a new field of stem cell research with both intellectual and therapeutic benefits. The huge potential implications of disease-specific or patient-specific iPSCs have impelled scientists to solve problems hindering their applications in clinical medicine, especially the issues of convenience and safety. To determine the range of tissue types amenable to reprogramming as well as their particular characteristics, cells from three embryonic germ layers have been assessed, and the advantages that some tissue origins have over fibroblast origins concerning efficiency and accessibility have been elucidated. To provide safe iPSCs in an efficient and convenient way, the delivery systems and combinations of inducing factors as well as the chemicals used to generate iPSCs have also been significantly improved in addition to the efforts on finding better donor cells. Currently, iPSCs can be generated without c-Myc and Klf4 oncogenes, and non-viral delivery integration-free chemically mediated reprogramming methods have been successfully employed with relatively satisfactory efficiency. This paper will review recent advances in iPS technology by highlighting tissue origin and generation of iPSCs. The obstacles that need to be overcome for clinical applications of iPSCs are also discussed.

  2. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  3. The Impact of Local and Regional Disease Extent on Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Stage IIIB/IV Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Daniel S.; Chen, Ronald C.; Tracton, Gregg; Morris, David E.; Halle, Jan; Rosenman, Julian G.; Stefanescu, Mihaela; Pham, Erica; Socinski, Mark A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced stage IIIB or stage IV non-small cell lung carcinoma are typically treated with initial platinum-based chemotherapy. A variety of factors (eg, performance status, gender, age, histology, weight loss, and smoking history) are generally accepted as predictors of overall survival. Because uncontrolled pulmonary disease constitutes a major cause of death in these patients, we hypothesized that clinical and radiographic factors related to intrathoracic disease at diagnosis may be prognostically significant in addition to conventional factors. The results have implications regarding the selection of patients for whom palliative thoracic radiation therapy may be of most benefit. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pooled analysis of 189 patients enrolled at a single institution into 9 prospective phase II and III clinical trials involving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. Baseline clinical and radiographic characteristics before trial enrollment were analyzed as possible predictors for subsequent overall survival. To assess the relationship between anatomic location and volume of disease within the thorax and its effect on survival, the pre-enrollment computed tomography images were also analyzed by contouring central and peripheral intrapulmonary disease. Results: On univariate survival analysis, multiple pulmonary-related factors were significantly associated with worse overall survival, including pulmonary symptoms at presentation (P=.0046), total volume of intrathoracic disease (P=.0006), and evidence of obstruction of major bronchi or vessels on prechemotherapy computed tomography (P<.0001). When partitioned into central and peripheral volumes, central (P<.0001) but not peripheral (P=.74) disease was associated with worse survival. On multivariate analysis with known factors, pulmonary symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.46; P=.042), central disease volume (hazard ratio, 1.47; P=.042), and bronchial/vascular compression (hazard ratio, 1

  4. The Generation-X Vision Mission Study and Advanced Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Generation-X Team

    2008-03-01

    The Generation-X (Gen-X) mission was selected as one of NASA's Vision Missions as a concept for a next generation X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current X-ray telescopes. The mission has also been proposed as an Advanced Mission Concept Study (AMCS) to further define the technology development plan and mission design. The scientific goals for Gen-X include studying the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z=10-20, the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present, the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions. The key parameters required to meet these goals define a challenging mission and include an effective area of 50 m2 at 1 keV, and an angular resolution (HPD) of 0.1 arcsec over an energy band of 0.1-10 keV. The required effective area implies that extremely lightweight grazing incidence X-ray optics must be developed. To achieve the required areal density of at least 100 times lower than in Chandra, thin ( 0.1 mm) mirrors that have active on-orbit figure control are required. We present the major findings from the Gen-X Vision Mission Study and a streamlined mission concept enabled by the Ares V launch capability, as proposed in response to the AMSC call.

  5. Advanced Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostettler, Jacob

    Various environmental and economic factors have lead to increased global investment in alternative energy technologies such as solar and wind power. Although methodologies for synchronous generator control are well researched, wind turbines present control systems challenges not presented by traditional generation. The varying nature of wind makes achieving synchronism with the existing electrical power grid a greater challenge. Departing from early use of induction machines, permanent magnet synchronous generators have become the focus of power systems and control systems research into wind energy systems. This is due to their self excited nature, along with their high power density. The problem of grid synchronism is alleviated through the use of high performance power electronic converters. In achievement of the optimal levels of efficiency, advanced control systems techniques oer promise over more traditional approaches. Research into sliding mode control, and linear matrix inequalities with nite time boundedness and Hinfinity performance criteria, when applied to the dynamical models of the system, demonstrate the potential of these control methodologies as future avenues for achieving higher levels of performance and eciency in wind energy.

  6. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydt, Gerald T.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation, and the history of the process is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory in Hawaii, which are discussed in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  7. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation. The process is not new--and its history is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory--Hawaii (NELH). The NELH work is summarized in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  8. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  9. Superiority of second over first generation chemotherapy in a randomized trial for stage III-IV intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): the 1980-1985 EORTC trial. The EORTC Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Carde, P; Meerwaldt, J H; van Glabbeke, M; Somers, R; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; de Wolf-Peeters, C; de Pauw, B; Tanguy, A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C

    1991-06-01

    A first-generation CHOP-like cyclic combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen using cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 IV d1, hydroxorubicin (doxorubicin) 50 mg/m2 IV d1, VM26 60 mg/m2 IV d1, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO d1-5 (CHVmP) was compared to a second-generation combination wherein vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 IV and bleomycin 6 mg/m2 IM/IV were added at mid-interval (d15) to the former drugs (CHVmP + VB) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-grade malignant NHL. From April 1980 to January 1986, 141 eligible patients with stage III-IV unfavorable histologies (except T lymphoblastic NHL) entered this EORTC randomized trial. In both arms adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Gy) was given in instances of bulky or residual disease. In all patient subsets the outcome favored the second-generation regimen. The difference was even greater in patients with Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL). At 5 years, overall survival was 53% with CHVmP + VB versus 29% (p = 0.002). The advantage was due to a higher complete remission (CR) rate (80% versus 50%, p = 0.01). Indeed, once CR was achieved the relapse-free survival (RFS) was not significantly influenced (59% versus 49%). No significant additional toxicity could be attributed to vincristine and bleomycin. This study demonstrates a clear benefit for intermediate- and high-risk malignant NHL and particularly DLCL from intercalating non-myelotoxic drugs at mid-cycle intervals, without adverse effects.

  10. Conceptual design of an advanced Stirling conversion system for terrestrial power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A free piston Stirling engine coupled to an electric generator or alternator with a nominal kWe power output absorbing thermal energy from a nominal 100 square meter parabolic solar collector and supplying electric power to a utility grid was identified. The results of the conceptual design study of an Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) were documented. The objectives are as follows: define the ASCS configuration; provide a manufacturability and cost evaluation; predict ASCS performance over the range of solar input required to produce power; estimate system and major component weights; define engine and electrical power condidtioning control requirements; and define key technology needs not ready by the late 1980s in meeting efficiency, life, cost, and with goalds for the ASCS.

  11. Advanced properties of extended plasmas for efficient high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate the advanced properties of extended plasma plumes (5 mm) for efficient harmonic generation of laser radiation compared with the short lengths of plasmas (∼0.3–0.5 mm) used in previous studies. The harmonic conversion efficiency quadratically increased with the growth of plasma length. The studies of this process along the whole extreme ultraviolet range using the long plasma jets produced on various metal surfaces, particularly including the resonance-enhanced laser frequency conversion and two-color pump, are presented. Such plasmas could be used for the quasi-phase matching experiments by proper modulation of the spatial characteristics of extended ablating area and formation of separated plasma jets.

  12. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Ezzat, Hesham; Sachdev, Anil K.; Quinn, James; Krupitzer, Ronald; Sun, Xin

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.

  13. Structured background grids for generation of unstructured grids by advancing front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1991-01-01

    A new method of background grid construction is introduced for generation of unstructured tetrahedral grids using the advancing-front technique. Unlike the conventional triangular/tetrahedral background grids which are difficult to construct and usually inadequate in performance, the new method exploits the simplicity of uniform Cartesian meshes and provides grids of better quality. The approach is analogous to solving a steady-state heat conduction problem with discrete heat sources. The spacing parameters of grid points are distributed over the nodes of a Cartesian background grid by interpolating from a few prescribed sources and solving a Poisson equation. To increase the control over the grid point distribution, a directional clustering approach is used. The new method is convenient to use and provides better grid quality and flexibility. Sample results are presented to demonstrate the power of the method.

  14. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NO(x) Control.

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Folsom, B.A.

    1997-10-27

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eighth reporting period (July 1 - September 30, 1997) included experimental and final report preparation activities. Experiments on high-temperature reactions of sodium carbonate were completed at the University of Texas in Austin. This study revealed that sodium can affect NO{sub x} concentrations under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions. The engineering design conducted during the previous reporting period was converted into retrofit hardware for the AR-Lean system and initial test results are presented and discussed. All information presented in this report is in summary form since a Draft Final project report was submitted to DOE FETC by July 31, 1997.

  15. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  16. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  17. Integration of Americium Heat Source into the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Erich; Quinn, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The Lockheed Martin developed Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) design uses similar technology as proposed for the European Space Agency (ESA) Radioisotope Power System (RPS) development program but different isotopes. The RPS uses americium, 241Am isotope, while the ASRG uses plutonium, 238Pu isotope. The 238Pu isotope provides four times greater thermal output per kilogram than the 241Am isotope. Lockheed Martin performed an internally funded feasibility assessment that determined integration of a 241Am fueled heat source into the ASRG is achievable with no changes to ASRG technology and only structural and volumetric design considerations required. Lockheed Martin is interested in developing collaborative partnerships with the United Kingdom (UK) for the ESA RPS development program.

  18. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Thermal Power Model in Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Fabanich, William A.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal power model that was built using the Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit (EU) test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's Ideas TMG thermal model. ASRG performance under (1) ASC hot-end temperatures, (2) ambient temperatures, and (3) years of mission for the general purpose heat source fuel decay was predicted using this model for the flight unit. The results were compared with those reported by Lockheed Martin and showed good agreement. In addition, the model was used to study the performance of the ASRG flight unit for operations on the ground and on the surface of Titan, and the concept of using gold film to reduce thermal loss through insulation was investigated.

  19. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  20. Statistical metrology—measurement and modeling of variation for advanced process development and design rule generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boning, Duane S.; Chung, James E.

    1998-11-01

    Advanced process technology will require more detailed understanding and tighter control of variation in devices and interconnects. The purpose of statistical metrology is to provide methods to measure and characterize variation, to model systematic and random components of that variation, and to understand the impact of variation on both yield and performance of advanced circuits. Of particular concern are spatial or pattern-dependencies within individual chips; such systematic variation within the chip can have a much larger impact on performance than wafer-level random variation. Statistical metrology methods will play an important role in the creation of design rules for advanced technologies. For example, a key issue in multilayer interconnect is the uniformity of interlevel dielectric (ILD) thickness within the chip. For the case of ILD thickness, we describe phases of statistical metrology development and application to understanding and modeling thickness variation arising from chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). These phases include screening experiments including design of test structures and test masks to gather electrical or optical data, techniques for statistical decomposition and analysis of the data, and approaches to calibrating empirical and physical variation models. These models can be integrated with circuit CAD tools to evaluate different process integration or design rule strategies. One focus for the generation of interconnect design rules are guidelines for the use of "dummy fill" or "metal fill" to improve the uniformity of underlying metal density and thus improve the uniformity of oxide thickness within the die. Trade-offs that can be evaluated via statistical metrology include the improvements to uniformity possible versus the effect of increased capacitance due to additional metal.

  1. NASA Glenn Research Center Support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    A high-efficiency radioisotope power system was being developed for long-duration NASA space science missions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed a flight contract with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company to build Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs), with support from NASA Glenn Research Center. DOE initiated termination of that contract in late 2013, primarily due to budget constraints. Sunpower, Inc., held two parallel contracts to produce Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), one with Lockheed Martin to produce ASC-F flight units, and one with Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering unit "pathfinders" that are built to the flight design. In support of those contracts, Glenn provided testing, materials expertise, Government-furnished equipment, inspection capabilities, and related data products to Lockheed Martin and Sunpower. The technical support included material evaluations, component tests, convertor characterization, and technology transfer. Material evaluations and component tests were performed on various ASC components in order to assess potential life-limiting mechanisms and provide data for reliability models. Convertor level tests were conducted to characterize performance under operating conditions that are representative of various mission conditions. Despite termination of the ASRG flight development contract, NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) and continues investment in the technology, including the continuation of the ASC-E3 contract. This paper describes key Government support for the ASRG project and future tests to be used to provide data for ongoing reliability assessments.

  2. Three-dimensional unsteady flow calculations in an advanced gas generator turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rangwalla, Akil A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of a three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes code for predicting the unsteady flow in a single stage of an advanced gas generator turbine. The numerical method solves the three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations, using a system of overlaid grids, which allow for relative motion between the rotor and stator airfoils. Results in the form of time averaged pressures and pressure amplitudes on the airfoil surfaces will be shown. In addition, instantaneous contours of pressure, Mach number, etc. will be presented in order to provide a greater understanding of the inviscid as well as the viscous aspects of the flowfield. Also, relevant secondary flow features such as cross-plane velocity vectors and total pressure contours will be presented. Prior work in two-dimensions has indicated that for the advanced designs, the unsteady interactions can play a significant role in turbine performance. These interactions affect not only the stage efficiency but can substantially alter the time-averaged features of the flow. This work is a natural extension of the work done in two-dimensions and hopes to address some of the issues raised by the two-dimensional calculations. These calculations are being performed as an integral part of an actual design process and demonstrate the value of unsteady rotor-stator interaction calculations in the design of turbomachines.

  3. New generation of cryogen free advanced superconducting magnets for neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, O.; Brown, J.; Adroja, D. T.; Manuel, P.; Kouzmenko, G.; Bewley, R. I.; Wotherspoon, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in superconducting technology and cryocooler refrigeration have resulted in a new generation of advanced superconducting magnets for neutron beam applications. These magnets have outstanding parameters such as high homogeneity and stability at highest magnetic fields possible, a reasonably small stray field, low neutron scattering background and larger exposure to neutron detectors. At the same time the pulse tube refrigeration technology provides a complete re-condensing regime which allows to minimise the requirements for cryogens without introducing additional noise and mechanical vibrations. The magnets can be used with dilution refrigerator insert which expands the temperature range from 20mK to 300K. Here we are going to present design, test results and the operational data of the 14T magnet for neutron diffraction and the 9T wide angle chopper magnet for neutron spectroscopy developed by Oxford Instruments in collaboration with ISIS neutron source. First scientific results obtained from the neutron scattering experiments with these magnets are also going to be discussed.

  4. Third generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their development in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis in general and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling axis in particular is a validated target in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clear-cell carcinoma of the kidney is now recognized as a malignancy that is sensitive to inhibitors of the VEGF pathway. Treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have evolved in dramatic fashion over the past 6 years, and a new paradigm has developed. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 were previously utilized for therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the United States for the treatment of advanced RCC. Two are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's) including sunitinib and recently pazopanib, and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. The current review examines the evolving data with the next generation of TKI's, axitinib and tivozanib being developed for the treatment of advanced RCC. These agents were synthesized to provide increased target specificity and enhanced target inhibition. The preclinical and clinical data are examined, an overview of the development of these TKI's is provided, and discussion plus speculation concerning their potential roles as RCC therapy is provided.

  5. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFC's for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-sq cm per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  6. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. This paper presents the flight heritage and results of the sensor technology, some hardware trades for the current sensor, and discusses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the various NGAVGS development units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

  7. Supporting Development for the Stirling Radioisotope Generator and Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA GRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2005-02-01

    A high-efficiency, 110-We (watts electric) Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for possible use on future NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Potential mission use includes providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is conducting an in-house supporting technology project to assist in SRG110 development. One-, three-, and six-month heater head structural benchmark tests have been completed in support of a heater head life assessment. Testing is underway to evaluate the key epoxy bond of the permanent magnets to the linear alternator stator lamination stack. GRC has completed over 10,000 hours of extended duration testing of the Stirling convertors for the SRG110, and a three-year test of two Stirling convertors in a thermal vacuum environment will be starting shortly. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall generator. Sunpower, Inc. has begun the development of a lightweight Stirling convertor, under a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) award, that has the potential to double the system specific power to about 8 We/kg. GRC has performed random vibration testing of a lower-power version of this convertor to evaluate robustness for surviving launch vibrations. STC has also completed the initial design of a lightweight convertor. Status of the development of a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code and high-temperature materials work on advanced superalloys, refractory metal alloys, and ceramics are also discussed.

  8. Supporting Development for the Stirling Radioisotope Generator and Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency, 110-W(sub e) (watts electric) Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for possible use on future NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Potential mission use includes providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is conducting an in-house supporting technology project to assist in SRG110 development. One-, three-, and six-month heater head structural benchmark tests have been completed in support of a heater head life assessment. Testing is underway to evaluate the key epoxy bond of the permanent magnets to the linear alternator stator lamination stack. GRC has completed over 10,000 hours of extended duration testing of the Stirling convertors for the SRG110, and a three-year test of two Stirling convertors in a thermal vacuum environment will be starting shortly. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall generator. Sunpower, Inc. has begun the development of a lightweight Stirling convertor, under a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) award, that has the potential to double the system specific power to about 8 W(sub e) per kilogram. GRC has performed random vibration testing of a lowerpower version of this convertor to evaluate robustness for surviving launch vibrations. STC has also completed the initial design of a lightweight convertor. Status of the development of a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code and high-temperature materials work on advanced superalloys, refractory metal alloys, and ceramics are also discussed.

  9. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  10. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Orbital Express and the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Pinson, Robin M.; Carrington, Connie L.; Lee, James E.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Robertson, Bryan A.; Spencer, Susan H.; Johnson, Jimmie E.

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express (OE) mission performed the first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the United States on May 5-6, 2007 with the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) acting as one of the primary docking sensors. Since that event, the OE spacecraft performed four more rendezvous and docking maneuvers, each time using the AVGS as one of the docking sensors. The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) AVGS is a nearfield proximity operations sensor that was integrated into the Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture Sensor System (ARCSS) on OE. The ARCSS provided the relative state knowledge to allow the OE spacecraft to rendezvous and dock. The AVGS is a mature sensor technology designed to support Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) operations. It is a video-based laser-illuminated sensor that can determine the relative position and attitude between itself and its target. Due to parts obsolescence, the AVGS that was flown on OE can no longer be manufactured. MSFC has been working on the next generation of AVGS for application to future Constellation missions. This paper provides an overview of the performance of the AVGS on Orbital Express and discusses the work on the Next Generation AVGS (NGAVGS).

  11. A practical, rapid generation-advancement system for rice breeding using simplified biotron breeding system

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new plant breeding method—the biotron breeding system (BBS)—can rapidly produce advanced generations in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. This method uses a growth chamber (biotron) with CO2 control, accompanied by tiller removal and embryo rescue to decrease the period before seed maturity. However, tiller removal and embryo rescue are laborious and impractical for large populations. We investigated the influences of increased CO2, tiller removal, and root restriction on the days to heading (DTH) from seeding in growth chambers. The higher CO2 concentration significantly decreased DTH, but tiller removal and root restriction had little effect on DTH and drastically reduced seed yield. Based on these findings, we propose a simplified BBS (the sBBS) that eliminates the need for tiller removal and embryo rescue, but controls CO2 levels and day-length and maintains an appropriate root volume. Using the sBBS, we could reduce the interval between generations in ‘Nipponbare’ to less than 3 months, without onerous manipulations. To demonstrate the feasibility of the sBBS, we used it to develop isogenic lines using ‘Oborozuki’ as the donor parent for the low-amylose allele Wx1-1 and ‘Akidawara’ as the recipient. We were able to perform four crossing cycles in a year. PMID:27795679

  12. Natural Convection Cooling of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Hill, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    After fueling and prior to launch, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will be stored for a period of time then moved to the launch pad for integration with the space probe and mounting on the launch vehicle. During this time, which could be as long as 3 years, the ASRG will operate continuously with heat rejected from the housing and fins. Typically, the generator will be cooled by forced convection using fans. During some of the ground operations, maintaining forced convection may add significant complexity, so allowing natural convection may simplify operations. A test was conducted on the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) to quantify temperatures and operating parameters with natural convection only and determine if the EU could be safely operated in such an environment. The results show that with natural convection cooling the ASRG EU Stirling convertor pressure vessel temperatures and other parameters had significant margins while the EU was operated for several days in this configuration. Additionally, an update is provided on ASRG EU testing at NASA Glenn Research Center, where the ASRG EU has operated for over 16,000 hr and underwent extensive testing.

  13. Data Generation in the Discovery Sciences—Learning from the Practices in an Advanced Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-08-01

    General scientific literacy includes understanding the grounds on which scientific claims are based. The measurements scientists make and the data that they produce from them generally constitute these grounds. However, the nature of data generation has received relatively little attention from those interested in teaching science through inquiry. To inform curriculum designers about the process of data generation and its relation to the understanding of patterns as these may arise from graphs, this 5-year ethnographic study in one advanced research laboratory was designed to investigate how natural scientists make decisions about the inclusion/exclusion of certain measurements in/from their data sources. The study shows that scientists exclude measurements from their data sources even before attempting to mathematize and interpret the data. The excluded measurements therefore never even enter the ground from and against which the scientific phenomenon emerges and therefore remain invisible to it. I conclude by encouraging science educators to squarely address this aspect of the discovery sciences in their teaching, which has both methodological and ethical implications.

  14. The three-dimensional Multi-Block Advanced Grid Generation System (3DMAGGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Weilmuenster, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    As the size and complexity of three dimensional volume grids increases, there is a growing need for fast and efficient 3D volumetric elliptic grid solvers. Present day solvers are limited by computational speed and do not have all the capabilities such as interior volume grid clustering control, viscous grid clustering at the wall of a configuration, truncation error limiters, and convergence optimization residing in one code. A new volume grid generator, 3DMAGGS (Three-Dimensional Multi-Block Advanced Grid Generation System), which is based on the 3DGRAPE code, has evolved to meet these needs. This is a manual for the usage of 3DMAGGS and contains five sections, including the motivations and usage, a GRIDGEN interface, a grid quality analysis tool, a sample case for verifying correct operation of the code, and a comparison to both 3DGRAPE and GRIDGEN3D. Since it was derived from 3DGRAPE, this technical memorandum should be used in conjunction with the 3DGRAPE manual (NASA TM-102224).

  15. The three-dimensional Multi-Block Advanced Grid Generation System (3DMAGGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Weilmuenster, Kenneth J.

    1993-05-01

    As the size and complexity of three dimensional volume grids increases, there is a growing need for fast and efficient 3D volumetric elliptic grid solvers. Present day solvers are limited by computational speed and do not have all the capabilities such as interior volume grid clustering control, viscous grid clustering at the wall of a configuration, truncation error limiters, and convergence optimization residing in one code. A new volume grid generator, 3DMAGGS (Three-Dimensional Multi-Block Advanced Grid Generation System), which is based on the 3DGRAPE code, has evolved to meet these needs. This is a manual for the usage of 3DMAGGS and contains five sections, including the motivations and usage, a GRIDGEN interface, a grid quality analysis tool, a sample case for verifying correct operation of the code, and a comparison to both 3DGRAPE and GRIDGEN3D. Since it was derived from 3DGRAPE, this technical memorandum should be used in conjunction with the 3DGRAPE manual (NASA TM-102224).

  16. Next Generation Climate Change Experiments Needed to Advance Knowledge and for Assessment of CMIP6

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenberger, John; Arnott, James; Wright, Alyson

    2014-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Next generation climate change experiments needed to advance knowledge and for assessment of CMIP6,” on August 4-9, 2013 in Aspen, CO. Jerry Meehl (NCAR), Richard Moss (PNNL), and Karl Taylor (LLNL) served as co-chairs for the workshop which included the participation of 32 scientists representing most of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 160 participant days. In August 2013, AGCI gathered a high level meeting of representatives from major climate modeling centers around the world to assess achievements and lessons learned from the most recent generation of coordinated modeling experiments known as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – 5 (CMIP5) as well as to scope out the science questions and coordination structure desired for the next anticipated phase of modeling experiments called CMIP6. The workshop allowed for reflection on the coordination of the CMIP5 process as well as intercomparison of model results, such as were assessed in the most recent IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Working Group 1. For example, this slide from Masahiro Watanabe examines performance on a range of models capturing Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

  17. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator: Design Processes, Reliability Analyses Impacts, and Extended Operation Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Chuong T.; Fernandez, René; Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently funding an effort involving the Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), Glenn Research Center (GRC), and Sunpower (SP), Inc. to develop a high specific power Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). GRC and SP are responsible for providing the Stirling convertor, while LM is responsible for the generator housing, controller, and system integration. GRC also provides supporting technologies for various components as well as extended operation testing, both in air and in a thermal vacuum environment. Because of the 17-year life requirement of the ASRG, reliability considerations are the main design driver. Components such as the heater head, fasteners, magnets, and planar spring have been studied to ensure high reliability. To encompass unique design features, long lifetimes and extreme environmental conditions, both reliability analyses and qualification tests are used to support the design process. This paper presents an overview of the ASRG reliability approach and the impact of the Reliability Working Group (RWG) on the recently finished design effort. It also provides a summary of current and planned extended operation tests, specifically targeted to demonstrate long-life capability and to support further reliability assessment. In the event of no, or minimal failures during these extended tests, a Weibayes approach will be used to create a trend of improving reliability predictions.

  18. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  19. Association of rat thoracic aorta dilatation by astragaloside IV with the generation of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors and nitric oxide, and the blockade of Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    HU, GUANYING; LI, XIXIONG; ZHANG, SANYIN; WANG, XIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the roles of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) and nitric oxide (NO) in mediating the vasodilatation response to astragaloside IV and the effects of astragaloside IV on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in rat thoracic aortic rings precontracted with potassium chloride (KCl; 60 mM) or phenylephrine (PHE; 1 µM). The results showed that astragaloside IV (1×10−4-3×10−1 g/l) concentration-dependently relaxed the contraction induced by KCl (10–90 mM) or PHE (1×10−9-3×10−5 µM) and inhibited concentration-contraction curves for the two vasoconstrictors in the aortic rings. Preincubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 µM) significantly attenuated astragaloside IV-induced relaxation in the endothelium-intact and -denuded arterial rings precontracted with PHE. Astragaloside IV, following preincubation with L-NAME (100 µM) plus indomethacin (10 µM), exerted vasodilatation, which was depressed by tetraethtylamine (1 mM) and propargylglycine (100 µM), but not by carbenoxolone (10 µM), catalase (500 U/ml) or proadifen hydrochloride (10 µM). The action mode of astragaloside IV was evident in comparison to nifedipine. Inhibition of PHE-induced contraction by astragaloside IV (100 mg/l) was more potent compared to inhibition of KCl-induced contraction, while inhibition of KCl-induced contraction by nifedipine (100 mg/l) was more potent compared to inhibition of PHE-induced contraction by nifedipine (100 mg/l). In addition, the combination of astragaloside IV and nifedipine exhibited synergistic and additive inhibitory effects on contraction evoked by KCl, which was similar to PHE. In conclusion, astragaloside IV, as a Ca2+ antagonist, relaxes the vessels through the blockade of superior receptor-operated Ca2+ and inferior voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, which modulate NO from vascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and

  20. Analysis of Pulsed Laser-Generated Impulse in AN Advanced Airbreathing Thruster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Jacques Constant

    This thesis describes the study of an advanced beam-powered propulsion system, called an External Radiation -Heated (ERH) thruster. The repetitively-pulsed, airbreathing engine develops thrust by expanding high pressure, radiation -heated gas over an annular shroud surface. The blast waves are generated by laser radiation heating of air using Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) waves. The phenomenology of LSD waves will be described in detail, as will the blast waves and resultant impulse they produce. Analytical simulation of the ERH thruster is accomplished with a one-dimensional model of blast waves propagating uniformly and radially outward from a laser -generated "line source" of high pressure, high temperature gas. Cylindrical blast wave scaling relationships developed by Sedov are employed in this model. The possibility of including other physical phenomena (e.g., viscosity, radiation, conduction or real gas effects) in the analysis will be reviewed. The analyses for the ERH thruster model are performed for a sample vehicle point design. This vehicle, known as the "Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator" (LTD), may be constructed within the next five years to illustrate the potential of Earth-to-Orbit laser propulsion. The external flow over the LTD vehicle was analyzed to determine basic drag characteristics, inlet total pressure recovery and captured air mass flow rate--all projected as functions of flight Mach number and altitude. The ERH thruster performance analysis indicates that the optimum LTD inlet air gap is about 3 cm around the 100 cm diameter centerbody, for transonic "refresh" air flow over the impulse surface. In this analysis, the principal indicator used to predict engine performance was the "impulse coupling coefficient (CC)"; i.e., the thrust developed per unit laser power input. Coupling coefficients up to 600-700 Newtons/Megawatt were found to be feasible, which are an order of magnitude larger than those for laser-heated rockets. For maximum

  1. [Generative potential in advanced age. Sociological intergenerational considerations of an old topic].

    PubMed

    Höpflinger, F

    2002-08-01

    The concept of generativity--at first related to middle age--is increasingly used to describe developmental processes at higher ages. In previous discussions, however, the concept of generativity has been used without clear references either to stages in later life (independent retirement versus dependent old age) or to different concepts of generations. A stage-oriented approach--based on ideas developed by Margret Baltes--indicates that the dimensions of generativity change with aging (more active generativity for younger retired people, more passive and compensating generativity among fragile and dependent persons). A generational approach--looking at different concepts of generations (family generations, societal generations, welfare generations)--shows that generativity within family generations is underlined by social norms, whereas generativity concerning welfare generations or societal generations remains an unstructured or even anomic developmental task.

  2. Stabilization of higher-valent states of iron porphyrin by hydroxide and methoxide ligands: electrochemical generation of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W A; Calderwood, T S; Bruice, T C

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical study of hydroxide- and methoxide-ligated iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrins possessing ortho-phenyl substituents that block mu-oxo dimer formation has been carried out. Ligation by these strongly basic oxyanions promotes the formation of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins upon one-electron oxidation. Further one-electron oxidation of the latter provides the iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin pi-cation radical. These results are discussed in terms of chemical model studies and the enzymatic intermediate compounds I and II of the peroxidases. PMID:3859865

  3. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    PubMed

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  4. TerraSAR Advancements & Next Generation-Mission Capabilities Supporting GMES/Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Katja; Schrage, Thomas; Janoth, Jurgen; Tinz, Marek; Thiergan, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the continuous evolution of the TerraSAR-X Mission in the context of Copernicus, previously known as GMES. From first data contracts starting in 2009, the TerraSAR-X GMES Contributing Mission (TSX-GCM) has become closely integrated with ESA's Coordinated Data Access System (CDS). TSX-GCM has continuously been working on improving data access for Copernicus users in response to new requirements on timeliness and data products: The TerraSAR ground station network has been upgraded to include Svalbard as a receiving station, and the product portfolio for TerraSAR-X has been enhanced with two new operational imaging modes, a Staring Spotlight and a Wide ScanSAR Mode. The planned TerraSAR Next Generation (TerraSAR- NG) System guarantees TerraSAR-X data and service continuity and provides advanced very high-resolution products to the user community. A partnership model, “WorldSAR”, is envisioned, where partners can participate through co-investment, subscription, and ownership of additional satellites operated in constellation.

  5. Generation and characterization of antibodies against arginine-derived advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tina; Streeter, Matthew D; Spiegel, David A

    2015-11-01

    Although antibodies reagents have been widely employed for studying advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), these materials have been produced using complex mixtures of immunogens. Consequently, their epitope specificity remains unknown. Here we have generated the first antibodies capable of recognizing each of the three isomers of the methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones (MG-Hs) by using chemical synthesis to create homogenous immunogens. Furthermore, we have thoroughly characterized the epitope specificity of both our antibodies and that of two existing monoclonals by implementing a direct ELISA protocol employing synthetic MG-H antigens. Finally, we employed the reported anti-MG-H antibodies to the detection of MG-Hs in cellular systems using immunofluorescence microscopy. These studies have demonstrated that anti-MG-H1 and anti-MG-H3 staining is concentrated within the nucleus, while anti-MG-H2 affords only minimal signal. These observations are consistent with reported formation preferences for MG-Hs, and may suggest novel nuclear targets for non-enzymatic posttranslational modification. The antibody reagents reported herein, as well as the strategy employed for their creation, are likely to prove useful for the immunochemical study of AGEs in biological systems.

  6. Generation of arbitrary freeform source shapes using advanced illumination systems in high-NA immersion scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jörg; Gräupner, Paul; Neumann, Jens T.; Hellweg, Dirk; Jürgens, Dirk; Patra, Michael; Hennerkes, Christoph; Maul, Manfred; Geh, Bernd; Engelen, Andre; Noordman, Oscar; Mulder, Melchior; Park, Sean; De Vocht, Joep

    2010-04-01

    The application of customized and freeform illumination source shapes is a key enabler for continued shrink using 193 nm water based immersion lithography at the maximum possible NA of 1.35. In this paper we present the capabilities of the DOE based Aerial XP illuminator and the new programmable FlexRay illuminator. Both of these advanced illumination systems support the generation of such arbitrarily shaped illumination sources. We explain how the different parts of the optical column interact in forming the source shape with which the reticle is illuminated. Practical constraints of the systems do not limit the capabilities to utilize the benefit of freeform source shapes vs. classic pupil shapes. Despite a different pupil forming mechanism in the two illuminator types, the resulting pupils are compatible regarding lithographic imaging performance so that processes can be transferred between the two illuminator types. Measured freeform sources can be characterized by applying a parametric fit model, to extract information for optimum pupil setup, and by importing the measured source bitmap into an imaging simulator to directly evaluate its impact on CD and overlay. We compare measured freeform sources from both illuminator types and demonstrate the good matching between measured FlexRay and DOE based freeform source shapes.

  7. A Random-Model Approach to QTL Mapping in Multiparent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Julong; Xu, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    Most standard QTL mapping procedures apply to populations derived from the cross of two parents. QTL detected from such biparental populations are rarely relevant to breeding programs because of the narrow genetic basis: only two alleles are involved per locus. To improve the generality and applicability of mapping results, QTL should be detected using populations initiated from multiple parents, such as the multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations. The greatest challenges of QTL mapping in MAGIC populations come from multiple founder alleles and control of the genetic background information. We developed a random-model methodology by treating the founder effects of each locus as random effects following a normal distribution with a locus-specific variance. We also fit a polygenic effect to the model to control the genetic background. To improve the statistical power for a scanned marker, we release the marker effect absorbed by the polygene back to the model. In contrast to the fixed-model approach, we estimate and test the variance of each locus and scan the entire genome one locus at a time using likelihood-ratio test statistics. Simulation studies showed that this method can increase statistical power and reduce type I error compared with composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiparent whole-genome average interval mapping (MPWGAIM). We demonstrated the method using a public Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC population and a mouse MAGIC population.

  8. Indianapolis I3: the third generation Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Julie J; Overhage, J Marc; Barnes, Mike; McDonald, Clement J

    2004-04-01

    In 2001, the Regenstrief Institute for Health Care and the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) began an IAIMS planning effort to create a vision and a tactical plan for the first Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) implementation to cross a large area and include unaffiliated institutions. A number of elements made this planning effort unique. Among these elements were the existence of a network infrastructure that supported the Indianapolis Network for Patient Care, the existence of a mature medical informatics program at the Regenstrief Institute, and the existence of a wide-area knowledge network fostered by the IUSM libraries. However, the leadership for a strong information technology role in the IUSM that could promote collaboration in support of education and research across the diverse Indianapolis hospital systems had been lacking. By bringing together various groups, each with a commitment to improve health care quality and public health across the Indianapolis metropolitan area, regardless of individual institutional affiliation, the strategic directions for I3-Indianapolis IAIMS Initiative have been defined and the foundations for a third generation IAIMS construct have been laid in Indianapolis, Indiana.

  9. Modeling heat generation and flow in the Advanced Neutron Source Corrosion Test Loop specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, R.E.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A finite difference computer code HEATING5 was used to model heat generation and flow in a typical experiment envisioned for the Advanced Neutron Source Corrosion Test Loop. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the test specimen were allowed to vary with local temperature, and the corrosion layer thickness was assigned along the length of the specimen in the manner predicted by the Griess Correlation. The computer solved the two-dimensional transport problem for a given total power dissipated in the specimen and stipulated coolant temperatures and water-side heat-transfer coefficients. The computed specimen temperatures were compared with those calculated on the basis of approximate analytical equations involving the total power dissipation and the assignment of the physical properties based on temperatures at single axial points on the specimen. The comparisons indicate that when temperature variations are large along the axis of the specimen, the variation in local heat flux should not be overlooked when using approximate equations or models. The approximate equations are most accurate near the center of the specimen where the heat flux remains closest to the average value, and in that region the calculated quantities agree closely with the results of the computer code. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of an advanced mobile base for personal mobility and manipulation appliance generation II robotic wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Candiotti, Jorge; Shino, Motoki; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development of a mobile base for the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance Generation II (PerMMA Gen II robotic wheelchair), an obstacle-climbing wheelchair able to move in structured and unstructured environments, and to climb over curbs as high as 8 inches. The mechanical, electrical, and software systems of the mobile base are presented in detail, and similar devices such as the iBOT mobility system, TopChair, and 6X6 Explorer are described. Findings The mobile base of PerMMA Gen II has two operating modes: “advanced driving mode” on flat and uneven terrain, and “automatic climbing mode” during stair climbing. The different operating modes are triggered either by local and dynamic conditions or by external commands from users. A step-climbing sequence, up to 0.2 m, is under development and to be evaluated via simulation. The mathematical model of the mobile base is introduced. A feedback and a feed-forward controller have been developed to maintain the posture of the passenger when driving over uneven surfaces or slopes. The effectiveness of the controller has been evaluated by simulation using the open dynamics engine tool. Conclusion Future work for PerMMA Gen II mobile base is implementation of the simulation and control on a real system and evaluation of the system via further experimental tests. PMID:23820149

  11. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  12. Second generation advanced reburning for high efficiency NO(x) control. Progress report, 1196

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Maly, P.M.

    1996-10-01

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR), which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. Phase I consists of six tasks: Task 1.1 Project Coordination and Reporting/Deliverables; Task 1.2 Kinetics of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} Reactions with Flue Gas Components; Task 1.3 O.l x lO{sup 6}Btu/hr Optimization Studies; Task 1.4 1.0 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Process Development Tests; Task 1.5 Mechanism Development and Modeling; and Task 1. 6 Design Methodology and Application. The fourth reporting period (July 1 - September 30, 1996) included both experimental and modeling activities. The bench scale CTT experiments (Task 1.3) were completed. The 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF) was prepared for the test program and experiments were conducted using natural gas (NG) as main and reburing fuels (Task 1.4). A few preliminary tests were also performed with coal firing. The results have been reduced and are reported. Initial experimental data were obtained on reactions of sodium promoters (Task 1.2) at the University of Texas in Austin (UT). The kinetic model was extended to include reactions of sulfur and sodium (Task 1.5).

  13. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  14. A Phenomenological Study of How High School Advanced Placement Classes Prepared First-Generation College Students for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-generation college students and the perceived influence of taking high school Advanced Placement (AP) courses on their college education. The following research questions were addressed: (a) what motivated students to consider going to college, (b) what was their experience in taking AP…

  15. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  16. User's guide to PMESH: A grid-generation program for single-rotation and counterrotation advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warsi, Saif A.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed operating manual is presented for a grid generating program that produces 3-D meshes for advanced turboprops. The code uses both algebraic and elliptic partial differential equation methods to generate single rotation and counterrotation, H or C type meshes for the z - r planes and H type for the z - theta planes. The code allows easy specification of geometrical constraints (such as blade angle, location of bounding surfaces, etc.), mesh control parameters (point distribution near blades and nacelle, number of grid points desired, etc.), and it has good runtime diagnostics. An overview is provided of the mesh generation procedure, sample input dataset with detailed explanation of all input, and example meshes.

  17. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  18. Concurrent CO2 Control and O2 Generation for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Duncan, Keith L.; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E.; Bishop, Sean R.; Wachsman, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied, however, conventional devices using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Operating at such high temperatures increases system mass compared to lower temperature systems because of increased energy overhead to get the COG up to operating temperature and the need for heavier insulation and/or heat exchangers to reduce the COG oxygen (O2) output temperature for comfortable inhalation. Recently, the University of Florida developed novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth for NASA's future exploration of Mars. To reduce landed mass and operation expenditures during the mission, in-situ resource utilization was proposed using these COGs to obtain both lifesupporting oxygen and oxidant/propellant fuel, by converting CO2 from the Mars atmosphere. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal was an issue. The strategy proposed for CO2 removal for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that it is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen. Hence, a three-phased approach was used for the development of a viable low weight COG for CO2 removal. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature a high oxide ion conductivity electrolyte was developed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, novel cathodes and a removable catalytic carbon deposition layer were designed. Third, to improve efficiency, a pre-stage for CO2 absorption was used to concentrate CO2 from the exhalate before sending it to the COG. These subsystems were then

  19. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  20. Advanced, Cost-Based Indices for Forecasting the Generation of Photovoltaic Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracale, Antonio; Carpinelli, Guido; Di Fazio, Annarita; Khormali, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Distribution systems are undergoing significant changes as they evolve toward the grids of the future, which are known as smart grids (SGs). The perspective of SGs is to facilitate large-scale penetration of distributed generation using renewable energy sources (RESs), encourage the efficient use of energy, reduce systems' losses, and improve the quality of power. Photovoltaic (PV) systems have become one of the most promising RESs due to the expected cost reduction and the increased efficiency of PV panels and interfacing converters. The ability to forecast power-production information accurately and reliably is of primary importance for the appropriate management of an SG and for making decisions relative to the energy market. Several forecasting methods have been proposed, and many indices have been used to quantify the accuracy of the forecasts of PV power production. Unfortunately, the indices that have been used have deficiencies and usually do not directly account for the economic consequences of forecasting errors in the framework of liberalized electricity markets. In this paper, advanced, more accurate indices are proposed that account directly for the economic consequences of forecasting errors. The proposed indices also were compared to the most frequently used indices in order to demonstrate their different, improved capability. The comparisons were based on the results obtained using a forecasting method based on an artificial neural network. This method was chosen because it was deemed to be one of the most promising methods available due to its capability for forecasting PV power. Numerical applications also are presented that considered an actual PV plant to provide evidence of the forecasting performances of all of the indices that were considered.

  1. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  2. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  3. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  4. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  5. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume II. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in agricultural mechanics designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are arc welding; oxy-acetylene welding; soldering; electricity; tractor maintenance, operation, and safety; small engines; farm structures; and cold…

  6. The Advanced Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag III and Ag IV (11th and 12th Grades). Volume I. Bulletin No. 1725.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching an advanced course in vocational agriculture designed for 11th and 12th grade students. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: farm and agribusiness planning, employment-seeking skills, agricultural chemicals, and conservation. Each unit includes a…

  7. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency N0x Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter, M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-12-31

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO{sub x} control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO{sub x} control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO{sub x} control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO{sub x} control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO{sub x} levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO{sub x} control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO{sub x} control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling

  8. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health.

  9. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 3: Advanced Fan Section Grid Generator Final Report and Computer Program User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is studied for generating three-dimensional grids for advanced turbofan engine fan section geometries. The procedure constructs a discrete mesh about engine sections containing the fan stage, an arbitrary number of axisymmetric radial flow splitters, a booster stage, and a bifurcated core/bypass flow duct with guide vanes. The mesh is an h-type grid system, the points being distributed with a transfinite interpolation scheme with axial and radial spacing being user specified. Elliptic smoothing of the grid in the meridional plane is a post-process option. The grid generation scheme is consistent with aerodynamic analyses utilizing the average-passage equation system developed by Dr. John Adamczyk of NASA Lewis. This flow solution scheme requires a series of blade specific grids each having a common axisymmetric mesh, but varying in the circumferential direction according to the geometry of the specific blade row.

  10. A computer program for estimating the power-density spectrum of advanced continuous simulation language generated time histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program for performing frequency analysis of time history data is presented. The program uses circular convolution and the fast Fourier transform to calculate power density spectrum (PDS) of time history data. The program interfaces with the advanced continuous simulation language (ACSL) so that a frequency analysis may be performed on ACSL generated simulation variables. An example of the calculation of the PDS of a Van de Pol oscillator is presented.

  11. A theoretical investigation on the Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhishan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Jun; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming

    2013-01-28

    The mechanism and the origin of selectivity of the asymmetric Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate have been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. The calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Ti(IV) acts as Lewis acid to activate the electrophile aldimine substrate, whereas the tertiary amine in cinchona alkaloid works as Lewis base to promote the activation and isomerization of HCN. The C-C bond formation step is predicted to be the selectivity-controlling step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 9.3 kcal mol(-1). The "asymmetric activation" is achieved by the transfer of asymmetry from the chiral cinchonine ligand to the axially flexible achiral biphenol ligand through coordination interaction with the central metal Ti(IV) . The large steric hindrance from the 3,3'-position substitute of biphenol, combined with the quinoline fragment of cinchona alkaloid and the orientation of hydrogen bonding of iPrOH, play a key role in controlling the stereoselectivity, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Aug 15, 2002 to Nov. 15, 2002) - DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Lawrence Townsend; Martin Williamson; Rupy Sawhney; Jacob Fife

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. This report covers the ninth quarter of the project. The three reactor concept teams have completed initial plant concept development, evaluation and layout. A significant design effort has proceeded with substantial change and evolution from original ideas. The concepts have been reviewed by the industry participants and improvements have been implemented. The third phase, industrial engineering simulation of reactor fabrication has begun.

  13. Current advances in the generation of human iPS cells: implications in cell-based regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Ana; González, Clara; Iriondo, Amaia; Fernández, Bárbara; Prieto, Cristina; Marín, Carlos; Liste, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Over the last few years, the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human somatic cells has proved to be one of the most potentially useful discoveries in regenerative medicine. iPSCs are becoming an invaluable tool to study the pathology of different diseases and for drug screening. However, several limitations still affect the possibility of applying iPS cell-based technology in therapeutic prospects. Most strategies for iPSCs generation are based on gene delivery via retroviral or lentiviral vectors, which integrate into the host's cell genome, causing a remarkable risk of insertional mutagenesis and oncogenic transformation. To avoid such risks, significant advances have been made with non-integrative reprogramming strategies. On the other hand, although many different kinds of somatic cells have been employed to generate iPSCs, there is still no consensus about the ideal type of cell to be reprogrammed. In this review we present the recent advances in the generation of human iPSCs, discussing their advantages and limitations in terms of safety and efficiency. We also present a selection of somatic cell sources, considering their capability to be reprogrammed and tissue accessibility. From a translational medicine perspective, these two topics will provide evidence to elucidate the most suitable combination of reprogramming strategy and cell source to be applied in each human iPSC-based therapy. The wide variety of diseases this technology could treat opens a hopeful future for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Generation Vexed: Age-Related Culture Clashes in the Advancement Office and How to Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2009-01-01

    Welcome to the Generational Wars--a workplace skirmish over everything from ties and pantyhose to flex time and Facebook. For the first time in American history, three generations are now working desk-to-desk. And each brings wildly varying views on work and life into the office. The battle lines have been drawn. On one side are the Baby Boomers,…

  15. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, fabrication and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive Gas Generator. Focus during this past report period has been to continue completion the Gas Generator design, completing the brazing and bonding experiments to determine the best method and materials necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continuing to making preparations for fabricating and testing this Gas Generator and commencing with the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware. Designs have been completed sufficiently such that Long Lead Items [LLI] have been ordered and upon arrival will be readied for the fabrication process. The keys to this design are the platelet construction of the injectors that precisely measures/meters the flow of the propellants and water all throughout the steam generating process and the CES patented gas generating cycle. The Igniter Assembly injector platelets fabrication process has been completed and bonded to the Igniter Assembly and final machined. The Igniter Assembly is in final assembly and is being readied for testing in the October 2001 time frame. Test Plan dated August 2001, was revised and finalized, replacing Test Plan dated May 2001.

  16. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    The objectives of this report period were to complete the development of the Gas Generator design, which was done; fabricate and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas Gas Generator, which has been postponed. Focus during this report period has been to complete the brazing and bonding necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continue making preparations for fabricating and testing the Gas Generator, and continuing the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware in preparation for the test program. Fabrication is more than 95% complete and is expected to conclude in early May 2002. the test schedule was affected by relocation of the testing to another test supplier. The target test date for hot fire testing is now not earlier than June 15, 2002.

  17. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-30

    The objectives of this report period were to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, to complete the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication, and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas generator. Focus during this report period has been on testing the Gas Generator. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA. A substantial portion of this report period was devoted to Testing Preparations, i.e. test facility development, cold- flow testing, calibration testing, performing igniter ignition testing, and then commencement of the completely assembled Gas Generator Assembly Testing, in process at this writing.

  18. Domain decomposition by the advancing-partition method for parallel unstructured grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z. (Inventor); Banihashemi, legal representative, Soheila (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In a method for domain decomposition for generating unstructured grids, a surface mesh is generated for a spatial domain. A location of a partition plane dividing the domain into two sections is determined. Triangular faces on the surface mesh that intersect the partition plane are identified. A partition grid of tetrahedral cells, dividing the domain into two sub-domains, is generated using a marching process in which a front comprises only faces of new cells which intersect the partition plane. The partition grid is generated until no active faces remain on the front. Triangular faces on each side of the partition plane are collected into two separate subsets. Each subset of triangular faces is renumbered locally and a local/global mapping is created for each sub-domain. A volume grid is generated for each sub-domain. The partition grid and volume grids are then merged using the local-global mapping.

  19. Advancing a Complex Systems Approach to Personalized Learning Communities: Bandwidth, Sightlines, and Teacher Generativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Educational technologies have advanced one of the most important visions of educational reformers, to customize formal and informal learning to individuals. The application of a complex systems framework to the design of learning ecologies suggests that each of a series of ten desirable and malleable features stimulates or propels the other ten,…

  20. Generation of crystallographic packing candidates with fixed helical symmetry and axial advance: Application to PI-2 polyimide

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, J.M.; Eby, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    A normal coordinate approach was used to generate crystallographic packing candidates of a multitorsional polyimide synthesized from 3,3`,4,4`-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDA) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-(4-aminophenoxy) propane (DMDA) (PI-2). Candidates were obtained under conditions of fixed axial advance of 24.6 {Angstrom} per monomer, and imposed 2/1 helical or 1/0 translational symmetry, consistent with the observed WAXD meridional layer line spacing. The ability of combinatorially generated torsional states to adopt the desired geometry was examined. Necessary corrections to the conformational parameter equations have been made. The procedure described allowed crystallographic conformations satisfying explicit geometric and MM3 intramolecular energy criteria to be generated for a linear multitorsional polyimide prior to the application of crystallographic screening or refinement procedures. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Third-generation inhibitors targeting EGFR T790M mutation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhang; Cang, Shundong; Liu, Delong

    2016-04-12

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are widely used in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR T790M mutation leads to resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation have been in active clinical development. These agents include osimertinib, rociletinib, HM61713, ASP8273, EGF816, and PF-06747775. Osimertinib and rociletinib have shown clinical efficacy in phase I/II trials in patients who had acquired resistance to first- or second-generation TKIs. Osimertinib (AZD9291, TAGRISSO) was recently approved by FDA for metastatic EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC. HM61713, ASP8237, EGF816, and PF-06747775 are still in early clinical development. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents against EGFR T790M mutation in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC.

  2. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    E.W. Baxter

    2002-06-30

    The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

  3. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  4. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  5. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Assemblies and Core Designs for the Current and Next Generations of LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean; Vierow, Karen

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the project is to design and analyze advanced fuel assemblies for use in current and future light water reactors and to assess their ability to reduce the inventory of transuranic elements, while preserving operational safety. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can delay or avoid the need for a second geological repository in the US. Current light water reactor fuel assembly designs under investigation could reduce the plutonium inventory of reprocessed fuel. Nevertheless, these designs are not effective in stabilizing or reducing the inventory of minor actinides. In the course of this project, we developed and analyzed advanced fuel assembly designs with improved thermal transmutation capability regarding transuranic elements and especially minor actinides. These designs will be intended for use in thermal spectrum (e.g., current and future fleet of light water reactors in the US). We investigated various fuel types, namely high burn-up advanced mixed oxides and inert matrix fuels, in various geometrical designs that are compliant with the core internals of current and future light water reactors. Neutronic/thermal hydraulic effects were included. Transmutation efficiency and safety parameters were used to rank and down-select the various designs.

  6. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  7. BESTIA - the next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2015-12-02

    Over the last two decades, BNL’s ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. In addition, our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  8. Mutation Profiling of Clinically Advanced Cancers Using Next-Generation Sequencing for Targeted Therapy: A Lifespan Experience.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Kenneth; Resnick, Murray B; Safran, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The application of modern molecular tests such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) to human malignancies has led to better understanding of tumor biology and the design of targeted molecular therapies. In the research setting, important genomic alterations in tumors have been discovered with potential therapeutic implications but data regarding the impact of this technology in a real world oncology practice is limited. As a result, we decided to review the results of NGS in 144 advanced-stage cancer patients referred to the oncology practices of Lifespan-affiliated centers in Rhode Island. Most cancers revealed genomic alterations in genes commonly mutated in cancer. However, several unexpected genomic alterations were discovered in certain cancers with potential therapeutic intervention. Most cancers contained "actionable" genomic alterations despite being of advanced stage. Our experience demonstrates that application of NGS in the clinical setting contributes both to increasing the therapeutic armamentarium as well as our understanding of tumor biology.

  9. FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

    2003-06-01

    In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to commercialization for the gas generator technology

  10. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T): Second Generation Advancements and the Future of SmallSat Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren; Martinez, Armando; SanSoucie, Michael; Johnson, Les; Laue, Greg; Farmer, Brandon; Smith, Joseph C.; Robertson, Barrett; Johnson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the second generation advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. LISA-T is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. A matrix of options are in development, including planar (pointed) and omnidirectional (non-pointed) arrays. The former is seeking the highest performance possible while the latter is seeking GN&C simplicity. In both cases, power generation ranges from tens of watts to several hundred with an expected specific power >250W/kg and a stowed power density >200kW/m(sub 3). Options for leveraging both high performance, 'typical cost' triple junction thin-film solar cells as well as moderate performance, low cost cells are being developed. Alongside, both UHF (ultra high frequency) and S-band antennas are being integrated into the array to move their space claim away from the spacecraft and open the door for omnidirectional communications and electronically steered phase arrays.

  11. Microbial electricity generation in rice paddy fields: recent advances and perspectives in rhizosphere microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use living microbes for the conversion of organic matter into electricity. MFC systems can be applied to the generation of electricity at water/sediment interfaces in the environment, such as bay areas, wetlands, and rice paddy fields. Using these systems, electricity generation in paddy fields as high as ∼80 mW m(-2) (based on the projected anode area) has been demonstrated, and evidence suggests that rhizosphere microbes preferentially utilize organic exudates from rice roots for generating electricity. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses have been conducted to identify the microbial species and catabolic pathways that are involved in the conversion of root exudates into electricity, suggesting the importance of syntrophic interactions. In parallel, pot cultures of rice and other aquatic plants have been used for rhizosphere MFC experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. The findings from these studies have demonstrated the potential of electricity generation for mitigating methane emission from the rhizosphere. Notably, however, the presence of large amounts of organics in the rhizosphere drastically reduces the effect of electricity generation on methane production. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential of these systems for mitigating methane emission from rice paddy fields. We suggest that paddy-field MFCs represent a promising approach for harvesting latent energy of the natural world.

  12. A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2013-10-01

    A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

  13. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The program is being conducted by a team consisting of AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems & Equipment (ASE) (formerly AiResearch Los Angeles Division) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  14. The effect of advanced technology on the second-generation SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coen, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Technological developments that promise to substantially increase the efficiency of next-generation subsonic commercial aircraft, together with additional developments in supersonic aircraft aerodynamics, structures and propulsion systems, are presently evaluated in order to project the extent of performance and economic improvement obtainable for a future SST by comparison to the Concorde SST. It is demonstrated that the second-generation SST projected will double passenger-carrying capacity from 100 for the Concorde to 200, despite reducing takeoff gross weight from 400,000 to 321,000 lbs and extending range by some 2000 nm.

  15. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  16. Development of TMI Logistic Fuel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Advanced Military Power Generation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Power generation systems based on the Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are an optional modality for military...integrated system using TMI’s proprietary sulfur-tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam reformer, integrated into a compact unit which

  17. Data Generation in the Discovery Sciences--Learning from the Practices in an Advanced Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    General scientific literacy includes understanding the grounds on which scientific claims are based. The measurements scientists make and the data that they produce from them generally constitute these grounds. However, the nature of data generation has received relatively little attention from those interested in teaching science through inquiry.…

  18. Development and field validation of advanced array probes for steam generator inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    The aging of the steam generators at the nation`s nuclear power plants has led to the appearance of new forms of degradation in steam generator tubes and an increase in the frequency of forced outages due to major tube leak events. The eddy-current techniques currently being used for the inspection of steam generator tubing are no longer adequate to ensure that flaws will be detected before they lead to a shutdown of the plant. To meet the need for a fast and reliable method of inspection, ORNL has designed a 16-coil eddy-current array probe which combines an inspection speed similar to that of the bobbin coil with a sensitivity to cracks of any orientation similar to the rotating pancake coil. In addition, neural network and least square methods have been developed for the automatic analysis of the data acquired with the new probes. The probes and analysis software have been tested at two working steam generators where we have found an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of five an increase in the inspection speed of a factor of 75 over the rotating pancake coil which maintaining similar detection and characterization capabilities.

  19. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Results Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=−0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. PMID:26203235

  1. ZERODUR thermo-mechanical modelling and advanced dilatometry for the ELT generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Large amounts of low thermal expansion material are required for the upcoming ELT projects. The main mirror is designed using several hundreds of hexagonal 1.4 m sized mirror blanks. The M2 and M3 are monolithic 4 m class mirror blanks. The mirror blank material needs to fulfill tight requirements regarding CTE specification and homogeneity. Additionally the mirror blanks need to be dimensionally stable for more than 30 years. In particular, stress effects due to the changes in the environment shall not entail shape variation of more than 0.5 μm PV within 30 years. In 2010 SCHOTT developed a physically based model to describe the thermal and mechanical long time behavior of ZERODUR. The model enables simulation of the long time behavior of ZERODUR mirror blanks under realistic mechanical and thermal constraints. This presentation shows FEM simulation results on the long time behavior of the ELT M1, M2 and M3 mirror blanks under different loading conditions. Additionally the model results will be compared to an already 15 years lasting long time measurement of a ZERODUR sample at the German federal physical standardization institute (PTB). In recent years SCHOTT pushed the push rod dilatometer measurement technology to its limit. With the new Advanced Dilatometer CTE measurement accuracies of +- 3 ppb/K and reproducibilities of better 1 ppb/K have been achieved. The new Advanced Dilatometer exhibits excellent long time stability.

  2. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Yang, Ying; Sridharan, K.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  3. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  4. Short x-ray pulse generation using deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Emery, L.; Harkay, K.; Nassiri, A.; Shastri, S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.; Anfinrud, P.; Dolgashev, V.; NIH; SLAC

    2007-11-11

    Storage-ring-based third-generation light sources can provide intense radiation pulses with durations as short as 100 ps. However, there is growing interest within the synchrotron radiation user community in performing experiments with much shorter X-ray pulses. Zholents et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 425 (1999) 385] recently proposed using RF orbit deflection to generate sub-ps X-ray pulses. In this scheme, two deflecting cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse. Implementation of this scheme is planned for one APS beamline in the near future. In this paper, we summarize our feasibility study of this method and the expected X-ray beam parameters. We find that a pulse length of less than two picoseconds can be achieved.

  5. Advances in clinical next-generation sequencing: target enrichment and sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Leomar Y; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Singh, Rajesh R

    2016-01-01

    The huge parallel sequencing capabilities of next generation sequencing technologies have made them the tools of choice to characterize genomic aberrations for research and diagnostic purposes. For clinical applications, screening the whole genome or exome is challenging owing to the large genomic area to be sequenced, associated costs, complexity of data, and lack of known clinical significance of all genes. Consequently, routine screening involves limited markers with established clinical relevance. This process, referred to as targeted genome sequencing, requires selective enrichment of the genomic areas comprising these markers via one of several primer or probe-based enrichment strategies, followed by sequencing of the enriched genomic areas. Here, the authors review current target enrichment approaches and next generation sequencing platforms, focusing on the underlying principles, capabilities, and limitations of each technology along with validation and implementation for clinical testing.

  6. Recent advancements in plasmon-enhanced promising third-generation solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrithamarassery Gangadharan, Deepak; Xu, Zhenhe; Liu, Yanlong; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Ma, Dongling

    2017-01-01

    The unique optical properties possessed by plasmonic noble metal nanostructures in consequence of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are useful in diverse applications like photovoltaics, sensing, non-linear optics, hydrogen generation, and photocatalytic pollutant degradation. The incorporation of plasmonic metal nanostructures into solar cells provides enhancement in light absorption and scattering cross-section (via LSPR), tunability of light absorption profile especially in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and more efficient charge carrier separation, hence maximizing the photovoltaic efficiency. This review discusses about the recent development of different plasmonic metal nanostructures, mainly based on Au or Ag, and their applications in promising third-generation solar cells such as dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-based solar cells, and perovskite solar cells.

  7. Recent advancements in plasmon-enhanced promising third-generation solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrithamarassery Gangadharan, Deepak; Xu, Zhenhe; Liu, Yanlong; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Ma, Dongling

    2016-08-01

    The unique optical properties possessed by plasmonic noble metal nanostructures in consequence of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are useful in diverse applications like photovoltaics, sensing, non-linear optics, hydrogen generation, and photocatalytic pollutant degradation. The incorporation of plasmonic metal nanostructures into solar cells provides enhancement in light absorption and scattering cross-section (via LSPR), tunability of light absorption profile especially in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and more efficient charge carrier separation, hence maximizing the photovoltaic efficiency. This review discusses about the recent development of different plasmonic metal nanostructures, mainly based on Au or Ag, and their applications in promising third-generation solar cells such as dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-based solar cells, and perovskite solar cells.

  8. Short X-ray pulse generation using deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Emery, L.; Harkay, K.; Nassiri, A.; Shastri, S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.; Anfinrud, P.; Dolgashev, V.

    2007-11-01

    Storage-ring-based third-generation light sources can provide intense radiation pulses with durations as short as 100 ps. However, there is growing interest within the synchrotron radiation user community in performing experiments with much shorter X-ray pulses. Zholents et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 425 (1999) 385] recently proposed using RF orbit deflection to generate sub-ps X-ray pulses. In this scheme, two deflecting cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse. Implementation of this scheme is planned for one APS beamline in the near future. In this paper, we summarize our feasibility study of this method and the expected X-ray beam parameters. We find that a pulse length of less than two picoseconds can be achieved.

  9. Advanced singlet oxygen generator and nozzle bank in traditional COIL technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.; Nikolaev, Valery D.; Khvatov, Nikolay A.; Svistun, Michael I.

    2007-06-01

    A centrifugal bubbling SOG generated gas flow with partial oxygen pressure up to 40 torr at singlet oxygen yield about 60% and residual chlorine less than 10%. At initial BHP temperature 260K and ratio of chlorine molar flow rate to BHP volumetric rate of 1mole/litre the output BHP temperature was 290K and water vapor fraction relative to the oxygen was 15%. An oxygen flux up to 6 mmole/s per 1 cm2 of the bubbler surface has been attained. An ejector nozzle bank generates gain medium flow at Mach number ~2 and temperature lower 200K with small signal gain higher 1%/cm. Ejector COIL powered by centrifugal bubbling SOG demonstrated ~25% of chemical efficiency with specific power 6 kW per 1 litre/s of BHP volumetric rate.

  10. Rational Design of Advanced Photosensitizers Based on Orthogonal BODIPY Dimers to Finely Modulate Singlet Oxygen Generation.

    PubMed

    Epelde-Elezcano, Nerea; Palao, Eduardo; Manzano, Hegoi; Prieto-Castañeda, Alejandro; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Tabero, Andrea; Villanueva, Angeles; de la Moya, Santiago; López-Arbeloa, Íñigo; Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Ortiz, María J

    2017-04-06

    The synthesis, photophysical characterization, and modeling of a new library of halogen-free photosensitizers (PS) based on orthogonal boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dimers are reported. Herein we establish key structural factors in order to enhance singlet oxygen generation by judiciously choosing the substitution patterns according to key electronic effects and synthetic accessibility factors. The photosensitization mechanism of orthogonal BODIPY dimers is demonstrated to be strongly related to their intrinsic intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character through the spin-orbit charge-transfer intersystem crossing (SOCT-ISC) mechanism. Thus, singlet oxygen generation can be effectively modulated through the solvent polarity and the presence of electron-donating or withdrawing groups in one of the BODIPY units. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity is demonstrated by in vitro experiments, showing that selected photosensitizers are efficiently internalized into HeLa cells, exhibiting low dark toxicity and high phototoxicity, even at low PS concentration (0.05-5×10(-6)  m).

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  12. Advanced electron-beam pattern generation technology for 180-nm masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Sauer, Charles A.; Wang, William; Vernon, Matthew; Prior, Richard; Pearce-Percy, Henry T.; Cole, Damon M.; Mankos, Marian

    1997-02-01

    Optical lithography will be the dominant technique used for 180 nm generation production devices. With a reduced feature size on the wafer, 4X optical reduction, optical proximity correction (OPC), and phase shift lithography techniques, mask-related errors become even more critical to wafer yield. In addition, small feature sizes and lithography enhancement techniques require finer edge resolution. Clearly, new patten generation tools are needed for this generation of maskmaking requirements. Multipass gray (MPG) writing strategy was introduced with the MEBESR 4500S. The ability to deliver a 4X improvement in dose while improving throughput is a significant advantage over previous MEBES systems. Since MPG is used in conjunction with offset scan voting, reduction in butting of over 50% has been demonstrated with MPG. Higher doses are now possible with use of a multipass writing strategy and a brighter source. As a result, resists with higher contrast and process robustness can be used. A significant improvement in uniformity is noted with the new process, an essential step needed in meeting 180 nm requirements. Dry etch is essential to meet these new requirements and with sufficient process margin to be manufacturable. This paper describes the key electron-beam pattern generation technology necessary to meet the requirement of 180 nm masks, including a high dose field- emission gun and column capable of delivering 800 A/cm2; complete dynamic beam correction; a digital stage servo to provide stable, reproducible stage control under high acceleration conditions; a high speed data path to support 320 MHz beam blanking and a 10 nm data address. This paper also examines the improvements made to the MEBES platform and documents the resulting improvements and compares these results to the requirements for 180 nm masks.

  13. Research into advanced concepts of microwave power amplification and generation utilizing linear beam devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcisaac, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of some aspects of the interaction between a drifting stream of electrons with transverse cyclotron motions and an electromagnetic field is presented. Particular emphasis was given to the possible generation and amplification of millimeter waves. The major effort was devoted to a theoretical study of the cyclotron resonance oscillator. The appendices include published papers on the cyclotron resonance oscillator which resulted from this investigation.

  14. Advanced controls for stability assessment of solar dynamics space power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.

    1995-08-01

    In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust control scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different control options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/control scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.

  15. Towards next-generation label-free biosensors: recent advances in whispering gallery mode sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Baaske, Martin D; Vollmer, Frank

    2017-03-29

    Whispering gallery mode biosensors have been widely exploited over the past decade to study molecular interactions by virtue of their high sensitivity and applicability in real-time kinetic analysis without the requirement to label. There have been immense research efforts made for advancing the instrumentation as well as the design of detection assays, with the common goal of progressing towards real-world sensing applications. We therefore review a set of recent developments made in this field and discuss the requirements that whispering gallery mode label-free sensors need to fulfill for making a real world impact outside of the laboratory. These requirements are directly related to the challenges that these sensors face, and the methods proposed to overcome them are discussed. Moving forward, we provide the future prospects and the potential impact of this technology.

  16. Advanced controls for stability assessment of solar dynamics space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust control scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different control options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/control scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.

  17. Advanced Feeder-Free Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Directly From Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalanko, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking. PMID:25355732

  18. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  19. An Innovative Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Coarse-Mesh Transport Method for Advanced and Generation IV Reactor Core Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Farzad Rahnema

    2009-11-12

    This project has resulted in a highly efficient method that has been shown to provide accurate solutions to a variety of 2D and 3D reactor problems. The goal of this project was to develop (1) an accurate and efficient three-dimensional whole-core neutronics method with the following features: based sollely on transport theory, does not require the use of cross-section homogenization, contains a highly accurate and self-consistent global flux reconstruction procedure, and is applicable to large, heterogeneous reactor models, and to (2) create new numerical benchmark problems for code cross-comparison.

  20. Advanced high-explosive flux compression generator development: The CN-III series

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, B.L.; Sheppard, M.G.; Fowler, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    A very successful series of three flux compression generator (FCG) experiments and one hydro-only test, designed to quantify the performance capabilities and limitations of high-current, high-field, high-power coaxial FCGs, is reported. In the last test, the CN-III FCG produced a peak current of >150 MA with a final doubling time of <10{mu}s into a 2-nH inductive load. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with extensive preshot and postshot one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations.

  1. Analytical procedures for estimating structural response to acoustic fields generated by advanced launch systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Lin, Y. K.; Zhu, Li-Ping; Fang, Jian-Jie; Cai, G. Q.

    1994-01-01

    This report supplements a previous report of the same title submitted in June, 1992. It summarizes additional analytical techniques which have been developed for predicting the response of linear and nonlinear structures to noise excitations generated by large propulsion power plants. The report is divided into nine chapters. The first two deal with incomplete knowledge of boundary conditions of engineering structures. The incomplete knowledge is characterized by a convex set, and its diagnosis is formulated as a multi-hypothesis discrete decision-making algorithm with attendant criteria of adaptive termination.

  2. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings for advanced power generation combustion turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical evaluation was conducted to determine quantitatively the improvement potential in cycle efficiency and cost of electricity made possible by the introduction of thermal barrier coatings to power generation combustion turbine systems. The thermal barrier system, a metallic bond coat and yttria stabilized zirconia outer layer applied by plasma spray techniques, acts as a heat insulator to provide substantial metal temperature reductions below that of the exposed thermal barrier surface. The study results show the thermal barrier to be a potentially attractive means for improving performance and reducing cost of electricity for the simple, recuperated, and combined cycles evaluated.

  3. The P3 Power Generation System for Advanced Missile Defense Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Kansal, J. Hsu, J. Friedman, and M. B. Srivastava, "Design Considerations for Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Embedded Systems", IEEE...Generator", Proceedings of the Materials Research Society, Perovskite Materials, vol. 718, pp. D10.25.l-7 (2002) A.L. Olson, L.M. Eakins, B.W. Olson, D.F...system in which the P3 system is a bottoming cycle for a mid to high temperature fuel cell will be developed. This option will require a total of two

  4. On-sun test results from second-generation and advanced-concepts alkali-metal pool-boiler receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-05-01

    Two 75-kW{sub t} alkali-metal pool-boiler solar receivers have been successfully tested at Sandia National Laboratories` National Solar Thermal Test Facility. The first one, Sandia`s `` second-generation pool-boiler receiver,`` was designed to address commercialization issues identified during post-test assessment of Sandia`s first-generation pool-boiler receiver. It was constructed from Haynes alloy 230 and contained the alkali-metal alloy NaK-78. The absorber`s wetted side had a brazed-on powder-metal coating to stabilize boiling. This receiver was evaluated for boiling stability, hot- and warm-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency. Boiling was stable under all conditions. All of the hot restarts were successful. Mild transient hot spots observed during some hot restarts were eliminated by the addition of 1/3 torr of xenon to the vapor space. All of the warm restarts were also successful. The heat-transfer crisis that damaged the first receiver did not recur. Thermal efficiency was 92.3% at 750{degrees}C with 69.6 kW{sub t} solar input. The second receiver tested, Sandia`s ``advanced-concepts receiver,`` was a replica of the first-generation receiver except that the cavities, which were electric-discharge-machined in the absorber for boiling stability, were eliminated. This step was motivated by bench-scale test results that showed that boiling stability improved with increased heated-surface area, tilt of the heated surface from vertical, and added xenon. The bench-scale results suggested that stable boiling might be possible without heated-surface modification in a 75-kW{sub t} receiver. Boiling in the advanced-concepts receiver with 1/3 torr of xenon added has been stable under all conditions, confirming the bench-scale tests.

  5. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-06-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of a two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, a magnetized beam is compressed with a velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch by a notable factor of 100 (from 15 A to 1.5 kA) while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  6. Recent advances in the generation of bispecific antibodies for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kipriyanov, Sergey M; Le Gall, Fabrice

    2004-03-01

    Bispecific antibodies are currently in clinical and preclinical development for the treatment of various cancers. Designed to direct and enhance the body's immune response to specific tumors, bispecific antibodies consist of a targeting domain (typically an antibody fragment that binds to a tumor antigen) linked to a triggering arm that is specific for a cell-surface molecule capable of mediating a phagocytic or lytic response by macrophages, natural killer cells, T-cells, or other effector cells. Recent animal studies have confirmed the therapeutic potential of bispecific antibodies; however, results from clinical trials so far have been less promising and have revealed clear limitations of these molecules, such as immunogenicity and severe side effects caused by mass release of inflammatory cytokines. A second generation of bispecific molecules, bispecific single-chain antibodies and hetero-oligomeric-engineered antibodies, has now been produced by using DNA recombinant technology; these may theoretically improve tumor targeting and minimize side effects, eventually replacing the full-length bispecific antibodies. Over the next few years, several recombinant bispecific antibodies are expected to enter clinical trials and ultimately emerge as new pharmaceutical products. This review briefly summarizes major trends in the development of bispecific antibodies for tumor therapy, and describes a rationale for the generation of novel recombinant molecules.

  7. Advancements and challenges in generating accurate animal models of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Raymond C; Gannon, Maureen

    2013-12-01

    The maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is critical to the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus. Strikingly, approximately 7% of human pregnancies are characterized by insufficient insulin production or signaling, resulting in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition to the acute health concerns of hyperglycemia, women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy have an increased incidence of complications during pregnancy as well as an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. Furthermore, children born to mothers diagnosed with GDM have increased incidence of perinatal complications, including hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome, and macrosomia, as well as an increased risk of being obese or developing T2D as adults. No single environmental or genetic factor is solely responsible for the disease; instead, a variety of risk factors, including weight, ethnicity, genetics, and family history, contribute to the likelihood of developing GDM, making the generation of animal models that fully recapitulate the disease difficult. Here, we discuss and critique the various animal models that have been generated to better understand the etiology of diabetes during pregnancy and its physiological impacts on both the mother and the fetus. Strategies utilized are diverse in nature and include the use of surgical manipulation, pharmacological treatment, nutritional manipulation, and genetic approaches in a variety of animal models. Continued development of animal models of GDM is essential for understanding the consequences of this disease as well as providing insights into potential treatments and preventative measures.

  8. Fitness Consequences of Advanced Ancestral Age over Three Generations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi; Bazykin, Georgii A.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid rise in age at parenthood in contemporary societies has increased interest in reports of higher prevalence of de novo mutations and health problems in individuals with older fathers, but the fitness consequences of such age effects over several generations remain untested. Here, we use extensive pedigree data on seven pre-industrial Finnish populations to show how the ages of ancestors for up to three generations are associated with fitness traits. Individuals whose fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers fathered their lineage on average under age 30 were ~13% more likely to survive to adulthood than those whose ancestors fathered their lineage at over 40 years. In addition, females had a lower probability of marriage if their male ancestors were older. These findings are consistent with an increase of the number of accumulated de novo mutations with male age, suggesting that deleterious mutations acquired from recent ancestors may be a substantial burden to fitness in humans. However, possible non-mutational explanations for the observed associations are also discussed. PMID:26030274

  9. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  10. Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T R; Boss, W H; Chapman, J N

    1992-03-01

    Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

  11. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-11-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool.

  12. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  13. Advanced E-O test capability for Army Next-Generation Automated Test System (NGATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, S.; Grigor, J.; King, D. F.; Matis, G.; McHugh, S.; McKechnie, J.; Nehring, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Future E-O (FEO) program was established to develop a flexible, modular, automated test capability as part of the Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) program to support the test and diagnostic needs of currently fielded U.S. Army electro-optical (E-O) devices, as well as being expandable to address the requirements of future Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force E-O systems. Santa Barbara infrared (SBIR) has designed, fabricated, and delivered three (3) prototype FEO for engineering and logistics evaluation prior to anticipated full-scale production beginning in 2016. In addition to presenting a detailed overview of the FEO system hardware design, features and testing capabilities, the integration of SBIR's EO-IR sensor and laser test software package, IRWindows 4™, into FEO to automate the test execution, data collection and analysis, archiving and reporting of results is also described.

  14. Advances in understanding of the mechanism for generation of earthquake thermal precursors detected by satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Arun K.; Rawat, Vineeta; Choudhury, Swapnamita; Dasgupta, Sudipta; Das, Josodhir

    2009-12-01

    Stresses building up during an earthquake preparation phase also manifest themselves in the form of a so called increased land surface temperature (LST) leading to a thermal precursor prior to the earthquake event. This phenomenon has now been validated by our observations of short-term thermal anomalies detected by infrared satellite sensors for several recent past earthquakes around the world. The rise in infrared radiance temperature was seen to vary between 5 and 12 °C for different earthquakes. We discuss in this paper different explanations for the generation of such anomalies that have been offered. Emission of gases due to the opening and closure of micropores upon induced stresses and also the participation of ground water have been propounded as a possible cause for generation of thermal anomalies. Seismo-ionosphere coupling, by which gases like radon move to the earth-atmosphere interface and cause air ionization thus bringing about a change in air temperature, relative humidity, etc., has been put forth by some workers. A mechanism of low frequency electromagnetic emission was tested and experimented by scientists with rock masses in stressed conditions as those that exist at tectonic locations. The workers proposed the positive hole pair theory, which received support from several scientific groups. Positive holes (sites of electron deficiency) are activated in stressed rocks from pre-existing yet dormant positive hole pairs (PHPs) and their recombination at rock-air interface leads to a LST rise. A combination of remote sensing detection of rock mechanics behavior with a perception of chemistry and geophysics has been applied to propose the remote sensing rock mechanics theory. Remote sensing detections of such anomalies confirm so far proposed lab theories for such a hotly debated field as earthquake precursor study by providing unbiased observations with consistency in time and space distribution.

  15. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  16. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  17. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  18. Application of advanced grid generation techniques for flow field computations about complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kathong, Monchai; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1988-01-01

    In the computation of flowfields about complex configurations, it is very difficult to construct a boundary-fitted coordinate system. An alternative approach is to use several grids at once, each of which is generated independently. This procedure is called the multiple grids or zonal grids approach; its applications are investigated. The method conservative providing conservation of fluxes at grid interfaces. The Euler equations are solved numerically on such grids for various configurations. The numerical scheme used is the finite-volume technique with a three-stage Runge-Kutta time integration. The code is vectorized and programmed to run on the CDC VPS-32 computer. Steady state solutions of the Euler equations are presented and discussed. The solutions include: low speed flow over a sphere, high speed flow over a slender body, supersonic flow through a duct, and supersonic internal/external flow interaction for an aircraft configuration at various angles of attack. The results demonstrate that the multiple grids approach along with the conservative interfacing is capable of computing the flows about the complex configurations where the use of a single grid system is not possible.

  19. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Snead, L. L.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-09-01

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ∼500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimental results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. The strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9-20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.

  20. Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

  1. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martenstic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-05-26

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ~500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimental results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. Furthermore, the strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9–20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.

  2. Development of new generation reduced activation ferritic-martenstic steels for advanced fusion reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Lizhen; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-05-26

    International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M23C6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ~500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods. Preliminary experimentalmore » results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. Furthermore, the strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9–20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.« less

  3. NGA's use of aerogravity to advance the next generation of Earth Gravitational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, S. C.; Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.; Holmes, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    NGA has a long history of using aerogravity to improve existing knowledge of the world's gravity field, particularly over remote and inaccessible areas of the earth. Recent and on-going airborne campaigns include projects over Ethiopia, Nepal, Alaska, Tanzania, Antarctica, Indonesia, Mongolia, Afghanistan and the Arctic. Many of these datasets have already contributed to the development of improved national and regional geoid models. Comparisons of these geoid models against independent data serves as a useful quality check on the input aerogravity. Additionally, NGA is using the new airborne data to update their global terrestrial gravity anomaly file. NGA is forming harmonic models of this new aerogravity-enhanced data file and comparing these against the corresponding anomaly file used to develop EGM08, particularly in terms of their relative agreement with new satellite models in the long wavelength band. Initial results show clear improvement over the newly surveyed areas. This type of analysis highlights other regions which would also benefit from new aerogravity campaigns. Ultimately, this new and future data will propagate into NGA's next generation of earth gravitational models, thereby supporting the realization of an improved World Vertical Height System.

  4. An advanced generation land mobile satellite system and its critical technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naderi, F.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design for a Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for the 1990s is presented. LMSS involves small tranceivers accessing satellites directly, with ground reception through small car-top antennas. The satellite would have a large antenna and blanket coverage areas in the UHF. The call may originate from a home, be carried by wire to a gateway, transmitted to satellite on the S-band, converted to UHF on the satellite, and transmitted to the vehicle. The system design is constrained by the number of users in an area during the busiest hours, Shuttle storage, controllability factors, and the total area served. A 55-m antenna has been selected, with 87 spot beams and two 10 MHz UHF bands in the 806-890 MHz band. A 17 dB interbeam isolation level is required, implying that sufficient sub-bands can be generated to assure 8265 total channels. The mobile satellite (MSAT) would have an 83 m mast lower segment, a 34 m upper segment, and a second, 10 m antenna made of a deployable mesh. Various antenna function modes are considered.

  5. Advancing the Oxygen Generation Assembly Design to Increase Reliability and Reduce Costs for a Future Long Duration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takada, Kevin C.; Ghariani, Ahmed E.; Van Keuren,

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) has been reliably producing breathing oxygen for the crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for over eight years. Lessons learned from operating the ISS OGA have led to proposing incremental improvements to advance the baseline design for use in a future long duration mission. These improvements are intended to reduce system weight, crew maintenance time and resupply mass from Earth while increasing reliability. The proposed improvements include replacing the cell stack membrane material, deleting the nitrogen purge equipment, replacing the hydrogen sensors, deleting the wastewater interface, replacing the hydrogen dome and redesigning the cell stack power supply. The development work to date will be discussed and forward work will be outlined. Additionally, a redesigned system architecture will be proposed.

  6. Ranger© - An Affordable, Advanced, Next-Generation, Dual-Pol, X-Band Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedronsky, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Enterprise Electronics Corporation (EEC) Ranger© system is a new generation, X-band (3 cm), Adaptive Polarization Doppler Weather Surveillance Radar that fills the gap between high-cost, high-power traditional radar systems and the passive ground station weather sensors. Developed in partnership with the University of Oklahoma Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC), the system uses relatively low power solid-state transmitters and pulse compression technology to attain nearly the same performance capabilities of much more expensive traditional radar systems. The Ranger© also employs Adaptive Dual Polarization (ADP) techniques to allow Alternating or Simultaneous Dual Polarization capability with total control over the transmission polarization state using dual independent coherent transmitters. Ranger© has been designed using the very latest technology available in the industry and the technical and manufacturing experience gained through over four decades of successful radar system design and production at EEC. The entire Ranger© design concept emphasizes precision, stability, reliability, and value using proven solid state technology combined with the most advanced motion control system ever conceived for weather radar. Key applications include meteorology, hydrology, aviation, offshore oil/gas drilling, wind energy, and outdoor event situational awareness.

  7. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  8. Supporting Development for the Stirling Radioisotope Generator and Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency, 110-We (watts electric) Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for possible use on future NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Potential mission use includes providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is conducting an in-house supporting technology project to assist in SRG110 development. One-, three-, and six-month heater head structural benchmark tests have been completed in support of a heater head life assessment. Testing is underway to evaluate the key epoxy bond of the permanent magnets to the linear alternator stator lamination stack. GRC has completed over 10,000 hours of extended duration testing of the Stirling convertors for the SRG110, and a three-year test of two Stirling convertors in a thermal vacuum environment will be starting shortly. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall generator. Sunpower, Inc. has begun the development of a lightweight Stirling convertor, under a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) award, that has the potential to double the system specific power to about 8 We/kg. GRC has performed random vibration testing of a lower-power version of this convertor to evaluate robustness for surviving launch vibrations. STC has also completed the initial design of a lightweight convertor. Status of the development of a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code and high-temperature materials work on advanced superalloys, refractory metal alloys, and ceramics are also discussed.

  9. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state

  10. Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2006-09-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

  11. Advanced technologies in the ASI MLRO towards a new generation laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Thomas; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO) is a high performance, highly automated optical and astronomical observatory currently under design and development by AlliedSignal for the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is projected to become operational at the Centro Geodesia Spaziale in Matera, Italy, in 1997. MLRO, based on a 1.5-meter astronomical quality telescope, will perform ranging to spacecraft in earthbound orbits, lunar reflectors, and specially equipped deep space missions. The primary emphasis during design is to incorporate state-of-the-art technologies to produce an intelligent, automated, high accuracy ranging system that will mimic the characteristic features of a fifth generation laser ranging system. The telescope has multiple ports and foci to support future experiments in the areas of laser communications, lidar, astrometry, etc. The key features providing state-of-the-art ranging performance include: a diode-pumped picosecond (50 ps) laser, high speed (3-5 GHz) optoelectronic detection and signal processing, and a high accuracy (6 ps) high resolution (less than 2 ps) time measurement capability. The above combination of technologies is expected to yield millimeter laser ranging precision and accuracy on targets up to 300,000 km, surpassing the best operational instrument performance to date by a factor of five or more. Distributed processing and control using a state-of-the-art computing environment provides the framework for efficient operation, system optimization, and diagnostics. A computationally intelligent environment permits optimal planning, scheduling, tracking, and data processing. It also supports remote access, monitor, and control for joint experiments with other observatories.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADVANCED APPROACH FOR NEXT-GENERATION INTEGRATED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Scott R. Reeves

    2005-04-01

    Accurate, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) reservoir characterization can provide substantial benefits for effective oilfield management. By doing so, the predictive reliability of reservoir flow models, which are routinely used as the basis for investment decisions involving hundreds of millions of dollars and designed to recover millions of barrels of oil, can be significantly improved. Even a small improvement in incremental recovery for high-value assets can result in important contributions to bottom-line profitability. Today's standard practice for developing a 3D reservoir description is to use seismic inversion techniques. These techniques make use of geostatistics and other stochastic methods to solve the inverse problem, i.e., to iteratively construct a likely geologic model and then upscale and compare its acoustic response to that actually observed in the field. This method has several inherent flaws, such as: (1) The resulting models are highly non-unique; multiple equiprobable realizations are produced, meaning (2) The results define a distribution of possible outcomes; the best they can do is quantify the uncertainty inherent in the modeling process, and (3) Each realization must be run through a flow simulator and history matched to assess it's appropriateness, and therefore (4) The method is labor intensive and requires significant time to complete a field study; thus it is applied to only a small percentage of oil and gas producing assets. A new approach to achieve this objective was first examined in a Department of Energy (DOE) study performed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) in 2000/2001. The goal of that study was to evaluate whether robust relationships between data at vastly different scales of measurement could be established using virtual intelligence (VI) methods. The proposed workflow required that three specific relationships be established through use of artificial neural networks (ANN's): core-to-log, log

  13. Interaction of radiation-generated radicals with myoglobin in aqueous solution—IV. Mechanism of interaction of hydroxyl radicals with oxymyoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, Kevin D.; Hoffman, Morton Z.

    The interaction of radiation-generated ·OH/H· with oxymyoglobin (MbO 2) has been studied in the presence of catalase at pH 7.3 over the range of 5-510microM O 2. The conversion of MbO 2 to heme-modified products has been examined under conditions where depletion of O 2 in irradiated solutions both can and cannot be compensated by O 2-transfer across the solution phase boundary. In the theoretical limit of [O 2] → 0 in bulk solution, MbO 2 is converted stoichiometrically to ferri- and ferromyoglobin with G( MbO 2) ⋍ 6.0, G(ferroMb) ⋍ 3.0, and G(ferriMb) ⋍ 3.0. An increase in [O 2] in bulk solution beyond the zero-limit progressively suppresses the conversion of MbO 2 to the heme-modified derivatives. At [O 2] ⩾ 300 microM, an O 2-independent path of ferriMb formation with G ⋍ 0.6 is evident. Two sources of ferriMb induced by ·OH/H· are proposed: an O 2-independent path involving direct oxidative attack of ·OH at the oxyferroheme, and O 2-dependent paths of production of ferriMb and ferroMb involving the mediation of O 2-scavengable secondary hemeprotein radicals. It is suggested that the modifications of the heme group in the absence of O 2 are accompanied by redox modifications on the globin moiety. With increasing [O 2], similar redox modifications on the globin can occur without a mediating involvement of the prosthetic group. At high [O 2], involvement of the heme in modification of the globin is eliminated.

  14. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, B J; Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens ("type I": Green River Formation kerogen; "Type II": Monterey Formation kerogen) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water (i.e., dry pyrolysis, where only pyrolysate water is present), C12(+) -range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The extent of these concentrations effects is greatly diminished during hydrous pyrolysis. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

  15. Investigation of advanced nanostructured multijunction photoanodes for enhanced solar hydrogen generation via water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidetaka

    As the worldwide demand for fossil-based fuel increases every day and the fossil reserve continues to be depleted, the need for alternative/renewable energy sources has gained momentum. Electric, hybrid, and hydrogen cars have been at the center of discussion lately among consumers, automobile manufacturers, and politicians, alike. The development of a fuel-cell based engine using hydrogen has been an ambitious research area over the last few decades-ever since Fujishima showed that hydrogen can be generated via the solar-energy driven photo-electrolytic splitting of water. Such solar cells are known as Photo-Electro-Chemical (PEC) solar cells. In order to commercialize this technology, various challenges associated with photo-conversion efficiency, chemical corrosion resistance, and longevity need to be overcome. In general, metal oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2, titania) are excellent candidates for PEC solar cells. Titania nanotubes have several advantages, including biocompatibility and higher chemical stability. Nevertheless, they can absorb only 5-7% of the solar spectrum which makes it difficult to achieve the higher photo-conversion efficiency required for successful commercial applications. A two-prong approach was employed to enhance photo-conversion efficiency: 1) surface modification of titania nanotubes using plasma treatment and 2) nano-capping of the titania nanotubes using titanium disilicide. The plasma surface treatment with N2 was found to improve the photo-current efficiency of titania nanotubes by 55%. Similarly, a facile, novel approach of nano-capping titania nanotubes to enhance their photocurrent response was also investigated. Electrochemically anodized titania nanotubes were capped by coating a 25 nm layer of titanium disilicide using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The optical properties of titania nanotubes were not found to change due to the capping; however, a considerable increase (40%) in the photocurrent

  16. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  17. Progress on the Development of the Next Generation X-ray Beam Position Monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Yang, B.X.; Decker, G.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are ke y elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The next generat ion XBPMs for high heat load front ends (HHL FEs) have been designed to meet these requirements by utilizing Cu K-edge x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from a pair of copper absorbers and have been installed at the front ends (FEs) of the APS. Com missioning data showed a significant performance improvement over the existing photoemission-based XBPMs. While a similar design concept can be applied for the canted undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0-mrad, the lower beam power (< 10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scat tering from the diamond blades placed edge-on to the x- ray beam. A prototype of the Compton scattering XBPM system was i nstalled at 24-ID-A in May 2015. In this report, the design and test results for XRF-based XBPM and Compton scattering based XBPM are presented. Ongoing research related to the development of the next generation XBPMs on thermal contac t resistance of a joint between two solid bodies is also discussed

  18. Pentosidine in advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) during UVA irradiation generates active oxygen species and impairs human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Okano, Y; Masaki, H; Sakurai, H

    2001-08-01

    Our previous study reported that advanced glycation end-products (AGE)-modified BSA produced active oxygen species, *O2-, H2O2, and *OH under UVA irradiation and enhanced the cytotoxicity of UVA light. We examined whether pentosidine in AGE-modified BSA was involved in one of the mechanisms generating the active oxygen species. In biological investigations, fibroblasts exposed to UVA (20 J/cm2) in the presence of pentosidine-rich compounds (PRCs), which were prepared with L-arginine, L-lysine and glucose, showed a time-dependent leakage of the cytosolic enzyme LDH. In addition, release of LDH was suppressed by addition of DMSO and deferoxamine under UVA irradiation. From these results, it was determined that PRCs exposed to UVA damaged the plasma membrane of human dermal fibroblasts due to the conversion of *OH from H2O2 via a Fenton-like reaction. These features of PRCs exposed to UVA were consistent with those of AGE-modified BSA. In an ESR study, PRCs under UVA irradiation yielded DMPO-OH (DMPO-OH adduct) using DMPO as a spin-trapping reagent. *O2- generation from UVA-irradiated PRCs was also indicated by the combination of NBT reduction and SOD. When PRCs were exposed to UVA light controlled with a long-pass filter, WG-360, it was found that their production of *O2- was prohibited less than 50% in the NBT reduction assay. The *O2- production profile of PRCs depending on the wavelength of UVA light was similar to that of AGE-modified BSA. Furthermore, it was found that the H2O2 level was increased by PRCs exposed to UVA. These results indicated that pentosidine is an important factor of AGE-modified BSA in active oxygen generation under UVA irradiation.

  19. Advanced Singlet Oxygen Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    heat capacity and reverse water vapor condensation into BHP. Hence the local water vapor flux from the BHP is mw=hwmc=(1+A)Psw/Pg and the BHP...have been performed with aid of the ejector COIL described in [39] and bubbler of type 1a. The scheme of ejector COIL powered by CBSOG is presented in...

  20. Discussing dying in the diaspora: attitudes towards advance care planning among first generation Dutch and Italian migrants in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Craig; Smith, Jessica; Toussaint, Yann; Auret, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Western cultural practices and values have largely shaped advance care planning (ACP) policies across the world. Low uptake of ACP among ethnic minority groups in Western countries has been interpreted with reference to cultural differences. This paper adopts a life-history approach to explore attitudes towards ACP among older, first-generation Dutch-Australian and Italian-Australian migrants. Thirty people participated in extended ethnographic interviews (N = 17) and group discussions (N = 13) during 2012. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and interpreted using a Foucauldian perspective on knowledge and power. Migration experiences, ongoing contact with the native country and participation in migrant community support networks influenced attitudes towards ACP. Dutch participants framed ACP discussions with reference to euthanasia, and adopted a more individualist approach to medical decision-making. Italian participants often spoke of familial roles and emphasized a family-based decision making style. The importance of migrant identity has been neglected in previous discussions of cultural factors influencing ACP uptake among ethnic minority groups. The unique migration experience should be considered alongside culturally appropriate approaches to decision-making, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP among migrant groups.

  1. Polymorphism analysis of multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations of upland cotton developed in China.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Li, Z X; Hu, J S; Lin, Z X; Li, X F

    2016-12-19

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop that provides renewable natural fiber worldwide. Currently limited genetic base leads to a decrease in upland cotton genetic diversity. Multi-parent advance generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations can be used to evaluate complex agronomic traits in crops. In this study, we developed an upland cotton MAGIC population. A total of 258 MAGIC population lines and their twelve founder lines were analyzed, using 432 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Gene diversity indices and the polymorphism information content were calculated using polymorphism analyses. Our genotype analysis showed that 258 inbred lines could be divided into 158 genotypes. Among these, we identified 17 pairs of specific SSR primers on the A chromosome subgroups and 24 pairs of specific SSR primers on the B chromosome subgroups of upland cotton. These were related to 77 and 128 genotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that the upland cotton MAGIC population contained abundant genetic diversity and may provide enormous resources for future genetic breeding.

  2. Beyond BRAF(V600): clinical mutation panel testing by next-generation sequencing in advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Siroy, Alan E; Boland, Genevieve M; Milton, Denái R; Roszik, Jason; Frankian, Silva; Malke, Jared; Haydu, Lauren; Prieto, Victor G; Tetzlaff, Michael; Ivan, Doina; Wang, Wei-Lien; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Curry, Jonathan; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Broaddus, Russell; Rashid, Asif; Stewart, John; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Amaria, Rodabe N; Patel, Sapna P; Papadopoulos, Nicholas E; Bedikian, Agop; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Hwu, Patrick; Diab, Adi; Woodman, Scott E; Aldape, Kenneth D; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Patel, Keyur P; Shaw, Kenna R; Mills, Gordon B; Mendelsohn, John; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kim, Kevin B; Routbort, Mark J; Lazar, Alexander J; Davies, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    The management of melanoma has evolved owing to improved understanding of its molecular drivers. To augment the current understanding of the prevalence, patterns, and associations of mutations in this disease, the results of clinical testing of 699 advanced melanoma patients using a pan-cancer next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of hotspot regions in 46 genes were reviewed. Mutations were identified in 43 of the 46 genes on the panel. The most common mutations were BRAFV600 (36%), NRAS (21%), TP53 (16%), BRAFNon-V600 (6%), and KIT (4%). Approximately one-third of melanomas had >1 mutation detected, and the number of mutations per tumor was associated with melanoma subtype. Concurrent TP53 mutations were the most frequent events in tumors with BRAFV600 and NRAS mutations. Melanomas with BRAFNon-V600mutations frequently harbored concurrent NRAS mutations (18%), which were rare in tumors with BRAFV600 mutations (1.6%). The prevalence of BRAFV600 and KIT mutations were significantly associated with melanoma subtypes, and BRAFV600 and TP53 mutations were significantly associated with cutaneous primary tumor location. Multiple potential therapeutic targets were identified in metastatic unknown primary and cutaneous melanomas that lacked BRAFV600 and NRAS mutations. These results enrich our understanding of the patterns and clinical associations of oncogenic mutations in melanoma.

  3. Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any

  4. Effectiveness and safety of first-generation protease inhibitors in clinical practice: Hepatitis C virus patients with advanced fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Salmerón, Javier; Vinaixa, Carmen; Berenguer, Rubén; Pascasio, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Ruano, Juan José; Serra, Miguel Ángel; Gila, Ana; Diago, Moisés; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Navarro, José María; Testillano, Milagros; Fernández, Conrado; Espinosa, Dolores; Carmona, Isabel; Pons, José Antonio; Jorquera, Francisco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Pérez, Ramón; Montero, José Luis; Granados, Rafael; Fernández, Miguel; Martín, Ana Belén; Muñoz de Rueda, Paloma; Quiles, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluates the effectiveness and safety of the first generation, NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs) in clinical practice against chronic C virus, especially in patients with advanced fibrosis. METHODS: Prospective study and non-experimental analysis of a multicentre cohort of 38 Spanish hospitals that includes patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1, treatment-naïve (TN) or treatment-experienced (TE), who underwent triple therapy with the first generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors, boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TVR), in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The patients were treatment in routine practice settings. Data on the study population and on adverse clinical and virologic effects were compiled during the treatment period and during follow up. RESULTS: One thousand and fifty seven patients were included, 405 (38%) were treated with BOC and 652 (62%) with TVR. Of this total, 30% (n = 319) were TN and the remaining were TE: 28% (n = 298) relapsers, 12% (n = 123) partial responders (PR), 25% (n = 260) null-responders (NR) and for 5% (n = 57) with prior response unknown. The rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) by intention-to-treatment (ITT) was greater in those treated with TVR (65%) than in those treated with BOC (52%) (P < 0.0001), whereas by modified intention-to-treatment (mITT) no were found significant differences. By degree of fibrosis, 56% of patients were F4 and the highest SVR rates were recorded in the non-F4 patients, both TN and TE. In the analysis by groups, the TN patients treated with TVR by ITT showed a higher SVR (P = 0.005). However, by mITT there were no significant differences between BOC and TVR. In the multivariate analysis by mITT, the significant SVR factors were relapsers, IL28B CC and non-F4; the type of treatment (BOC or TVR) was not significant. The lowest SVR values were presented by the F4-NR patients, treated with BOC (46%) or with TVR (45%). 28% of the patients interrupted the treatment

  5. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  6. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  7. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    PubMed Central

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  8. Inland treatment of the brine generated from reverse osmosis advanced membrane wastewater treatment plant using epuvalisation system.

    PubMed

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-07-03

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43-, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment.

  9. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Creep-Rupture Behavior of Fusion Welds Involving Alloys for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H., Jr.

    Projections for large increases in the global demand for electric power produced by the burning of fossil fuels, in combination with growing environmental concerns surrounding these fuel sources, have sparked initiatives in the United States, Europe, and Asia aimed at developing a new generation of coal fired power plant, termed Advanced Ultrasupercritical (A-USC). These plants are slated to operate at higher steam temperatures and pressures than current generation plants, and in so doing will offer increased process cycle efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Several gamma' precipitation strengthened Ni-based superalloys have been identified as candidates for the hottest sections of these plants, but the microstructural instability and poor creep behavior (compared to wrought products) of fusion welds involving these alloys present significant hurdles to their implementation and a gap in knowledge that must be addressed. In this work, creep testing and in-depth microstructural characterization have been used to provide insight into the long-term performance of these alloys. First, an investigation of the weld metal microstructural evolution as it relates to creep strength reductions in A-USC alloys INCONELRTM 740, NIMONICRTM 263 (INCONEL and NIMONIC are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation), and HaynesRTM 282RTM (Haynes and 282 are registered trademarks of Haynes International) was performed. gamma'-precipitate free zones were identified in two of these three alloys, and their development was linked to the evolution of phases that precipitate at the expense of gamma'. Alloy 282 was shown to avoid precipitate free zone formation because the precipitates that form during long term aging in this alloy are poor in the gamma'-forming elements. Next, the microstructural evolution of INCONELRTM 740H (a compositional variant of alloy 740) during creep was investigated. Gleeble-based interrupted creep and creep-rupture testing was used to

  11. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  12. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  13. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  14. Advanced natural gas-fired turbine system utilizing thermochemical recuperation and/or partial oxidation for electricity generation, greenfield and repowering applications

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The performance, economics and technical feasibility of heavy duty combustion turbine power systems incorporating two advanced power generation schemes have been estimated to assess the potential merits of these advanced technologies. The advanced technologies considered were: Thermochemical Recuperation (TCR), and Partial Oxidation (PO). The performance and economics of these advanced cycles are compared to conventional combustion turbine Simple-Cycles and Combined-Cycles. The objectives of the Westinghouse evaluation were to: (1) simulate TCR and PO power plant cycles, (2) evaluate TCR and PO cycle options and assess their performance potential and cost potential compared to conventional technologies, (3) identify the required modifications to the combustion turbine and the conventional power cycle components to utilize the TCR and PO technologies, (4) assess the technical feasibility of the TCR and PO cycles, (5) identify what development activities are required to bring the TCR and PO technologies to commercial readiness. Both advanced technologies involve the preprocessing of the turbine fuel to generate a low-thermal-value fuel gas, and neither technology requires advances in basic turbine technologies (e.g., combustion, airfoil materials, airfoil cooling). In TCR, the turbine fuel is reformed to a hydrogen-rich fuel gas by catalytic contact with steam, or with flue gas (steam and carbon dioxide), and the turbine exhaust gas provides the indirect energy required to conduct the endothermic reforming reactions. This reforming process improves the recuperative energy recovery of the cycle, and the delivery of the low-thermal-value fuel gas to the combustors potentially reduces the NO{sub x} emission and increases the combustor stability.

  15. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  16. A Miniaturized Class IV Flextensional Ultrasonic Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Andrew; Tweedie, Andrew; Mathieson, Andrew; Lucas, Margaret

    The class V transducer has found popularity in a diverse range of applications such as surgical and underwater projection systems, where high vibration amplitude for relatively low piezoceramic volume is generated. The class IV transducer offers the potential to attain even higher performance per volume than the class V. In this research, a miniaturized class IV power ultrasonic flextensional transducer is proposed. Simulations were performed using PZFlex finite element analysis, and electrical impedance analysis and experimental modal analysis were conducted for validation, where a high correlation between simulation and experiment has been demonstrated.

  17. Laser flash photolysis generation and kinetic studies of porphyrin-manganese-oxo intermediates. Rate constants for oxidations effected by porphyrin-Mn(V)-oxo species and apparent disproportionation equilibrium constants for porphyrin-Mn(IV)-oxo species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2005-05-11

    Porphyrin-manganese(V)-oxo and porphyrin-manganese(IV)-oxo species were produced in organic solvents by laser flash photolysis (LFP) of the corresponding porphyrin-manganese(III) perchlorate and chlorate complexes, respectively, permitting direct kinetic studies. The porphyrin systems studied were 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (TPFPP), and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methylpyridinium)porphyrin (TMPyP). The order of reactivity for (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives in self-decay reactions in acetonitrile and in oxidations of substrates was (TPFPP) > (TMPyP) > (TPP). Representative rate constants for reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) in acetonitrile are k = 6.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for cis-stilbene and k = 1.4 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for diphenylmethane, and the kinetic isotope effect in oxidation of ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene-d(10) is k(H)/k(D) = 2.3. Competitive oxidation reactions conducted under catalytic conditions display approximately the same relative rate constants as were found in the LFP studies of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives. The apparent rate constants for reactions of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) species show inverted reactivity order with (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP) in reactions with cis-stilbene, triphenylamine, and triphenylphosphine. The inverted reactivity results because (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) disproportionates to (porphyrin)Mn(III)X and (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O), which is the primary oxidant, and the equilibrium constants for disproportionation of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) are in the order (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP). The fast comproportionation reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) with (TPFPP)Mn(III)Cl to give (TPFPP)Mn(IV)(O) (k = 5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and disproportionation reaction of (TPP)Mn(IV)(O) to give (TPP)Mn(V)(O) and (TPP)Mn(III)X (k approximately 2.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) were observed. The relative populations of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) and (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) were determined from the ratios of observed rate constants for

  18. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Next <span class=Generation of Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA is releasing a draft report "Next Generation Risk Assessment: I...

  19. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  20. Utilizing Computer and Multimedia Technology in Generating Choreography for the Advanced Dance Student at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Irma Amado

    This study describes a pilot program utilizing various multimedia computer programs on a MacQuadra 840 AV. The target group consisted of six advanced dance students who participated in the pilot program within the dance curriculum by creating a database of dance movement using video and still photography. The students combined desktop publishing,…

  1. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  2. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  3. The DOE Next-Generation Drivetrain for Wind Turbine Applications: Gearbox, Generator, and Advanced Si/SiC Hybrid Inverter System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, William; Keller, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing results from the U.S. Department of Energy Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrain Project. The drivetrain design reduces the cost of energy by increasing energy capture through drivetrain efficiency improvements; by reducing operation and maintenance costs through reducing gearbox failures; and by lowering capital costs through weight reduction and a series of mechanical and electronic innovations. The paper provides an overview of the drivetrain gearbox and generator and provides a deeper look into the power converter system. The power converter has a number of innovations including the use of hybrid silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) isolated baseplate switching modules. Switching energies are compared between SiC and Si PIN diodes. The efficiency improvement by use of the SiC diode in a three-level converter is also described. Finally, a brief discussion covering utility interconnect requirements for turbines is provided with a particular focus on utility events that lead to high transient torque loads on drivetrain mechanical elements.

  4. Intraoperative radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear: a hypothesis-generating retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, G; Mercante, G; Marucci, L; Soriani, A; Telera, S; Spriano, G

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, effectiveness and functional outcomes of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear. Data on 13 consecutive patients treated for malignant tumor of external auditory canal involving the middle ear were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 33 months (range 6-133). Five (38%) patients were stage III and 8 (62%) were Stage IV according to the University of Pittsburgh staging system. Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) was performed in all cases. LTBR was associated with parotidectomy in 5 (38%) cases, and with neck dissection and parotidectomy in 6 (46%) cases. No patients had gross residual tumour. Surgical treatment was followed by IORT (12 Gy) and IMRT (50 Gy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in 4 (30%) cases. Preoperative and postoperative audiometric tests were performed to assess hearing loss. 5-year local-control (LC), 5-year distant-metastasis (DM), 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and 5-year overall-survival (OS) were calculated with Kaplan-Meyer method. Significant changes in bone conduction were reported after treatment. Partial flap necrosis was the only early complication observed in three (23%) cases, while meningeal fistula was seen in one (7.6%) case as a late complication. The 5-year LC-rate was 68%. The 5-year DM-rate was 90%. The 5-year DFS-rate was 61%. The 5-year OS-rate was 69%. IORT followed by IMRT for the treatment of advanced external auditory canal and middle ear tumours seems to be safe. No intraoperative death was reported. IORT may reduce the postoperative irradiation of remnant tissue obtaining the same full dose on the tumour bed. No complications of the residual external ear were observed. Detriment of neurosensory hearing may be expected. Future studies are required to confirm the benefit of this procedure in the ear.

  5. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  6. Development of Next Generation Energy Audit Protocols for the Rapid and Advanced Analysis of Building Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Christopher Ahlvin

    Current building energy auditing techniques are outdated and lack targeted, actionable information. These analyses only use one year's worth of monthly electricity and gas bills to define energy conservation and efficiency measures. These limited data sets cannot provide robust, directed energy reduction recommendations. The need is apparent for an overhaul of existing energy audit protocols to utilize all data that is available from the building's utility provider, installed energy management system (EMS), and sub-metering devices. This thesis analyzed the current state-of-the-art in energy audits, generated a next generation energy audit protocol, and conducted both audits types on four case study buildings to find out what additional information can be obtained from additional data sources and increased data gathering resolutions. Energy data from each case study building were collected using a variety of means including utility meters, whole building energy meters, EMS systems, and sub-metering devices. In addition to conducting an energy analysis for each case study building using the current and next generation energy audit protocols, two building energy models were created using the programs eQuest and EnergyPlus. The current and next generation energy audit protocol results were compared to one another upon completion. The results show that using the current audit protocols, only variations in season are apparent. Results from the developed next generation energy audit protocols show that in addition to seasonal variations, building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) schedules, occupancy schedules, baseline and peak energy demand levels, and malfunctioning equipment can be found. This new protocol may also be used to quickly generate accurate building models because of the increased resolution that yields scheduling information. The developed next generation energy auditing protocol is scalable and can work for many building types across the

  7. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  8. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  9. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  10. Next Generation Online: Advancing Learning through Dynamic Design, Virtual and Web 2.0 Technologies, and Instructor "Attitude"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of web 2.0 and virtual technologies and new understandings about learning within a global, networked environment, online course design has moved beyond the constraints of text readings, papers, and discussion boards. This next generation of online courses needs to dynamically and actively integrate the wide-ranging distribution of…

  11. Right Here, Right Now: Career Advancement of Generation X Female Mid-Level Administrators in Community Colleges in the Southeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terri Suzanne Holston

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges in the United States are facing what some researchers are calling a "crisis" (Piland & Wolf, 2003; Shults, 2001). The current generation of community college leaders, those born to the birth cohort known as the Baby Boomers, are eligible to retire early in the 21st century. These retirements will leave a…

  12. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    PubMed

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  13. Giant piezoelectricity of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Wenbin; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M =Sn or Ge, X =Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique ``puckered'' C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  14. Flexible Manufacturing System Handbook. Volume IV. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    controls. (9) Sets of batteries (one set per vehicle per shift). (3) Battery chargers . (1) Frequency generator. Necessary area controllers. Necessary battery ...When Date Entered)__________________ REPOT DC -U171,NTATON AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPOT DOIJIENTAION AGEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUb’EER 2.GOVT...Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ii FMS Handbook, Volume IV PREFACE This is the fourth volume in a five-volume series designed to answer the

  15. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC...

  16. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  17. Analysis of Metagenomics Next Generation Sequence Data for Fungal ITS Barcoding: Do You Need Advance Bioinformatics Experience?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades, most of microbiology laboratories have become familiar in analyzing Sanger sequence data for ITS barcoding. However, with the availability of next-generation sequencing platforms in many centers, it has become important for medical mycologists to know how to make sense of the massive sequence data generated by these new sequencing technologies. In many reference laboratories, the analysis of such data is not a big deal, since suitable IT infrastructure and well-trained bioinformatics scientists are always available. However, in small research laboratories and clinical microbiology laboratories the availability of such resources are always lacking. In this report, simple and user-friendly bioinformatics work-flow is suggested for fast and reproducible ITS barcoding of fungi.

  18. Advances in Modeling the Generation of the Geomagnetic Field by the Using of Massively Parallel Computers and Profound Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas; Katz, Daniel S.; Glatzmaier, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    At the Earth's surface, the magnetic field that is observed is similar to that that would be generated by a simple bar magnet running through the Earth's axis. This idea (permanent magnetism) was commonly believed a century ago. Because the temperature of the core is so high, permanent magnetism is not possible. Therefore, the magnetic field should decay, over tens of thousands of years. Since it does not, the field must be regenerating. Since the turn of the century, the idea that the core is molten iron which by moving generates a magnetic field arose. The set of equations to describe this are extremely non-linear and complex. Only in the last five to ten years have computers been able to solve these equations.

  19. Superconducting Multi-Cell Deflecting Cavity for Short-Pulse X-Ray Generation at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, L.H. Morrison, R. Nassiri, R.A. Rimmer, K. Tian, H. Wang

    2009-05-01

    A superconducting multi-cell cavity for the production of short x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been explored as an alternative to a single-cell cavity design in order to improve the packing factor and potentially reduce the number of high-power RF systems and low-level RF controls required. The cavity will operate at 2815 MHz in the APS storage ring and will require heavy damping of parasitic modes to maintain stable beam operation. Novel on-cell dampers, attached directly to the cavity body, have been utilized by taking advantage of the magnetic field null on the equatorial plane in order to enhance damping. Design issues and simulation results will be discussed.

  20. The Wakefield Effects of Pulsed Crab Cavities at the Advanced Photon Source for Short-X-ray Pulse Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.-C.; Waldschmidt, G.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    In recent years we have explored the application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Zholents' crab-cavity based scheme for production of short x-ray pulses. As a near-term project, the APS has elected to pursue a pulsed system using room-temperature cavities. The cavity design has been optimized to heavily damp parasitic modes while maintaining large shunt impedance for the deflecting dipole mode. We evaluated a system consisting of three crab cavities as an impedance source and determined their effect on the single- and multi-bunch instabilities. In the single-bunch instability we used the APS impedance model as the reference system in order to predict the overall performance of the ring when the crab cavities are installed in the future. For multi-bunch instabilities we used a realistic fill pattern, including hybrid-fill, and tracked multiple bunches where each bunch was treated as soft in distribution.

  1. Ion acceleration and D-D nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasma from advanced deuterated polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-23

    Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  2. Why Does 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol Generate the Strongest Intrinsic Chemiluminescence among All Nineteen Chlorophenolic Persistent Organic Pollutants during Environmentally-friendly Advanced Oxidation Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hui-Ying; Mao, Li; Shao, Bo; Huang, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2016-10-01

    We found recently that intrinsic chemiluminescence (CL) could be produced by all 19 chlorophenolic persistent organic pollutants during environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. Interestingly and unexpectedly, the strongest CL was produced not by the most-highly chlorinated pentachlorophenol (PCP), but rather by the less chlorinated 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,5,6-TeCP), one of the three tetrachlorophenol (TeCPs) isomers. However, it remains unclear what is the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we show that not only chlorinated quinoid intermediates, but more interestingly, semiquinone radicals were produced during the degradation of the three TeCPs and PCP by Fenton reagents, and the type and yield of which were found to be well correlated with CL generation. We propose that hydroxyl radical-dependent formation of more tetrachlorinated quinoids, quinone-dioxetanes and electronically excited carbonyl species might be responsible for the exceptionally strong CL production by 2,3,5,6-TeCP as compared to PCP and its two isomers. This is the first report showing the critical role of quinoid intermediates and semiquinone radicals in CL generation from polychlorinated phenols and Fenton system. These new findings may have broad chemical and environmental implications for future studies on remediation of other halogenated persistent aromatic pollutants by advanced oxidation processes.

  3. Why Does 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol Generate the Strongest Intrinsic Chemiluminescence among All Nineteen Chlorophenolic Persistent Organic Pollutants during Environmentally-friendly Advanced Oxidation Process?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Ying; Mao, Li; Shao, Bo; Huang, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2016-01-01

    We found recently that intrinsic chemiluminescence (CL) could be produced by all 19 chlorophenolic persistent organic pollutants during environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. Interestingly and unexpectedly, the strongest CL was produced not by the most-highly chlorinated pentachlorophenol (PCP), but rather by the less chlorinated 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,5,6-TeCP), one of the three tetrachlorophenol (TeCPs) isomers. However, it remains unclear what is the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we show that not only chlorinated quinoid intermediates, but more interestingly, semiquinone radicals were produced during the degradation of the three TeCPs and PCP by Fenton reagents, and the type and yield of which were found to be well correlated with CL generation. We propose that hydroxyl radical-dependent formation of more tetrachlorinated quinoids, quinone-dioxetanes and electronically excited carbonyl species might be responsible for the exceptionally strong CL production by 2,3,5,6-TeCP as compared to PCP and its two isomers. This is the first report showing the critical role of quinoid intermediates and semiquinone radicals in CL generation from polychlorinated phenols and Fenton system. These new findings may have broad chemical and environmental implications for future studies on remediation of other halogenated persistent aromatic pollutants by advanced oxidation processes. PMID:27748358

  4. Advanced power generation systems for the 21st Century: Market survey and recommendations for a design philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, J.B.; Gates, A.E.; Haynes, H.D.; Klett, L.B.; Matthews, S.N.; Nawrocki, E.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Theiss, T.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Tolbert, L.M.; Yauss, M.L.; Voltz, C.A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of a study designed to enhance the performance of future military generator sets (gen-sets) in the medium power range. The study includes a market survey of the state of the art in several key component areas and recommendations comprising a design philosophy for future military gen-sets. The market survey revealed that the commercial market is in a state of flux, but it is currently or will soon be capable of providing the technologies recommended here in a cost-effective manner. The recommendations, if implemented, should result in future power generation systems that are much more functional than today's gen-sets. The number of differing units necessary (both family sizes and frequency modes) to cover the medium power range would be decreased significantly, while the weight and volume of each unit would decrease, improving the transportability of the power source. Improved fuel economy and overall performance would result from more effective utilization of the prime mover in the generator. The units would allow for more flexibility and control, improved reliability, and more effective power management in the field.

  5. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  6. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  7. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  8. Painlevé IV coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  9. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, Paul J.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods currently being employed to tailor organic conductors for bioapplications, with a focus on the development of fabrication techniques vital to the development of the next generation of intelligent bionic devices.

  10. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  11. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  12. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  13. Advanced Characterization of DNA Molecules in rAAV Vector Preparations by Single-stranded Virus Next-generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Emilie; Tournaire, Benoît; Cogné, Benjamin; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Martin-Fontaine, Mélanie; Broucque, Frédéric; Robin, Cécile; Hebben, Matthias; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Blouin, Véronique; François, Achille; Redon, Richard; Moullier, Philippe; Léger, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    Recent successful clinical trials with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) have led to a renewed interest in gene therapy. However, despite extensive developments to improve vector-manufacturing processes, undesirable DNA contaminants in rAAV preparations remain a major safety concern. Indeed, the presence of DNA fragments containing antibiotic resistance genes, wild-type AAV, and packaging cell genomes has been found in previous studies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses. However, because qPCR only provides a partial view of the DNA molecules in rAAV preparations, we developed a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) to extensively characterize single-stranded DNA virus preparations (SSV-Seq). In order to validate SSV-Seq, we analyzed three rAAV vector preparations produced by transient transfection of mammalian cells. Our data were consistent with qPCR results and showed a quasi-random distribution of contaminants originating from the packaging cells genome. Finally, we found single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) along the vector genome but no evidence of large deletions. Altogether, SSV-Seq could provide a characterization of DNA contaminants and a map of the rAAV genome with unprecedented resolution and exhaustiveness. We expect SSV-Seq to pave the way for a new generation of quality controls, guiding process development toward rAAV preparations of higher potency and with improved safety profiles. PMID:26506038

  14. Advanced Characterization of DNA Molecules in rAAV Vector Preparations by Single-stranded Virus Next-generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Emilie; Tournaire, Benoît; Cogné, Benjamin; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Martin-Fontaine, Mélanie; Broucque, Frédéric; Robin, Cécile; Hebben, Matthias; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Blouin, Véronique; François, Achille; Redon, Richard; Moullier, Philippe; Léger, Adrien

    2015-10-27

    Recent successful clinical trials with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) have led to a renewed interest in gene therapy. However, despite extensive developments to improve vector-manufacturing processes, undesirable DNA contaminants in rAAV preparations remain a major safety concern. Indeed, the presence of DNA fragments containing antibiotic resistance genes, wild-type AAV, and packaging cell genomes has been found in previous studies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses. However, because qPCR only provides a partial view of the DNA molecules in rAAV preparations, we developed a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) to extensively characterize single-stranded DNA virus preparations (SSV-Seq). In order to validate SSV-Seq, we analyzed three rAAV vector preparations produced by transient transfection of mammalian cells. Our data were consistent with qPCR results and showed a quasi-random distribution of contaminants originating from the packaging cells genome. Finally, we found single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) along the vector genome but no evidence of large deletions. Altogether, SSV-Seq could provide a characterization of DNA contaminants and a map of the rAAV genome with unprecedented resolution and exhaustiveness. We expect SSV-Seq to pave the way for a new generation of quality controls, guiding process development toward rAAV preparations of higher potency and with improved safety profiles.

  15. The Dynomak: An advanced spheromak reactor system with imposed-dynamo current drive and next-generation nuclear power technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G.; Morgan, K. D.; Nelson, B. A.

    2013-10-01

    A high-beta spheromak reactor system has been designed with an overnight capital cost that is competitive with conventional power sources. This reactor system utilizes recently discovered imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) and a molten salt blanket system for first wall cooling, neutron moderation and tritium breeding. Currently available materials and ITER developed cryogenic pumping systems were implemented in this design on the basis of technological feasibility. A tritium breeding ratio of greater than 1.1 has been calculated using a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) neutron transport simulation. High-temperature superconducting tapes (YBCO) were used for the equilibrium coil set, substantially reducing the recirculating power fraction when compared to previous spheromak reactor studies. Using zirconium hydride for neutron shielding, a limiting equilibrium coil lifetime of at least thirty full-power years has been achieved. The primary FLiBe loop was coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle due to attractive economics and high thermal efficiencies. With these advancements, an electrical output of 1000 MW from a thermal output of 2486 MW was achieved, yielding an overall plant efficiency of approximately 40%. A paper concerning the Dynomak reactor design is currently being reviewed for publication.

  16. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Lü, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC(2)F(2) , was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC(2)F(2) fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C(16) monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss.

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  18. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Trainer Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  19. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  20. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  1. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation DECISION POINT 1 UNDER PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lori

    2013-08-01

    Air Products and the DOE have partnered over a number of years in the development of ITM Oxygen technology in support of gasification technology. Throughout this process, studies of application of the technology to IGCC and oxy-coal combustion have shown significant reduction in capital and operating costs compared to similar systems using conventional cryogenic air separation. Phase 3, the current phase of the program, focuses on the design, construction and operation of a 30- to 100-TPD pilot facility, the Intermediate Scale Test Unit (ISTU). Execution of this phase to date has resulted in significant advances in a number of areas including ceramic membrane material development, module design and production, ceramic-to-metal seal design, process control strategies, and engineering development of process cycles. Phase 3 will be complete upon successful operation of the ISTU in a series of tests making oxygen from ceramic membrane modules and producing power from a hot gas expander. Phase 3 work has extended beyond the planned schedule due to a delay in delivery of equipment from vendors. Air Products is currently managing the equipment delay by close involvement with the vendor to redesign the problematic equipment and oversee its fabrication. The result of these unforeseen challenges is that the ISTU project completion date has been delayed. Tight cost controls have been implemented both by DOE program management and APCI to meet budget constraints despite increased costs due to budget delays. Total project costs have increased in several areas. Increased costs in the ISTU project include purchased equipment, instruments, construction, and contractor engineering. Increased costs for other tasks include additional work in support of module production by Ceramatec, Inc, and increased Air Products labor for component testing. Air Products plans to complete testing as outlined in the SOPO and successfully complete all project objectives by the end of FY14.

  2. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  3. Type IV Pilin Proteins: Versatile Molecular Modules

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Nguyen, Ylan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Type IV pili (T4P) are multifunctional protein fibers produced on the surfaces of a wide variety of bacteria and archaea. The major subunit of T4P is the type IV pilin, and structurally related proteins are found as components of the type II secretion (T2S) system, where they are called pseudopilins; of DNA uptake/competence systems in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species; and of flagella, pili, and sugar-binding systems in the archaea. This broad distribution of a single protein family implies both a common evolutionary origin and a highly adaptable functional plan. The type IV pilin is a remarkably versatile architectural module that has been adopted widely for a variety of functions, including motility, attachment to chemically diverse surfaces, electrical conductance, acquisition of DNA, and secretion of a broad range of structurally distinct protein substrates. In this review, we consider recent advances in this research area, from structural revelations to insights into diversity, posttranslational modifications, regulation, and function. PMID:23204365

  4. The soft, fluctuating UVB at z ˜ 6 as traced by C IV, Si IV, and C II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, B. D.; Davé, Romeel; Zackrisson, E.; Thompson, Robert; Huang, Shuiyao

    2016-07-01

    The sources that drove cosmological reionization left clues regarding their identity in the slope and inhomogeneity of the ultraviolet ionizing background (UVB): bright quasars (QSOs) generate a hard UVB with predominantly large-scale fluctuations while Population II stars generate a softer one with smaller scale fluctuations. Metal absorbers probe the UVB's slope because different ions are sensitive to different energies. Likewise, they probe spatial fluctuations because they originate in regions where a galaxy-driven UVB is harder and more intense. We take a first step towards studying the reionization-epoch UVB's slope and inhomogeneity by comparing observations of 12 metal absorbers at z ˜ 6 versus predictions from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation using three different UVBs: a soft, spatially inhomogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB; a homogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB, and a `QSOs-only' model. All UVBs reproduce the observed column density distributions of C II, Si IV, and C IV reasonably well although high-column, high-ionization absorbers are underproduced, reflecting numerical limitations. With upper limits treated as detections, only a soft, fluctuating UVB reproduces both the observed Si IV/C IV and C II/C IV distributions. The QSOs-only UVB overpredicts both C IV/C II and C IV/Si IV, indicating that it is too hard. The Haardt & Madau (2012) UVB underpredicts C IV/Si IV, suggesting that it lacks amplifications near galaxies. Hence current observations prefer a soft, fluctuating UVB as expected from a predominantly Population II background although they cannot rule out a harder one. Future observations probing a factor of 2 deeper in metal column density will distinguish between the soft, fluctuating and QSOs-only UVBs.

  5. Making the genomic leap in HCT: application of second-generation sequencing to clinical advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun R; Levine, John E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in second-generation sequencing (SGS) technologies provide an avenue for achieving rapid and accurate high-throughput analysis of human and microbial genomic diversity. SGS technologies have the potential to transform existing medical management of complex and life-threatening medical conditions by enabling clinicians to develop disease-targeted clinical care plans for each patient. In this review, we outline how innovative SGS-based approaches can improve the care of recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), a life-saving procedure that carries a 1-year mortality risk of over 30%. We specifically evaluate foreseeable applications of SGS-based technology in facilitating rapid, phase-sensitive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, assessment of non-HLA genomic compatibility, identifying patients at high risk for adverse drug reactions, and post-HCT monitoring for engraftment, minimal residual disease and infection. We conclude that innovative SGS approaches have the capacity to revolutionize the HCT recipient risk assessment process, support non-invasive clinical monitoring and improve patient outcomes, thereby setting the stage for a new era of genomically informed patient-centered medicine.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet patterned mask inspection performance of advanced projection electron microscope system for 11nm half-pitch generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Iida, Susumu; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Murakami, Takeshi; Suematsu, Kenichi; Terao, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Novel projection electron microscope optics have been developed and integrated into a new inspection system named EBEYE-V30 ("Model EBEYE" is an EBARA's model code) , and the resulting system shows promise for application to half-pitch (hp) 16-nm node extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask inspection. To improve the system's inspection throughput for 11-nm hp generation defect detection, a new electron-sensitive area image sensor with a high-speed data processing unit, a bright and stable electron source, and an image capture area deflector that operates simultaneously with the mask scanning motion have been developed. A learning system has been used for the mask inspection tool to meet the requirements of hp 11-nm node EUV patterned mask inspection. Defects are identified by the projection electron microscope system using the "defectivity" from the characteristics of the acquired image. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and costs associated with adjustment of the detection capability to cope with newly-defined mask defects. We describe the integration of the developed elements into the inspection tool and the verification of the designed specification. We have also verified the effectiveness of the learning system, which shows enhanced detection capability for the hp 11-nm node.

  7. Capabilities and Facilities Available at the Advanced Test Reactor to Support Development of the Next Generation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; Raymond V. Furstenau

    2005-10-01

    The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. It is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These different capabilities include passive sealed capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. The Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) installed in 1999 enhanced these capabilities by providing a built in experiment monitoring and control system for instrumented and/or temperature controlled experiments. This built in control system significantly reduces the cost for an actively monitored/temperature controlled experiments by providing the thermocouple connections, temperature control system, and temperature control gas supply and exhaust systems already in place at the irradiation position. Although the ITV in-core hardware was removed from the ATR during the last core replacement completed in early 2005, it (or a similar facility) could be re-installed for an irradiation program when the need arises. The proposed Gas Test Loop currently being designed for installation in the ATR will provide additional capability for testing of not only gas reactor materials and fuels but will also include enhanced fast flux rates for testing of materials and fuels for other next generation reactors including preliminary testing for fast reactor fuels and materials. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities available and the cost benefit issues related to each capability.

  8. Nano-design of quantum dot-based photocatalysts for hydrogen generation using advanced surface molecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weili; Noureldine, Dalal; Isimjan, Tayirjan; Lin, Bin; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Anjum, Dalaver H; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-14

    Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation in a suspension system requires a sophisticated nano-device that combines a photon absorber with effective redox catalysts. This study demonstrates an innovative molecular linking strategy for fabricating photocatalytic materials that allow effective charge separation of excited carriers, followed by efficient hydrogen evolution. The method for the sequential replacement of ligands with appropriate molecules developed in this study tethers both quantum dots (QDs), as photosensitizers, and metal nanoparticles, as hydrogen evolution catalysts, to TiO2 surfaces in a controlled manner at the nano-level. Combining hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions on the surface, CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and an Au-Pt alloy were attached to TiO2 without overlapping during the synthesis. The resultant nano-photocatalysts achieved substantially high-performance visible-light-driven photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution. All syntheses were conducted at room temperature and in ambient air, providing a promising route for fabricating visible-light-responsive photocatalysts.

  9. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  10. Accelerating litho technology development for advanced design node flash memory FEOL by next-generation wafer inspection and SEM review platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung Ho; Ahn, Jeongho; Ihm, Dongchul; Chin, Soobok; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Choi, Seongchae; Lee, Junbum; Kang, Ho-Kyu; Sivaraman, Gangadharan; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Lakhawat, Rahul; Sanapala, Ravikumar; Lee, Chang Ho; Lobo, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Development of an advanced design node for NAND flash memory devices in semiconductor manufacturing requires accelerated identification and characterization of yield-limiting defect types at critical front-end of line (FEOL) process steps. This enables a shorter development cycle time and a faster production ramp to meet market demand. This paper presents a methodology for detecting defects that have a substantial yield impact on a FEOL after-develop inspection (ADI) layer using an advanced broadband optical wafer defect inspector and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) review tool. In addition, this paper presents experimental data that demonstrates defect migration from an ADI layer to an after-clean inspection (ACI) layer, and provides clear differentiation between yield-impacting critical defects and noncritical defects on the layers. The goal of these studies is to determine the feasibility of implementing an inspection point at ADI. The advantage of capturing yield-limiting defects on an ADI layer is that wafers can be reworked when an excursion occurs, an option that is not always possible for ACI layers. Our investigation is divided into two parts: (1) Inspection of an ADI layer with high sensitivity to find an accurate representation of the defect population and to gain understanding on the propagation of defects from the ADI layer to the ACI layer; and, (2) Inspection of an ACI layer to develop an understanding of unique defects generated by the ACI process step. Overall, this paper discusses the advantages of baselining defectivity at ADI process levels for accelerated development of advanced design node memory devices.

  11. Second generation advanced reburning for high efficiency NO{sub x} control. Progress report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.

    1996-04-25

    Existing NO{sub x} control technologies have limitations which may prevent them from successfully achieving commercial, cost effective application in the near future. This project develops a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR), which have a potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Phase I consists of six tasks: Task 1.1, project coordination and reporting deliverables; Task 1.2, kinetics of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} reactions with flue gas components; Task 1.3, 0.1 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/hr optimization studies; Task 1.4, 1.0 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/hr process development tests; Task 1.5, mechanism development and modeling; and Task 1.6, design methodology and application. This second reporting period included both modeling and experimental activities. Modeling was focused on evaluation of ammonia injection into the reburning zone and on the effect of various additives on promotion of the NO-NH{sub 3} interaction in the reburning zone. First bench scale Controlled Temperature Tower (CTT) experiments have been performed on different variants of the Advanced Returning technology. The tests are continued, and the results will be reduced and reported in the next quarter.

  12. Metformin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced renal tubular cell injury by suppressing reactive oxygen species generation via reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) expression.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2012-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play a role in tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy. Recently, metformin has been shown to ameliorate tubular injury both in cell culture and diabetic animal model. However, effects of metformin on AGEs-induced tubular cell apoptosis and damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how metformin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and annexin V expression level. AGEs upregulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently increased ROS generation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in human renal proximal tubular cells, all of which were significantly blocked by the treatment of 0.01 and 0.1 mM metformin. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase significantly blocked the effects of metformin on RAGE gene expression and ROS generation in AGEs-exposed tubular cells. Furthermore, metformin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced apoptotic cell death of tubular cells; 1 mM metformin completely suppressed the pro-apoptotic effects of AGEs in 2 different assay systems. Our present study suggests that metformin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in tubular cells probably by reducing ROS generation via suppression of RAGE expression through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Metformin may protect against tubular cell injury in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE-ROS axis.

  13. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE) was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was <1.2 mm. Concerning reproducibility and stability over a period of 1 year, deviations from reference were found <0.3 ± 0.2% for linac output, <0.1% for homogeneity, similarly to symmetry. Rotational accuracy of the entire gantry-portal imager system showed a maximum deviation from nominal 0.0 of <1.2 mm. Pre treatment quality assurance of RapidArc plans resulted with a Gamma Agreement Index (fraction of points passing the gamma criteria) of 97.0 ± 1.6% on the first 182 arcs verified. Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans. PMID:21961830

  14. Molecular heterogeneity assessment by next-generation sequencing and response to gefitinib of EGFR mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Novello, Silvia; Peretti, Umberto; Vavalà, Tiziana; Kinspergher, Stefania; Righi, Luisella; Santo, Antonio; Brunelli, Matteo; Corbo, Vincenzo; Giglioli, Eliana; Sperduti, Isabella; Milella, Michele; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer molecular heterogeneity might explain the variable response of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed the mutational status of 22 cancer genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in poor, intermediate or good responders to first-line gefitinib. Clinical outcome was correlated with Additional Coexisting Mutations (ACMs) and the EGFR Proportion of Mutated Alleles (PMA). Thirteen ACMs were found in 10/17 patients: TP53 (n=6), KRAS (n=2), CTNNB1 (n=2), PIK3CA, SMAD4 and MET (n=1 each). TP53 mutations were exclusive of poor/intermediate responders (66.7% versus 0, p=0.009). Presence of ACMs significantly affected both PFS (median 3.0 versus 12.3 months, p=0.03) and survival (3.6 months versus not reached, p=0.03). TP53 mutation was the strongest negative modifier (median PFS 4.0 versus 14.0 months). Higher EGFR PMA was present in good versus poor/intermediate responders. Median PFS and survival were longer in patients with EGFR PMA ≥0.36 (12.0 versus 4.0 months, p=0.31; not reached versus 18.0 months, p=0.59). Patients with an EGFR PMA ≥0.36 and no ACMs fared significantly better (p=0.03), with a trend towards increased survival (p=0.06). Our exploratory data suggest that a quantitative (PMA) and qualitative (ACMs) molecular heterogeneity assessment using NGS might be useful for a better selection of patients. PMID:25904052

  15. Molecular heterogeneity assessment by next-generation sequencing and response to gefitinib of EGFR mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Novello, Silvia; Peretti, Umberto; Vavalà, Tiziana; Kinspergher, Stefania; Righi, Luisella; Santo, Antonio; Brunelli, Matteo; Corbo, Vincenzo; Giglioli, Eliana; Sperduti, Isabella; Milella, Michele; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-05-20

    Cancer molecular heterogeneity might explain the variable response of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed the mutational status of 22 cancer genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in poor, intermediate or good responders to first-line gefitinib. Clinical outcome was correlated with Additional Coexisting Mutations (ACMs) and the EGFR Proportion of Mutated Alleles (PMA). Thirteen ACMs were found in 10/17 patients: TP53 (n=6), KRAS (n=2), CTNNB1 (n=2), PIK3CA, SMAD4 and MET (n=1 each). TP53 mutations were exclusive of poor/intermediate responders (66.7% versus 0, p=0.009). Presence of ACMs significantly affected both PFS (median 3.0 versus 12.3 months, p=0.03) and survival (3.6 months versus not reached, p=0.03). TP53 mutation was the strongest negative modifier (median PFS 4.0 versus 14.0 months). Higher EGFR PMA was present in good versus poor/intermediate responders. Median PFS and survival were longer in patients with EGFR PMA ≥0.36 (12.0 versus 4.0 months, p=0.31; not reached versus 18.0 months, p=0.59). Patients with an EGFR PMA ≥0.36 and no ACMs fared significantly better (p=0.03), with a trend towards increased survival (p=0.06). Our exploratory data suggest that a quantitative (PMA) and qualitative (ACMs) molecular heterogeneity assessment using NGS might be useful for a better selection of patients.

  16. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  17. Impacts of Title IV in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwell, J.; Ellis, H.; Corio, L.; Seinfelt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources` Power Plant Research Program has evaluated the environmental effects of acid deposition on Maryland`s air, land, water (especially the Chesapeake Bay), and human resources since the mid-1980`s. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) has focused much attention on the mandated reductions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) to control acid deposition. Baseline data on acidic deposition and air emissions/pollution control for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} acquired through PPRP studies have proved useful in evaluating the impacts of Title IV on Maryland power plants and resources. Three example programs are discussed: The first is an evaluation of SO{sub 2} emissions on ecosystems through the use of critical loads--the amount of acid rain that an ecosystem can tolerate without continuing to acidify. Results support the use of broadly based emissions trading scenarios: The second study is an evaluation of the potential for reducing nitrate loading in the Chesapeake Bay by reducing NO{sub x} emissions. Results indicate substantial NO{sub x} emission reductions could offer significant reductions in nitrate deposition to the Bay: The final study is a review of the impacts of Title IV on the Maryland coal industry and the prospects for coal cleaning and advanced combustion technologies. Current results indicate that Maryland coal will meet Phase 2 SO{sub 2} emission standards using advanced combustion techniques, such as fluidized bed technologies, but that additional emissions controls, such as a scrubber would be required in a conventional boiler.

  18. Challenges in the Development of Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M.C. Teague; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; M.W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    Past generations of nuclear reactors have been successively developed and the next generation is currently being developed, demonstrating the constant progress and technical and industrial vitality of nuclear energy. In 2000 US Department of Energy launched Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is one of the main international frameworks for the development of future nuclear systems. The six systems that were selected were: sodium cooled fast reactor, lead cooled fast reactor, supercritical water cooled reactor, very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactor and molten salt reactor. This paper discusses some of the proposed advanced reactor concepts that are currently being researched to varying degrees in the United States, and highlights some of the major challenges these concepts must overcome to establish their feasibility and to satisfy licensing requirements.

  19. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  20. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  1. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  2. Final report for %22High performance computing for advanced national electric power grid modeling and integration of solar generation resources%22, LDRD Project No. 149016.

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Riehm, Andrew Charles; Hoekstra, Robert John; Munoz-Ramirez, Karina; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Phillips, Laurence R.; Adams, Brian M.; Russo, Thomas V.; Oldfield, Ron A.; McLendon, William Clarence, III; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Hansen, Clifford W.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stein, Joshua S.; Schoenwald, David Alan; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Design and operation of the electric power grid (EPG) relies heavily on computational models. High-fidelity, full-order models are used to study transient phenomena on only a small part of the network. Reduced-order dynamic and power flow models are used when analysis involving thousands of nodes are required due to the computational demands when simulating large numbers of nodes. The level of complexity of the future EPG will dramatically increase due to large-scale deployment of variable renewable generation, active load and distributed generation resources, adaptive protection and control systems, and price-responsive demand. High-fidelity modeling of this future grid will require significant advances in coupled, multi-scale tools and their use on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This LDRD report demonstrates SNL's capability to apply HPC resources to these 3 tasks: (1) High-fidelity, large-scale modeling of power system dynamics; (2) Statistical assessment of grid security via Monte-Carlo simulations of cyber attacks; and (3) Development of models to predict variability of solar resources at locations where little or no ground-based measurements are available.

  3. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su

    Organic electro-optic (E-O) materials have attracted considerable research attention in the past 20 years due to their rising potentials in a lot of novel photonic applications, such as high-speed telecommunication, terahertz generation and ultra-fast optical interconnections. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on a barrier layer approach to improve the poling efficiency of electro-optic polymers. First of all, high conduction current from excessive charge injection is identified as a fundamental challenge of effective poling. After analyzing the conduction mechanism, we introduce a sol-gel derived thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer that can significantly block excessive charge injection and reduce the leakage current during high field poling. Ultralarge E-O coefficients, up to 160-350 pm/V at 1310 nm have been achieved by poling with such a barrier, which are 26%-40% higher than the results poled without such a TiO2 layer. This enhancement is explained by the suppressed charge injection and space charge accumulation by the insertion of the high injection barrier from the TiO2 barrier layer. In Chapter 3, the impact of the inserted barrier layer on the temporal alignment stability of E-O polymers is discussed. Considerable stability enhancement is confirmed using both standard 500-hour temporal alignment stability test at 85 °C and thermally stimulated discharge method. We suggest that the enhancement comes from improved stability of the screening charge. During poling the additional barrier layer helps to lower the injection and thus the space charge accumulation. And this reduced space charge accumulation further helps to replace the space charge part in the total formulation of screening charge with more stable interface trapped charge. We thus expand this knowledge to a group of other materials that can also block excessive charge injection and suppressed space charge accumulation, including dielectric polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(4-vinylphenol

  4. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  5. Advanced oxidation using Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles and its application in mercury speciation analysis by high performance liquid chromatography-cold vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xi; Wang, Yu; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Lu; Zheng, Chengbin; Wu, Li

    2013-06-21

    A novel, green and efficient post-column oxidation method using Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was developed to on-line convert hydride generation/cold vapor generation (HG/CV) inactive species to their active species without microwave/UV irradiation. It was applied to high performance liquid chromatography HG/CV atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG/CV-AFS) to enable sensitive speciation analysis of both HG/CV inactive and active species. Inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methylmercury (MeHg), ethylmercury (EtHg) and phenylmercury (PhHg) were selected as model compounds to validate the methodology. Separation of these mercury species was accomplished on a RP-C18 column with a mixture of acetonitrile and water (10 : 90) at pH 6.8 containing 0.12% (m/v) L-cysteine as the mobile phase. In the presence of 0.6% (v/v) H(2)O(2), on-line conversion of the organomercury species eluted from the HPLC column to Hg(2+) was obtained using the advanced oxidation method at pH 2.0. Optimum conditions for the separation, oxidation and cold vapor generation were carefully investigated. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.7, 1.1, 0.8 and 0.9 μg L(-1) (as Hg) for Hg(2+), MeHg, EtHg and PhHg, respectively, corresponding to 14, 22, 16 and 18 pg absolute detection limits for Hg(2+), MeHg, EtHg and PhHg by using a 20 μL sample loop, which are comparable to or better than those previously reported. National Research Council Canada DORM-2 fish muscle tissue and several real water samples were analyzed to validate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  6. Rapid, Enhanced IV Characterization of Multi-Junction PV Devices under One Sun at NREL: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Tom; France, Ryan; Steiner, Myles

    2015-09-15

    Multi-junction technology is rapidly advancing, which puts increasing demands on IV characterization resources. We report on a tool and procedure for fast turn-around of IV data under the reference conditions, but also under controlled variations from the reference conditions. This enhanced data set can improve further iterations of device optimization.

  7. Driver for solar cell I-V characteristic plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, G. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator which applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-V) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions is disclosed. The generator has automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the I-V curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  8. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  9. Mineralization of salicylic acid in acidic aqueous medium by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes using platinum and boron-doped diamond as anode and cathodically generated hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Guinea, Elena; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Solutions containing 164 mg L(-1) salicylic acid of pH 3.0 have been degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2), electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton at constant current density. Their oxidation power has been comparatively studied in a one-compartment cell with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a graphite or O(2)-diffusion cathode. In the three latter procedures, 0.5mM Fe(2+) is added to the solution to form hydroxyl radical (()OH) from Fenton's reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) generated at the O(2)-diffusion cathode. Total mineralization is attained for all methods with BDD and for photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton with Pt. The poor decontamination achieved in anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton with Pt is explained by the slow removal of most pollutants by ()OH formed from water oxidation at the Pt anode in comparison to their quick destruction with ()OH produced at BDD. ()OH generated from Fenton's reaction oxidizes rapidly all aromatic pollutants, but it cannot destroy final Fe(III)-oxalate complexes. Solar photoelectro-Fenton treatments always yield quicker degradation rate due to the very fast photodecarboxylation of these complexes by UVA irradiation supplied by solar light. The effect of current density on the degradation rate, efficiency and energy cost of all methods is examined. The salicylic acid decay always follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic, alpha-ketoglutaric, glycolic, glyoxylic, maleic, fumaric, malic, tartronic and oxalic acids are detected as oxidation products. A general reaction sequence for salicylic acid mineralization considering all these intermediates is proposed.

  10. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  11. Second generation advanced reburning for high efficiency NO{sub x} control. Quaterly progress report No. 1, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Maly, P.M.

    1996-01-22

    Title 1 of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990 requires NO{sub x} controls in ozone non- attainment areas. The initial Title 1 regulations, implemented over the last few years, required Reasonably Available Control Technologies (RACT). In most areas, the NO{sub x} levels for RACT are based on Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB) and are in the range of 0.4 to 0.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. As a result, there has been little industry demand for higher efficiency and more expensive NO{sub x} controls such as reburning, Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). However, the current RACT requirements will not be the end of NO{sub x} regulations. Much more stringent NO{sub x} control will be required to bring many of the ozone non-attainment areas into compliance, particularly in the Northeast. This paper describes second generation advanced reburning for nitrogen oxides control.

  12. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Increased Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Generation by Cyclosporine-A and Angiotensin II in Human Gingival Fibroblasts – Ex-vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Subbarayan, Rajasekaran; Ajitkumar, Supraja; Murugan Girija, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cyclosporin-A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, induces renal fibrosis and Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) is known to play a major role. CsA has the potential to increase the oxidative stress; specifically through the Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) which could possibly stimulate fibrosis. A similar type of pathology occurs even in the gingiva known as CsA Induced Gingival Overgrowth (CIGO). Aim This study was undertaken to estimate the AOPP generation by Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGF) under the influence of CsA and Angiotensin II (Ang II). Materials and Methods Six healthy gingival tissue samples were obtained during crown lengthening procedure and primary HGF were cultured using enzymatic digestion method. The ideal non-cytotoxic concentrations of CsA and Ang II were identified using cytotoxicity assay. Later, HGF were incubated with CsA and Ang II for 12 hours and AOPP assay was performed at zero and one hour interval. Results There was a statistically significant increase in AOPP production in both the CsA and Ang II when compared to the control group with a p value<0.05. Conclusion CsA can induce oxidative stress and preventing/controlling it may be necessary to prevent untoward effect of the drug. PMID:28274044

  14. Second generation advanced reburning for high efficiency NO{sub x} control. Progress report No. 3, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Maly, P.M.

    1996-07-26

    This project develops a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR), which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control at a significantly lower cost than selective catalytic reduction. Phase I consists of six tasks: Task 1.1, project coordination and reporting deliverables; Task 1.2, kinetics of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} reactions with flue gas components; Task 1.3, 20 kW optimization studies; Task 1.4, 20 kW process development tests; Task 1.5, mechanism development and modeling; and Task 1.6, design methodology and application. This third reporting period included both experimental and modeling activities. Tests continued at the Controlled Temperature Tower (CTT), and the results have been reduced and are reported. A study on high- temperature reactions of sodium promoters (Task 1.2) is underway at the University of Texas in Austin (UT). A brief literature review on high-temperature sodium reactions is included in this report. A high- temperature flow system with GC analysis was prepared at the University of Texas at Austin for the experimental program. Modeling focused on description of NO-NH{sub 3} interaction in the burnout zone.

  15. Molecular characterization of patients with pathologic complete response or early failure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer using next generation sequencing and nCounter assay

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hae Hyun; Do, In-Gu; Lee, Kwang Hee; Ahn, TaeJin; Kil, Won Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has the added advantage of increasing breast conservation rates with equivalent survival outcomes compared with adjuvant chemotherapy. A subset of breast cancer patients who received NAC experienced early failure (EF) during the course of therapy or within a short period after curative breast surgery. In contrast, patients with pathological complete response (pCR) were reported to have markedly favorable outcomes. This study was performed to identify actionable mutation(s) and to explain refractoriness and responsiveness to NAC. Included in this analysis were 76 patients among 397 with locally advanced breast cancer for whom a preoperative fresh-frozen paraffin-embedded tumor block was available for next-generation sequencing using AmpliSeq. The incidence of missense mutations in KRAS was much higher in patients with EF than in other groups (p < 0.01). In contrast, polymorphisms of the cMET gene were found in patients with pCR exclusively (p < 0.01). PMID:26009992

  16. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  17. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF REACTION-DRIVEN IONIC TRANSPORT MEMBRANES (ITMs) TECHNOLOGY: PHASE IV/BUDGET PERIOD 6 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems”

    SciTech Connect

    David, Studer

    2012-03-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, along with development participants and in association with the U.S. Department of Energy, has made substantial progress in developing a novel air separation technology. Unlike conventional cryogenic processes, this method uses high-temperature ceramic membranes to produce high-purity oxygen. The membranes selectively transport oxygen ions with high flux and infinite theoretical selectivity. Reaction-driven ceramic membranes are fabricated from non-porous, multi-component metallic oxides, operate at temperatures typically over 700°C, and have exceptionally high oxygen flux and selectivity. Oxygen from low-pressure air permeates as oxygen ions through the ceramic membrane and is consumed through chemical reactions, thus creating a chemical driving force that pulls oxygen ions across the membrane at high rates. The oxygen reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel in a partial oxidation process to produce a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture – synthesis gas. This project expands the partial-oxidation scope of ITM technology beyond natural gas feed and investigates the potential for ITM reaction-driven technology to be used in conjunction with gasification and pyrolysis technologies to provide more economical routes for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas. This report presents an overview of the ITM reaction-driven development effort, including ceramic materials development, fabrication and testing of small-scale ceramic modules, ceramic modeling, and the investigation of gasifier integration schemes

  19. Foreign Trip Report MATGEN-IV Sep 24- Oct 26, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    de Caro, M S

    2007-10-30

    Gen-IV activities in France, Japan and US focus on the development of new structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) F/M steels have raised considerable interest in nuclear applications. Promising collaborations can be established seeking fundamental knowledge of relevant Gen-IV ODS steel properties (see attached travel report on MATGEN- IV 'Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors'). Major highlights refer to results on future Ferritic/Martensitic steel cladding candidates (relevant to Gen-IV materials properties for LFR Materials Program) and on thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic FeCr binary alloys, base matrix for future candidate steels (for the LLNL-LDRD project on Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors).

  20. Student Generated Section, Course and Alternate Requests as the Keystone of a Computer Based, Student Responsive, Advance Registration and Scheduling System. College and University Machine Records Annual Conference. (17th, Columbus, Ohio, May 1972.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overturf, Leonard O.; Fastman, Jerry

    This document describes a system of computerized advance registration at Colorado State University. The main objective is to generate a schedule that will satisfy student requests and needs, given constraints of faculty, time, and space. The system consists of a series of computer programs and a set of well-documented manual procedures in the…

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  2. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  3. The MAX IV imaging concept.

    PubMed

    Matěj, Zdeněk; Mokso, Rajmund; Larsson, Krister; Hardion, Vincent; Spruce, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The MAX IV Laboratory is currently the synchrotron X-ray source with the beam of highest brilliance. Four imaging beamlines are in construction or in the project phase. Their common characteristic will be the high acquisition rates of phase-enhanced images. This high data flow will be managed at the local computing cluster jointly with the Swedish National Computing Infrastructure. A common image reconstruction and analysis platform is being designed to offer reliable quantification of the multidimensional images acquired at all the imaging beamlines at MAX IV.

  4. Virtually simulating the next generation of clean energy technologies: NETL's AVESTAR Center is dedicated to the safe, reliable and efficient operation of advanced energy plants with carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Imagine using a real-time virtual simulator to learn to fly a space shuttle or rebuild your car's transmission without touching a piece of equipment or getting your hands dirty. Now, apply this concept to learning how to operate and control a state-of-the-art, electricity-producing power plant capable of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. That's what the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR) Center (www.netl.doe.gov/avestar) is designed to do. Established as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to advance new clean energy technology for power generation, the AVESTAR Center focuses primarily on providing simulation-based training for process engineers and energy plant operators, starting with the deployment of a first-of-a-kind operator training simulator for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Based on Invensys Operations Management's SimSci-Esscor DYNSIM software, the high-fidelity dynamic simulator provides realistic training on IGCC plant operations, including normal and faulted operations, as well as plant start-up, shutdown and power demand load changes. The highly flexible simulator also allows for testing of different types of fuel sources, such as petcoke and biomass, as well as co-firing fuel mixtures. The IGCC dynamic simulator is available at AVESTAR's two locations, NETL (Figure 1) and West Virginia University's National Research Center for Coal and Energy (www.nrcce.wvu.edu), both in Morgantown, W.Va. By offering a comprehensive IGCC training program, AVESTAR aims to develop a workforce well prepared to operate, control and manage commercial-scale gasification-based power plants with CO{sub 2

  5. Oxidation Resistance of Monolayer Group-IV Monochalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Si; Bai, Yizhen; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-03-21

    Ridged, orthorhombic two-dimensional (2D) group-V elemental and group IV-VI compound analogues of phosphorene provide a versatile platform for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and clean energy. However, phosphorene is vulnerable to oxygen in ambient air, which is a major obstacle for its applications. Regarding this issue, here we explore the oxidation behavior of monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe), in comparison to that of phosphorene and arsenene by first-principles calculations. We find superior oxidation resistance of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides, with activation energies for the chemisorption of O2 on the 2D sheets in the range of 1.26-1.60 eV, about twice of the values of phosphorene and arsenene. The distinct oxidation behaviors of monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides and group-V phosphorene analogues originate from their different bond natures. Moreover, the chemisorption of a moderate amount of oxygen atoms does not severely deteriorate the electronic band structures of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides. These results shine light on the utilization of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides for next-generation 2D electronics and optoelectronics with high performance and stability.

  6. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  7. FluxSuite: a New Scientific Tool for Advanced Network Management and Cross-Sharing of Next-Generation Flux Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from

  8. Stable U(IV) complexes form at high-affinity mineral surface sites.

    PubMed

    Latta, Drew E; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Cook, Russell E; Kemner, Kenneth M; Boyanov, Maxim I

    2014-01-01

    Uranium (U) poses a significant contamination hazard to soils, sediments, and groundwater due to its extensive use for energy production. Despite advances in modeling the risks of this toxic and radioactive element, lack of information about the mechanisms controlling U transport hinders further improvements, particularly in reducing environments where U(IV) predominates. Here we establish that mineral surfaces can stabilize the majority of U as adsorbed U(IV) species following reduction of U(VI). Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron imaging analysis, we find that at low surface loading, U(IV) forms inner-sphere complexes with two metal oxides, TiO2 (rutile) and Fe3O4 (magnetite) (at <1.3 U nm(-2) and <0.037 U nm(-2), respectively). The uraninite (UO2) form of U(IV) predominates only at higher surface loading. U(IV)-TiO2 complexes remain stable for at least 12 months, and U(IV)-Fe3O4 complexes remain stable for at least 4 months, under anoxic conditions. Adsorbed U(IV) results from U(VI) reduction by Fe(II) or by the reduced electron shuttle AH2QDS, suggesting that both abiotic and biotic reduction pathways can produce stable U(IV)-mineral complexes in the subsurface. The observed control of high-affinity mineral surface sites on U(IV) speciation helps explain the presence of nonuraninite U(IV) in sediments and has important implications for U transport modeling.

  9. A multireader diagnostic performance study of low-contrast detectability on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner: filtered back projection versus advanced modeled iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare CT low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, filtered back-projection (FBP) and advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE). A phantom was designed with a range of low-contrast circular inserts representing 5 contrast levels and 3 sizes. The phantom was imaged on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Force, Siemens Healthcare) under various dose levels (0.74 - 5.8 mGy CTDIVol). Images were reconstructed using different settings of slice thickness (0.6 - 5 mm) and reconstruction algorithms (FBP and ADMIRE with strength of 3-5) and were assessed by eleven blinded and independent readers using a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) detection experiment. A second observer experiment was further performed in which observers scored the images based on the total number of visible object groups. Detection performance increased with increasing contrast, size, dose, with accuracy ranging from 50% (i.e., guessing) to 87% with an average inter-observer variability of ±7%. The use of ADMIRE-3 increased performance by 5.2% resulting in an estimated dose reduction potential of 56-60%. The results from the second experiment also showed increased number of visible object groups for increasing dose, slice thickness, and ADMIRE strength. The score difference between FBP and ADMIRE was 0.9, 1.3, and 2.1 for ADMIRE strengths of 3, 4, and 5, respectively, resulting in estimated dose reduction potentials between 4-80%. Overall, the data indicated potential to image at reduced doses while maintaining comparable image quality when using ADMIRE compared to FBP.

  10. Parenteral Nutrition for Patients Treated for Locally Advanced Inoperable Tumors of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage IV; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage IV; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm

  11. Pulsed Magnetic Welding for Advanced Core and Cladding Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Guoping; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-19

    To investigate a solid-state joining method, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), for welding the advanced core and cladding steels to be used in Generation IV systems, with a specific application for fuel pin end-plug welding. As another alternative solid state welding technique, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) has not been extensively explored on the advanced steels. The resultant weld can be free from microstructure defects (pores, non-metallic inclusions, segregation of alloying elements). More specifically, the following objectives are to be achieved: 1. To design a suitable welding apparatus fixture, and optimize welding parameters for repeatable and acceptable joining of the fuel pin end-plug. The welding will be evaluated using tensile tests for lap joint weldments and helium leak tests for the fuel pin end-plug; 2 Investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties changes in PMW weldments of proposed advanced core and cladding alloys; 3. Simulate the irradiation effects on the PWM weldments using ion irradiation.

  12. Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Lazarina; Segal, Yoav; Dorfman, Kevin D; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-07-01

    Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoiling greatly increases the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreases the permeability. Also, doubling the amount of supercoils in a network had a bigger effect than doubling the stiffness of the supercoils. Our results suggest that the formation of supercoils is a specialized mechanism by the GBM that provides with a network stiff and strong enough to withstand the high hydrostatic pressures of filtration, yet porous enough that filtration is not hindered. Clinically, understanding the effects of supercoiling gives us insight into the mechanisms of GBM failure in some disease states where the normal collagen IV structure is disrupted.

  13. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  14. Facile Routes to Th(IV), U(IV), and Np(IV) Phosphites and Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Eric M.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-08-05

    Three actinide(IV) phosphites and a NpIV phosphate, AnIV(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) and Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂, respectively, were synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions. The first three phases are isotypic and were obtained using similar reaction conditions. Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ was synthesized using an analogous method to that of Np(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂. However, this fourth phase is quite different in comparison to the other phases in both composition and structure. The structure of Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ is constructed from double layers of neptunium(IV) phosphate with caesium cations in the interlayer region. In contrast, An(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) form dense 3D networks. The actinide contraction is detected in variety of metrics obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Changes in the oxidation state of the neptunium starting materials yield different products.

  15. Complex oscillator and Painlevé IV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández C, David J. González, J.C.

    2015-08-15

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is a powerful tool for generating exactly solvable potentials departing from a given initial one. In this article the first- and second-order supersymmetric transformations will be used to obtain new exactly solvable potentials departing from the complex oscillator. The corresponding Hamiltonians turn out to be ruled by polynomial Heisenberg algebras. By applying a mechanism to reduce to second the order of these algebras, the connection with the Painlevé IV equation is achieved, thus giving place to new solutions for the Painlevé IV equation.

  16. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Gibbson, Murray

    2016-07-12

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  17. Unstructured surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on unstructured surface grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: requirements for curves, surfaces, solids, and text; surface approximation; triangulation; advancing; projection; mapping; and parametric curves.

  18. Design of a Gas Test Loop Facility for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Wemple

    2005-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-NE) has identified the need for irradiation testing of nuclear fuels and materials, primarily in support of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. These fuel development programs require a unique environment to test and qualify potential reactor fuel forms. This environment should combine a high fast neutron flux with a hard neutron spectrum and high irradiation temperature. An effort is presently underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to modify a large flux trap in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to accommodate such a test facility [1,2]. The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project Conceptual Design was initiated to determine basic feasibility of designing, constructing, and installing in a host irradiation facility, an experimental vehicle that can replicate with reasonable fidelity the fast-flux test environment needed for fuels and materials irradiation testing for advanced reactor concepts. Such a capability will be needed if programs such as the AFCI, Gen-IV, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), and space nuclear propulsion are to meet development objectives and schedules. These programs are beginning some irradiations now, but many call for fast flux testing within this decade.

  19. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  20. Smashing the Stovepipe: Leveraging the GMSEC Open Architecture and Advanced IT Automation to Rapidly Prototype, Develop and Deploy Next-Generation Multi-Mission Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Satellite/Payload Ground Systems - Typically highly-customized to a specific mission's use cases - Utilize hundreds (or thousands!) of specialized point-to-point interfaces for data flows / file transfers Documentation and tracking of these complex interfaces requires extensive time to develop and extremely high staffing costs Implementation and testing of these interfaces are even more cost-prohibitive, and documentation often lags behind implementation resulting in inconsistencies down the road With expanding threat vectors, IT Security, Information Assurance and Operational Security have become key Ground System architecture drivers New Federal security-related directives are generated on a daily basis, imposing new requirements on current / existing ground systems - These mandated activities and data calls typically carry little or no additional funding for implementation As a result, Ground System Sustaining Engineering groups and Information Technology staff continually struggle to keep up with the rolling tide of security Advancing security concerns and shrinking budgets are pushing these large stove-piped ground systems to begin sharing resources - I.e. Operational / SysAdmin staff, IT security baselines, architecture decisions or even networks / hosting infrastructure Refactoring these existing ground systems into multi-mission assets proves extremely challenging due to what is typically very tight coupling between legacy components As a result, many "Multi-Mission" ops. environments end up simply sharing compute resources and networks due to the difficulty of refactoring into true multi-mission systems Utilizing continuous integration / rapid system deployment technologies in conjunction with an open architecture messaging approach allows System Engineers and Architects to worry less about the low-level details of interfaces between components and configuration of systems GMSEC messaging is inherently designed to support multi-mission requirements, and