Science.gov

Sample records for advanced geographic information

  1. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  2. Advances in spatial epidemiology and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Russell S; Delmelle, Eric; Eberth, Jan M

    2017-01-01

    The field of spatial epidemiology has evolved rapidly in the past 2 decades. This study serves as a brief introduction to spatial epidemiology and the use of geographic information systems in applied research in epidemiology. We highlight technical developments and highlight opportunities to apply spatial analytic methods in epidemiologic research, focusing on methodologies involving geocoding, distance estimation, residential mobility, record linkage and data integration, spatial and spatio-temporal clustering, small area estimation, and Bayesian applications to disease mapping. The articles included in this issue incorporate many of these methods into their study designs and analytical frameworks. It is our hope that these studies will spur further development and utilization of spatial analysis and geographic information systems in epidemiologic research.

  3. Geographic Information Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) is the principal information office for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), focused on: Information Policy and Services, Information Technology, Science Information, Information Security, and the Federal Geographic Data Committee/Geospatial One Stop.

  4. Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, William F.; Delmerico, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models. This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter. PMID:20717487

  5. Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models.This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter.

  6. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  7. Advanced feature extraction in remote sensing using artificial intelligence and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Friedl, Mark A.; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Traditional computer-assisted image-analysis techniques in remote sensing lag well behind human abilities in terms of both speed and accuracy. A fundamental limitation of computer-assisted techniques is their inability to assimilate a variety of different data types leading to an interpretation in a manner similar to human image interpretation. Expert systems and computer-vision techniques are proposed as a potential solution to these limitations. Some aspects of human expertise in image analysis may be codified into expert systems. Image understanding and symbolic reasoning provide a means of assimilating spatial information and spatial reasoning into the analysis procedure. Knowledge-based image-analysis systems incorporate many of these concepts and have been implemented for some well defined problem domains. Geographic information systems represent an excellent environment for this type of analysis, providing both analytic tools and contextual information to the analysis procedure.

  8. Geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

  9. Geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  11. [Geographic information systems].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Azañedo, Diego; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Pacheco-Mendoza, Josmel; Chaparro, R Martín

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to geospatially explore the occurrence rates of car accidents involving pedestrians in Cercado de Lima (Lima District), Peru. Car accidents involving pedestrians recorded in the 2015 National Police Station Census of the National Statistics and Information Institute were described and georeferenced. Subsequently, a Kernel Density analysis was carried out to locate areas with high, medium, and low density events. Records of 171 car accidents involving pedestrians were studied: the types of vehicles involved were automobiles (56.7%) and smaller vehicles (22.8%). The highest percentage of car accidents involving pedestrians (38.6%) took place between 12:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. There were two densely populated areas and two areas with intermediate density for car accidents involving pedestrians, locations that were previously reported as critical due to their deficiencies and high probability of traffic accidents. The use of geographic information systems offers a quick overview of the occurrence rates of car accidents involving pedestrians to make comparisons and enable the local implementation of strategies.

  12. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  13. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  14. Maryland Automated Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer based system designed for storing geographic data in a consistent and coordinated manner is described. The data are stored, retrieved, and analyzed using a 400 km sq/acre cell. Stored information can be displayed on computer maps in a manner similar to standard map graphics. The data bank contains various information for performing land use analysis in a variety of areas.

  15. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-07

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective.

  16. Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

  17. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  18. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  19. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  20. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of remotely sensed digital data in a computer based information system is seen to be equivalent to the incorporation of any other spatially oriented layer of data. The growing interest in such systems indicates a need to develop a generalized geographically oriented data base management system that could be made commercially available for a wide range of applications. Some concepts that distinguish geographic information systems were reviewed, and a simple model which can serve as a conceptual framework for the design of a generalized geographic information system was examined.

  1. Geographic Information Systems: A Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    emulsion-based (film) or digital. Information is obtained from a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from ultraviolet to microwave . When... microwave . Imagery is manually or digitally interpreted. For GIS, images can be classified into thematic categories, rendering data into a map or into a...though unessential, display and " window dressing". Data Retrieval Efficient data retrieval is one of the basic, yet most useful operations of a GIS. Data

  2. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  3. Cartography, Geographic Information, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monmonier, Mark S.

    1982-01-01

    Cartography is undergoing a digital transition with geographic data becoming available in machine-readable form and with the diminishing need to draw and print maps in order to communicate information. This automation will force cartographers to concentrate upon the institutional aspects of information management. Implications for geographic…

  4. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  5. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  6. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  7. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  8. Data Representations for Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Clifford A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys the field and literature of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial data representation as it relates to GIS. Highlights include GIS terms, data types, and operations; vector representations and raster, or grid, representations; spatial indexing; elevation data representations; large spatial databases; and problem areas and future…

  9. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  10. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  11. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  12. GEOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION IN AIRCRAFT PILOTS: METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    revised to provide a more effective practice session prior to test sessions. A methodological study showed that the new experimental method improved geographic orientation in pilots during simulated flight. (Author)...The report describes a revision in a cinema method of simulating low-altitude flight. Cockpit instruments used in dead reckoning were activated and

  13. Geographic information systems (GIS) for geologic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.C. . Center for Environmental Research Information)

    1993-03-01

    The computer-based Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful and versatile tool for preparation of geologic maps. Using GIS different types of geographically oriented information can be displayed on a common base in a flexible format that facilitates examination of relationships between the types of information. In addition, text-based and graphic information (attributes) from separate databases can be attached to points, lines or areas within the different map layers. Although GIS has enormous potential for geologic mapping, it must be used with care. Key considerations when using GIS include realistic representation of the geology, choice of an appropriate scale for the maps, and comparison of the computer-generated maps with field observations to maintain quality control. In building multilayer GIS maps, the data sources must be at a scale appropriate to the intended use. Information derived from diverse sources must be examined carefully to assure that it is valid at the scale of representation required. Examples of GIS products created for one purpose, but potentially misused for a different purpose, include formation contacts (lines) on a regional geologic map scaled up for a facility siting study or well locations on a small-scale location map subsequently contoured for contaminant plume prediction at a very large scale. In using GIS to prepare geologic maps, it is essential to have a clear rationale for the map and use an appropriate scale to depict the various layers of information. The authors of GIS-based geologic maps must be aware that the attractive, polished appearance of their products may tempt some end users to stretch and misinterpret the information displayed.

  14. Recent trends in geographic information system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic and research community and despite some lack of formalized definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations of published GIS research, in particular on GIS data structures, reveal a healthy, active research community which is using a truly interdisciplinary approach. Future work will undoubtably lead to a clearer understanding of the problems of handling spatial data, while producing a new generation of highly sophisticated GISs.

  15. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet

  16. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  17. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; St Leger, Selwyn; Appleby, Louis

    2007-02-01

    We provide a relatively non-technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems.

  18. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  19. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  20. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers indirectly survey and report on the values and preferences of communities involved in restoration and revitalization projects. We are using geotagged images from three social media platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Images are obtained for the neighborhoods to the St. Louis River in the Duluth, MN and analyzed along several dimensions including the spatial distribution of images from each platform and the types and frequencies of social values and ecosystem service depicted. This study will demonstrate a method for translating the values of ecosystem goods and services as captured in social media into spatially-explicit data. Study outcomes are the incorporation of social media-derived indicators of ecosystems services into City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development Sustainable and Healthy Community research. Not applicable

  1. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, Gordon R.

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides for dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.

  2. DOOGIS. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, G.

    1995-06-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides for dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.

  3. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    SciTech Connect

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  4. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  5. Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

    2000-01-01

    As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

  6. ORNL and the geographic information systems revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.E.; Durfee, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Explorers from competing teams race to find a mysterious lost city in the heart of Africa. The American team is continuously in touch with its Houston home base through satellite communications. In flight, team leader Karen Ross displays a map of Africa on her computer screen and notes the multicolored lines suggesting different routes from city to city and into the rain forest. Each pathway is accompanied by a precise estimate of travel time to the final destination. Zooming in on the target area, she switches to satellite images and interprets them in shades of blue, purple, and green. At each checkpoint, the team reports its progress and gets a revised estimate of arrival time. Beset by difficulties, the explorers ask for a faster route, but the computer says the alternative is too dangerous. A simulation model with data representing geology, terrain, vegetation, weather, and many other geographic factors predicts local hazards, including the impending eruption of a nearby volcano. The Americans take the faster route anyway and beat the odds. This fictional account of emerging geographic information system (GIS) technologies comes from Michael Crichton`s 1980 novel Congo, which was made into a 1995 movie. The same technologies were highlighted in Clive Cussler`s 1988 techno-thriller Treasure. In reality, GIS technology began more than a quarter of a century ago at key universities and government laboratories in the United States and Canada. Since 1969, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been among the leading institutions in this diverse, now booming field. GIS has been evolving through new forms and applications ever since.

  7. Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cynthia L.

    1994-01-01

    Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

  8. A multi-agent system architecture for geographic information gathering.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gang-Yi; Wang, Shen-Kang

    2004-11-01

    World Wide Web (WWW) is a vast repository of information, including a great deal of geographic information. But the location and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition, different users usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems, this paper first proposed a model of geographic information gathering based on multi-Agent (MA) architecture. Then based on this model, we construct a prototype system with GML (Geography Markup Language). This system consists of three tiers-Client, Web Server and Data Resource. Finally, we expatiate on the process of Web Server.

  9. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  10. Geographic information systems in public health and medicine.

    PubMed

    Mullner, Ross M; Chung, Kyusuk; Croke, Kevin G; Mensah, Edward K

    2004-06-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in public health and medicine. Advances in computer technology, the encouragement of its use by the federal government, and the wide availability of academic and commercial courses on GIS are responsible for its growth. Some view GIS as only a tool for spatial research and policy analysis, while others believe it is part of a larger emerging new science including geography, cartography, geodesy, and remote sensing. The specific advantages and problems of GIS are discussed. The greatest potential of GIS is its ability to clearly show the results of complex analyses through maps. Problems in using GIS include its costs, the need to adequately train staff, the use of appropriate spatial units, and the risk it poses to violating patient confidentiality. Lastly, the fourteen articles in this special issue devoted to GIS are introduced and briefly discussed.

  11. Complementarity of Historic Building Information Modelling and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Koehl, M.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Macher, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the potential of integrating both semantically rich models from Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to build the detailed 3D historic model. BIM contributes to the creation of a digital representation having all physical and functional building characteristics in several dimensions, as e.g. XYZ (3D), time and non-architectural information that are necessary for construction and management of buildings. GIS has potential in handling and managing spatial data especially exploring spatial relationships and is widely used in urban modelling. However, when considering heritage modelling, the specificity of irregular historical components makes it problematic to create the enriched model according to its complex architectural elements obtained from point clouds. Therefore, some open issues limiting the historic building 3D modelling will be discussed in this paper: how to deal with the complex elements composing historic buildings in BIM and GIS environment, how to build the enriched historic model, and why to construct different levels of details? By solving these problems, conceptualization, documentation and analysis of enriched Historic Building Information Modelling are developed and compared to traditional 3D models aimed primarily for visualization.

  12. Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, J

    1999-01-01

    Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool. PMID:10229717

  13. Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabisch, Eric Alan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

  14. TIGER5---Extraction of geographic information from the TIGER system

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.K.

    1992-03-01

    The need for geographic information in digital form is becoming apparent in many areas, including Emergency Response Planning and Management. The Bureau of Census recognized this need and developed an automated geographic data base, known as Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System, to produce the geographic products for the 1990 census. The Bureau makes the information available to the public on CD-ROM disks. As distributed, the geographic information is not directly visible, and a program is needed to display the information in a graphic form. MapInfo is a commercially available program that has the capability to display maps and allows the user to perform certain geographic analyses. MapInfo runs on a variety of low-cost platforms that may be found in an average office environment, as well as on high-performance work stations. The TIGER5 program developed by the Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reads files directly from the Census Bureau TIGER/Line CD-ROM and creates MapInfo Exchange Format Files that can be directly imported into MapInfo. The standard default values for scaling parameters are used, and the resulting map is in the same coordinate system as the world and state maps distributed with MapInfo.

  15. Research on digital city geographic information common services platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dequan; Wu, Qunyong; Wang, Qinmin

    2008-10-01

    Traditional GIS (Geographic Information System) software development mode exposes many defects that will largely slow down the city informational progress. It is urgent need to build a common application infrastructure for informational project to speed up the development pace of digital city. The advent of service-oriented architecture (SOA) has motivated the adoption of GIS functionality portals that can be executed in distributed computing environment. According to the SOA principle, we bring forward and design a digital city geographic information common services platform which provides application development service interfaces for field users that can be further extended relevant business application. In the end, a public-oriented Web GIS is developed based on the platform for helping public users to query geographic information in their daily life. It indicates that our platform have the capacity that can be integrated by other applications conveniently.

  16. Plate Tectonics, Geographical Information System, paleogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas L.; Scotese, Christopher

    2002-05-24

    The PaleoX.framwork is a dynamically linked/loaded framework for Cocoa applications. The primary goal of this library is to standardize several elements used for working with paleogeographic data. This includes objects designed to organize information for tectonic plates, including maps, rotation objects, plate names, and designations. In addition, PaleoX provides object-oriented solutions for handling standard paleogeographic file formats from the PALEOMAP Project.

  17. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  18. Advanced information society (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  19. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

  20. Geographic Information Systems: Empowering Kinds to Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsen, Michael W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes ArcView, a Geographic Information System (GIS) that enables K-12 classrooms to access electronic maps and information databases for specific communities. Presents actual applications of ArcView at an elementary school and a high school. Finds that students are using GIS technology to collect, analyze, and apply local data to real…

  1. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ujang, U.; Desa, G.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-10-01

    The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  2. Review and synthesis of problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, A. R.; Dangermond, J.; Marble, D.; Simonett, D. S.; Tomlinson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development were reviewed and the general problems associated with automated geographic information systems and spatial data handling were addressed.

  3. Screening for lead exposure using a geographic information system

    SciTech Connect

    Wartenberg, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Screening programs for lead overexposure typically target high-risk populations by identifying regions with common risk markers (older housing, poverty, etc.). While more useful than untargeted screening programs, targeted programs are limited by the geographic resolution of the risk-factor information. A geographic information system can make screening programs more effective and more cost-efficient by mapping cases of overexposure, identifying high-incidence neighborhoods warranting screening, and validating risk-factor-based prediction rules. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Survey of geographical information system and image processing software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanderzee, D.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Global Resource Information Database—a part of the United Nations Environment Programme—conducts a bi-annual survey of geographical information system (GIS) and image processing (IP) software. This survey makes information about software products available in developing countries. The 1993 survey showed that the number of installations of GIS, IP, and related software products increased dramatically from 1991 to 1993, mostly in North America and Europe.

  5. Gaining experience with military medical situational awareness and geographic information systems in a simulated influenza epidemic.

    PubMed

    DeFraites, Robert F; Chambers, William C

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of medical situational awareness is to provide useful and actionable information for preparing and employing medical assets in support of a wide variety of operational missions around the world, and monitoring and protecting the health of the force in the face of rapidly changing health threats. Since 2005, the Medical Situational Awareness in the Theater Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration has exploited advances in information technology, geographic information systems, and open systems architecture to produce a functioning prototype of a medical situational enhancement capability. In May 2006, this prototype supported the medical staff of a combined/joint task force in a realistic command postexercise featuring a simulated outbreak of influenza during Exercise COBRA GOLD in Thailand. The proliferation and maturation of geographic information systems present many opportunities for the military medical community to improve the health of the populations for which it is responsible.

  6. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Sacit M; Howard, Rob L; Liu, Cheng; Mueller, Don; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Peterson, Steven K; Scaglione, John M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  7. Advanced information society (11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kotaro

    Late in the 1980's the information system of Japanese corporation has been operated strategically to strengthen its competitive position in markets rather than to make corporate management efficient. Therefore, information-oriented policy in the corporation is making remarkable progress. This policy expands the intelligence activity in the corporation and also leads to the extension of the market in an information industry. In this environment closed corporate system is transformed into open one. For this system network and database are important managerial resources.

  8. The geographical accessibility of hospitals to the aged: a geographic information systems analysis within Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Love, D; Lindquist, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article uses geographic information systems and their related tools to empirically measure and display the geographic accessibility of the aged population to hospital facilities within Illinois. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Geographic accessibility of Illinois' aged population is measured from each of the state's 10,796 census block groups to the state's 214 hospital facilities. Block group demographic compositions and centroids are obtained from 1990 census files. Hospital coordinates are obtained by the authors. STUDY DESIGN. Of five alternative measures of accessibility considered, empirical estimates are obtained for two: choice set and minimum distance. Access to both general hospitals and the subset having specialized geriatric facilities is measured with special attention to differences in accessibility between the aged within metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and those outside MSAs. Cumulative accessibility distributions and their summary statistics provide a basis of comparison among subgroups. DATA COLLECTION AND EXTRACTION. Geographic information systems (GIS) and their related tools are used as a means of efficiently capturing, organizing, storing, and retrieving the required data. Hospitals and census block groups are geocoded to specific locations in the database, and aspatial attributes are assigned to the hospitals and block groups. The GIS database is queried to produce shaded isarithm and point distribution maps that show the location of hospitals relative to surrounding aged populations. CONCLUSION. The vast majority of Illinois' aged population is within close proximity to hospital facilities. Eighty percent (1,147,504 persons) of the aged in Illinois are within 4.8 miles (7.7 km) of a hospital and 11.6 miles (18.7 km) of two hospitals. However, geographic accessibility differences between the aged living in MSAs and those living outside MSAs to hospitals offering geriatric services are substantial; but there is no

  9. Geographic information systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic functions of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and the different ways that a GIS may be implemented are described. It surveys that GIS software packages that are currently in operation at the Goddard Space Flight Center and discusses the types of applications for which they are best suited. Future plans for in-house GIS research and development are outlined.

  10. Web-Casting of Geographic Information Science Graduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsrud, Harlan J.

    2005-01-01

    This case study from the University of Maine relates challenges, experiences and opportunities in broadcasting existing geographic information science graduate courses across the web using video streaming of class sessions in combination with web hosting of assignments, lecture outlines and reading materials. Technical, financial, logistical and…

  11. Teaching "with" Rather than "about" Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Thomas C.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2009-01-01

    Both "teaching" and "teaching" with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are "wicked problems," in the sense that they involve multiple variables that interact with one another. Effective teaching calls for both learning with understanding and transfer. The authors' own experience implementing a geography and…

  12. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob; Gluck, Myke

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the feasibility of adding haptic and auditory displays to traditional visual geographic information systems (GISs). Explored differences in user performance, including task completion time and accuracy, and user satisfaction with a multimodal GIS which was implemented with a haptic display, auditory display, and combined display.…

  13. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two experiments. Pitch, volume, and tempo in auditory-haptic geographic information systems were compared in terms of effectiveness for multimodal interface; volume was determined to be better. Auditory display with volume and haptic display with vibration were compared and the results showed that, in more complex geographic…

  14. Making Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Sustainable in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dascombe, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Spatial technologies, particularly Geographic Information Systems (GIS), have become invaluable and persuasive tools in society today. These technologies have also made their way into classrooms around the world and Australian teachers are leaders in implementing GIS technology into their classrooms. There is still a way to go in order to make…

  15. Case Study: Using Geographic Information Systems for Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvenon, Sean W.; Wang, Kening; McKenzie, Sarah; Airola, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Effective exploration of spatially referenced educational achievement data can help educational researchers and policy analysts accelerate interpretation of datasets to gain valuable insights. This paper illustrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze educational achievement gaps in Arkansas. It introduces the Geographic…

  16. Learning the Local Political Landscape with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on the transformative effect on student learning and engagement that results from using contemporary Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and directed reflection to engage in spatial learning about the politics (literally) surrounding the student. I report on the pedagogical advantages of using spatial analysis…

  17. Integrating Bayesian networks and geographic information systems: good practice examples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandra; Low-Choy, Sama; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-07-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are becoming increasingly common in problems with spatial aspects. The degree of spatial involvement may range from spatial mapping of BN outputs based on nodes in the BN that explicitly involve geographic features, to integration of different networks based on geographic information. In these situations, it is useful to consider how geographic information systems (GISs) could be used to enhance the conceptualization, quantification, and prediction of BNs. Here, we discuss some techniques that may be used to integrate GIS and BN models, with reference to some recent literature which illustrate these approaches. We then reflect on 2 case studies based on our own experience. The first involves the integration of GIS and a BN to assess the scientific factors associated with initiation of Lyngbya majuscula, a cyanobacterium that occurs in coastal waterways around the world. The 2nd case study involves the use of GISs as an aid for eliciting spatially informed expert opinion and expressing this information as prior distributions for a Bayesian model and as input into a BN. Elicitator, the prototype software package we developed for achieving this, is also briefly described. Whereas the 1st case study demonstrates a GIS-data driven specification of conditional probability tables for BNs with complete geographical coverage for all the data layers involved, the 2nd illustrates a situation in which we do not have complete coverage and we are forced to extrapolate based on expert judgement.

  18. Towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Implementation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    "Despite its central role in real-world geography, the Geographic Information System (GIS) has had little uptake to date in School Geography." (Wiegand, 2001) This statement can be accurately applied to the author's current school setting and was the focus of her and her colleagues' case study, commenced in 2004 and continued into 2005.…

  19. Where and Why There? Spatial Thinking with Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, Andrew J.; Curtis, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed and implemented a project for high school geography students that modeled the processes in a site selection analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). They sought to explore how spatial thinking could be fostered by using the MyWorld GIS software that was designed specifically for educational uses. The task posed…

  20. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0475 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...replicated in other settings. Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by NIH Grants 1R01 ES09816-01, 1R21 CA87138-01, and U.S. ArmyMedical...Research Grants DAMD17-03-1-0475, DAMD17-00-1- 0417. References 1. Sturgeon SR, Schairer CG, McAdams M, Brinton LA, Hoover RN (1995) Geographic variation

  1. GIS leads to more efficient route planning. [Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    New computer approaches currently being developed by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill., for the Gas Research Institute, Chicago, will make planning a pipeline route easier and more cost effective by combining a wide variety of geographical data for a specific area, according to GRI. The new approaches use currently available geographic information system (GIS) to store those data in digital form and present them in combinations of overlying layers. The paper describes some of the obstacles normally found along a proposed route; the options available within the GIS software; and the time and money saving advantages of the system.

  2. The NASA John C. Stennis Environmental Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohan, Tyrus

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Introduction: Background information. Initial applications of the SSC EGIS. Ongoing projects. 2.Scope of SSC EGIS. 3. Data layers. 4. Onsite operations. 5. Landcover classifications. 6. Current activities. 7. GIS/Key. 8. Infrastructure base map - development. 9. Infrastructure base map - application. 10. Incorrected layer. 11. Corrected layer. 12. Emergency environmental response tool. 13. Future directions. 14. Bridging the gaps. 15. Environmental geographical information system.

  3. Correlation Assessment of Climate and Geographic Distribution of Tuberculosis Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    PubMed Central

    BEIRANVAND, Reza; KARIMI, Asrin; DELPISHEH, Ali; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; SOLEIMANI, Samira; GHALAVANDI, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) spread pattern is influenced by geographic and social factors. Nowadays Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the most important epidemiological instrumentation identifying high-risk population groups and geographic areas of TB. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between climate and geographic distribution of TB in Khuzestan Province using GIS during 2005–2012. Methods: Through an ecological study, all 6363 patients with definite diagnosis of TB from 2005 until the end of September 2012 in Khuzestan Province, southern Iran were diagnosed. Data were recorded using TB- Register software. Tuberculosis incidence based on the climate and the average of annual rain was evaluated using GIS. Data were analyzed through SPSS software. Independent t-test, ANOVA, Linear regression, Pearson and Eta correlation coefficient with a significance level of less than 5% were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The TB incidence was different in various geographic conditions. The highest mean of TB cumulative incidence rate was observed in extra dry areas (P= 0.017). There was a significant inverse correlation between annual rain rate and TB incidence rate (R= −0.45, P= 0.001). The lowest TB incidence rate (0–100 cases per 100,000) was in areas with the average of annual rain more than 1000 mm (P= 0.003). Conclusion: The risk of TB has a strong relationship with climate and the average of annual rain, so that the risk of TB in areas with low annual rainfall and extra dry climate is more than other regions. Services and special cares to high-risk regions of TB are recommended. PMID:27057526

  4. Advanced information society (8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Hirotsugu

    As technology such as computer, office automation equipments, industrial robots have come into wide use, mental and physical fatigue called technostress as well as health injury has become social issues. Some people attribute this technostress to psychological unrest created by masscommunication or to computer works. On the other hand other people have been conducting investigations of the stress caused by programming works, and gathering information on the related symptoms. The expression and causes of technostress are diverse depending on the kind of computer related labor, therefore, it is necessary to have delicate and detailed countermeasures against it. However, after all technostress is much concerned with individuals' life style and industrial climate.

  5. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  6. Creation of geographic information database of subsatellite calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    The prototype of geographic information database (DB) of the sub-satellite calibration test site has been created, to which user can be accessed from the free open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS (QGIS) environment. QGIS is used as an integrator of all data and applications and visualizer of the satellite imagery and vector layers of test sites in the cartographic interface. Conversion of the database from the local representation in the MS Access to the server representation in the PostgreSQL environment has been performed. Dynamic application to QGIS for user interaction from QGIS environment with the object-relational database and to display information from the database has been created. Functional-algorithmic part of these application and the interface for user interaction with the database has been developed.

  7. Monitoring the inundation extent of the Florida Everglades with AVHRR data in a geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Dow, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a geographical information system capable of estimating methane and other greenhouse trace-gas fluxes from the wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data collected on a near-monthly basis for a year in order to monitor the seasonal dynamics of inundation extent across the Everglades is utilized in the analysis. It is noted that AVHRR data presents advantages over other remote-sensing data sources employed in covering large geographical regions due to its daily coverage with multiple opportunities during a day. This temporal resolution allows the realistic expectation of acquiring data on a frequent basis.

  8. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  9. Representing Uncertain Geographical Information with Algorithmic Map Caricatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsdon, Chris

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of geographical information - including the results ion data analysis - is imprecise in some way. For example the the results of geostatistical interpolation should consist not only of point estimates of the value of some quantity at points in space, but also of confidence intervals or standard errors of these estimators. Similarly, mappings of contour lines derived form such interpolations will also be characterised by uncertainty. However, most computerized cartography tools are designed to provide 'crisp' representations of geographical information, such as sharply drawn lines, or clearly delineated areas. In this talk, the use of 'fuzzy' or 'sketchy' cartographic tools will be demonstrated - where maps have a hand-drawn appearance and the degree of 'roughness' and other related characteristics can be used to convey the degree of uncertainty associated with estimated quantities being mapped. The tools used to do this are available as an R package, which will be described in the talk.

  10. Health Based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Mitsi, Dimitra; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2014-01-01

    Medical researches as well as the study of the Earth’s surface, better still, geography are interlinked with each other; their relationship dates from antiquity. The science of Geographic Information Systems and, by extension, Geomatics engineering belongs to a discipline which is constantly developing at a global level. This sector has many applications regarding medical / epidemiological research and generally, the social sciences. Furthermore, this discipline may act as a decision making tool in the healthcare sector and it might contribute to the formulation of policies into the healthcare sector. The use of GIS so as to solve public health issues has an exponential increase and has been vital to the understanding and treatment of health problems in different geographic areas. In recent years, the use of various information technology services and software has lead health professionals to work more effectively. PMID:25684850

  11. Health Based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and their Applications.

    PubMed

    Fradelos, Evangelos C; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Mitsi, Dimitra; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2014-12-01

    Medical researches as well as the study of the Earth's surface, better still, geography are interlinked with each other; their relationship dates from antiquity. The science of Geographic Information Systems and, by extension, Geomatics engineering belongs to a discipline which is constantly developing at a global level. This sector has many applications regarding medical / epidemiological research and generally, the social sciences. Furthermore, this discipline may act as a decision making tool in the healthcare sector and it might contribute to the formulation of policies into the healthcare sector. The use of GIS so as to solve public health issues has an exponential increase and has been vital to the understanding and treatment of health problems in different geographic areas. In recent years, the use of various information technology services and software has lead health professionals to work more effectively.

  12. Towards Sustainable Watershed Dvelopment: A Geographic Information Systems based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2006-01-01

    With an unprecedented projection of population and urban growth in the coming decades, assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is crucial for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with sustainable watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Most planners, government agencies, and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of watershed development. Before investing in complex analyses and customized data collection, it is often useful to utilize simple screening analyses using data that are already available. In this paper, we discuss such a technique for long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GIS by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. An application of the L-THIA/NPS model on the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana is illustrated in this paper. Three historical land use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land use change in the watershed and to assess the impacts of land use change on

  13. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, PE

    2003-09-18

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model.

  14. Geographic information system applications to public warning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS), the Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS), for planning a siren-based public warning system. The Outdoor Sound Propagation Model (OSPM) in IEMIS models warning sirens in a given area and reports the results graphically as sound pressure level contours. As implemented in IEMIS, OSPM includes graphic functions for the preparation and display of input data, display of the model's results, and management of data files. These graphic functions enable public safety personnel to plan more effectively for warning of the public.

  15. Geographic Information Systems and Martian Data: Compatibility and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Planning future landed Mars missions depends on accurate, informed data. This research has created and used spatially referenced instrument data from NASA missions such as the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter and the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter. Creating spatially referenced data enables its use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. It has then been possible to integrate this spatially referenced data with global base maps and build and populate location based databases that are easy to access.

  16. The NASA John C. Stennis Environmental Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohan, Tyrus

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) at Stennis Space Center (SSC) covers four counties in Mississippi and four parishes in Louisiana. The EGIS includes 410 data layers including vector and raster data from various public and private sources. These data layers provide information on natural and cultural features. SSC initially used the EGIS to: 1) Monitor on and off-site impacts of propulsion testing; 2) Classify land cover at SSC to predict the impacts of future programs. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of ongoing projects and future applications for the EGIS.

  17. [Use of geographic information systems in public health].

    PubMed

    Morozova, L F

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of epidemiological surveillance by the countrywide use of current information telecommunication technologies, diagnostic systems based on monitoring is one of the tasks of the Russian Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Health Control in the control and prevention of parasitic diseases. The epidemiological surveillance system for parasitosis encompasses not only the monitoring and assessment of the situation, but also necessary measures if epidemic complications occur. Geographic information systems (GIS) may be successfully used for this purpose. GIS-based interactive health atlases have been created and put on the Internet and researches made.

  18. Evaluation of geographic information systems for three-dimensional ground-water modeling, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, A. Keith; Ervin, Elisabeth M.; Downey, Joe S.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional representations of the geologic system at Yucca Mountain have been developed using a Geoscientific Information System, which is an expansion of a traditional Geographic Information Systems. These advanced, three dimensional, representations of Yucca Mountain are required to adequately evaluate the complex geologic and hydrologic conditions surrounding the site. This Geoscientific Information System will be used to store, analyze, and display site data. The system also will provide a link between geologic and hydrologic data and the numerical ground-water-flow model resulting in more easy testing of hypotheses concerning the conceptual model of the geohydrologic system at Yucca Mountain.

  19. National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

  20. Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

  1. Geographical Information Systems and Health: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and how they can be used. It reviews the current state of GIS use in health care before identifying the barriers to more pervasive use of GIS in health. Finally, it makes recommendations for the direction of health GIS research over the next decade and concludes with a call to action to health informatics researchers to stop ignoring a tool and methodology that has such immense potential for improving the health of our communities. PMID:22844644

  2. Water quality modeling using geographic information system (GIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Bernard A

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and natural resources at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is of great concern. The potential for surface and ground water quality problems resulting from non-point sources of pollution was examined using models. Since spatial variation of parameters required was important, geographic information systems (GIS) and their data were used. The potential for groundwater contamination was examined using the SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the Pollution Potential of Agricultural Groundwater Environments) model. A watershed near the VAB was selected to examine potential for surface water pollution and erosion using the AGNPS (Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution) model.

  3. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study.

    PubMed

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L; Weltzin, Jake F

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  4. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  5. Developing a workflow to identify inconsistencies in volunteered geographic information: a phenological case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  6. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  7. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  8. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises.

  9. Relation between the Classical Sciences and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, A.

    2012-04-01

    As is already known, in recent years, the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS is a deployable occupation. With their help, we offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge through spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric resolutions of remote sensing systems and through analysis and incorporation of data Gis. The representation of facts and results of research on the topography and geomorphology sites of archaeological interest, visualization of them with the help of modern software, is growing. The application of innovative technological methods in classical sciences was and is certainly a challenge for scientists, especially when using them to produce results that lead to understanding the history of a place. So far the formulation of conclusions from the archaeologists was with traditional practices, through sources from the extant ancient texts and by archaeological excavations. In some cases lack of data, to find the exact position of the archaeological monument needs to take place science and technology of Geoinformatics methods and techniques that enable the management of various information from anthropogenic and natural geographic area below of a single digital environment. Since that archeology examines the evolution of historical events through the geography, geomorphology, time and culture, the results of archaeological research is rich in spatial information. The Gis is an experienced program to process these large volumes of data, particularly those referred to the geomorphology. Consequently the aim of the paper is to show us that through the help of software can visualize the archaeological monuments of the region through the geomorphologic background mainly. Having as a study area the prefecture of Arcadia owned in the Peloponnese/ Greece shows the direct relation of geomorphology with archeology through the Geographic Information Systems. Keywords: Gis, Classic science, history, geomorphology and archeology

  10. Locally weighted linear combination in a vector geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brad; Rinner, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Weighted linear combination is a multi-criteria decision analysis technique that can be used by decision-makers to select an optimal location from a collection of alternative locations. Its local form takes into account the range of attribute values within a user-defined neighbourhood in accordance with the range-sensitivity principle. This research explores locally weighted linear combination in a vector-based geographic information system. A custom application in ArcGIS 10 allows the user to select a neighbourhood definition from a standard set including contiguity, distance, and k-nearest neighbours, for which local weights are generated. A case study on vulnerability to heat-related illness in Toronto is used to illustrate the technique. The impact of local weighting on the heat vulnerability index is examined using visual analysis of the spatial patterns of heat vulnerability under the global and local approaches, as well as the sensitivity of the local approach to the selected neighbourhood definition. A trade-off analysis of the local weights is also presented. The combination of socio-demographic and environmental determinants in a locally weighted index results in patterns of heat vulnerability that could support targeted hot weather response at a micro-geographic level within urban neighbourhoods.

  11. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  12. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W.

    1996-12-31

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  13. Study on the Construction and Application of 3D Geographic Information Services for the Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, W.-Q.

    2014-04-01

    Smart City, whose main characteristics are intelligence and interconnection capability, has become an important goal of some cities' development. This paper, based on urban three-dimensional geographic information characteristics, analyses 3D geographic information requirements in the Smart City construction and development process, proposes construction and management methods for 3D geographic information. Furthermore, this paper takes Shanghai Geographic Information Public Service Platform as an example, discusses 3D geographic information application in multiple fields, and proves that it is an effective ways to promote Intelligent City construction.

  14. Updating range surveys using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Sjaastad, David C.

    1985-01-01

    A spatial database was developed for the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North Dakota to demonstrate the use of a geographic information system for natural resource management. A key component of the digital database was a detailed soil survey. Range site boundaries were derived by aggregating soil mapping units on the basis on interpretations from the published soil surveys. The problem was that no range survey data including stocking rates and condition class were available for the soil-survey-derived range sites. The only available range survey was a survey that was based on range site delineations from a Missouri River Basin Inventory (MRBI) program conducted in 1961, prior to the availability of soil survey data. The MRBI survey information was correlated with the revised range sites derived from the soil surveys to device stocking rates and condition classes. A 1:24,000-scale map which included revised range site boundaries and management boundaries was produced for each township within the reservation. All polygons on the maps were uniquely labeled to permit discrimination of the potential differences in range site stocking rates due to grazing management practices. The maps and the associated polygon attribute data were merged with maps of the MRBI transect information to derive the stocking rate and condition class for each revised range site within a management unit. The resulting database components were a map of revised range site boundaries within management units and an associated tabular file containing attribute information including stocking rate and condition class.

  15. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Imagery Approach to Historical Urban Growth Trends Around Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    MILITARY FACILITIES, *URBAN AREAS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, INFORMATION SYSTEMS , COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, LAND AREAS, GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS , SATELLITE IMAGERY, REGIONAL PLANNING.

  16. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  17. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PLANNING AND ANALYSIS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; William Austin, W; Larry Koffman, L

    2007-09-17

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dispositioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dispositioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities.

  18. A survey on fuzzy theory applied in geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feiquan; Cui, Weihong; Chen, Houwu

    2009-10-01

    The real world is an infinite complex and very huge systems, the phenomenon and processes in this world have many complex relations among them. It is consecutive and cannot be treated as a determined one as the traditional geographic information system does; What's more, the uncertainty and fuzziness exist in every stage of data processing of GIS, from data collection, data storage to data analysis etc, so it is very meaningful to apply fuzzy theory in GIS for its ability to handle fuzziness and uncertainty of spatial data. The paper talks about the current situation of fuzzy theory applied in GIS, including the classification of application fields, its main methods, principles etc. The detailed fields we concerned include spatial object modeling, spatial reasoning, spatial analysis, spatial data mining, and reliability analysis of GIS data and so on. Furthermore, we put forward some development foregrounds and research orientations of fuzzy theory applied in GIS.

  19. Using geographic information systems to simulate patient access areas.

    PubMed

    Doi, Shunsuke; Inoue, Takashi; Ide, Hiroo; Nakamura, Toshihito; Fujita, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Takahiro; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a simulation model with a geographic information system (GIS) to predict the future shortage of beds in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. With a grid square method, we calculated patient numbers for every 500 square meters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area until 2040 and estimated whether those in need could be admitted to hospitals within an hour's drive from their homes. The simulation demonstrates that after 2025 many patients may not be able to find hospitals within this time framework. The situation will be especially serious in the center of Tokyo and along the railway lines, where many senior citizens reside. We can now apply this innovative GIS method in many fields and especially for the precise estimation of future demands for and supply of medical assistance.

  20. Global Seismicity: Three New Maps Compiled with Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Montgomery, Brian C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three new maps of global seismicity compiled from NOAA digital data, covering the interval 1963-1998, with three different magnitude ranges (mb): greater than 3.5, less than 3.5, and all detectable magnitudes. A commercially available geographic information system (GIS) was used as the database manager. Epicenter locations were acquired from a CD-ROM supplied by the National Geophysical Data Center. A methodology is presented that can be followed by general users. The implications of the maps are discussed, including the limitations of conventional plate models, and the different tectonic behavior of continental vs. oceanic lithosphere. Several little-known areas of intraplate or passive margin seismicity are also discussed, possibly expressing horizontal compression generated by ridge push.

  1. SilvaCarbon: Volunteered Geographical Information and Effective Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.

    2011-12-01

    Significant amounts of efforts have been taken into monitoring forest and terrestrial carbon by many countries in recent years. As the rapid increase of methodologies and resources, international collaboration is critical now for enhancing capacity of managing and sharing the ongoing research efficiently worldwide. Moreover, much broader citizen participants with or without expert training have been involved in. Fortunately, the emergence of Web2.0, social networking, and geopositioning technology make such wide-range collaboration and participation on geospatial science research possible. The concept of Volunteer Geographical Information (VGI) coined by Michael F. Goodchild enables the ability to contribute georeferenced and disseminated scientific resource and to exchange information over the web. With this in mind, SilvaCarbon, applying the above technologies, is a project conducted by U.S. federal agencies as a U.S. contribution to the Forest Carbon Tracking task of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observation. Clearly, all research activities must rely on geographic data. And because of the observational objectives of Forest Carbon Tracking task, data sharing is a main objective of the project needed to be addressed. Data can be captured directly, contributed by secondary sources, or obtained from historical archive for the past period. Each VGI participant becomes a sensor with the ability to collect and share data. A given phenomenon can be always described more sufficient by data from multiple sources than captured individually. And data sharing can also satisfy the desire to avoid data duplication. Another purpose of Silvacarbon is to describe the activity states of involved countries, communities and individual participants and to help communicating. With the assistant of the other social networking like Facebook and Twitter, VGI participants are given an access to broadcast states of their research or activities. They also can plan travels and trades

  2. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  3. Cartographic analyses of geographic information available on Google Earth Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. C.; Ramos, J. R.; Epiphanio, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The propose was to evaluate planimetric accuracy of satellite images available on database of Google Earth. These images are referents to the vicinities of the Federal Univertisity of Viçosa, Minas Gerais - Brazil. The methodology developed evaluated the geographical information of three groups of images which were in accordance to the level of detail presented in the screen images (zoom). These groups of images were labeled to Zoom 1000 (a single image for the entire study area), Zoom 100 (formed by a mosaic of 73 images) and Zoom 100 with geometric correction (this mosaic is like before, however, it was applied a geometric correction through control points). In each group of image was measured the Cartographic Accuracy based on statistical analyses and brazilian's law parameters about planimetric mapping. For this evaluation were identified 22 points in each group of image, where the coordinates of each point were compared to the coordinates of the field obtained by GPS (Global Positioning System). The Table 1 show results related to accuracy (based on a threshold equal to 0.5 mm * mapping scale) and tendency (abscissa and ordinate) between the coordinates of the image and the coordinates of field. Table 1 The geometric correction applied to the Group Zoom 100 reduced the trends identified earlier, and the statistical tests pointed a usefulness of the data for a mapping at a scale of 1/5000 with error minor than 0.5 mm * scale. The analyses proved the quality of cartographic data provided by Google, as well as the possibility of reduce the divergences of positioning present on the data. It can be concluded that it is possible to obtain geographic information database available on Google Earth, however, the level of detail (zoom) used at the time of viewing and capturing information on the screen influences the quality cartographic of the mapping. Although cartographic and thematic potential present in the database, it is important to note that both the software

  4. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  5. Deactivation and Decommissioning Planning and Analysis with Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James S.; Koffman, Larry D.; Austin, William E.

    2008-01-15

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dis-positioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dis-positioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities. Several thousand facilities of various ages and conditions are present at SRS. Many of these facilities, built to support previous defense-related missions, now represent a potential hazard and cost for maintenance and surveillance. To reduce costs and the hazards associated with this excess infrastructure, SRS has developed an ambitious plan to decommission and demolish unneeded facilities in a systematic fashion. GIS technology was used to assist development of this plan by: providing locational information for remote facilities, identifying the location of known waste units adjacent to buildings slated for demolition, and for providing a powerful visual representation of the impact of the overall plan. Several steps were required for the development of the infrastructure GIS model. The first step involved creating an accurate and current GIS representation of the infrastructure data. This data is maintained in a Computer Aided Design

  6. Health, Information, and Migration: Geographic Mobility of Union Army Veterans, 1860–1880

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how injuries, sickness, and the geographic mobility of Union Army veterans while in service affected their postservice migrations. Wartime wounds and illnesses significantly diminished the geographic mobility of veterans after the war. Geographic moves while carrying out military missions had strong positive effects on their postservice geographic mobility. Geographic moves while in service also influenced the choice of destination among the migrants. I discuss some implications of the results for the elements of self-selection in migration, the roles of different types of information in migration decisions, and the overall impact of the Civil War on geographic mobility. PMID:20234796

  7. KBGIS-II: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terence; Peuquet, Donna; Menon, Sudhakar; Agarwal, Pankaj

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented Knowledge-Based Geographic Information System (KBGIS-II), designed to satisfy several general criteria for the GIS, is described. The system has four major functions including query-answering, learning and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial object language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is performing all its designated tasks successfully. Future reports will relate performance characteristics of the system.

  8. Spatial Modeling of Colonic Lesions With Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Goli, Ali; Imanieh, Mohammad Hossein; Geramizadeh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Geographic information system (GIS) software has been used in health care systems to display and analyze spatial pattern of diseases and health services. Objectives: This study was performed to assess spatial patterns of colon’s pathologic lesions based on the pathologic reports and assess whether it is possible to use GIS software in health services. Patients and Methods: Archives of pathology of Namazi and Faghihi hospitals, two main referral centers of south-west of Iran, were obtained and reviewed between January 2009 and September 2011 for biopsy reports of patients who underwent colonoscopy. Abnormal biopsies were categorized into five different subgroups according to the type of pathologic specimens. By GIS, spatial patterns of colon biopsies were plotted in different maps and spatial auto-correlation of colon biopsies was calculated using the Moran’s Index. Results: A total of 4815 biopsies from 2663 different patients were reviewed, 53.8% of which were men. Abnormal biopsies were 2781 of all specimens (57.8%). Neoplastic lesions, inflammatory bowel diseases and polyps were 9.3%, 19.3% and 29.2% of total biopsies, respectively. Pathologic biopsies were more common in the distal colon. Maps of all biopsies and maps of specific pathologies were manifested in GIS. Conclusions: Our study showed that left-sided lesions are still more common in the Iranian population. On the other hand, surveying the right side of colon is as important as the distal part, which necessitates total colonoscopy. PMID:25763265

  9. Geographic information system index for the State of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, William R.; Norris, Pamela G.

    1989-01-01

    Recently the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has increased within Tennessee. As a result, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Tennessee State Planning Office, and the Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury entered into an agreement to conduct a survey of GIS users within the State. Two hundred and sixty three agencies were contacted. One hundred and thirty-nine agencies maintained one or more computer system (including personal computers). Twenty-five agencies used GIS software. The number of coverages or layers that exist upon completion of the survey as computerized digital data for Tennessee was 4,741. One hundred and twenty location-specific data bases were available. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division map accuracy standards and digital cartographic data standards were included as minimum guidelines for GIS users. General data sharing techniques were described. The most common one was the use of magnetic tapes. A GIS index data base containing the survey data was built for inquiries. A 7.5 minute quadrangle coverage of Tennessee was created to allow for identification on a quadrangle basis of existing coverages contained in the GIS data base. (USGS)

  10. Catchment delineation and morphometric analysis using geographical information system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, Rohitashw; Singh, P K; Singh, Manjeet; Yadav, K K; Mittal, H K

    2015-01-01

    The geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage patterns of watershed planning and management. The morphometric parameters of basins can address linear, areal and relief aspects. The study deals with the integrated watershed management of Baliya micro-watersheds, located in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. Morphometric analysis in hydrological investigation is an important aspect and it is inevitable in the development and management of drainage basins. The determination of linear, areal and relief parameters indicate fairly good significance. The low value of the bifurcation ratio of 4.19 revealed that the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural disturbance. The high value of the elongation ratio (0.68) compared to the circulatory ratio (0.27) indicates an elongated shape of the watershed. The high value of drainage density (5.39 km/km(2)) and stream frequency (12.32) shows that the region has impermeable subsoil material under poor vegetative cover with a low relief factor. The morphometric parameters of relief ratio (0.041) and relative relief (0.99%) show that the watershed can be treated using GIS techniques to determine the morphometric presence of dendritic drainage pattern, with a view to selecting the soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting.

  11. Utilization of Geographic Information System in Lunar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Substantial digital remote sensing, lunar orbital photography, Earth-based remote sensing, and mapping of a variety of surficial lunar phenomena have occurred since the advent of the Space Age. This has led to a bewildering and quite disparate collection of archival sources insofar as this digital data and its cartographic representation can be found within many countries of the world. The importance of this mapping program in support of human expansion onto our nearest planetary neighbor has been recognized. A series of small scale maps of the Moon at 1 km to 1 cm, done with the support of Geographic Information System (GIS), would serve decision makers well in the process of accessing the development of manned occupance of the Moon. Maps and the data that they are derived from are the primary way in which people explore new environments and use previously discovered data to increase the bounties of any exploration. The inherent advantage of GIS is that it would allow immediate online access on the Moon of topographically represented data with analysis either on site or from Earth.

  12. Usability of Geographic Information: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Sharples, S; Harding, J; Parker, C J; Bearman, N; Maguire, M; Forrest, D; Haklay, M; Jackson, M

    2013-11-01

    The use of Geographic Information or GI, has grown rapidly in recent years. Previous research has identified the importance of usability and user centred design in enabling the proliferation and exploitation of GI. However, the design and development of usable GI is not simply a matter of applying the tried and tested usability methods that have been developed for software and web design. Dealing with data and specifically GI brings with it a number of issues that change the way usability and user centred design can be applied. This paper describes the outcomes of a workshop held in March 2010 exploring the core issues relating to GI usability. The workshop brought together an international group of twenty experts in both human factors and GI, from a wide range of academic and industrial backgrounds. These experts considered three key issues, the stakeholders in GI, key challenges applying usability to GI and the usability methods that can be successfully applied to GI. The result of this workshop was to identify some areas for future research, such as the production of meaningful metadata and the implications of blurring of the line between data producers and data consumers.

  13. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  14. Visualizing nursing workforce distribution: policy evaluation using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Karen L

    2005-12-01

    Health services literature suggests that geographic information systems (GIS) are useful policy evaluation tools when policy success is dependent on location. Nursing workforce distribution is an inherently local issue and nursing shortages present serious concerns for local, state and national governments. In 1991, Missouri enacted a nurse recruitment and retention policy targeting underserved (HPSA-designated) counties. Following Institutional Review Board approval, policy effectiveness was explored using a combination of GIS data visualization, spatial and classic statistics. Results of both data visualization and statistical methods do not demonstrate an expected trend of decreasing group differences between HPSA and non-HPSA-designated counties over time. Only two of the five time periods studied had significant group differences. Between 1993 and 1995, the loss in nurse to population ratios in HPSA counties was significant (U=1020, p<0.001); however, between 1999 and 2001, the growth in nurse to population ratio changes in HPSA counties was significant (U=1032, p=0.001). The GIS data visualization and statistical techniques performed suggest that current policy definitions of underserved areas may not be effective in defining areas of nursing shortages and the existing policy implementation may not be achieving the stated goals.

  15. Role of geographic information system in malaria control.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P; Srivastava, A

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we provide an account of our experience in the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) in understanding malaria transmission dynamics at the local level. Two studies have been briefly reviewed. One is the application of RS on the mosquito production in the Sanjay lake and surrounding areas in Delhi. Studies are demonstrated that remote sensing data were useful in assessing relative mosquito abundance from large water bodies. The second study was carried out in Nadiad taluka, Kheda district, Gujarat on the application of RS and GIS in a village-wise analysis of receptivity and vulnerability to malaria. For this study, remote sensed data and topo sheets of 1:50,000 and 1:125,000 were used in preparing thematic maps. Digitised overlaid maps were subjected to computer analysis using ARC/INFO 3.1 software. Malaria annual parasite incidence (API) showed relationship with water table followed by soil type, irrigation and water quality, other parameters also contributed to malaria receptivity but less significantly. Based on GIS analysis location specific malaria control strategy was suggested to achieve cost effective control of malaria on a sustainable basis.

  16. Effective transfer of geographic information system (GIS) technology: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Glenn; Scharfen, Greg

    1993-08-01

    Despite the remarkable growth and dissemination of GIS technology in the past decate, barriers yet remain to the full and effective application of the technology by scientific entities. This paper will broadly survey the literature and comment on issues germane to the transfer of GIS technology within and among governmental agencies, universities, and other research organizations. An intellectual framework established by formal education in geography has aided in identifying potential uses for GIS. More widespread inclusion of geographic principles into higher education curricula, using GIS as a tool for demonstration and experimentation, will be suggested. Seminars and demonstrations are useful to spark interest in GIS, but unless material learned can be directly applied to current work, they are not of lasting value. Graphical user interfaces lift GIS from the realm of programmers and put analysis capabilities into the hands of researchers and decision makers. Factors relating to cost must always be dealt with. We have found that an appropriate pilot project is a means by which risks can be minimized while capabilities of the technology can be proven in an operational setting. Technology is not an end in itself, but a means to engender human productivity and creativity; GIS provides a unified mechanism by which to visualize and manage information on the various processes within the earth's environment. Assimilation of GIS technology by the international earth science community will undoubtedly encourage multidisciplinary cooperation.

  17. Geographic information system development in the CARETS project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, William B.; Fegeas, Robin G.; Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1977-01-01

    Experience in the development of a geographic information system to support the CARETS project has confirmed the considerable advantages that may accrue by paralleling the system development with a rational and balanced system production effort which permits the integration of the education and training of users with interim deliverable products to them. Those advantages include support for a long-term staff plan that recognizes substantial staff changes through system development and implementation, a fiscal plan that provides continuity in resources necessary for total system development, and a feedback system which allows the user to communicate his experiences in using the system. Thus far balance between system development and system production has not been achieved because of continuing large-scale spatial data processing requirements coupled with strong and insistent demands from users for immediately deliverable products from the system. That imbalance has refocussed staffing and fiscal plans from long-term system development to short- and near-term production requirements, continuously extends total system development time, and increases the possibility that later system development may reduce the usefulness of current interim products.

  18. The NASA John C. Stennis Environmental Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohan, Tyrus; Grant, Kerry

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) presentation, we will present two live demonstrations of a portion of the work being performed in support of environmental operations onsite and NASA-wide. These live demonstrations will showcase the NASA EGIS database through working versions of two software packages available from Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI, Inc.): ArcIMS 3.0 and either ArcView 3.2a or ArcGIS 8.0.2. Using a standard web browser, the ArcIMS demo will allow users to access a project file containing several data layers found in the EGIS database. ArcIMS is configured so that a single computer can be used as the data server and as the user interface, which allows for maximum Internet security because the computer being used will not actually be connected to the World Wide Web. Further, being independent of the Internet, the demo will run at an increased speed. This demo will include several data layers that are specific to Stennis Space Center. The EGIS database demo is a representative portion of the entire EGIS project sent to NASA Headquarters last year. This demo contains data files that are readily available at various government agency Web sites for download. Although these files contain roads, rails, and other infrastructure details, they are generalized and at a small enough scale that they provide only a general idea of each NASA center's surroundings rather than specific details of the area.

  19. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  20. Mapping Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using Radon and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. M.; Rapaglia, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    Fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which is likely the fraction of SGD most important for nutrient flux into the coastal zone, is driven by terrestrial hydraulic gradients. It is, therefore, logical to utilize this information in the search for SGD. The increased precision of digital elevation models (DEM) combined with the utility of geographic information systems (GIS) enables the researcher to pinpoint flow accumulation. ArcGIS 10 was used to find and quantify flow accumulation in Port Jefferson Harbor, NY and the Niantic River, CT. Both Port Jefferson and the Niantic are of similar geology being formed by glacial moraines marked by high hydraulic conductivity. In Port Jefferson, high flow was found in the southwestern and southeastern corners of the harbor. Here folds in land elevation focused water into the corners of the harbor. In the Niantic River flow accumulation was determined near anomalously high pockets of Nitrate-Nitrogen found previous to this study. Meanwhile, although radon has been used extensively as a tracer for SGD, few studies have used radon to map it. Radon was used to investigate groundwater seepage in both locations. An in-air radon monitor, RAD7, modified with a RAD Aqua, was used in a closed loop system to detect continuous Rn levels while steaming along the coastline. It was found that in areas with high flow accumulation as determined by the GIS analysis, Rn levels were similarly elevated (636 Bq/m3). This work complements research undertaken in the Baltic Sea, Germany, although the relatively smaller spatial scale of this study was, perhaps, more useful in matching radon activities and flow accumulation. While it may not be financially or logistically sensible to do extensive radon studies, this method of mapping fresh SGD may help researchers find the preverbal needle in a haystack.

  1. Usability of geographic information -- factors identified from qualitative analysis of task-focused user interviews.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability.

  2. Geographical Information System Based Evaluation of Benthic MACRO Fauna in Thondi Coastal Environment, South East Coast of India Rethna Priya. E, Anbuchezhian. R and Ravichandran. S. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Portonovo, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, R.; Ramasamy, A.; Ravichandran, R.; Anbuchezhian. E.

    2013-05-01

    Seasonal and frequency difference of the macro fauna have been related to variation in the morpho dynamics and the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the seasonal and spatial variation of the macro fauna at 12 different samplings stations with distinct environmental conditions in Thondi coastal area. The samples were collected monthly from September 2010 to September 2011. Macro benthic invertebrates are numerically important components of coastal ecosystems and represents indicators of fishery potentials, intertidal ecology and environmental degradation. Sampling stations were fixed by GPS. 54 species were recorded, of this 24 species belonging to gastropods, 15 species of bivalves, 5 species of amphipods, 6 species of decapods and 4 species of echinoderms. In the present study the abdunce of benthic fauna greatly depends on physical and chemical properties of the substratum. The diversity, seasonal variations, dominances, influence of ecological parameters have been studied geographically by using GIS software for a period of one year from September 2010 to September 2011The macro fauna at all sites showed a arresting seasonal variation in density and diversity. Keywords: Macro fauna, GIS software, environmental degradation, morpho dynamics.

  3. Applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of Lake Uluabat.

    PubMed

    Hacısalihoğlu, Saadet; Karaer, Feza; Katip, Aslıhan

    2016-06-01

    Lake Uluabat is one of the most important wetlands in Turkey because of its rich biodiversity, lying on a migratory bird route with almost all its shores being covered by submerged plants. The lake has been protected by the Ramsar Convention since 1998. However, the Lake is threatened by natural and anthropogenic stressors as a consequence of its location. Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis is a tool that has been widely used, especially for water quality management in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the water quality and determined most polluted points using GIS analysis of the lake. Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese were monitored monthly from June 2008 to May 2009, with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake. Effect of pH, relation of temperature, and Chl-a with other water quality parameters and metals are designated as statistically significant. Data were mapped using ArcGIS 9.1 software and were assessed according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulations (TWPCR). The research also focused on classifying and mapping the water quality in the lake by using the spatial analysis functions of GIS. As a result, it was determined that Lake Uluabat belonged to the 4th class, i.e., highly polluted water, including any water of lower quality. A remarkable portion of the pollution in the water basin was attributed to domestic wastewater discharges, industrial and agricultural activities, and mining.

  4. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an “intelligence” that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of “volunteered” or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the “intelligence” collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an “intelligent” end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs. PMID:25419184

  5. Advanced Placement Human Geography and the Annual Meetings of the National Council for Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublett, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the National Council for Geographic Education have been instrumental in the creation, launch, and early success of Advanced Placement Human Geography. Annual meetings of the Council have served as a forum for spreading the word about the course and its follow-up national examination and in helping teachers develop content confidence and…

  6. Geodata Modeling and Query in Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Nabil

    1996-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) deal with collecting, modeling, man- aging, analyzing, and integrating spatial (locational) and non-spatial (attribute) data required for geographic applications. Examples of spatial data are digital maps, administrative boundaries, road networks, and those of non-spatial data are census counts, land elevations and soil characteristics. GIS shares common areas with a number of other disciplines such as computer- aided design, computer cartography, database management, and remote sensing. None of these disciplines however, can by themselves fully meet the requirements of a GIS application. Examples of such requirements include: the ability to use locational data to produce high quality plots, perform complex operations such as network analysis, enable spatial searching and overlay operations, support spatial analysis and modeling, and provide data management functions such as efficient storage, retrieval, and modification of large datasets; independence, integrity, and security of data; and concurrent access to multiple users. It is on the data management issues that we devote our discussions in this monograph. Traditionally, database management technology have been developed for business applications. Such applications require, among other things, capturing the data requirements of high-level business functions and developing machine- level implementations; supporting multiple views of data and yet providing integration that would minimize redundancy and maintain data integrity and security; providing a high-level language for data definition and manipulation; allowing concurrent access to multiple users; and processing user transactions in an efficient manner. The demands on database management systems have been for speed, reliability, efficiency, cost effectiveness, and user-friendliness. Significant progress have been made in all of these areas over the last two decades to the point that many generalized database platforms

  7. Geospatial Information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Current Issues and Future Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Congressional Research Service 15 Other Activities and Components of FGDC and NSDI Geospatial One - Stop According...to the FGDC 2007 Annual Report,30 the Geospatial One - Stop portal is the official means of accessing metadata resources, which are published through...the National Spatial Data Clearinghouse and which are managed in NSDI. Geospatial One - Stop focuses on the discovery and access of geospatial

  8. Use of geographic information management systems (GIMS) for nitrogen management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diker, Kenan

    1998-11-01

    Geographic Information Management Systems (GIMS) was investigated in this study to develop an efficient nitrogen management scheme for corn. The study was conducted on two experimental corn sites. The first site consisted of six non-replicated plots where the canopy reflectance of corn at six nitrogen fertilizer levels was investigated. The reflectance measurements were conducted for nadir and 75sp° view angles. Data from these plots were used to develop relationships between reflectance data and soil and plant parameters. The second site had four corn plots fertilized by different methods such as spoon-fed, pre-plant and side-dress, which created nitrogen variability within the field. Soil and plant nitrogen as well as leaf area, biomass, percent cover measurements, and canopy reflectance data were collected at various growth stages from both sites during the 1995 and 1996 growing seasons. Relationships were developed between the Nitrogen Reflectance Index (NRI) developed by Bausch et al. (1994) and soil and plant variables. Spatial dependence of data was determined by geostatistical methods; variability was mapped in ArcView. Results of this study indicated that the NRI is a better estimator of plant nitrogen status than chlorophyll meter measurements. The NRI can successfully be used to estimate the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen estimates through the plant nitrogen status as well as plant parameters and the yield potential. GIS mapping of measured and estimated soil nitrogen agreed except in locations where hot spots were measured. The NRI value of 0.95 seemed to be the critical value for plant nitrogen status especially for the 75sp° view. The nadir view tended to underestimate plant and soil parameters, whereas, the 75sp° view slightly overestimated these parameters. If available, the 75sp° view data should be used before the tasseling stage for reflectance measurements to reduce the soil background effect. However, it is sensitive to windy

  9. Cartographic Encounters at the Bureau of Indian Affairs Geographic Information System Center of Calculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The centering processes of geographic information system (GIS) development at the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was an extension of past cartographic encounters with American Indians through the central control of geospatial technologies, uneven development of geographic information resources, and extension of technically dependent…

  10. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety The National Transportation Safety Board will hold a public conference on the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly expanding group...

  11. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM-SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Conference on Environmental Problem Solving with Geographic Information Systems was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, September 21-23, 1994. The conference was a forum for over 450 environmental professionals to exchange information and approaches on how to use geographic ...

  12. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, AND URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report reviews the application of Geographic Inforamtion System (GIS) technology to the field of urban stormwater modeling. The GIS literature is reviewed in the context of its use as a spatial database for urban stormwater modeling, integration of GIS and hydroloic time...

  13. GIS Based Application of Advanced Traveler Information System in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Singh, V.

    2012-02-01

    Developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Australia and Germany have adopted advanced traveler information technologies expeditiously in comparison to developing countries. But, unlike developed countries, developing countries face considerable financial and framework constraints. Moreover local traffic, roadway, signalization, demographic, topological and social conditions in developing countries are quite different from those in developed countries. In this paper, a comprehensive framework comprising of system architecture, development methodology and salient features of a developed Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) for metropolitan cities in developing countries has been discussed. Development of proposed system is based on integration of two well known information technologies viz. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and World Wide Web (WWW). Combination of these technologies can be utilized to develop an integrated ATIS that targets different types of travelers like private vehicle owners, transit users and casual outside visitors.

  14. The Geographic Information System component of the Hanford Environmental Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Tzemos, S.; Overton, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. HEISGIS is the Geographic Information Systems component of HEIS. This report analyzes the HEISGIS functional requirements as articulated by the members of a GIS subcommittee established by the HEIS Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) in a series of meetings. These functionalities are identified throughout this report, but no implementation commitment is made. This requirements analysis document will be followed by a brief list of the functionalities that will be implemented in FY91 and a description of the requisite acceptance test criteria.

  15. The Geographic Information System component of the Hanford Environmental Information System. Requirements analysis for HEISGIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tzemos, S.; Overton, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. HEISGIS is the Geographic Information Systems component of HEIS. This report analyzes the HEISGIS functional requirements as articulated by the members of a GIS subcommittee established by the HEIS Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) in a series of meetings. These functionalities are identified throughout this report, but no implementation commitment is made. This requirements analysis document will be followed by a brief list of the functionalities that will be implemented in FY91 and a description of the requisite acceptance test criteria.

  16. Assessment of Completeness and Positional Accuracy of Linear Features in Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghi, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in spatial data collection technologies and online services dramatically increase the contribution of ordinary people to produce, share, and use geographic information. Collecting spatial data as well as disseminating them on the internet by citizens has led to a huge source of spatial data termed as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) by Mike Goodchild. Although, VGI has produced previously unavailable data assets, and enriched existing ones. But its quality can be highly variable and challengeable. This presents several challenges to potential end users who are concerned about the validation and the quality assurance of the data which are collected. Almost, all the existing researches are based on how to find accurate VGI data from existing VGI data which consist of a) comparing the VGI data with the accurate official data, or b) in cases that there is no access to correct data; therefore, looking for an alternative way to determine the quality of VGI data is essential, and so forth. In this paper it has been attempt to develop a useful method to reach this goal. In this process, the positional accuracy of linear feature of Iran, Tehran OSM data have been analyzed.

  17. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  18. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    PubMed

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information.

  19. Geographic information analysis: An ecological approach for the management of wildlife on the forest landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a summary of the project funded by NAGw-1460 as part of the Earth Observation Commericalization/Applications Program (EOCAP) directed by NASA's Earth Science and Applications Division. The goal was to work with several agencies to focus on forest structure and landscape characterizations for wildlife habitat applications. New analysis techniques were used in remote sensing and landscape ecology with geographic information systems (GIS). The development of GIS and the emergence of the discipline of landscape ecology provided us with an opportunity to study forest and wildlife habitat resources from a new perspective. New techniques were developed to measure forest structure across scales from the canopy to the regional level. This paper describes the project team, technical advances, and technology adoption process that was used. Reprints of related refereed journal articles are in the Appendix.

  20. Coproduction of flood hazard assessment with public participation geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, W. H.; Houston, D.; Schubert, J.; Basolo, V.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Karlin, B.; Goodrich, K.; Contreras, S.; Reyes, A.; Serrano, K.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    While advances in computing have enabled the development of more precise and accurate flood models, there is growing interest in the role of crowdsourced local knowledge in flood modeling and flood hazard assessment. In an effort to incorporate the "wisdom of the crowd" in the identification and mitigation of flood hazard, this public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) study leveraged tablet computers and cloud computing to collect mental maps of flooding from 166 households in Newport Beach, California. The mental maps were analyzed using GIS techniques and compared with professional hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding. The results revealed varying levels of agreement between residents' mental maps and professional model of flood risk in regions with different personal and contextual characteristics. The quantification of agreement using composite indices can help validate professional models, and can also alert planners and decisionmakers of the need to increase flood awareness among specific populations.

  1. Providing access: The difference between sharing and just reporting geographical information systems and engineering information/information technology organizational data

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    The concept for Corporate computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided engineering (CAE)/geographical information systems (GIS) and engineering information (EI)/ information technology (IT), and the sharing of this information is becoming popular as organizations flatten (or perhaps become more hollow) and as their functions merge into processes. However, not much is known about information sharing: why sharing happens, whit it does not, how much sharing is desirable, and how to manage it. This paper takes a look at these important issues.

  2. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  3. Advanced Information System Research Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    realistic near-term achievements. The research program objectives are to develop , manage , and coordinate activities relating to the following: o... development ; o Development and demonstration of tools, techniques, procedures, and advanced design concepts applicable to future management ... management is consolidated under the Division Property Book Officer. Property book accountability is maintained under the provisions of AR 735-35, and

  4. Standards Advisor-Advanced Information Technology for Advanced Information Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawker, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Developers of space systems must deal with an increasing amount of information in responding to extensive requirements and standards from numerous sources. Accessing these requirements and standards, understanding them, comparing them, negotiating them and responding to them is often an overwhelming task. There are resources to aid the space systems developer, such as lessons learned and best practices. Again, though, accessing, understanding, and using this information is often more difficult than helpful. This results in space systems that: 1. Do not meet all their requirements. 2. Do not incorporate prior engineering experience. 3. Cost more to develop. 4. Take longer to develop. The NASA Technical Standards Program (NTSP) web site at http://standards.nasa.gov has made significant improvements in making standards, lessons learned, and related material available to space systems developers agency-wide. The Standards Advisor was conceived to take the next steps beyond the current product, continuing to apply evolving information technology that continues to improve information delivery to space systems developers. This report describes the features of the Standards Advisor and suggests a technical approach to its development.

  5. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  6. Integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Research 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0475 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Daikwon Han, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. Harlow: Longman. This work was supported in part by NIH Grants IROI 20. Timander LM, McLafferty S (1998) Breast cancer in... Grants DAMD17-03-1-0475, DAMD17-00-1- 21. Rogerson PA, Han D (2002) The effects of migration on the 0417. detection of geographic differences in disease

  7. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  8. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources.

  9. Geographic Information Systems as Applied to the Manipulation of Environmental Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, J. M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two aspects of a Geographic Information System (GIS), a computerized system for processing geographic and/or mapped data and components/implementation of a GIS and GIS demonstration in natural resources management. Demonstrations related to lignite mining permit requirements in coastal zone, and location of potential landfills/hazardous…

  10. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information to Visualize Community Valuation of Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of s...

  11. Making a Traditional Study-Abroad Program Geographic: A Theoretically Informed Regional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisch, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Geographers have been active in numerous focused study-abroad programs, but few have created or led language-based programs overseas. This article describes the development of a Spanish language program in Ecuador and how it was made geographic primarily through a theoretically informed regional geography course. The approach employs theoretical…

  12. A Phenomenological Study of a Collaborative Inquiry Model for Teaching Educators Using Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lara M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic inquiry increases higher-order thinking skills which can be supported through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The purpose of this research project examines the effect of using a Collaborative Inquiry Model (CIM) model during professional development on the rate of effective GIS implementation in K-12 classrooms. The…

  13. Advances in Information Barrier Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R. B.; Frame, K. C.; Landry, R. P.; MacArthur, D. W.; Smith, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of an information barrier, or IB, has been widely discussed for a number of years. An IB is used in a measurement system that contains classified information to prevent the release (either intentional or inadvertent) of the classified information while still allowing an inspecting party to reach independent conclusions as to the contents of a storage container. Typically, an IB would be used in a measurement system regime that requires the owner of certain storage containers to declare the contents of the containers (in unclassified terms) and an inspecting party to confirm this declaration. The IB allows the owner's declaration to be confirmed without releasing any classified information to the inspecting party. Most IB design concepts are based on two attribute measruement systems (AMSs) that were built and demonstrated in the US in 1999 and 2000. These IBs relied heavily on simple hardware implementations and performed well in a 'one-time' demonstration mode. However, implementation of an AMS in a long-term verification regime will place a different set of requirements on the entire AMS system - and the IB, in particular. In this paper, they will concentrate on the effects of changing constraints on IB design, new IB concepts that have been developed since the earlier demonstrations, and design concepts that have been developed within a number of related verification regimes.

  14. GRASS/GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System/Geographic Information System) Implementation Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Cxn’triing a GRAISS GIS Databse - 15- -15- s)Surces of )igital Spotial l)ata for (;lS )ata )ata Data F Scale/ Data Media Acquistin n "I:!......." . S...infestations were identified, types and quantities of chemicals used to combat pests, and other relevant information. R arg Zoes Field survey and/or...infestation, types and quantifies of ch-micals used to combat the pest. and reconmeided date for next chemical application LA Infreaion: A comparison

  15. Geographic health information systems: a platform to support the 'triple aim'.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ferranti, Jeffrey; Strauss, Benjamin; Neelon, Brian; Califf, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Despite the rapid growth of electronic health data, most data systems do not connect individual patient records to data sets from outside the health care delivery system. These isolated data systems cannot support efforts to recognize or address how the physical and environmental context of each patient influences health choices and health outcomes. In this article we describe how a geographic health information system in Durham, North Carolina, links health system and social and environmental data via shared geography to provide a multidimensional understanding of individual and community health status and vulnerabilities. Geographic health information systems can be useful in supporting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim Initiative to improve the experience of care, improve the health of populations, and reduce per capita costs of health care. A geographic health information system can also provide a comprehensive information base for community health assessment and intervention for accountable care that includes the entire population of a geographic area.

  16. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  17. ATYPICAL MACULOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH LIGHT CHAIN DEPOSITION DISEASE MIMICKING ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Oshry, Lauren J.; Reichel, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report a previously unreported presentation of advanced geographic atrophy of the macula mimicking nonneovascular (dry) age-related macular degeneration in a patient with light chain deposition disease. Methods: Ocular examination included dilated fundus examination, fundus autofluorescence, full-field electroretinography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Patients: Single-patient case report. Results: Dilated fundus examination demonstrated diffuse loss of the retinal pigment epithelium in a geographic atrophy pattern in the macula and drusenlike deposits localized to the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. There were no signs of choroidal neovascularization or retinal pigment epithelium detachments. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated wide areas of retinal pigment epithelium loss. Full-field electroretinography was normal. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography displayed atrophy of the outer retinal layers. Discussion: This is the first documented case of drusenlike deposits and maculopathy in a patient with light chain deposition disease that mimics advanced geographic atrophy that is typically observed in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. Physicians should be aware of the macular changes that can be associated with light chain deposition disease, and patients with light chain deposition disease should be regularly evaluated for associated macular disease. PMID:26934302

  18. Design Research of TIANDITU (Map Worl)-Based Geographic Information System for Travelling Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of the National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the travelling channel is TIANDITU-based geographic information platform for travelling service. With the development of tourism, traditional ways for providing travelling information cannot meet the needs of travelers. As such, the travelling channel of TIANDITU focuses on providing travel information abundantly and precisely, which integrated the geographic information data of TIANDITU Version 2.0 and the authoritative information resources from China National Tourism Administration. Furthermore, spatial positioning, category and information query of various travelling information were offered for the public in the travelling channel. This research mainly involves three important parts: the system design, key technologies of the system design and application examples. Firstly, this paper introduced the design of TIANDITU-based geographic information system for travelling service, and the general and database design were described in detail. The designs for general, database and travelling service above should consider lots of factors which illustrated in the paper in order to guarantee the efficient service. The process of system construction, the content of geographic information for travelling and system functions of geographic information for travelling are also proposed via diagram in this part. Then several key technologies were discussed, including the travelling information integration for main node and among nodes, general architecture design and management system for travelling channel, web portals and system interface. From the perspective of main technologies, this part describes how TIANDITU travelling channel can realize various functions and reach the requirements from different users. Finally, three application examples about travelling information query were listed shortly. The functions and search results are shown clearly in this

  19. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Richard M; Siebeneck, Laura K.; Hepner, George F.

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  20. Geographic information system programs for use in the water-supply-allocation permitting process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Paul; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer programs designed for use in a geographic information system as an aid in the water-supply- allocation permitting process are described. These programs were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey during a project conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The programs enable a user to display proposed water-supply-allocation sites in a defined area together with present sites and important hydrologic and geographic features on a computer screen or on hardcopy plots. The programs are menu-driven and do not require familiarity with geographic information systems. Source codes for the programs are included in appendixes.

  1. Advanced algorithms for information science

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.; Brislawn, C.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Kelley, B.; Kim, W.H.; Mazieres, B.; Roeder, H.; Strottman, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In a modern information-controlled society the importance of fast computational algorithms facilitating data compression and image analysis cannot be overemphasized. Feature extraction and pattern recognition are key to many LANL projects and the same types of dimensionality reduction and compression used in source coding are also applicable to image understanding. The authors have begun developing wavelet coding which decomposes data into different length-scale and frequency bands. New transform-based source-coding techniques offer potential for achieving better, combined source-channel coding performance by using joint-optimization techniques. They initiated work on a system that compresses the video stream in real time, and which also takes the additional step of analyzing the video stream concurrently. By using object-based compression schemes (where an object is an identifiable feature of the video signal, repeatable in time or space), they believe that the analysis is directly related to the efficiency of the compression.

  2. [Qingshishan watershed agro-ecology information system and its application with the support of Geographic Information System (GIS)].

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Wang, Z

    2000-10-01

    Geographic Information System(GIS) is applied to establish Qingshishan Watershed Agro-Ecology Information System (QWAEIS), QWAEIS integrates spatial information such as land use, soil, water and topography with basic information such as population, climate and agricultural production. The watershed agro-ecology information was effectively analyzed and managed by QWAEIS, land suitable classes were evaluated by QWAEIS and the land evaluation result are given, QWAEIS also can support watershed planning with its spatial information.

  3. Integrating Science Information Systems with Geographic Information Systems: The OPeNDAP Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornillon, P.; Holloway, D.

    2004-12-01

    The OPeNDAP data access protocol is in increasing use for remote access to data in oceanography, meteorology, land cover studies and the space sciences. At the same time there is increasing use in the geographic information science (GIS) community of protocols to remotely access data. The fundamental difference between the two approaches for remote data access relates to the semantic metadata associated with the data. In the GIS case the semantic metadata are tightly coupled with the geographic needs of GISs, specifically, earth location, projection, etc. By contrast the OPeNDAP data access protocol does not impose a semantic metadata requirement on the data provider, although the protocol does provide a mechanism for the data provider to append semantic information to the data stream. This allows for use of the protocol over a much broader range of scientific disciplines, but also results in no consistency in the semantic metadata provided with the data. The OPeNDAP protocol could be viewed as a lower level protocol than those being developed for use in the GIS community. Despite the lack of consistency in semantic metadata there is a great deal of interest in the GIS community in access to OPeNDAP-enabled servers and conversely in the scientific community in access to GIS data via OPeNDAP-enabled clients. In this presentations we explore efforts undertaken within the OPeNDAP community to address these issues. In particular, we discuss issues related to access via the Web Mapping Server, EASy and MapServer as well as efforts to serve data stored in formats designed for use in GISs such as GeoTIFF

  4. Political aspects of geographical information technologies with examples from imperial and post-independence India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Graham David

    The goal of this research is to examine some of the political dimensions of digital geographical information technologies in order to allow better assessment of their increasing use. Although the conclusions and recommendations are applicable to many regions of the world where these technologies are being introduced, this research derives most of its examples from India. Since at least the early days of British imperialism, decisions regarding land use in India have been informed by various types of information, including cartographic ones. In this thesis it is argued that this information was neither neutral nor objective but rather formed political and ideological statements concerning social relations with the landscape. These statements were reflected both in the nature of the data which were collected and in the ways in which these data were presented. By examining the historical evolution of geographical information technologies in British India and attendant social and environmental impacts, the stage is set for critical speculation on the possible impacts resulting from the introduction of digital geographical information technologies such as remote sensing and geographical information systems. This research draws heavily from the work of historian of cartography Brian Harley. Harley's work is extended to include consideration of the ways in which human-environment relationships are reflected and altered by geographic information technologies. This discussion of possible political and environment implications is influenced by recent literature in the areas of political ecology and the history of cartography. It is concluded that although there are many obstacles including unequal access to the technology, unequal access to information, and issues of control over information creation, which may reinforce and intensify existing social and political inequities, there is cause for some cautious optimism about the potential beneficial outcomes of the use of

  5. Earth Observation, Geographic Information Systems and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hay, S.I.; Omumbo, J.A.; Craig, M.H.; Snow, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the progress and current status of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) as currently applied to the problem of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The burden of P. falciparum malaria in SSA is first summarized and then contrasted with the paucity of accurate and recent information on the nature and extent of the disease. This provides perspective on both the global importance of the pathogen and the potential for contribution of RS and GIS techniques. The ecology of P. falciparum malaria and its major anopheline vectors in SSA is then outlined, to provide the epidemiological background for considering disease transmission processes and their environmental correlates. Because RS and GIS are recent techniques in epidemiology, all mosquito-borne diseases are considered in this review in order to convey the range of ideas, insights and innovation provided. To conclude, the impact of these initial studies is assessed and suggestions provided on how these advances could be best used for malaria control in an appropriate and sustainable manner, with key areas for future research highlighted. PMID:10997207

  6. Exploitation of Geographic Information Systems for Vehicular Destination Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    will deposit into the empty Dakka Plain and still be there an hour, or several hours, later. In Information Theory parlance, the former example contains...major sporting events, and other possibly disruptive phenomena. The result, as Figure 2.9 demonstrates, is a map showing the roads in a given extent that...K. W., Oxley, M. E., Kabrisky, M., Rogers, A. S. and Mott, S. D., The life and death of ATR /Sensor Fusion and the hope for resurrection, Proceedings

  7. Principles of logic and the use of digital geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Digital geographic information systems allow many different types of data to be spatially and statistically analyzed. Logical operations can be performed on individual or multiple data planes by algorithms that can be implemented in computer systems. Users and creators of the systems should fully understand these operations. This paper describes the relationships of layers and features in geographic data bases and the principles of logic that can be applied by geographic information systems and suggests that a thorough knowledge of the data that are entered into a geographic data base and of the logical operations will produce results that are most satisfactory to the user. Methods of spatial analysis are reduced to their primitive logical operations and explained to further such understanding.

  8. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  9. Using NASA Remote Sensing Data in a Geographical Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwell, R.; Lindsay, F.; Lynnes, C.; Yang, M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) generates more than 2 Tb of remotely sensed data each day through multiple space-based instruments and satellite platforms. The Earth Science Data Information Systems (ESDIS) project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is focused on expanding the usage of EOS data in GIS applications, for both scientists and the general public - especially when science quality satellite products are readily obtainable in HDF-EOS format. The primary formats for NASA's EOS data are NetCDF, HDF4 (HDF-EOS2), and HDF5 (HDF-EOS5), of which the Federal Geospatial Data Committee (FGDC) only endorses NetCDF (out of a total of 64 external standards).The benefit of using a GIS includes the ability to interrelate multiple types of information assembled from a variety of sources to visualize, query, overlay, and analyze data, making it valuable to a wide range of scientific, academic and private entities. Some of the issues facing the remote sensing community for using these data include: - Most GIS systems do not readily process or are unable to utilize NASA Remote Sensing (RS) data - Many scientific users utilize specialized software to geolocate images, which presents a problem for interoperability between common systems - Headers in data files are not easily read by GIS systems - Key NASA datasets are mostly available in either HDF-EOS or NetCDF formats - GeoTIFFs cannot be directly created from HDF or NetCDF, creating a multi-step process that is not inherently user friendly (including reprojection, band extraction, and exporting) With that in mind, ESDIS has undertaken a number of steps toward aiding the use of these data by the broader GIS community: - Support raster data geometry and integration of EOS data into a GIS, with functions for image processing, modeling, and spatial analysis - Leverage relationships throughout the GIS community to enable the use of NASA RS data on the most commonly used platforms

  10. Technologies and standards in the information systems of the soil-geographic database of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golozubov, O. M.; Rozhkov, V. A.; Alyabina, I. O.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kolesnikova, V. M.; Shoba, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The achievements, problems, and challenges of the modern stage of the development of the Soil-Geographic Database of Russia (SGDBR) and the history of this project are outlined. The structure of the information system of the SGDBR as an internet-based resource to collect data on soil profiles and to integrate the geographic and attribute databases on the same platform is described. The pilot project in Rostov oblast illustrates the inclusion of regional information in the SGDBR and its application for solving practical problems. For the first time in Russia, the GeoRSS standard based on the structured hypertext representation of the geographic and attribute information has been applied in the state system for the agromonitoring of agricultural lands in Rostov oblast and information exchange through the internet.

  11. Application of geographical information system for lymphatic filariasis and malaria control in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okorie, P N

    2014-06-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system used to capture, store, edit, retrieve, analyze and visualize geographically referenced data. The use of GIS is one technology that is very useful in the prevention and control of Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria which cause high morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This paper focuses on how the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) can be harnessed for surveillance, prevention and control of LF and malaria in Nigeria. GIS can be used as an operational tool to assist with resource allocation, as a monitoring and evaluation tool and as a tool to investigate various research projects on spatial aspects of LF and malaria epidemiology. This paper provides information on the benefits and potential of using GIS as a tool for the national malaria and LF control programmes with particular reference to Nigeria.

  12. Spatial inventory integrating raster databases and point sample data. [Geographic Information System for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A timber inventory of the Eldorado National Forest, located in east-central California, provides an example of the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to stratify large areas of land for sampling and the collection of statistical data. The raster-based GIS format of the VICAR/IBIS software system allows simple and rapid tabulation of areas, and facilitates the selection of random locations for ground sampling. Algorithms that simplify the complex spatial pattern of raster-based information, and convert raster format data to strings of coordinate vectors, provide a link to conventional vector-based geographic information systems.

  13. Geographical Information Systems in Victorian Secondary Schools: Current Constraints and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Peter; Gordon-Brown, Lee; Peterson, Jim; Ward, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Whilst widespread diffusion and adoption of spatial enabling technology, such as geographic information systems (GIS), is taking place within Australian public and private sectors, the same cannot be said for GIS within Australian secondary schools and state-based geography curricula. In the Australian state of Victoria, information regarding the…

  14. An Interface for Remote Sensing Digital Image Systems and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irish, R. R.; Myers, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    An interfacing technique, zonation algorithms (ZONAL), which provides a means of utilizing LANDSAT information in a polygon-based geographic information system (GIS) is discussed. The ZONAL mechanisms are based on the use of existing GIS polynomial layer, thereby making the process entirely automated.

  15. Geographic Information Systems Librarianship: Suggestions for Entry-Level Academic Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Future Geographic Information Systems (GIS) librarians face a number of challenges that other Library and Information Studies (LIS) graduates may not when preparing for a career in academic librarianship. This article discusses these challenges and offers suggestions to help entry-level GIS librarians begin successful and rewarding careers.

  16. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  17. Geographic Information System Tools for Conservation Planning: User's Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, Timothy J.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; DeHaan, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Public and private land managers desire better ways to incorporate landscape, species, and habitat relations into their conservation planning processes. We present three tools, developed for the Environmental Systems Research Institute?s ArcView 3.x platform, applicable to many types of wildlife conservation management and planning efforts. These tools provide managers and planners with the ability to rapidly assess landscape attributes and link these attributes with species-habitat information. To use the tools, the user provides a detailed land cover spatial database and develops a matrix to identify species-habitat relations for the landscape of interest. The tools are applicable to any taxa or suite of taxa for which the required data are available. The user also has the ability to interactively make polygon-specific changes to the landscape and re-examine species-habitat relations. The development of these tools has given resource managers the means to evaluate the merits of proposed landscape management scenarios and to choose the scenario that best fits the goals of the managed area.

  18. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize community values and ecosystem services for habitat restoration and neighborhood revitalization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers ind...

  19. 9 CFR 592.390 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information. 592.390 Section 592.390 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.390...

  20. 9 CFR 592.390 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance information. 592.390 Section 592.390 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.390...

  1. 9 CFR 592.390 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance information. 592.390 Section 592.390 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.390...

  2. 9 CFR 592.390 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance information. 592.390 Section 592.390 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.390...

  3. 9 CFR 592.390 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance information. 592.390 Section 592.390 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Identifying and Marking Products § 592.390...

  4. 7 CFR 29.68 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance information. 29.68 Section 29.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part of the contents of such certificate may be tel- egraphed or telephoned to him as his...

  5. 7 CFR 29.68 - Advance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance information. 29.68 Section 29.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part of the contents of such certificate may be tel- egraphed or telephoned to him as his...

  6. Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Booman, M.; Durrheim, D. N.; La Grange, K.; Martin, C.; Mabuza, A. M.; Zitha, A.; Mbokazi, F. M.; Fraser, C.; Sharp, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sustainable control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. In Mpumalanga province, South Africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). METHODS: To better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. The introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. RESULTS: The geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, Barberton and Nkomazi. The conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the Mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts), allowed development of a targeted approach to control. DISCUSSION: The geographical information system for malaria was enormously valuable in enabling malaria risk at town and village level to be shown. Matching malaria control measures to specific strata of endemic malaria has provided the opportunity for more efficient malaria control in Mpumalanga province. PMID:11196490

  7. A GIS-based modeling system for petroleum waste management. Geographical information system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Huang, G H; Li, J B

    2003-01-01

    With an urgent need for effective management of petroleum-contaminated sites, a GIS-aided simulation (GISSIM) system is presented in this study. The GISSIM contains two components: an advanced 3D numerical model and a geographical information system (GIS), which are integrated within a general framework. The modeling component undertakes simulation for the fate of contaminants in subsurface unsaturated and saturated zones. The GIS component is used in three areas throughout the system development and implementation process: (i) managing spatial and non-spatial databases; (ii) linking inputs, model, and outputs; and (iii) providing an interface between the GISSIM and its users. The developed system is applied to a North American case study. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in groundwater under a petroleum-contaminated site are dynamically simulated. Reasonable outputs have been obtained and presented graphically. They provide quantitative and scientific bases for further assessment of site-contamination impacts and risks, as well as decisions on practical remediation actions.

  8. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research.

    PubMed

    Jia, P; Cheng, X; Xue, H; Wang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research.

  9. Development of a flexible higher education curriculum framework for geographic information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of geographic information science (GIScience) educational programs currently exist, the oldest now over 25 years. Offerings vary from those specifically focussed on geographic information science, to those that utilise geographic information systems in various applications and disciplines. Over the past two decades, there have been a number of initiatives to design curricula for GIScience, including the NCGIA Core Curriculum, GIS&T Body of Knowledge and the Geospatial Technology Competency Model developments. The rapid developments in geospatial technology, applications and organisations means that curricula need to constantly be updated and developed to maintain currency and relevance. This paper reviews the curriculum initiatives and outlines a new and flexible GIScience higher education curriculum framework which complements and utilises existing curricula. This new framework was applied to the GIScience programs at Curtin University in Perth, Australia which has surpassed 25 years of GIScience education. Some of the results of applying this framework are outlined and discussed.

  10. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  11. Using geographic information systems to match local health needs with public health services and programs.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Williams, Malcolm; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Weden, Margaret M; Miyashiro, Lisa; Jacobson, Dawn; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) play an important role in ensuring essential public health services. Geographic information system (GIS) technology offers a promising means for LHDs to identify geographic gaps between areas of need and the reach of public health services. We examined how large LHDs could better inform planning and investments by using GIS-based methodologies to align community needs and health outcomes with public health programs. We present a framework to drive LHDs in identifying and addressing gaps or mismatches in services or health outcomes.

  12. Leveraging geographic information systems in an integrated health care delivery organization.

    PubMed

    Clift, Kathryn; Scott, Luther; Johnson, Michael; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A handful of the many changes resulting from the Affordable Care Act underscore the need for a geographic understanding of existing and prospective member communities. Health exchanges require that health provider networks are geographically accessible to underserved populations, and nonprofit hospitals nationwide are required to conduct community health needs assessments every three years. Beyond these requirements, health care providers are using maps and spatial analysis to better address health outcomes that are related in complex ways to social and economic factors.Kaiser Permanente is applying geographic information systems, with spatial analytics and map-based visualizations, to data sourced from its electronic medical records and from publicly and commercially available datasets. The results are helping to shape an understanding of the health needs of Kaiser Permanente members in the context of their communities. This understanding is part of a strategy to inform partnerships and interventions in and beyond traditional care delivery settings.

  13. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  14. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess the role of the built environment in influencing obesity: a glossary.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Features of the built environment are increasingly being recognised as potentially important determinants of obesity. This has come about, in part, because of advances in methodological tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS has made the procurement of data related to the built environment easier and given researchers the flexibility to create a new generation of environmental exposure measures such as the travel time to the nearest supermarket or calculations of the amount of neighbourhood greenspace. Given the rapid advances in the availability of GIS data and the relative ease of use of GIS software, a glossary on the use of GIS to assess the built environment is timely. As a case study, we draw on aspects the food and physical activity environments as they might apply to obesity, to define key GIS terms related to data collection, concepts, and the measurement of environmental features.

  15. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  16. A Curriculum Framework for Geographical Information Science (GISc) Training at South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, H.; van Niekerk, A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical information science (GISc) is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. Being a relatively new discipline, universities often provide training as part of geography, surveying, town planning, environmental and computer science programmes. This complicates professional accreditation assessments as the content, outcomes, extent…

  17. Land Use Planning Exercise Using Geographic Information Systems and Digital Soil Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Heidi M.; Lee, Brad D.

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become a valuable tool for environmental science professionals. By incorporating GIS into college-level course curricula, agricultural students become better qualified for employment opportunities. We have developed a case study-based laboratory exercise that introduces students to GIS and the…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: 1994 AND 1999 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These two national conferences, held in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1994 and 1999, addressed the area of environmental problem solving with Geographic Information Systems. This CD-ROM is a compilation of the proceedings in PDF format. The emphasis of the conference presentations were on ...

  19. What Influences Geography Teachers' Usage of Geographic Information Systems? A Structural Equation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chi, Yu-Lin; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the usage of the geographic information system (GIS) among geography teachers is a crucial step in evaluating the current dissemination of GIS knowledge and skills in Taiwan's educational system. The primary contribution of this research is to further our understanding of the factors that affect teachers' GIS usage. The structural…

  20. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  1. Enhancing the Delivery of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education through Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Network for a Healthy California (Network) employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify the target audience and plan program activities because GIS is a powerful tool for assisting in data integration and planning. This paper describes common uses of GIS by Network contractors as well as demonstrating the possibilities of GIS as a…

  2. Web-Based Geographic Information Systems: Experience and Perspectives of Planners and the Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Göçmen, Z. Asligül

    2016-01-01

    Web-based geographic information system (GIS) technology, or web-based GIS, offers many opportunities for public planners and Extension educators who have limited GIS backgrounds or resources. However, investigation of its use in planning has been limited. The study described here examined the use of web-based GIS by public planning agencies. A…

  3. Geographic Information System (GIS) Applications at a Multi-Site Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottle, Laura

    This report presents the Front Range Community College (FRCC) (Colorado) Office of Institutional Research's recent expansion of its data analysis and reporting capabilities to include a geographic information system (GIS). Utilizing ArcView GIS software, the college is better able to visualize institutional and environmental data. They have…

  4. Developing a Multi-Mission Geographic Information System (MMGIS) for In-Situ Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, F. J.; Gengl, H. E.; Parker, T. J.; Deen, R. G.

    2015-06-01

    Locating science instrument data to mm accuracy on a planet surface can be manual and time-intensive. We're developing a multi-mission geographic information system (MMGIS) to standardize georeferencing & map display of in-situ science instruments.

  5. Teaching Geographical Information Systems in Geography Degrees: A Critical Reassessment of Vocationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Duncan; Clark, Gordon; Davies, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) are in tune with the current ethos of higher education because of their perceived vocational value. However, it is particularly difficult to teach GIS vocationally. This paper critiques the claim of vocationalism. The authors use an innovative method of evaluating a module that enlists its alumni to reflect…

  6. An Evaluation of Geographic Information Systems in Social Studies Lessons: Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), used increasingly in primary and secondary education across the world, in social studies lessons in Turkey. In line with this aim, 14 social studies teachers working in the province of Aydin, Turkey received a 6-hour training course about GIS during the…

  7. Teaching Introductory Geographic Information Systems through Problem-Based Learning and Public Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching geographic information systems (GIS) requires linking concepts with technical skills, which can be challenging, especially in standard lecture and laboratory-format courses. This paper reports on an introductory undergraduate GIS course that incorporated a community-driven problem-based learning exercise as a major component of the…

  8. GIS in Evaluation: Utilizing the Power of Geographic Information Systems to Represent Evaluation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek; Robinson, David

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to geographic information systems (GIS) and how the technology can be used to enhance evaluation practice. As a tool, GIS enables evaluators to incorporate contextual features (such as accessibility of program sites or community health needs) into evaluation designs and highlights the interactions between…

  9. Integrating Geographic Information Systems in Business School Curriculum: An Initial Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Michael A.; Arnette, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information systems have experienced rapid growth and user adoption over the last four decades, due to an increasing value to the business community. However, business schools are not teaching geospatial concepts and the related location intelligence to their students. This curriculum decision seems completely at odds with business'…

  10. Student Perspectives on the Teaching of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Geography Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2015-01-01

    In an era when graduate employability is a key concern, the teaching of geographical information systems (GIS) has become a subject of considerable interest. This paper reports on a study of the GIS student learning experience using student survey data from six UK geography undergraduate programmes. The findings show that although students'…

  11. Technology Use in Rwandan Secondary Schools: An Assessment of Teachers' Attitudes towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2016-01-01

    Technology use is evident in all spheres of human endeavour. Focusing on technology use in education, this paper examines teachers' attitudes towards geographic information system (GIS). An assessment was made of GIS teachers in Rwandan secondary schools. Key areas covered include how GIS is implemented in schools, teachers' attitudes and…

  12. STRATEGIC PLAN FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA GIS-QA Team was created to fill the gap between the EPA Quality Assurance (QA) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) communities. All EPA Offices and Regions were invited to participate. Currently, the EPA GIS-QA Team consists of members from the EPA Regional Offices...

  13. Implementation of cartographic symbols for planetary mapping in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2011-09-01

    The steadily growing international interest in the exploration of planets in our Solar System and many advances in the development of space-sensor technology have led to the launch of a multitude of planetary missions to Mercury, Venus, the Earth's moon, Mars and various Outer-Solar System objects, such as the Jovian and Saturnian satellites. Camera instruments carried along on these missions image surfaces in different wavelength ranges and under different viewing angles, permitting additional data to be derived, such as spectral data or digital terrain models. Such data enable researchers to explore and investigate the development of planetary surfaces by analyzing and interpreting the inventory of surface units and structures. Results of such work are commonly abstracted and represented in thematic, mostly geological and geomorphological, maps. In order to facilitate efficient collaboration among different planetary research disciplines, mapping results need to be prepared, described, managed, archived, and visualized in a uniform way. These tasks have been increasingly carried out by means of computer-based geographic information systems (GIS or GI systems) which have come to be widely employed in the field of planetary research since the last two decades. In this paper we focus on the simplification of mapping processes, putting specific emphasis on a cartographically correct visualization of planetary mapping data using GIS-based environments. We present and discuss the implementation of a set of standardized cartographic symbols for planetary mapping based on the Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization as prepared by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). Furthermore, we discuss various options to integrate this symbol catalog into generic GI systems, and more specifically into the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcGIS environment, and focus on requirements for

  14. Chaining of web services and its application in geographic information integration and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanbin; Wu, Qunyong; Chen, Chongcheng; Chen, Han

    2005-11-01

    The rapid development of web services technology ushers Geographical Information Systems (GISs) into the era of geographic information web services (GIWS), which requires a scalable and extensible GISs model to deliver distributed geographic information and GISs functions integrated as independently-provided, interoperable services in a distributed computing environment. Several distributed services can be dynamically chained as a new service to accomplish a specific task. Such a model of service chaining is one of the most important research topics of next generation GISs. The paper highlights the issues of service chaining, the process of combining several distributed, interoperable GIWS dynamically to construct customized applications, and analyses characters of each pattern. Then, based on pattern of client-coordinated chaining, we design a service chaining which is developed in a J2EE development environment using web services technology, and construct a web services-oriented Geo-spatial data integration and visualization platform in order to integrate multi-sources and heterogeneous Geo-spatial data using Geography Markup Language (GML) and Geo-spatial data integration technology, and to visualize geographic information using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and JavaScript technology. During the process of design, several GIWS are defined, and functions, interfaces and related methods of these services are discussed in detail. The paper focuses on the method for chaining distributed GIWS, the mechanism for geographic information dissemination and error handling. Finally, forest Geo-spatial Data which have two typical types of data E00 and Shapefile (SHP) was used to test the platform. The result indicates that using service chaining for multi-sources and heterogeneous Geo-spatial data integration and visualization can efficiently meet customized needs, but further research is needed for better application.

  15. Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-Enabled Control of Diverse In-Situ Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-01

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control. PMID:25625906

  16. Cyber-physical geographical information service-enabled control of diverse in-situ sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-23

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control.

  17. The GIS Weasel: An interface for the development of geographic information used in environmental simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The GIS Weasel is a freely available, open-source software package built on top of ArcInfo Workstation?? [ESRI, Inc., 2001, ArcInfo Workstation (8.1 ed.), Redlands, CA] for creating maps and parameters of geographic features used in environmental simulation models. The software has been designed to minimize the need for GIS expertise and automate the preparation of the geographic information as much as possible. Although many kinds of data can be exploited with the GIS Weasel, the only information required is a raster dataset of elevation for the user's area of interest (AOI). The user-defined AOI serves as a starting point from which to create maps of many different types of geographic features, including sub-watersheds, streams, elevation bands, land cover patches, land parcels, or anything else that can be discerned from the available data. The GIS Weasel has a library of over 200 routines that can be applied to any raster map of geographic features to generate information about shape, area, or topological association with other features of the same or different maps. In addition, a wide variety of parameters can be derived using ancillary data layers such as soil and vegetation maps.

  18. A Geographic Information System Framework for the Management of Sensor Deployments

    PubMed Central

    Russomanno, David J.; Tritenko, Yury

    2010-01-01

    A prototype Geographic Information System (GIS) framework has been developed to map, manage, and monitor sensors with respect to other geographic features, including land base and in-plant features. The GIS framework supports geographic placement and subsequent discovery, query, and tasking of sensors in a network-centric environment using Web services. The framework couples the GIS feature placement logic of sensors with an extensible ontology which captures the capabilities, properties, protocols, integrity constraints, and other parameters of interest for a large variety of sensor types. The approach is significant in that custom, GIS-based interfaces can be rapidly developed via the integration of sensors and sensor networks into applications without having detailed knowledge of the sensors’ underlying device drivers by leveraging service-oriented computing infrastructure within the GIS framework. PMID:22399881

  19. Sensitivity of geographic information system outputs to errors in remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Boyd, R. K.; Gunther, F. J.; Lu, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity of the outputs of a geographic information system (GIS) to errors in inputs derived from remotely sensed data (RSD) is investigated using a suitability model with per-cell decisions and a gridded geographic data base whose cells are larger than the RSD pixels. The process of preparing RSD as input to a GIS is analyzed, and the errors associated with classification and registration are examined. In the case of the model considered, it is found that the errors caused during classification and registration are partially compensated by the aggregation of pixels. The compensation is quantified by means of an analytical model, a Monte Carlo simulation, and experiments with Landsat data. The results show that error reductions of the order of 50% occur because of aggregation when 25 pixels of RSD are used per cell in the geographic data base.

  20. Measuring access to primary medical care: some examples of the use of geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Parker, E B; Campbell, J L

    1998-06-01

    This paper explores the potential for geographical information system technology in defining some variables influencing the use of primary care medical services. Eighteen general practices in Scotland contributed to a study examining the accessibility of their services and their patients' use of the local Accident and Emergency Department. Geo-referencing of information was carried out through analysis of postcode data relating to practices and patients. This information was analyzed using ARC/INFO GIS software in conjunction with the ORACLE relational database and 1991 census information. The results demonstrate that GIS technology has an important role in defining and analyzing the use of health services by the population.

  1. Geographic information systems as a tool for control program management for schistosomiasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, M S; El-Bahy, M M; Malone, J B; Thompson, R A; El Bahy, N M

    2001-04-27

    During a 4-year study a geographic information system (GIS) risk model was constructed for predicting the relative risk of schistosomiasis in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. A 1-year 1990-1991 time series on diurnal temperature difference (dT) prepared from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite was used to develop a regional risk model for the Nile delta based on thermal-hydrological domains. A May 15, 1990 Landsat TM scene (path 177, Row 38) was used to develop a local 'village-scale' environmental risk model based on higher resolution satellite sensor data (30 m picture element size at earth surface). Four of ten classes derived from a tasseled cap (Tcap) transformation of the Landsat TM scene were shown to be significantly related to a 5-year Schistosoma mansoni prevalence database from the Ministry of Health. A risk model was developed based on dT and the proportional area of the four Tcap classes in 5 km(2) buffer zones centered on rural health unit (RHU) reporting units. Available historical data on S. mansoni and its snail host Biomphalaria alexandrina, as well as recent field collected data were gathered and incorporated as separate themes. Model validation was done using data collected on snail population bionomics-infection rates, water quality, underground water table and cercariometry at 13 hydrologically representative sites. The role of soil type, water table and water quality was studied at 79 of 154 rural health unit sites. The model permitted retrieval of relevant data by RHU point location. For the first time in Egypt, the Kafr El-Sheikh GIS schistosoma prediction model can support MOH efforts to make more accurate control program decisions based on environmental predilection sites of endemic Schistosomiasis mansoni.

  2. Development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS) for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Herzog; Holly Javedan

    2009-12-31

    In this project a Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) for the US was developed. The GIS stored, integrated, and manipulated information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS was used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. This report documents the key deliverables from the project: (1) Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) Documentation; (2) Stationary CO{sub 2} Source Database; (3) Regulatory Data for CCS in United States; (4) CO{sub 2} Capture Cost Estimation; (5) CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Tools; (6) CO{sub 2} Injection Cost Modeling; (7) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport Cost Estimation; (8) CO{sub 2} Source-Sink Matching Algorithm; and (9) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport and Cost Model.

  3. On epidemiology and geographic information systems: a review and discussion of future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, K. C.; McLafferty, S. L.; Tempalski, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    Geographic information systems are powerful automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. While the systems have been in development for more than 20 years, recent software has made them substantially easier to use for those outside the field. The systems offer new and expanding opportunities for epidemiology because they allow an informed user to choose between options when geographic distributions are part of the problem. Even when used minimally, these systems allow a spatial perspective on disease. Used to their optimum level, as tools for analysis and decision making, they are indeed a new information management vehicle with a rich potential for public health and epidemiology. PMID:8903207

  4. Based on asynchronous communication protocol of geographic space information service access mechanism research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Zhao, J.; Gu, M.; Li, D.

    2014-04-01

    At present, the traditional way of accessing to classified network in geographic spatial information services is using network gatekeeper and firewall etc. to ensure public and classified network communications links. However, the physical isolation between classified network and public network is crossed, which is bound to cause classified network potential security hazard. In Yunnan province space Land dynamic monitoring integration project, it proposed the point to point text message communication protocol and asynchronous transmission mechanism. Using geo-spatial information encryption processing and data compression processing method, it reduced the risk of data sensitivity and monitored, namely to ensure data security, which realized geographic spatial information services data communication effectively between classified network and public network in the rigid field conditions.

  5. Advancing an Information Model for Environmental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Schreuders, K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    have been modified to support data management for the Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). This paper will present limitations of the existing information model used by the CUAHSI HIS that have been uncovered through its deployment and use, as well as new advances to the information model, including: better representation of both in situ observations from field sensors and observations derived from environmental samples, extensibility in attributes used to describe observations, and observation provenance. These advances have been developed by the HIS team and the broader scientific community and will enable the information model to accommodate and better describe wider classes of environmental observations and to better meet the needs of the hydrologic science and CZO communities.

  6. Some thoughts on cartographic and geographic information systems for the 1980's

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starr, L.E.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is adopting computer techniques to meet the expanding need for cartographic base category data. Digital methods are becoming increasingly important in the mapmaking process, and the demand is growing for physical, social, and economic data. Recognizing these emerging needs, the National Mapping Division began, several years ago, an active program to develop advanced digital methods to support cartographic and geographic data processing. An integrated digital cartographic database would meet the anticipated needs. Such a database would contain data from various sources, and could provide a variety of standard and customized map and digital data file products. This cartographic database soon will be technologically feasible. The present trends in the economics of cartographic and geographic data handling and the growing needs for integrated physical, social, and economic data make such a database virtually mandatory.

  7. Assessment of the Homogeneity of Volunteered Geographic Information in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebritz, L.; Sithole, G.; Zlatanova, S.

    2012-08-01

    The potential for volunteer groups to contribute geographic data to National Mapping Agencies has been widely recognised. Several investigations have been done to determine the geometric accuracy of this data for the purposes of national mapping. Beyond accuracy, from a production perspective National Mapping Agencies will also be interested in the sufficiency and uniformity of the data. This paper presents an investigation of whether presently geographic data generated by volunteers is uniform across a country and whether the rate of production of data is consistent. For the purpose of the test, changes in data of South Africa from OpenStreetMap are analysed for the period 2006 to 2011. Here only point and line data are considered. The results generally show that the rate at which data is generated varies in space and time. The results also confirm that volunteers emphasise on the capture of certain information and that the capture doesn't average out as might be expected. The results also showed that social events, such as a World Cup, also have the effect of spurring the generation of volunteer geographic data. The implication of these results for National Mapping Agencies is that they cannot treat volunteer geographic information as being of a uniform standard. How National Mapping Agencies respond to this will have to be the subject of other investigations.

  8. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  9. Operation database petroleum GIS results: Evaluation and application of geographic information systems to exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, C.C. ); Leonard, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    FACT: Maps are the principle graphic tool used in exploration and production. FACT: The geographic information systems (GTS) industry exceeds $250 million annually providing powerful mapping tools to a variety of disciplines. FACT: Geographic information systems are infrequently used in exploration and production which represents less than 2% of the total GIS sphere. Therefore, Operation Database Petroleum GIS, sponsored by AAPG's Geobyte and the National Computer Graphics Association, was conceived as an information exchange between the petroleum industry and GIS vendors to address this disparity. The objective of the database was to communicate petroleum industry requirements to GIS vendors and to demonstrate the potential of GIS to the petroleum industry. Requirements, in the form of data and problems, were developed by an industry group representing major and independent oil companies. The problems included base map, well, seismic, lease, transportation, topographic, three-dimensional, and remote sensing exercises. Data included scout well data, directional surveys, production histories, seismic shot-point locations and interpretive times, geologic interpretations (tops and structure and isopach maps), leases, topography, well logs, remote sensing images, gravity contours, and geographic reference information. Over 120 GIS vendors were offered a chance to participate, and nearly 20 engaged in the exercises. This talk will focus on the process, results, and conclusions of Operation Database Petroleum GIS.

  10. Geographical Information System Model for Potential Mines Data Management Presentation in Kabupaten Gorontalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roviana, D.; Tajuddin, A.; Edi, S.

    2017-03-01

    Mining potential in Indonesian is very abundant, ranging from Sabang to Marauke. Kabupaten Gorontalo is one of many places in Indonesia that have different types of minerals and natural resources that can be found in every district. The abundant of mining potential must be balanced with good management and ease of getting information by investors. The current issue is, (1) ways of presenting data/information about potential mines area is still manually (the maps that already capture from satellite image, then printed and attached to information board in the office) it caused the difficulties of getting information; (2) the high cost of maps printing; (3) the difficulties of regency leader (bupati) to obtain information for strategic decision making about mining potential. The goal of this research is to build a model of Geographical Information System that could provide data management of potential mines, so that the investors could easily get information according to their needs. To achieve that goal Research and Development method is used. The result of this research, is a model of Geographical Information System that implemented in an application to presenting data management of mines.

  11. IBIS - A geographic information system based on digital image processing and image raster datatype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    IBIS (Image Based Information System) is a geographic information system which makes use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remotely sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set. The first applications (St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Los Angeles County) have been restricted to the design of a land resource inventory and analysis system. It is thought that the algorithms and the hardware interfaces developed will be readily applicable to other Landsat imagery.

  12. Geographic Information System in Bolivia: a Case Study for Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrien, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    Bolivia's Geological Service is concluding a successful project designed to give the Department of Oruro the capability to evaluate its natural resources using data generated by three United States satellites. A permanent integrated geographic information system was created for preparing base maps of soil characteristics, land use, geomorphology, geology, water resources and hydrology. The information compiled through the project was stored on magnetic disks and tapes to permit periodic updating, retrieval of data on specific aspects of development projects, and obtaining various data mixes to analyze aspects of prospective development projects. This is the first digital information system developed in Latin America.

  13. Europe and the United States: The Implementation of Geographic Information Systems in Secondary Education in Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; van der Schee, Joop

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception in the early 1990s, geographic information science and its related technology, geographic information systems (GIS), have diffused slowly into select groups of K-12 classrooms worldwide. The technology has not been adopted at a rate commensurate with expectations. The purpose of this article is to explore GIS implementation by…

  14. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  15. A 'user friendly' geographic information system in a color interactive digital image processing system environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    NASA's Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (ERRSAC) has recognized the need to accommodate spatial analysis techniques in its remote sensing technology transfer program. A computerized Geographic Information System to incorporate remotely sensed data, specifically Landsat, with other relevant data was considered a realistic approach to address a given resource problem. Questions arose concerning the selection of a suitable available software system to demonstrate, train, and undertake demonstration projects with ERRSAC's user community. The very specific requirements for such a system are discussed. The solution found involved the addition of geographic information processing functions to the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System (IDIMS). Details regarding the functions of the new integrated system are examined along with the characteristics of the software.

  16. Development of an intelligent interface for adding spatial objects to a knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Goettsche, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Earth Scientists lack adequate tools for quantifying complex relationships between existing data layers and studying and modeling the dynamic interactions of these data layers. There is a need for an earth systems tool to manipulate multi-layered, heterogeneous data sets that are spatially indexed, such as sensor imagery and maps, easily and intelligently in a single system. The system can access and manipulate data from multiple sensor sources, maps, and from a learned object hierarchy using an advanced knowledge-based geographical information system. A prototype Knowledge-Based Geographic Information System (KBGIS) was recently constructed. Many of the system internals are well developed, but the system lacks an adequate user interface. A methodology is described for developing an intelligent user interface and extending KBGIS to interconnect with existing NASA systems, such as imagery from the Land Analysis System (LAS), atmospheric data in Common Data Format (CDF), and visualization of complex data with the National Space Science Data Center Graphics System. This would allow NASA to quickly explore the utility of such a system, given the ability to transfer data in and out of KBGIS easily. The use and maintenance of the object hierarchies as polymorphic data types brings, to data management, a while new set of problems and issues, few of which have been explored above the prototype level.

  17. Interfaces between statistical analysis packages and the ESRI geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.

    1980-01-01

    Interfaces between ESRI's geographic information system (GIS) data files and real valued data files written to facilitate statistical analysis and display of spatially referenced multivariable data are described. An example of data analysis which utilized the GIS and the statistical analysis system is presented to illustrate the utility of combining the analytic capability of a statistical package with the data management and display features of the GIS.

  18. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software. PMID:22233606

  19. Traditional anthropology and geographical information systems in the collaborative study of Cassava in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanoff, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Cross-cultural, village-level, and farmer surveys have been used with a geographical information system to describe the distribution and relative importance of cassava (manioc, yuca, Manihot esculenta) in its cultural, economic, and ecological contexts. It presents examples of data management for mapping, sample selection, cross-tabulation of characteristics, combination of data types for indices and hypothesis testing. The methods used are reviewed, and some of the main conclusions of the study are presented.

  20. Considerations in developing geographic informations systems based on low-cost digital image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.; Dobson, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of digital image processing systems costing $20,000 or less for geographic information systems is assessed with the emphasis on the volume of data to be handled, the commercial hardware systems available, and the basic software for: (1) data entry, conversion and digitization; (2) georeferencing and geometric correction; (3) data structuring; (4) editing and updating; (5) analysis and retrieval; (6) output drivers; and (7) data management. Costs must also be considered as tangible and intangible factors.

  1. Normative models and healthcare planning: network-based simulations within a geographic information system environment.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, S J; Page, P H; Gesler, W M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Network analysis to integrate patient, transportation and hospital characteristics for healthcare planning in order to assess the role of geographic information systems (GIS). A normative model of base-level responses of patient flows to hospitals, based on estimated travel times, was developed for this purpose. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A GIS database developed to include patient discharge data, locations of hospitals, US TIGER/Line files of the transportation network, enhanced address-range data, and U.S. Census variables. The study area included a 16-county region centered on the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, and contained 25 hospitals serving nearly 2 million people over a geographic area of nearly 9,000 square miles. STUDY DESIGN: Normative models as a tool for healthcare planning were derived through a spatial Network analysis and a distance optimization model that was implemented within a GIS. Scenarios were developed and tested that involved patient discharge data geocoded to the five-digit zip code, hospital locations geocoded to their individual addresses, and a transportation network of varying road types and corresponding estimated travel speeds to examine both patient discharge levels and a doubling of discharge levels associated with total discharges and DRG 391 (Normal Newborns). The Network analysis used location/allocation modeling to optimize for travel time and integrated measures of supply, demand, and impedance. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Patient discharge data from the North Carolina Medical Database Commission, address-ranges from the North Carolina Institute for Transportation Research and Education, and U.S. Census TIGER/Line files were entered-into the ARC/INFO GIS software system for analysis. A relational database structure was used to organize the information and to link spatial features to their attributes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Advances in healthcare planning can be achieved by

  2. OLYMPUS DISS - A Readily Implemented Geographic Data and Information Sharing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, D. M.; Winfrey, B.; Murphy, K.; McKague, H. L.

    2002-12-01

    Electronic information technology has become a crucial component of business, government, and scientific organizations. In this technology era, many enterprises are moving away from the perception that information repositories are only a tool for decision-making. Instead, many organizations are learning that information systems, which are capable of organizing and following the interrelations between information and both the short-term and strategic organizational goals, are assets themselves, with inherent value. Olympus Data and Information Sharing System (DISS) is a system developed at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to solve several difficult tasks associated with the management of geographical, geological and geophysical data. Three of the tasks were to (1) gather the large amount of heterogeneous information that has accumulated over the operational lifespan of CNWRA, (2) store the data in a central, knowledge-based, searchable database and (3) create quick, easy, convenient, and reliable access to that information. Faced with these difficult tasks CNWRA identified the requirements for designing such a system. Key design criteria were: (a) ability to ingest different data formats (i.e., raster, vector, and tabular data); (b) minimal expense using open-source and commercial off-the-shelf software; (c) seamless management of geospatial data, freeing up time for researchers to focus on analyses or algorithm development, rather than on time consuming format conversions; (d) controlled access; and (e) scalable architecture to meet new and continuing demands. Olympus DISS is a solution that can be easily adapted to small and mid-size enterprises dealing with heterogeneous geographic data. It uses established data standards, provides a flexible mechanism to build applications upon and output geographic data in multiple and clear ways. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or

  3. Spatial analysis of injury-related deaths in Dallas County using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Adil; Gunst, Mark; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Gruszecki, Amy C; Urban, Jill; Barber, Robert C; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    This study applied a geographic information system (GIS) to identify clusters of injury-related deaths (IRDs) within a large urban county (26 cities; population, 2.4 million). All deaths due to injuries in Dallas County (Texas) in 2005 (N = 670) were studied, including the geographic location of the injury event. Out of 26 cities in Dallas County, IRDs were reported in 19 cities. Geospatial data were obtained from the local governments and entered into the GIS. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, with 95% CI) were calculated for each city and the county using national age-adjusted rates. Dallas County had significantly more deaths due to homicides (SMR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.54-1.98) and IRDs as a result of gunshots (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09-1.37) than the US national rate. However, this increase was restricted to a single city (the city of Dallas) within the county, while the rest of the 25 cities in the county experienced IRD rates that were either similar to or better than the national rate, or experienced no IRDs. GIS mapping was able to depict high-risk geographic "hot spots" for IRDs. In conclusion, GIS spatial analysis identified geographic clusters of IRDs, which were restricted to only one of 26 cities in the county.

  4. Investigating Barriers to Tuberculosis Evaluation in Uganda Using Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jennifer M; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Miller, Cecily R; Tatem, Andrew J; Katamba, Achilles; Haguma, Priscilla; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, J Lucian

    2015-10-01

    Reducing geographic barriers to tuberculosis (TB) care is a priority in high-burden countries where patients frequently initiate, but do not complete, the multi-day TB evaluation process. Using routine cross-sectional study from six primary-health clinics in rural Uganda from 2009 to 2012, we explored whether geographic barriers affect completion of TB evaluation among adults with unexplained chronic cough. We measured distance from home parish to health center and calculated individual travel time using a geographic information systems technique incorporating roads, land cover, and slope, and measured its association with completion of TB evaluation. In 264,511 patient encounters, 4,640 adults (1.8%) had sputum smear microscopy ordered; 2,783 (60%) completed TB evaluation. Median travel time was 68 minutes for patients with TB examination ordered compared with 60 minutes without (P < 0.010). Travel time differed between those who did and did not complete TB evaluation at only one of six clinics, whereas distance to care did not differ at any of them. Neither distance nor travel time predicted completion of TB evaluation in rural Uganda, although limited detail in road and village maps restricted full implementation of these mapping techniques. Better data are needed on geographic barriers to access clinics offering TB services to improve TB diagnosis.

  5. An integrated WebGIS framework for volunteered geographic information and social media in soil and water conservation.

    PubMed

    Werts, Joshua D; Mikhailova, Elena A; Post, Christopher J; Sharp, Julia L

    2012-04-01

    Volunteered geographic information and social networking in a WebGIS has the potential to increase public participation in soil and water conservation, promote environmental awareness and change, and provide timely data that may be otherwise unavailable to policymakers in soil and water conservation management. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a framework for combining current technologies, computing advances, data sources, and social media; and (2) develop and test an online web mapping interface. The mapping interface integrates Microsoft Silverlight, Bing Maps, ArcGIS Server, Google Picasa Web Albums Data API, RSS, Google Analytics, and Facebook to create a rich user experience. The website allows the public to upload photos and attributes of their own subdivisions or sites they have identified and explore other submissions. The website was made available to the public in early February 2011 at http://www.AbandonedDevelopments.com and evaluated for its potential long-term success in a pilot study.

  6. An Integrated WebGIS Framework for Volunteered Geographic Information and Social Media in Soil and Water Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werts, Joshua D.; Mikhailova, Elena A.; Post, Christopher J.; Sharp, Julia L.

    2012-04-01

    Volunteered geographic information and social networking in a WebGIS has the potential to increase public participation in soil and water conservation, promote environmental awareness and change, and provide timely data that may be otherwise unavailable to policymakers in soil and water conservation management. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a framework for combining current technologies, computing advances, data sources, and social media; and (2) develop and test an online web mapping interface. The mapping interface integrates Microsoft Silverlight, Bing Maps, ArcGIS Server, Google Picasa Web Albums Data API, RSS, Google Analytics, and Facebook to create a rich user experience. The website allows the public to upload photos and attributes of their own subdivisions or sites they have identified and explore other submissions. The website was made available to the public in early February 2011 at http://www.AbandonedDevelopments.com and evaluated for its potential long-term success in a pilot study.

  7. Assessment of training needs and preferences for geographic information systems (GIS) mapping in state comprehensive cancer-control programs.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Suellen; Chadwick, Amy E; Parrott, Roxanne L; Ghetian, Christie B; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2009-10-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) mapping technologies have potential to advance public health promotion by mapping regional differences in attributes (e.g., disease burden, environmental exposures, access to health care services) to suggest priorities for public health interventions. Training in GIS for comprehensive cancer control (CCC) has been overlooked. State CCC programs' GIS training needs were assessed by interviewing 49 state CCC directors. A majority perceived a need for GIS training, slightly more than half of state CCC programs had access to geocoded data, and the majority of programs did not require continuing education credits of their staff. CCC directors perceived judging maps and realizing their limitations as important skills and identified epidemiologists, CCC staff, public health officials, policy makers, and cancer coalition members as training audiences. They preferred in-class training sessions that last a few hours to a day. Lessons learned are shared to develop training programs with translatable GIS skills for CCC.

  8. Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Identify the Geographic Regions Where People That Use Ground Water are Most Vulnerable to Impacts from Underground Storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the vulnerability of ground water supplies to contamination from underground storage tanks (USTs) was assessed. The analysis was conducted for the 48 contiguous states, and then again for groups of states corresponding to the EPA Regio...

  9. Geographical information systems and air pollution simulation for Megalopolis' electric power plant in Peloponnese, Greece.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophile

    2014-01-01

    The growth and sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS) have propelled us into a new era of environmental analyses. Air pollution is a growing concern in populated areas as many recent studies have associated high levels of pollution with increased illnesses and mortality. The study will focus on the toxicity levels incurred by radioactive lignite-burning Power Generation facilities located in Megalopolis, Greece. An estimate of pollution emissions followed by dispersion simulations for various atmospheric conditions will be given. The exercise will be integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) for defining the emission sources and visualizing the dispersion of pollutants over the geographical terrain. Data samples were collected from vegetation in the surrounding areas and analyzed for radioactivity. High energy levels (up to 4-5 times higher than recommended standards, (UNCEAR, 1982) were found in several samples containing (226)Ra, (232)Th, (234)Th, (40)K and (238)U. The study concludes that air quality and vegetation of the neighbouring areas is adversely affected by industrial waste. Greater pollution controls and air quality monitoring should be applied for the benefit and health of its citizens. Radioactivity in food and water and inhaled air become very dangerous for public health thus, the levels of radioactivity should be kept within UNCEAR 1982 limits.

  10. Advanced information technology: Building stronger databases

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the attributes of the Advanced Information Technology (AIT) tool set, a database application builder designed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. AIT consists of a C library and several utilities that provide referential integrity across a database, interactive menu and field level help, and a code generator for building tightly controlled data entry support. AIT also provides for dynamic menu trees, report generation support, and creation of user groups. Composition of the library and utilities is discussed, along with relative strengths and weaknesses. In addition, an instantiation of the AIT tool set is presented using a specific application. Conclusions about the future and value of the tool set are then drawn based on the use of the tool set with that specific application.

  11. Predicting Ixodes scapularis abundance on white-tailed deer using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Glass, G E; Amerasinghe, F P; Morgan, J M; Scott, T W

    1994-11-01

    We collected 1,410 Ixodes scapularis from 139 white-tailed deer in Kent County, Maryland during the 1990 hunting season. A geographic information system was used to extract 41 environmental variables in the areas surrounding the collection sites of the deer. Stepwise linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the abundance of ticks on deer and the environmental data. A significant statistical association was observed between the abundance of I. scapularis and seven environmental variables (R = 0.69). Tick abundance was negatively correlated with urban land use patterns, wetlands, the amount of privately owned land, soils that tended to be saturated with water, and one drainage system. Tick abundance was positively correlated with well-drained, sandy soils having low water tables. These results indicate that geographically referenced environmental data may be useful in anticipating the risk of exposure to vectors over large areas.

  12. SIGNe: A Geographic Information System on the Web for End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Toubiana, Laurent; le Mignot, Loïc; Ben Said, Mohamed; Mugnier, Claude; le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Jaïs, Jean Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS), the SIGNe (Système d'Information Géographique pour la Néphrologie), was designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). This Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System (MSIS). It allows to access views of ESRD concerning the epidemiology of the demand and the supply of care. It also provides maps matching the offer of care to the demand. It is presented with insights on the design and underlying technologies. It is dedicated to professionals and to public health care decision-makers in the domain of ESRD.

  13. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  14. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  15. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is useful for analyzing a wide variety of spatial data. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This fact sheet presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup during 2008 and 2009. After a summary of GIS Workgroup capabilities, brief descriptions of activities by project at the local and national levels are presented. Projects are grouped by the fiscal year (October-September 2008 or 2009) the project ends and include overviews, project images, and Internet links to additional project information and related publications or articles.

  16. The Integration of Geographical Information System and Remotely Sensed Data to Track and Predict the Migration Path of the Africanized Honey Bee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Charles; Bravo, Jessica; De Luna, Rosalia; Lopez, Gerardo; Pichardo, Itza; Trejo, Danny; Vargas, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    One of the research groups at the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) is researching the northward migration path of Africanized Honey Bees or often referred to in the popular press as killer bees. The goal of the Killer Bee Research Group (KBRG) is to set up a database in the form of a geographical information system, which will be used to track and predict the bees future migration path. Included in this paper is background information on geographical information systems, the SPANS Explorer software package which was used to implement the database, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data and how each of these is being incorporated in the research. With an accurate means of predicting future migration paths, the negative effects of the Africanized honey bees maybe reduced.

  17. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  18. The Abduction of Geographic Information Science: Transporting Spatial Reasoning to the Realm of Purpose and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couclelis, Helen

    People intuitively understand that function and purpose are critical parts of what human-configured entities are about, but these notions have proved difficult to capture formally. Even though most geographical landscapes bear traces of human purposes, visibly expressed in the spatial configurations meant to serve these purposes, the capability of GIS to represent means-ends relationships and to support associated reasoning and queries is currently quite limited. This is because spatial thinking as examined and codified in geographic information science is overwhelmingly of the descriptive, analytic kind that underlies traditional science, where notions of means and ends play a negligible role. This paper argues for the need to expand the reach of formalized spatial thinking to also encompass the normative, synthetic kinds of reasoning characterizing planning, engineering and the design sciences in general. Key elements in a more comprehensive approach to spatial thinking would be the inclusion of abductive modes of inference along with the deductive and inductive ones, and the development of an expanded geographic ontology that integrates analysis and synthesis, form and function, landscape and purpose, description and design.

  19. Relationships between esophageal cancer and spatial environment factors by using Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ku-Sheng; Huo, Xia; Zhu, Guang-Hui

    2008-04-15

    To explore the relationships between esophageal cancer (EC) and climatic, geographic factors in China by using Geographic Information System, database of EC mortality of 237 sampling areas surveyed in 1990-1992 was established in Excel and linked with the digital polygon maps of study areas. Geographic and climate data of sampling areas were extracted from the raster dataset and finished in Arc/Info 9.0 and ENVI4.2 software by using spatial analysis. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis after principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to analyze the relationship between EC and these factors. The counties that have the highest EC morality show significant aggregation. Spearman correlation analysis shows weak negative correlation between precipitation, water-heat index (WHI), highest/lowest temperature and EC mortality, and weak positive correlation between drought index (DI), wind speed, population density and EC mortality. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the variables associated with EC mortality were precipitation, temperature, wind speed, elevation, DI, WHI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of July. Our study suggested that the high-risk areas of EC in China are mostly drought and low altitude areas relatively. There were relatively lower NDVI in summer and higher wind speed in these areas. GIS can be applied to cancer epidemiology study and will exert active effect, which should be further explored.

  20. Remote Sensing Image Classification Applied to the First National Geographical Information Census of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Wen, Zongyong; Zhu, Zhaorong; Xia, Qiang; Shun, Lan

    2016-06-01

    Image classification will still be a long way in the future, although it has gone almost half a century. In fact, researchers have gained many fruits in the image classification domain, but there is still a long distance between theory and practice. However, some new methods in the artificial intelligence domain will be absorbed into the image classification domain and draw on the strength of each to offset the weakness of the other, which will open up a new prospect. Usually, networks play the role of a high-level language, as is seen in Artificial Intelligence and statistics, because networks are used to build complex model from simple components. These years, Bayesian Networks, one of probabilistic networks, are a powerful data mining technique for handling uncertainty in complex domains. In this paper, we apply Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian Networks (TAN) to texture classification of High-resolution remote sensing images and put up a new method to construct the network topology structure in terms of training accuracy based on the training samples. Since 2013, China government has started the first national geographical information census project, which mainly interprets geographical information based on high-resolution remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper tries to apply Bayesian network to remote sensing image classification, in order to improve image interpretation in the first national geographical information census project. In the experiment, we choose some remote sensing images in Beijing. Experimental results demonstrate TAN outperform than Naive Bayesian Classifier (NBC) and Maximum Likelihood Classification Method (MLC) in the overall classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the workload of field workers and improve the work efficiency. Although it is time consuming, it will be an attractive and effective method for assisting office operation of image interpretation.

  1. Epidemiologic Investigation of Dysentery in North of Iran: Use of Geographic Information System (GIS)

    PubMed Central

    Nadi, Aliasghar; Abedi, Ghassem; Isazadeh, Khatoon; Rostami, Farideh; Siamian, Hasan; Hosseini, Mahbobeh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation which is created by the microorganisms attacking intestine mucus. Knowing the prevalence of this disease in different societies paves the way for programming and providing treatment and preventive measures. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the epidemiologic pattern and geographical distribution of dysentery based on GIS. Method: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study. The dysentery cases were gathered from the section of contagious diseases in health chancellery of Mazandaran University of medical sciences through a checklist during the years 2008 to 2013. In order to analyze the data, we made use of chi-square test. Then, the GIS software was used to recognize the geographical distribution of the disease. Findings: There was reported about 653 cases affected by dysentery and the disease proportion was equal for both men and women. Most of the persons with dysentery was city dwellers. The highest rate of incidents was reported to be in Fereidunkenar in 2011, and the disease was mostly found among farmers, students, and college students. Conclusion: Since dysentery is a disease transmitted from water and food, and in this study, it was found out that the disease sources included using polluted water, vegetables, and lack of appropriate personal hygiene. Therefore, it is essential to take into consideration the health issues. Moreover, the suitable conditions of the geographical area which has the highest rate of incident have paved the way for dysentery occurrence. In addition, using geographic information system (GIS) as a visual instrument can help the stakeholders and officials to elaborate on the death trend and recognize the areas for optimal use of the available resources. PMID:28144197

  2. Determining the Effectiveness of Incorporating Geographic Information Into Vehicle Performance Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sera White

    2012-04-01

    This thesis presents a research study using one year of driving data obtained from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) located in Sacramento and San Francisco, California to determine the effectiveness of incorporating geographic information into vehicle performance algorithms. Sacramento and San Francisco were chosen because of the availability of high resolution (1/9 arc second) digital elevation data. First, I present a method for obtaining instantaneous road slope, given a latitude and longitude, and introduce its use into common driving intensity algorithms. I show that for trips characterized by >40m of net elevation change (from key on to key off), the use of instantaneous road slope significantly changes the results of driving intensity calculations. For trips exhibiting elevation loss, algorithms ignoring road slope overestimated driving intensity by as much as 211 Wh/mile, while for trips exhibiting elevation gain these algorithms underestimated driving intensity by as much as 333 Wh/mile. Second, I describe and test an algorithm that incorporates vehicle route type into computations of city and highway fuel economy. Route type was determined by intersecting trip GPS points with ESRI StreetMap road types and assigning each trip as either city or highway route type according to whichever road type comprised the largest distance traveled. The fuel economy results produced by the geographic classification were compared to the fuel economy results produced by algorithms that assign route type based on average speed or driving style. Most results were within 1 mile per gallon ({approx}3%) of one another; the largest difference was 1.4 miles per gallon for charge depleting highway trips. The methods for acquiring and using geographic data introduced in this thesis will enable other vehicle technology researchers to incorporate geographic data into their research problems.

  3. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  4. [Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].

    PubMed

    Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tandoğan, Murat

    2008-01-01

    In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented.

  5. The Geographic Climate Information System Project (GEOCLIMA): Overview and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Melas, D.; Vaitis, M.; Anadranistakis, E.; Symeonidis, P.; Pantelopoulos, S.

    2012-04-01

    The project GEOCLIMA aims at developing an integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) allowing the user to manage, analyze and visualize the information which is directly or indirectly related to climate and its future projections in Greece. The main components of the project are: a) collection and homogenization of climate and environmental related information, b) estimation of future climate change based on existing regional climate model (RCM) simulations as well as a supplementary high resolution (10 km x 10 km) simulation over the period 1961-2100 using RegCM3, c) compilation of an integrated uniform geographic database, and d) mapping of climate data, creation of digital thematic maps, and development of the integrated web GIS application. This paper provides an overview of the ongoing research efforts and preliminary results of the project. First, the trends in the annual and seasonal time series of precipitation and air temperature observations for all available stations in Greece are assessed. Then the set-up of the high resolution RCM simulation (10 km x 10 km) is discussed with respect to the selected convective scheme. Finally, the relationship of climatic variables with geophysical features over Greece such as altitude, location, distance from the sea, slope, aspect, distance from climatic barriers, land cover etc) is investigated, to support climate mapping. The research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009.

  6. Oil Spill Map for Indian Sea Region based on Bhuvan- Geographic Information System using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya kumar, L. J.; Kishore, J. K.; Kesava Rao, P.; Annadurai, M.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Hanumantha Rao, K.; Sasamal, S. K.; Arulraj, M.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Satyanarayana, S. N.; Shenoy, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    Oil spills in the ocean are a serious marine disaster that needs regular monitoring for environmental risk assessment and mitigation. Recent use of Polarimetric SAR imagery in near real time oil spill detection systems is associated with attempts towards automatic and unambiguous oil spill detection based on decomposition methods. Such systems integrate remote sensing technology, geo information, communication system, hardware and software systems to provide key information for analysis and decision making. Geographic information systems (GIS) like BHUVAN can significantly contribute to oil spill management based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. India has long coast line from Gujarat to Bengal and hundreds of ports. The increase in shipping also increases the risk of oil spills in our maritime zone. The availability of RISAT-1 SAR images enhances the scope to monitor oil spills and develop GIS on Bhuvan which can be accessed by all the users, such as ships, coast guard, environmentalists etc., The GIS enables realization of oil spill maps based on integration of the geographical, remote sensing, oil & gas production/infrastructure data and slick signatures detected by SAR. SAR and GIS technologies can significantly improve the realization of oil spill footprint distribution maps. Preliminary assessment shows that the Bhuvan promises to be an ideal solution to understand spatial, temporal occurrence of oil spills in the marine atlas of India. The oil spill maps on Bhuvan based GIS facility will help the ONGC and Coast Guard organization.

  7. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    PubMed

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  8. Geographical information systems as a tool in epidemiological assessment and wildlife disease management.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D U; Hugh-Jones, M

    2002-04-01

    Geographical information systems (GIS) facilitate the incorporation of spatial relationships into epidemiological investigations of wildlife diseases. Consisting of data input, management, analysis and presentation components, GIS act as an integrative technology in that a range of very varied data sources can be combined which describe different aspect of the environment of wild animals. The analytical functionality of GIS is still evolving, and ranges from visual to exploratory and modelling methods. Output generated by GIS in map format has the particular advantage of allowing implicit representation of spatial dependence relationships in an intuitive manner. The technology is becoming an essential component of modern disease surveillance systems.

  9. Estimation and allocation of solid waste to bin through geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Gupta, Apurba; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Devotta, Sukumar

    2005-10-01

    This study presents a geographical information system (GIS)-based procedure for the precise estimation of solid waste generation, computed using the local population density and income group distribution. Using a triangulated irregular network (TIN) in a GIS environment, the procedure further determines the command area for waste allocation to a particular bin which is generally located so the route slopes towards the collection points for ease of transportation by cart pullers. Computational results of bin location, type, size and the frequency of removal are presented for a typical urban area with known population density, income group distribution, road network and topology.

  10. Improved assessment of aviation hazards to ground facilities using a geographical information system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Kimura, C.Y.

    1996-06-03

    A computer based system for performing probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of aircraft crashes to ground structures is under development. The system called ACRA (aircraft crash risk assessment) employs a GIS (geographical information system) for locating, mapping, and characterizing ground structures; and a multiparameter data base system that supports the analytical PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) model for determining PSAs for aircraft crashes. The Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC) is being employed as the base case for study and application of ACRA and evaluation of the projected safety assessment.

  11. From ecological test site to geographic information system: lessons for the 1980's

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Geographic information systems were common elements in two kinds of interdisciplinary regional demonstration projects in the 1970's. Ecological test sits attempted to provide for more efficient remote-sensing data delivery for regional environmental management. Regional environmental systems analysis attempted to formally describe and model the interacting regional social and environmental processes, including the resource-use decision making process. Lessons for the 1980's are drawn from recent evaluations and assessments of these programs, focusing on cost, rates of system development and technology transfer, program coordination, integrative analysis capability, and the involvement of system users and decision makers.

  12. Using a geographic information system to improve childhood lead-screening efforts.

    PubMed

    Graff, Robert

    2013-06-13

    The Idaho Division of Public Health conducted a pilot study to produce a lead-exposure-risk map to help local and state agencies better target childhood lead-screening efforts. Priority lead-screening areas, at the block group level, were created by using county tax assessor data and geographic information system software. A series of maps were produced, indicating childhood lead-screening prevalence in areas in which there was high potential for exposure to lead. These maps could enable development of more systematically targeted and cost-effective childhood lead-screening efforts.

  13. Forest management applications of Landsat data in a geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maw, K. D.; Brass, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The utility of land-cover data resulting from Landsat MSS classification can be greatly enhanced by use in combination with ancillary data. A demonstration forest management applications data base was constructed for Santa Cruz County, California, to demonstrate geographic information system applications of classified Landsat data. The data base contained detailed soils, digital terrain, land ownership, jurisdictional boundaries, fire events, and generalized land-use data, all registered to a UTM grid base. Applications models were developed from problems typical of fire management and reforestation planning.

  14. Geographic Information Technologies as an outreach activity in geo-scientific education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maman, Shimrit; Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a decline in the rates of examinees in the academic track that were entitled to an enhanced matriculation certificate in scientific-technological education was reported in Israel. To confront this problem the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev fosters interdisciplinary exploration through educational programs that make use of the facility and its equipment and enable the empowerment of the community by understanding and appreciating science and technology. This is achieved by using Geographic Information Technologies (GIT) such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for geo-physical sciences in activities that combine theoretical background with hands-on activities. Monitoring Earth from space by satellites, digital atlases and virtual-based positioning applications are examples for fusion of spatial information (geographic) and technology that the activity is based on. GIT opens a new chapter and a recent history of Cartography starting from the collection of spatial data to its presentation and analysis. GIS have replaced the use of classical atlas books and offer a variety of Web-based applications that provide maps and display up-to-date imagery. The purpose of this workshop is to expose teachers and students to GITs which are applicable in every classroom. The activity imparts free geographic information systems that exist in cyberspace and accessible to single users as the Israeli national GIS and Google earth, which are based on a spatial data and long term local and global satellite imagery coverage. In this paper, our "Think global-Map Local" activity is presented. The activity uses GIS and change detection technologies as means to encourage students to explore environmental issues both around the globe and close to their surroundings. The students detect changes by comparing multi temporal images of a chosen site and learn how to map the alterations and produce change

  15. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Timmins, S.P.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  16. Institutional issues affecting the integration and use of remotely sensed data and geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Estes, J.E.; Jensen, J.R.; Greenlee, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The developers as well as the users of remotely sensed data and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are associated with nearly all types of institutions in government, industry, and academia. Individuals in these various institutions often find the barriers to accepting remote sensing and GIS are not necessarily technical in nature, but can be attributed to the institutions themselves. Several major institutional issues that affect the technologies of remote sensing and GIS are data availability, data marketing and costs, equipment availability and costs, standards and practices, education and training, and organizational infrastructures. Not only are problems associated with these issues identified, but needs and opportunities also are discussed. -from Authors

  17. Another Look at Taurus Littrow: An Interactive Geographic Information System DataBase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Meisburger, J. L.; Nettles, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of data has been amassed for the Apollo 17 landing site, including topography, sample locations, and imagery. These data were compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze their interrelationships more easily. The database will allow the evaluation of the resource potential of the Taurus Littrow region pyroclastic deposits. The database also serves as a catalog for the returned lunar samples. This catalog includes rock type, size, and location. While this project specifically targets the Taurus Littrow region, it is applicable to other regions as well.

  18. Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: pilot project report.

    PubMed

    Gammino, Victoria M; Nuhu, Adamu; Chenoweth, Paul; Manneh, Fadinding; Young, Randall R; Sugerman, David E; Gerber, Sue; Abanida, Emmanuel; Gasasira, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance.

  19. Howmuch do we Knowabout the Contributors to Volunteered Geographic Information and Citizen Science Projects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, P.; Morgan, L.

    2015-08-01

    In the last number of years there has been increased interest from researchers in investigating and understanding the characteristics and backgrounds of citizens who contribute to Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) and Citizen Science (CS) projects. Much of the reluctance from stakeholders such as National Mapping Agencies, Environmental Ministries, etc. to use data and information generated and collected by VGI and CS projects grows from the lack of knowledge and understanding about who these contributors are. As they are drawn from the crowd there is a sense of the unknown about these citizens. Subsequently there are justifiable concerns about these citizens' ability to collect, generate and manage high quality and accurate spatial, scientific and environmental data and information. This paper provides a meta review of some of the key literature in the domain of VGI and CS to assess if these concerns are well founded and what efforts are ongoing to improve our understanding of the crowd.

  20. How geographical information systems analysis influences the continuum of patient care.

    PubMed

    Pliskie, Jennifer; Wallenfang, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As the vast repository of data about millions of patients grows, the analysis of this information is changing the provider-patient relationship and influencing the continuum of care for broad swaths of the population. At the same time, while population health management moves from a volume-based model to a value-based one and additional patients seek care due to healthcare reform, hospitals and healthcare networks are evaluating their business models and searching for new revenue streams. Utilizing geographical information systems to model and analyze large amounts of data is helping organizations better understand the characteristics of their patient population, demographic and socioeconomic trends, and shifts in the utilization of healthcare. In turn, organizations can more effectively conduct service line planning, strategic business plans, market growth strategies, and human resource planning. Healthcare organizations that use GIS modeling can set themselves apart by making more informed and objective business strategy decisions.

  1. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  2. The Design of Data Disaster Recovery of National Fundamental Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Y.; Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.

    2014-04-01

    With the development of information technology, data security of information system is facing more and more challenges. The geographic information of surveying and mapping is fundamental and strategic resource, which is applied in all areas of national economic, defence and social development. It is especially vital to national and social interests when such classified geographic information is directly concerning Chinese sovereignty. Several urgent problems that needs to be resolved for surveying and mapping are how to do well in mass data storage and backup, establishing and improving the disaster backup system especially after sudden natural calamity accident, and ensuring all sectors rapidly restored on information system will operate correctly. For overcoming various disaster risks, protect the security of data and reduce the impact of the disaster, it's no doubt the effective way is to analysis and research on the features of storage and management and security requirements, as well as to ensure that the design of data disaster recovery system suitable for the surveying and mapping. This article analyses the features of fundamental geographic information data and the requirements of storage management, three site disaster recovery system of DBMS plan based on the popular network, storage and backup, data replication and remote switch of application technologies. In LAN that synchronous replication between database management servers and the local storage of backup management systems, simultaneously, remote asynchronous data replication between local storage backup management systems and remote database management servers. The core of the system is resolving local disaster in the remote site, ensuring data security and business continuity of local site. This article focuses on the following points: background, the necessity of disaster recovery system, the analysis of the data achievements and data disaster recovery plan. Features of this program is to use a

  3. Quality of service management framework for dynamic chaining of geographic information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchaga, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Dynamic chaining of geographic information services (geo-services) is gaining popularity as a new paradigm for evolving flexible geo-information systems and for providing on-demand access to geo-information. In dynamic chaining, disparate geo-services are discovered and composed at run time to yield more elaborate functionality and create value-added geo-information. Common approaches to service chaining discover and compose disparate geo-services based on the functional capability of individual geo-services. The primary concern of common approaches is thus the emergent behavior of the resulting composite geo-service. However, as geo-services become mundane and take on a greater and more strategic role in mission critical processes, deliverable quality of service (QoS) becomes an important concern. QoS concerns operational characteristics of a service that determine its utility in an application context. To address pertinent QoS requirements, a new approach to service chaining becomes necessary. In this paper we propose a QoS-aware chaining approach in which geo-services are discovered, composed and executed considering both functional and QoS requirements. We prescribe a QoS management framework that defines fundamental principles, concepts and mechanisms which can be applied to evolve an effective distributed computing platform for QoS-aware chaining of geo-services - the so-called geo-service infrastructure. The paper also defines an extensible QoS model for services delivered by dynamic compositions of geo-services. The process of orthophoto generation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the prescribed framework to service-oriented geographic information processing.

  4. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  5. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  6. The U.S. Geological Survey cartographic and geographic information science research activities 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial databases and topographic maps for the United States of America. A part of that mission includes conducting research in geographic information science (GIScience) and cartography to support mapping and improve the design, quality, delivery, and use of geospatial data and topographic maps. The Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) was established by the USGS in January 2006 as a part of the National Geospatial Program Office. CEGIS (http://cegis.usgs.gov) evolved from a team of cartographic researchers at the Mid-Continent Mapping Center. The team became known as the Cartographic Research group and was supported by the Cooperative Topographic Mapping, Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, and Land Remote Sensing programs of the Geography Discipline of the USGS from 1999-2005. In 2006, the Cartographic Research group and its projects (http://carto-research.er.usgs.gov/) became the core of CEGIS staff and research. In 2006, CEGIS research became focused on The National Map (http://nationalmap.gov).

  7. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of Naharkhoran area in Gorgan using remote sensing and geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladi, Jafar; Bozorgnia, Delavar

    2010-10-01

    Ecotourism may be defined as voluntary travels to intact natural areas in order to enjoy the natural attractions as well as to get familiar with the culture of local communities. The main factor contributing to inappropriate land uses and natural resource destruction is overaggregation of ecotourists in some specific natural areas such as forests and rangelands; while other parts remain unvisited due to the lack of a proper propagation about those areas. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of each area would lead to a wider participation of local people in natural resource conservation activities. In order to properly introduce the ecotourism potential areas, at first, we carried out land preparation practices using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques; then, the maps of height, slope and orientation were produced using the digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Afterwards, we overlaid these maps and the ecotourism potential areas were identified on the map. These specified areas were classified into two land uses of mass and alternative ecotourism, with three subclasses (including class1, class2 and an inappropriate class) considered for each land use. To classify the image, the training areas determined on the ground using a GPS device (Ground Positioning System) were transferred on the RS image. Subsequently, the ecotourism potential areas were determined using a hybrid method. At the final phase, these areas were compared with the areas determined on the ecotourism potential map; as a result of this comparison, the overlaid ecotourism potential areas were distinguished on the Geographic information System.

  8. The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Susanne S.; Pandey, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The most recent critical checklists of the Cucurbitaceae of India are 30 years old. Since then, botanical exploration, online availability of specimen images and taxonomic literature, and molecular-phylogenetic studies have led to modified taxon boundaries and geographic ranges. We present a checklist of the Cucurbitaceae of India that treats 400 relevant names and provides information on the collecting locations and herbaria for all types. We accept 94 species (10 of them endemic) in 31 genera. For accepted species, we provide their geographic distribution inside and outside India, links to online images of herbarium or living specimens, and information on publicly available DNA sequences to highlight gaps in the current understanding of Indian cucurbit diversity. Of the 94 species, 79% have DNA sequences in GenBank, albeit rarely from Indian material. The most species-rich genera are Trichosanthes with 22 species, Cucumis with 11 (all but two wild), Momordica with 8, and Zehneria with 5. From an evolutionary point of view, India is of special interest because it harbors a wide range of lineages, many of them relatively old and phylogenetically isolated. Phytogeographically, the north eastern and peninsular regions are richest in species, while the Jammu Kashmir and Himachal regions have few Cucurbitaceae. Our checklist probably underestimates the true diversity of Indian Cucurbitaceae, but should help focus efforts towards the least known species and regions. PMID:23717193

  9. The benefits of the application of geographical information systems in public and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Scholten, H J; de Lepper, M J

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important issues in public and environmental health today concerns the type of instruments that can be used to devise quick, reliable and scientifically valid methods of rapid assessment which, in turn, can be utilized in health research and in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of health programmes. As the applications of geographical information systems (GIS) relate to the collection, storage, integration, management, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data, it is not surprising that the potential usefulness of this new technology in the fields of health research and policy is beginning to be realized. This article seeks to demonstrate the opportunities which the use of geographical information systems can offer to research and policy on health issues. The article first describes the principles and objectives of GIS before going on to discuss hardware and software developments as well as the variety of application fields, organizations and users. Some examples of current applications are provided to illustrate the type of work being undertaken. The final sections address issues specifically related to the application of GIS in health research and policies in the European context.

  10. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  11. Surveillance around hazardous waste sites: geographic information systems and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stallones, L; Nuckols, J R; Berry, J K

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential for integrating surveillance techniques in reproductive epidemiology with geographic information system technology in order to identify populations at risk around hazardous waste sites. Environmental epidemiologic studies have had problems with estimating or measuring exposures to individuals, and of detecting effects when the exposure is low, but continuous. In addition, exposures around hazardous waste sites are complex and frequently involve chemical mixtures. The birth weight of human babies has been reported to be sensitive to many environmental influences. Birth weight can be analyzed as a continuous variable or as a dichotomous one using the standard cutpoint of 2500 g or less to indicate low birth weight. It has the potential to be a powerful surveillance tool since exposures to the fetus reflect maternal and paternal exposures. The advent of recent environmental regulations pertaining to hazardous waste sites has greatly increased the availability of environmental data for many sites. The major problem with incorporating these data into epidemiologic studies has been with the logistics of data management and analysis. Computer-assisted geographic information systems hold promise in providing capabilities needed to address the data management and analysis requirements for effective epidemiologic studies around to hazardous waste sites.

  12. Public Perception on Disaster Management Using Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi): Case of Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS), Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS), VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  13. The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Renner, Susanne S; Pandey, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    The most recent critical checklists of the Cucurbitaceae of India are 30 years old. Since then, botanical exploration, online availability of specimen images and taxonomic literature, and molecular-phylogenetic studies have led to modified taxon boundaries and geographic ranges. We present a checklist of the Cucurbitaceae of India that treats 400 relevant names and provides information on the collecting locations and herbaria for all types. We accept 94 species (10 of them endemic) in 31 genera. For accepted species, we provide their geographic distribution inside and outside India, links to online images of herbarium or living specimens, and information on publicly available DNA sequences to highlight gaps in the current understanding of Indian cucurbit diversity. Of the 94 species, 79% have DNA sequences in GenBank, albeit rarely from Indian material. The most species-rich genera are Trichosanthes with 22 species, Cucumis with 11 (all but two wild), Momordica with 8, and Zehneria with 5. From an evolutionary point of view, India is of special interest because it harbors a wide range of lineages, many of them relatively old and phylogenetically isolated. Phytogeographically, the north eastern and peninsular regions are richest in species, while the Jammu Kashmir and Himachal regions have few Cucurbitaceae. Our checklist probably underestimates the true diversity of Indian Cucurbitaceae, but should help focus efforts towards the least known species and regions.

  14. Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System functional requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, W.D.

    1992-06-01

    In the context of this document and COE, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are decision support systems involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. They are digital computer systems for capturing, processing, managing, displaying, modeling, and analyzing geographically referenced spatial data which are described by attribute data and location. The ability to perform spatial analysis and the ability to combine two or more data sets to create new spatial information differentiates a GIS from other computer mapping systems. While the CCGIS allows for data editing and input, its primary purpose is not to prepare data, but rather to manipulate, analyte, and clarify it. The CCGIS defined herein provides GIS services and resources including the spatial and map related functionality common to all subsystems contained within the COE suite of C4I systems. The CCGIS, which is an integral component of the COE concept, relies on the other COE standard components to provide the definition for other support computing services required.

  15. Geographic Information System Software to Remodel Population Data Using Dasymetric Mapping Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel; Gould, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau provides decadal demographic data collected at the household level and aggregated to larger enumeration units for anonymity purposes. Although this system is appropriate for the dissemination of large amounts of national demographic data, often the boundaries of the enumeration units do not reflect the distribution of the underlying statistical phenomena. Conventional mapping methods such as choropleth mapping, are primarily employed due to their ease of use. However, the analytical drawbacks of choropleth methods are well known ranging from (1) the artificial transition of population at the boundaries of mapping units to (2) the assumption that the phenomena is evenly distributed across the enumeration unit (when in actuality there can be significant variation). Many methods to map population distribution have been practiced in geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing fields. Many cartographers prefer dasymetric mapping to map population because of its ability to more accurately distribute data over geographic space. Similar to ?choropleth maps?, a dasymetric map utilizes standardized data (for example, census data). However, rather than using arbitrary enumeration zones to symbolize population distribution, a dasymetric approach introduces ancillary information to redistribute the standardized data into zones relative to land use and land cover (LULC), taking into consideration actual changing densities within the boundaries of the enumeration unit. Thus, new zones are created that correlate to the function of the map, capturing spatial variations in population density. The transfer of data from census enumeration units to ancillary-driven homogenous zones is performed by a process called areal interpolation.

  16. Construction of fuzzy interference system for generalization of geographic information - selection of road segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedukowicz, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Automation of generalization of geographic information is known as one of the biggest challenges facing modern cartography. Realization of such a process demands knowledge base which will help to decide which algorithms in which sequence should be used and how to parameterize them. Author proposes the knowledge base based on non-classical logics: rough and fuzzy. This article presents results of first trials on the fuzzy rules for realization of selection operator. Usage of fuzzy rules and linguistic variables allows better mimic the subjective character of generalization process. Test were established on the data about roads segments coming from Topographical Database (TBD) two test areas. Conducted experiment proved the possibility of utilization of fuzzy rules in the generalization of geographic information. It may be very valuable to use the idea of rough sets and reducts for selection of the attributes which are the most significant in terms of the made decision. This will be the subject of author's further research. Presented research are the initial step for creation of knowledgebase based on non-classical logic (fuzzy and rough).

  17. Exploring the Application of Volunteered Geographic Information to Catchment Management: a Survey Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, D. R.; McDougall, K.; Apan, A.

    2012-07-01

    The participation and engagement of grass-root level community groups and citizens for natural resource management has a long history. With recent developments in ICT tools and spatial technology, these groups are seeking a new opportunity to manage natural resource data. There are lot of spatial information collected/generated by landcare groups, land holders and other community groups at the grass-root level through their volunteer initiatives. State government organisations are also interested in gaining access to this spatial data/information and engaging these groups to collect spatial information under their mapping programs. The aim of this paper is to explore the possible utilisation of volunteered geographic information (VGI) for catchment management activities. This research paper discusses the importance of spatial information and spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for catchment management and the emergence of VGI. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate how these emerging spatial information applications and various community volunteer activities can contribute to a more inclusive spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development at local level. A survey of 56 regional NRM bodies in Australia was utilised to explore the current community-driven volunteer initiatives for NRM activities and the potential of utilisation of VGI initiatives for NRM decision making process. This research paper concludes that VGI activities have great potential to contribute to SDI development at the community level to achieve better natural resource management (NRM) outcomes.

  18. Geographic information systems (GIS) for Health Promotion and Public Health: a review.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Flaman, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in health-related research and to critically examine the issues, strengths, and challenges inherent to those approaches from the lenses of health promotion and public health. Through the review process, conducted in 2007, it is evident that health promotion and public health applications of GIS can be generally categorized into four predominant themes: disease surveillance (n = 227), risk analysis (n = 189), health access and planning (n = 138), and community health profiling (n = 115). This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to inform decision making and discusses the extent to which GIS can be applied to address health promotion and public health questions. The contribution of this literature review will be to generate a broader understanding of how GIS-related methodological techniques and tools developed in other disciplines can be meaningfully applied to applications in public health policy, promotion, and practice.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON MANAGEMENT GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard J. Herzog

    2004-03-01

    The Lab for Energy and Environment (LFEE) at MIT is developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) for carbon management. The GIS will store, integrate, and manipulate information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS can be used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. In the first year of this three year project, we focused on two tasks: (1) specifying the system design--defining in detail the GIS data requirements, the types of analyses that can be conducted, and the forms of output we will produce, as well as designing the computer architecture of the GIS and (2) creating the ''core'' datasets--identifying data sources and converting them into a form accessible by the GIS.

  20. Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information-system analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenson, Susan K.; Domingue, Julia O.

    1988-01-01

    The first phase of analysis is a conditioning phase that generates three data sets: the original OEM with depressions filled, a data set indicating the flow direction for each cell, and a flow accumulation data set in which each cell receives a value equal to the total number of cells that drain to it. The original OEM and these three derivative data sets can then be processed in a variety of ways to optionally delineate drainage networks, overland paths, watersheds for userspecified locations, sub-watersheds for the major tributaries of a drainage network, or pour point linkages between watersheds. The computer-generated drainage lines and watershed polygons and the pour point linkage information can be transferred to vector-based geographic information systems for futher analysis. Comparisons between these computergenerated features and their manually delineated counterparts generally show close agreement, indicating that these software tools will save analyst time spent in manual interpretation and digitizing.

  1. Structures data collection for The National Map using volunteered geographic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Barbara S.; Wolf, Eric B.; Korris, Erin M.; Walter, Jennifer L.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has historically sponsored volunteered data collection projects to enhance its topographic paper and digital map products. This report describes one phase of an ongoing project to encourage volunteers to contribute data to The National Map using online editing tools. The USGS recruited students studying geographic information systems (GIS) at the University of Colorado Denver and the University of Denver in the spring of 2011 to add data on structures - manmade features such as schools, hospitals, and libraries - to four quadrangles covering metropolitan Denver. The USGS customized a version of the online Potlatch editor created by the OpenStreetMap project and populated it with 30 structure types drawn from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), a USGS database of geographic features. The students corrected the location and attributes of these points and added information on structures that were missing. There were two rounds of quality control. Student volunteers reviewed each point, and an in-house review of each point by the USGS followed. Nine-hundred and thirty-eight structure points were initially downloaded from the USGS database. Editing and quality control resulted in 1,214 structure points that were subsequently added to The National Map. A post-project analysis of the data shows that after student edit and peer review, 92 percent of the points contributed by volunteers met National Map Accuracy Standards for horizontal accuracy. Lessons from this project will be applied to later phases. These include: simplifying editing tasks and the user interfaces, stressing to volunteers the importance of adding structures that are missing, and emphasizing the importance of conforming to editorial guidelines for formatting names and addresses of structures. The next phase of the project will encompass the entire State of Colorado and will allow any citizen to contribute structures data. Volunteers will benefit from this

  2. Salmonella infections modelling in Mississippi using neural network and geographical information system (GIS)

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mississippi (MS) is one of the southern states with high rates of foodborne infections. The objectives of this paper are to determine the extent of Salmonella and Escherichia coli infections in MS, and determine the Salmonella infections correlation with socioeconomic status using geographical information system (GIS) and neural network models. Methods In this study, the relevant updated data of foodborne illness for southern states, from 2002 to 2011, were collected and used in the GIS and neural networks models. Data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MS state Department of Health and the other states department of health. The correlation between low socioeconomic status and Salmonella infections were determined using models created by several software packages, including SAS, ArcGIS @RISK and NeuroShell. Results Results of this study showed a significant increase in Salmonella outbreaks in MS during the study period, with highest rates in 2011 (47.84±24.41 cases/100 000; p<0.001). MS had the highest rates of Salmonella outbreaks compared with other states (36±6.29 cases/100 000; p<0.001). Regional and district variations in the rates were also observed. GIS maps of Salmonella outbreaks in MS in 2010 and 2011 showed the districts with higher rates of Salmonella. Regression analysis and neural network models showed a moderate correlation between cases of Salmonella infections and low socioeconomic factors. Poverty was shown to have a negative correlation with Salmonella outbreaks (R2=0.152, p<0.05). Conclusions Geographic location besides socioeconomic status may contribute to the high rates of Salmonella outbreaks in MS. Understanding the geographical and economic relationship with infectious diseases will help to determine effective methods to reduce outbreaks within low socioeconomic status communities. PMID:26940103

  3. Geographic Information Systems for healthcare organizations: a primer for nursing professions.

    PubMed

    Endacott, Ruth; Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Manning, Bryan R M; Maramba, Inocencio

    2009-01-01

    The sharing of spatial information among members of the health sector can have vast strategic and operational benefits. Geographic Information Systems, or GIS, can be a key technology in optimally using this information. There are two types of applications under GIS: (1) studying health outcomes and epidemiology and (2) studying and informing healthcare delivery. With the advent of GIS that can be used over the Internet, a wider audience of decision makers and stakeholders now has the opportunity to use these technologies through something as simple as a Web browser. There is a small but growing number of published articles giving examples of using GIS for nursing practice and research. However, increased efforts are needed to make nurses, other health professionals, and health organizations aware of the possibilities of these information products for empowering their decision making. An incremental "capacity building" approach is proposed as the best way forward for sustainable and sustained nursing GIS development. The aims of this article are (1) to provide a brief nontechnical overview for readers not familiar with GIS, (2) to provide a framework for the adoption of GIS in health service organizations, and (3) to identify ways in which GIS can impact on the nursing management of patients.

  4. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  5. Automating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) through Python for the Hydrological Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have many applications in the hydrological sciences. However, GIS software is often expensive and difficult to automate. This paper will demonstrate how to automate GRASS GIS software using the Python programming language. Both GRASS GIS and Python are open source projects that are free for anyone to use. Automation of GIS processes is important when dealing with large-scale geographic studies, as large GIS maps are usually divided into discrete tiles. When conducting GIS transformations on such maps, the user must repeat the action for each tile, a process that is greatly expedited through automation. The paper will work through several examples of automated GIS processes and provide complete Python codes that demonstrate correct syntax for working with GRASS GIS applications. The provided examples will demonstrate automation of the following processes 1.) using raster math to calculate foliage thickness from LIDAR and DEM data; 2.) conducting raster interpolation from a set of vector points to develop a continuous hydraulic conductivity coverage; 3.) automating raster coloration to sync the coloration of a large number of raster tiles for website display, and 4.) constructing contoured vector lines from topography rasters. These examples programs will serve as the building blocks for readers, giving them the tools to automate any GIS process using Python and GRASS GIS.

  6. Toward multidisciplinary use of LANDSAT: Interfacing computerized LANDSAT analysis systems with geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT-geographic information system (GIS) interface must summarize the results of the LANDSAT classification over the same cells that serve as geographic referencing units for the GIS, and output these summaries on a cell-by-cell basis in a form that is readable by the input routines of the GIS. The ZONAL interface for cell-oriented systems consists of two primary programs. The PIXCEL program scans the grid of cells and outputs a channel of pixels. Each pixel contains not the reflectance values but the identifier of the cell in which the center of the pixel is located. This file of pixelized cells along with the results of a pixel-by-pixel classification of the scene produced by the LANDSAT analysis system are input to the CELSUM program which then outputs a cell-by-cell summary formatted according to the requirements of the host GIS. Cross-correlation of the LANDSAT layer with the other layers in the data base is accomplished with the analysis and display facilities of the GIS.

  7. Information content of MOPITT CO profile retrievals: Temporal and geographical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Worden, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) enable a wide array of applications including studies of air quality and pollution transport. The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument on the Earth Observing System Terra platform has been measuring CO concentrations globally since March 2000. As indicated by the Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DFS), the standard metric for trace-gas retrieval information content, MOPITT retrieval performance varies over a wide range. We show that both instrumental and geophysical effects yield significant geographical and temporal variability in MOPITT DFS values. Instrumental radiance uncertainties, which describe random errors (or "noise") in the calibrated radiances, vary over long time scales (e.g., months to years) and vary between the four detector elements of MOPITT's linear detector array. MOPITT retrieval performance depends on several factors including thermal contrast, fine-scale variability of surface properties, and CO loading. The relative importance of these various effects is highly variable, as demonstrated by analyses of monthly mean DFS values for the United States and the Amazon Basin. An understanding of the geographical and temporal variability of MOPITT retrieval performance is potentially valuable to data users seeking to limit the influence of the a priori through data filtering. To illustrate, it is demonstrated that calculated regional-average CO mixing ratios may be improved by excluding observations from a subset of pixels in MOPITT's linear detector array.

  8. Spatial modelling of rheumatoid arthritis in Turkey by geographic information systems (GIS).

    PubMed

    İnanır, Ahmet; Dogan, Hakan Mete; Çeçen, Osman; Dogan, Cisem Nildem

    2013-11-01

    We described the recent spatial distribution of rheumatoid arthritis in Turkey and assessed the role of environmental variables in this distribution. We developed an observed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) incidence grid map by using georeferenced rheumatoid arthritis case data (2011) from the centres of 81 provinces and the kriging method with a spherical variogram model in geographic information systems (GIS). We also modelled rheumatoid arthritis incidence in GIS by using complementary spatial database including the grid map layers of 14 environmental variables of Turkey. We conducted principle component analysis and multiple regression to investigate the relationships among variables and develop a model, respectively. The produced model was run in GIS to obtain a predicted (model) RA map. We tested the reliability of the model map by residual statistics and found the model map dependable. Observed and model incidence maps revealed the geographic distribution of rheumatoid arthritis cases in Turkey. The mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, water vapour pressure, elevation, potential evapotranspiration, latitude, distance to seas, sunshine fraction, precipitation, longitude and aspect variables were found to have significant impacts on rheumatoid arthritis. Consequently, the model incidence map established a good background to predict rheumatoid arthritis cases following environmental changes.

  9. Procedures for using Geographic Information Systems for the handling and processing of scientific data from the planetary surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigeri, A.; Federico, C.; Pauselli, C.; Minelli, G.

    The availability of large volume of data from instruments on-board scientific planetary missions justify the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) procedures for the study of terrestrial planets and their satellites. As mission data volumes increase the use of GIS techniques offer the planetary scientist a way for fast retrieval, storage and analysis of heterogeneous data and allows comparative analysis between different dataset that otherwise would be difficult to perform. Although GIS systems have been already used for planetary research, none provides a native generic support for studying surfaces of terrestrial planets and satellites. The work presented here describes the development of a pool of procedures in the form of computer codes and supporting files produced to provide a generic support to handle, analyze and visualize planetary remote sensed data in a selected GIS system allowing to perform the comparative analysis of different geological and geophysical planetary data. The application of procedures developed allowed to aggregate maps from different mission to Mars in order to investigate the geologic context of an area of Mars and to correlate these information with the first subsurface signals of the Mars Advanced Radar Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounder (MARSIS).

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information for Disaster Management with Application to Earthquake Disaster Databank & Sharing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, W. C.; Deng, C.; Nie, N.; Yi, L.

    2017-02-01

    All phases of disaster management require up-to-date and accurate information. Different in-situ and remote sensor systems help to monitor dynamic properties such as air quality, water level or inundated areas. The rapid emergence of web-based services has facilitated the collection, dissemination, and cartographic representation of spatial information from the public, giving rise to the idea of using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to aid disaster management. In this study, with a brief review on the concept and the development of disaster management, opportunities and challenges for applying VGI in disaster management were explored. The challenges, including Data availability, Data quality, Data management and Legal issues of using VGI for disaster management, were discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the actual needs of disaster management practice in China. Three different approaches to assure VGI data quality, namely the classification and authority design of volunteers, a government-led VGI data acquisition framework for disaster management and a quality assessment system for VGI, respectively, were presented and discussed. As a case study, a prototype of VGI oriented earthquake disaster databank & sharing platform, an open WebGIS system for volunteers and other interested individuals collaboratively create and manage the earthquake disaster related information, was proposed, to provide references for improving the level of earthquake emergency response and disaster mitigation in China.

  11. Field validation of food service listings: a comparison of commercial and online geographic information system databases.

    PubMed

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases.

  12. Geographic information systems and chronic kidney disease: racial disparities, rural residence and forecasting.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Hotchkiss, John R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of health and health care provision in the United States vary substantially across regions, and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in population density, age distribution, disease prevalence, race and ethnicity, poverty and the ability to access care. Geocoding and geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools to link patient or population location to information regarding these characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of basic GIS concepts and provide examples to illustrate how GIS techniques have been applied to the study of kidney disease, and in particular to understanding the interplay between race, poverty, rural residence and the planning of renal services for this population. The interplay of socioeconomic status and renal disease outcomes remains an important area for investigation and recent publications have explored this relationship utilizing GIS techniques to incorporate measures of socioeconomic status and racial composition of neighborhoods. In addition, there are many potential challenges in providing care to rural patients with chronic kidney disease including long travel times and sparse renal services such as transplant and dialysis centers. Geospatially fluent analytic approaches can also inform system level analyses of health care systems and these approaches can be applied to identify an optimal distribution of dialysis facilities. GIS analysis could help untangle the complex interplay between geography, socioeconomic status, and racial disparities in chronic kidney disease, and could inform policy decisions and resource allocation as the population ages and the prevalence of renal disease increases.

  13. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  14. Assessment of the Volunteered Geographic Information Feedback System for the Dutch Topographical Key Register

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grus, M.; te Winkel, D.

    2015-08-01

    Since Topographical Key Register has become an open data the amount of users increased enormously. The highest grow was in the private users group. The increasing number of users and their growing demand for high actuality of the topographic data sets motivates the Dutch Kadaster to innovate and improve the Topographical Key Register (BRT). One of the initiatives was to provide a voluntary geographical information project aiming at providing a user-friendly feedback system adjusted to all kinds of user groups. The feedback system is a compulsory element of the Topographical Key Register in the Netherlands. The Dutch Kadaster is obliged to deliver a feedback system and the key-users are obliged to use it. The aim of the feedback system is to improve the quality and stimulate the usage of the data. The results of the pilot shows that the user-friendly and open to everyone feedback system contributes enormously to improve the quality of the topographic dataset.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM.

  16. Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terence R.; Menon, Sudhakar; Star, Jeffrey L.; Estes, John E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a brief survey of the history, structure and functions of 'traditional' geographic information systems (GIS), and then suggests a set of requirements that large-scale GIS should satisfy, together with a set of principles for their satisfaction. These principles, which include the systematic application of techniques from several subfields of computer science to the design and implementation of GIS and the integration of techniques from computer vision and image processing into standard GIS technology, are discussed in some detail. In particular, the paper provides a detailed discussion of questions relating to appropriate data models, data structures and computational procedures for the efficient storage, retrieval and analysis of spatially-indexed data.

  17. [Ecosystem services evaluation based on geographic information system and remote sensing technology: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Huang; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-12-01

    Ecosystem services evaluation is a hot topic in current ecosystem management, and has a close link with human beings welfare. This paper summarized the research progress on the evaluation of ecosystem services based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology, which could be reduced to the following three characters, i. e., ecological economics theory is widely applied as a key method in quantifying ecosystem services, GIS and RS technology play a key role in multi-source data acquisition, spatiotemporal analysis, and integrated platform, and ecosystem mechanism model becomes a powerful tool for understanding the relationships between natural phenomena and human activities. Aiming at the present research status and its inadequacies, this paper put forward an "Assembly Line" framework, which was a distributed one with scalable characteristics, and discussed the future development trend of the integration research on ecosystem services evaluation based on GIS and RS technologies.

  18. An analysis of specialist and non-specialist user requirements for geographic climate change information.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Martin C

    2013-11-01

    The EU EuroClim project developed a system to monitor and record climate change indicator data based on satellite observations of snow cover, sea ice and glaciers in Northern Europe and the Arctic. It also contained projection data for temperature, rainfall and average wind speed for Europe. These were all stored as data sets in a GIS database for users to download. The process of gathering requirements for a user population including scientists, researchers, policy makers, educationalists and the general public is described. Using an iterative design methodology, a user survey was administered to obtain initial feedback on the system concept followed by panel sessions where users were presented with the system concept and a demonstrator to interact with it. The requirements of both specialist and non-specialist users is summarised together with strategies for the effective communication of geographic climate change information.

  19. Description of a user-oriented geographic information system - The resource analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmann, S. E.; Mokma, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Resource Analysis Program, an applied geographic information system. Several applications are presented which utilized soil, and other natural resource data, to develop integrated maps and data analyses. These applications demonstrate the methods of analysis and the philosophy of approach used in the mapping system. The applications are evaluated in reference to four major needs of a functional mapping system: data capture, data libraries, data analysis, and mapping and data display. These four criteria are then used to describe an effort to develop the next generation of applied mapping systems. This approach uses inexpensive microcomputers for field applications and should prove to be a viable entry point for users heretofore unable or unwilling to venture into applied computer mapping.

  20. Topographic distribution of gastritis in heavy pigs investigated by a geographic information system approach.

    PubMed

    Pascotto, Ernesto; Capraro, Diego; Tomè, Paolo; Spanghero, Mauro

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this paper was to determine the topographic distribution of gastritis lesions in pigs through an open source geographic information system (GIS) software analysis. The stomachs of 146 Italian heavy pigs were collected at slaughter and subjected to macroscopic pathological examination of the internal mucosa. A total of 623 lesions were either classified as hyperplastic or follicular (97%) with the remaining minority of lesions categorised as atrophic and simple. The hyperplastic gastritis lesions had an average surface of 77.8 cm2 and were mainly located in an oval shaped area of the fundus region of the stomach near the Curvatura ventriculi major. The follicular gastritis lesions had generally a smaller surface (40.3 cm2) and were concentrated in two distinct small areas of the pyloric region. The GIS analysis provided the opportunity to produce useful maps showing the distribution and characteristics of gastritis in pigs.

  1. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng.

    PubMed

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.

  2. Geographic information system (G.I.S.) research project at Navajo Community College - Shiprock Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Yazzie, R.; Peter, C.; Aaspas, B.; Isely, D.; Grey, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Navajo and Hopi GIS Project was established to assess the feasibility and impact of implementing GIS techology at Tribal institutions. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories funded the Navajo and Hopi Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) Project and assigned a mentor from LANL to help guide the project for three summer months of 1995. The six organizations involved were: LANL, LLNL, Navajo Community College, Navajo Nation Land Office, Northern Arizona University and San Juan College. The Navajo Land Office provided the system software, hardware and training. Northern Arizona University selected two students to work at Hopi Water Resource Department. Navajo Community College provided two students and two faculty members. San Juan College provided one student to work with the N.C.C. group. This made up two project teams which led to two project sites. The project sites are the Water Resource Department on the Hopi reservation and Navajo Community College in Shiprock, New Mexico.

  3. Knowledge-based geographic information systems (KBGIS): New analytic and data management tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    In its simplest form, a geographic information system (GIS) may be viewed as a data base management system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which sets of procedures operate to answer queries about spatial entities represented in the data base. Utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can enhance greatly the capabilities of a GIS, particularly in handling very large, diverse data bases involved in the earth sciences. A KBGIS has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey which incorporates AI techniques such as learning, expert systems, new data representation, and more. The system, which will be developed further and applied, is a prototype of the next generation of GIS's, an intelligent GIS, as well as an example of a general-purpose intelligent data handling system. The paper provides a description of KBGIS and its application, as well as the AI techniques involved. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. High Level Waste Tank Closure Modeling with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    BOLLINGER, JAMES

    2004-07-29

    Waste removal from 49 underground storage tanks located in two tank farms involves three steps: bulk waste removal, water washing to remove residual waste, and in some cases chemical cleaning to remove additional residual waste. Not all waste can be completely removed by these processes-resulting in some residual waste loading following cleaning. Completely removing this residual waste would be prohibitively expensive; therefore, it will be stabilized by filling the tanks with grout. Acceptable residual waste loading inventories were determined using one-dimensional groundwater transport modeling to predict future human exposure based on several scenarios. These modeling results have been incorporated into a geographic information systems (GIS) application for rapid evaluation of various tank closure options.

  5. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  6. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  7. Knowledge-based geographic information systems (KBGIS): new analytic and data management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, T.M.

    1988-11-01

    In its simplest form, a geographic information system (GIS) may be viewed as a data base management system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which sets of procedures operate to answer queries about spatial entities represented in the data base. Utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can enhance greatly the capabilities of a GIS, particularly in handling very large, diverse data bases involved in the earth sciences. A KBGIS has been developed by the US Geological Survey which incorporates AI techniques such as learning, expert systems, new data representation, and more. The system, which will be developed further and applied, is a prototype of the next generation of GIS's, an intelligent GIS, as well as an example of a general-purpose intelligent data handling system. The paper provides a description of KBGIS and its application, as well as the AI techniques involved.

  8. Role of remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another. PMID:23554714

  9. Using geographic information system tools to improve access to MS specialty care in Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, William J; Cowper-Ripley, Diane; Litt, Eric R; McDowell, Tzu-Yun; Hoffman, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patients who lived more than 2 hours from the nearest specialty clinic in fiscal year 2007. We demonstrate the utility of using GIS tools in decision-making by providing three examples of how patients' access to care is affected when additional specialty clinics are added. The mapping technique used in this study provides a powerful and valuable tool for policy and planning personnel who are evaluating how to address underserved populations and areas within the VHA healthcare system.

  10. Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, S. M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Iran. Several environmental pollution and soil degradation problems were found as a consequence of poor planning of landfills. So recognition of the MSW landfill state is required to prevent environmental problems. The objective of this research was to study the suitability of existing municipal landfill sites using geographic information system methods. Tonekabon city in the west area of Mazandaran province, northern Iran, along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, was chosen as a case study. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines were used: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and regional screening guidelines. The results indicate that the landfills were not located in suitable sites and also that there are few suitable locations to install the landfills.

  11. An evaluation of Landsat data for input to a state geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Bly, B. G., III; Garber, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a study to evaluate Landsat digital data, categorized by land cover, for input to the Maryland Automated Geographic Information (MAGI) system, the state georeferenced data base, are presented. Good correspondence is found between the MAGI system and Landsat data for six of seven categories: forest, water, crop/pasture, medium-density residential, low-density residential, and transitional (disturbed land, construction). Discrepancies between the results are found for commercial/industrial/institutional areas which are due to differences in interpretative methodologies, not to deficiencies in either data source. It is concluded that Landsat data are suitable for future Maryland land cover inventories, and can also be used to augment MAGI system data.

  12. The analysis of forest policy using Landsat multi-spectral scanner data and geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Brass, J. A.; Norman, S. D.; Tosta-Miller, N.

    1984-01-01

    The role of Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) data for forest policy analysis in the state of California has been investigated. The combined requirements for physical, socio-economic, and institutional data in policy analysis were studied to explain potential data needs. A statewide MSS data and general land cover classification was created from which country-wide data sets could be extracted for detailed analyses. The potential to combine point sample data with MSS data was examined as a means to improve specificity in estimations. MSS data was incorporated into geographic information systems to demonstrate modeling techniques using abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic data layers. The review of system configurations to help the California Department of Forestry (CDF) acquire the capability demonstrated resulted in a sequence of options for implementation.

  13. Improving a regional outreach program in a large health system using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Gabbert, John P; Trine, Robert M; Bintz, Marilu

    2012-06-01

    As government-insured populations grow, commercially insured populations decrease, and declining insurance reimbursements pressure cost and revenue. Health systems must strive to improve quality while lowering costs. Large medical centers with rural sites must understand their geography and how distances impede access to services, thereby affecting patient health. Without relevant data, which can be provided through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology, improvement is often delayed. Gundersen Lutheran Health System, a large multi-specialty system with urban and rural sites in 3 states, is developing an evaluative outreach GIS to facilitate understanding of, and response to, rural health needs. Investing in GIS technology furthers the health system's ability to deliver superior, affordable care.

  14. The application of geographic information systems and spatial data during Legionnaires disease outbreak responses.

    PubMed

    Bull, M; Hall, I M; Leach, S; Robesyn, E

    2012-12-06

    A literature review was conducted to highlight the application and potential benefit of using geographic information systems (GIS) during Legionnaires' disease outbreak investigations. Relatively few published sources were identified, however, certain types of data were found to be important in facilitating the use of GIS, namely: patient data, locations of potential sources (e.g. cooling towers), demographic data relating to the local population and meteorological data. These data were then analysed to gain a better understanding of the spatial relationships between cases and their environment, the cases' proximity to potential outbreak sources, and the modelled dispersion of contaminated aerosols. The use of GIS in an outbreak is not a replacement for traditional outbreak investigation techniques, but it can be a valuable supplement to a response.

  15. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to exploration studies in the San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is currently applying geographic information systems (GIS) technology to develop a geologic knowledge base that will provide the framework for an integrated basin analysis for the San Juan basin. GIS technology involves the integration of mapping and data-base functions that enable the user to integrate and manipulate spatial (coordinate) data with attribute (thematic) data in order to combine complex geographic, geologic, and geophysical data sets into resultant overlay and composite maps and to conduct multivariate exploratory data analysis and have access to a variety of options for analyzing these databases. The San Juan basin, a 13,500-mi{sup 2} Laramide structural basin in northwestern New Mexico, was chosen for the pilot project. The basin encompasses a maximum of over 15,000 ft of Paleozoic to Eocene sedimentary rock and contains economic deposits of natural gas, oil, coal, and uranium. Successful exploration in this basin requires an understanding of the complex stratigraphy and structural geology controlling the distribution of these resources. GIS technology applied to the San Juan basin includes both surface and subsurface data sets that establish a three-dimensional perspective of the basin's fundamental stratigraphic and structural framework and aid in the identification of its temporal and tectonic relationships relative to origin and occurrence of its resources. Among the digital data bases used for surface mapping is the US GeoData system from the USGS's national mapping program, which includes digital elevation models (DEM) for terrain elevations: digital line graphs (DLG) for planimetric information on boundaries, transportation, hydrography, and the US Public Land Survey system; and land use and land cover (LULC) data. Additional data bases used for surface mapping include surficial geology, locations of oil and gas wells, well status, and oil and gas fields.

  16. A database paradigm for the management of DICOM-RT structure sets using a geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Weber; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Wang, Jason; Low, Daniel A.; Ruan, Dan

    2014-03-01

    We devise a paradigm for representing the DICOM-RT structure sets in a database management system, in such way that secondary calculations of geometric information can be performed quickly from the existing contour definitions. The implementation of this paradigm is achieved using the PostgreSQL database system and the PostGIS extension, a geographic information system commonly used for encoding geographical map data. The proposed paradigm eliminates the overhead of retrieving large data records from the database, as well as the need to implement various numerical and data parsing routines, when additional information related to the geometry of the anatomy is desired.

  17. Basic mapping principles for visualizing cancer data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Cynthia A

    2006-02-01

    Maps and other data graphics may play a role in generating ideas and hypotheses at the beginning of a project. They are useful as part of analyses for evaluating model results and then at the end of a project when researchers present their results and conclusions to varied audiences, such as their local research group, decision makers, or a concerned public. Cancer researchers are gaining skill with geographic information system (GIS) mapping as one of their many tools and are broadening the symbolization approaches they use for investigating and illustrating their data. A single map is one of many possible representations of the data, so making multiple maps is often part of a complete mapping effort. Symbol types, color choices, and data classing each affect the information revealed by a map and are best tailored to the specific characteristics of data. Related data can be examined in series with coordinated classing and can also be compared using multivariate symbols that build on the basic rules of symbol design. Informative legend wording and setting suitable map projections are also basic to skilled mapmaking.

  18. A geographic information system for resource managers based on multi-level remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures followed in developing a test case geographic information system derived primarily from remotely sensed data for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) in northern Utah are outlined. The North Cache SCD faces serious problems regarding water allocation, flood and geologic hazards, urban encroachment into prime farmland, soil erosion, and wildlife habitat. Four fundamental data planes were initially entered into the geo-referenced data base: (1) land use/land cover information for the agricultural and built-up areas of the valley obtained from various forms of aerial photography; (2) vegetation/land cover in mountains classified digitally from LANDSAT; (3) geomorphic terrain units derived from aerial photography and soil maps; and (4) digital terrain maps obtained from DMA digital data. The land use/vegetation/land cover information from manual photographic and LANDSAT interpretation were joined digitally into a single data plane with an integrated legend, and segmented into quadrangle units. These were merged with the digitized geomorphic units and the digital terrain data using a Prime 400 minicomputer. All data planes were geo-referenced to a UTM coordinate grid.

  19. A geographic information system for resource managers based on multi-level remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures followed in developing a test case geographic information system derived primarily from remotely sensed data for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) in northern Utah are outlined. The North Cache SCD faces serious problems regarding water allocation, flood and geologic hazards, urban encroachment into prime farmland, soil erosion, and wildlife habitat. Four fundamental data planes were initially entered into the geo-referenced data base: (1) land use/land cover information for the agricultural and built-up areas of the valley obtained from various forms of aerial photography; (2) vegetation/land cover in mountains classified digitally from Landsat; (3) geomorphic terrain units derived from aerial photography and soil maps; and (4) digital terrain maps obtained from DMA digital data. The land use/vegetation/land cover information from manual photographic and Landsat interpretation were joined digitally into a single data plane with an integrated legend, and segmented into quadrangle units. These were merged with the digitized geomorphic units and the digital terrain data using a Prime 400 minicomputer. All data planes were geo-referenced to a UTM coordinate grid.

  20. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  1. Advancing Careers in Information Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Wilbur W.; Templeton, Dennie E.; Chase, Joe D.; Rose, Melinda; Eaton, Carlotta

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss the joining of 12 Virginia community colleges from the Appalachian region of southwestern Virginia with Radford University to form the Regional Technology Education Consortium (RTEC), a three-year project funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education program and designed to develop articulation…

  2. The Contribution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Geography Education and Secondary School Students' Attitudes Related to GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artvinli, Eyup

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the place of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in teaching geography, the general level of secondary school students' attitudes towards Geography Information Systems and whether this changes according to different variables. The population of the research consists of the students studying in Istanbul,…

  3. Role of geographic information system (GIS) in watershed simulation by WinVAST model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Lo, Shang-Lien; Yu, Shaw-L

    2006-10-01

    The uncertainty of modeling input will increase the simulation error, and this situation always happens in a model without user-friendly interface. WinVAST model, developed by the University of Virginia in 2003, treats an entire multi-catchment by a tree-view structure. Its extra computer programs can connect geographic information system (GIS). Model users can prepare all the necessary information in ArcGIS. Extracting information from GIS interface can not only decrease the inconvenience of data input, but also lower the uncertainty due to data preparation. The Daiyuku Creek and Qupoliao Creek in the Fei-tsui reservoir watershed in Northern Taiwan provided the setting for the case study reported herein. The required information, including slope, stream length, subbasin area, soil type and land-use condition, for WinVAST model should be prepared in a Microsoft Access database, which is the project file of WinVAST with extension mdb. In ArcGIS interface, when the soil layer, land-use layer, and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map are prepared, all the watershed information can be created as well. This study compared the simulation results from automatically generated input and manual input. The results show that the relative simulation error resulting from the rough process of data input can be around 30% in runoff simulation, and even reach 70% in non-point source pollution (NPSP) simulation. It could conclude that GIS technology is significant for predicting watershed responses by WinVAST model, because it can efficiently reduce the uncertainty induced by input errors.

  4. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external project is

  5. The intelligent user interface for NASA's advanced information management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Short, Nicholas, Jr.; Rolofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Intelligent Data Management Project to design and develop advanced information management systems. The project's primary goal is to formulate, design and develop advanced information systems that are capable of supporting the agency's future space research and operational information management needs. The first effort of the project was the development of a prototype Intelligent User Interface to an operational scientific database, using expert systems and natural language processing technologies. An overview of Intelligent User Interface formulation and development is given.

  6. Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using Geographic Information Systems from 2010 to 2014 in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ostad, Mojdeh; Shirian, Sadegh; Pishro, Fatemeh; Abbasi, Tahereh; Ai, Armin; Azimi, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) is found worldwide and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries such as Iran. Geographic information system (GIS) is a method that can create, archive, analyze traditional map and place data of the disease distribution. The aim of this study was to produce distributional maps of CL over five years and evaluate the role of GIS in control of CL in Khuzestan province where an endemic area of CL in Iran is. Methods CL epidemiological data on the District and village levels for the period 2010–2013 were provided as census by health surveillance system in all counties and in control diseases center (CDC) of Khuzestan province. After collection of CL data, the collected data of CL from 2010 to 2013 were analyzed using GIS. The collected data of CL from 2010 to 2013 was analyzed using GIS. The endemic areas of CL during 2010–2013 were recognized using GIS maps and the control programs of CL were done in these regions based on epidemiological situation and the stratification of risk areas. Results During the study period, there were 4672 recorded cases of clinical cases of CL by Khuzestan Health Center. Data of GIS referring to CL patients showed that center and eastern districts of Khuzestan had a significant number of cases. In 2014 that control program was done, ten distinct of Khuzestan Province didn’t show any cases of the disease. Conclusion In conclusion, analyses of data distributed in the geographic spaces are increasingly appreciated in leishmaniasis control management. GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities in the control of vector born disease such as leishmaniasis. PMID:27467509

  7. Advanced Feedback Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In this study, automatic feedback techniques are applied to Boolean query statements in online information retrieval to generate improved query statements based on information contained in previously retrieved documents. Feedback operations are carried out using conventional Boolean logic and extended logic. Experimental output is included to…

  8. Mapping risk of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Brazil using Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dutra, L H; Molento, M B; Naumann, C R C; Biondo, A W; Fortes, F S; Savio, D; Malone, J B

    2010-04-19

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is an endemic disease of ruminants that occurs in several countries of South America where it can lead to decreased production and fertility and, in severe cases, animal death. Although very prevalent, information on the epidemiology of the disease is incomplete in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to define the prevalence of F. hepatica in the livers of cattle from slaughterhouses and correlate the data with the animal's origin (climate and altitude) using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The data was used to create an epidemiological map of fasciolosis by state (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná), by municipality (n=530) and by year (2003-2008). Information was analyzed using a databank from slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Services of the Ministry of Agriculture. The highest cattle infection rate was found in the two most Southern states of Rio Grande do Sul (18.7%) and Santa Catarina (10.1%). Animals from the Campanha region of Rio Grande do Sul and from the central coast area of Santa Catarina had prevalences of greater than 40%. Cattle from low altitudes municipalities were significantly more likely to have the disease (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between high or low prevalence and ambient temperatures. Risk maps resulting from this study provide information on the epidemiology and transmission of F. hepatica in Southern Brazil needed for design of appropriate control measures to control economic impacts. F. hepatica may represent an important source of zoonotic infection of humans as well; therefore these findings may be complemented by future studies on human infections in high risk areas.

  9. Metadata squared: enhancing its usability for volunteered geographic information and the GeoWeb

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Barbara S.; Wolf, Eric B.; Sui, Daniel Z.; Elwood, Sarah; Goodchild, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet has brought many changes to the way geographic information is created and shared. One aspect that has not changed is metadata. Static spatial data quality descriptions were standardized in the mid-1990s and cannot accommodate the current climate of data creation where nonexperts are using mobile phones and other location-based devices on a continuous basis to contribute data to Internet mapping platforms. The usability of standard geospatial metadata is being questioned by academics and neogeographers alike. This chapter analyzes current discussions of metadata to demonstrate how the media shift that is occurring has affected requirements for metadata. Two case studies of metadata use are presented—online sharing of environmental information through a regional spatial data infrastructure in the early 2000s, and new types of metadata that are being used today in OpenStreetMap, a map of the world created entirely by volunteers. Changes in metadata requirements are examined for usability, the ease with which metadata supports coproduction of data by communities of users, how metadata enhances findability, and how the relationship between metadata and data has changed. We argue that traditional metadata associated with spatial data infrastructures is inadequate and suggest several research avenues to make this type of metadata more interactive and effective in the GeoWeb.

  10. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    PubMed

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  11. Building Geographic Information System Capacity in Local Health Departments: Lessons From a North Carolina Project

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Silva, Jennifer M.; Overstreet Galeano, M. Alicia; Brown, Jeffrey P.; Campbell, Douglas S.; Coley, Evelyn; Cowan, Christopher S.; Harvell, Dianne; Lassiter, Jenny; Parks, Jerry L.; Sandelé, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    State government, university, and local health department (LHD) partners collaborated to build the geographic information system (GIS) capacity of 5 LHDs in North Carolina. Project elements included procuring hardware and software, conducting individualized and group training, developing data layers, guiding the project development process, coordinating participation in technical conferences, providing ongoing project consultation, and evaluating project milestones. The project provided health department personnel with the skills and resources required to use sophisticated information management systems, particularly those that address spatial dimensions of public health practice. This capacity-building project helped LHDs incorporate GIS technology into daily operations, resulting in improved time and cost efficiency. Keys to success included (1) methods training rooted in problems specific to the LHD, (2) required project identification by LHD staff with associated timelines for development, (3) ongoing technical support as staff returned to home offices after training, (4) subgrants to LHDs to ease hardware and software resource constraints, (5) networks of relationships among LHDs and other professional GIS users, and (6) senior LHD leadership who supported the professional development activities being undertaken by staff. PMID:16257950

  12. Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; Nuckols, J.R.; Weigel, S. J.; Cantor, K.P.; Miller, Roger S.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study.

  13. The application of geographic information systems technology to geologic, hydrogeologic, and environmental research

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, B.H.; Irvin, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    Spatial data are of primary importance in nearly all aspects of geological and hydrogeological research. In undertaking such research, it is fundamental that observations and phenomena be located in a georeferenced coordinant system in order to understand and visualize the distribution of these data and to discern their relationships to other observations and phenomena. For this reason, geologic studies are particularly well suited to take advantage of computer-based geographic information system (GIS) technology, which combines the data input, storage, retrieval, analysis, and manipulation functions of a relational database with automated mapping and data visualization capability. GIS allows data to be analyzed and visualized in ways that would be too time consuming, too cost prohibitive, or nearly impossible to perform using other methods. Geological applications for GIS and related technology range from basic management of locational data (e.g., water or hydrocarbon well locations, sample localities, land holdings, etc.) and associated attribute information to detailed geologic mapping and complex analyses and modeling of hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifer systems, or drainage basins. We have implemented GIS with the primary near-term function of supporting and enhancing our geological and hydrogeological research programs. Current research applications include monitoring and modeling of nonpoint source pollutant loadings to aquifer systems and drainage basins, delineation of public water supply wellhead protection areas, hydrogeologic flow modeling, and environmental monitoring. Examples from these studies serve to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the GIS approach to geologic research.

  14. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.

  15. Quality Assessment - Example of Digital Products of Fundamental Geographic Information of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoqing, D.; Ping, X.

    2013-05-01

    Digital products of fundamental geographic information are the main components of Digital China Geo-spatial Framework (DCGSF for short). More and more mass data were produced and distributed to various users by different agencies and organizations with continuous implementation of fundamental surveying and mapping activities and various specified projects within national Administration of Surveying, Mapping & Geoinformation. Therefore, what about the description and quality assessment used for these products will directly effect the acquisition, delivery, share, and application of data. A quality model, by which quality is assessed through 3 levels of classification of quality elements, quality subelements, and check items, was built in this paper based on ISO 19113 and ISO 19114 so that to make the quality of digital products of fundamental geographic information to be assessed reasonably, and to make the quality assessment tools to be operable in practice. Quality assessment methods respectively for each of quality elements, quality subelements, and check items are presented. Fundamental data of Digital Line Graphs, Digital Elevation Models, Digital Orthophoto Maps, and Digital Raster Maps at the scale of 1:50,000 in DCGSF were used as examples to determine the quality of 9 quality elements, 24 quality subelements, and 68 check items considering the contents and the requirements of various users for these data, as well as the practical experiences in quality assessment. 300 DLGs selected from national key projects of surveying and mapping engineering were used for testing to validate the operability of the results mentioned in this paper. Random sampling is used, when sampling, for each layer, which is layered based on production unit and level of difficulty. Quality checking and quality assessment, and statistical analysis was done for samples in terms of item product and lot products respectively. The results from this test indicated that quality model and

  16. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) in the medical response to the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshinari; Ishii, Masami

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. In the first 10 days after the event, information about radiation risks from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant was unavailable, and the disaster response, including deployment of disaster teams, was delayed. Beginning on March 17, 2011, the Japan Medical Association used a geographic information system (GIS) to visualize the risk of radiation exposure in Fukushima. This information facilitated the decision to deploy disaster medical response teams on March 18, 2011.

  17. Advancement Information Resources Management: An Information Understanding Profession in Support of Philanthropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Anne E.

    Professional fundraising has given rise to a new information specialist profession. This career path, which has been known as prospect research or advancement research, should be more accurately characterized as information resources management for advancement. With primary emphasis on value-added information processes that involve analysis and…

  18. Determining the geographical origin of Sechium edule fruits by multielement analysis and advanced chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Melisa J; Fechner, Diana C; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Pellerano, Roberto G

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the determination and evaluation of the major and trace element composition (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn) of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz fruits collected from four different places of production in Corrientes province, Argentina. Element concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after microwave digestion. The accuracy was confirmed with standard reference material of spinach leaves (NIST, 1570a) and spiking tests. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to the results for discriminating the geographical origin of S. edule fruits. Finally, the LDA method was found to perform best with up to 90% accuracy rate based on the following elements: Ca, Ba, Cu, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn.

  19. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Analysing Rainfall Distribution Patterns in Batu Pahat District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Kaamin, M.; Azizan, N. S.; Sahat, S.; Bukari, S. M.; Mokhtar, M.; Ngadiman, N.; Hamid, N. B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainfall forecasting reports are crucial to provide information and warnings to the population in a particular location. The Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD) is a department that plays an important role in monitoring the situation and issued the statement of changes in weather and provides services such as weather advisories and gives warnings when the situation requires. Uncertain weather situations normally have created panic situation, especially in big cities because of flash floods due to poor drainage management. Usually, local authorities provided rainfall data in tables, and it is difficult to analyse to acquire the rainfall trend. Therefore, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are commonly used to generate rainfall patterns in visual formation with a combination of characteristics of rainfall data and then can be used by stakeholders to facilitate the process of analysis and forecasting rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of rainfall distribution using GIS applications in Batu Pahat district to assist interested parties to understand and easy to analyse the rainfall data in visual form or mapping form. Rainfall data for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) and monthly data (Dec 2006 - Feb 2007) are provided by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for 12 stations in the district of Batu Pahat, and rainfall maps in each year was obtained using the interpolation Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method was used in this research. The rainfall map was then analyzed to identify the highest rainfall that was received during the period of study. For the conclusion, this study has proved that rainfall analysis using GIS application is efficient to be used in gaining information of rainfall patterns as the results show that the highest rainfall occurred in 2006 and 2007, and it were the years of major floods occurrence in Batu Pahat district.

  20. Systems Thinking: An Approach for Advancing Workplace Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary M.; Howard, Zaana

    2008-01-01

    As the importance of information literacy has gained increased recognition, so too have academic library professionals intensified their efforts to champion, activate, and advance these capabilities in others. To date, however, little attention has focused on advancing these essential competencies amongst practitioner advocates. This paper helps…

  1. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Governing the Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter, Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1016 Advance information concerning...

  2. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de

  3. The Role of Intelligent Agents in Advanced Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerschberg, Larry

    1999-01-01

    In this presentation we review the current ongoing research within George Mason University's (GMU) Center for Information Systems Integration and Evolution (CISE). We define characteristics of advanced information systems, discuss a family of agents for such systems, and show how GMU's Domain modeling tools and techniques can be used to define a product line Architecture for configuring NASA missions. These concepts can be used to define Advanced Engineering Environments such as those envisioned for NASA's new initiative for intelligent design and synthesis environments.

  4. Use of geographic information systems for assessing groundwater pollution potential by pesticides in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thapinta, Anat; Hudak, Paul F

    2003-04-01

    This study employed geographic information systems (GIS) technology to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater to pesticide pollution in Thailand. The study area included three provinces, Kanchana Buri, Ratcha Buri, and Suphan Buri, located in west-central Thailand. Factors used for the vulnerability assessment included soil texture, slope, land use, well depth, and rainfall. These vulnerability factors were reclassified to a common scale, and a weighted average was computed to yield a vulnerability score. Vulnerability factors and weights were assigned considering pesticide concentrations in 90 wells throughout the study area. Well depth was the most significant vulnerability factor. Groundwater vulnerability maps were generated for several pesticides. The eastern, agricultural part of the study area has relatively deep wells and fine soils. Shallow wells are present in the mountainous west; however, fewer pesticides are applied in that region. Consequently, much of the study area had a medium groundwater vulnerability rating, although there were pockets of high vulnerability, for example, in agricultural areas with shallow wells. The groundwater vulnerability maps are effective for identifying locations warranting more detailed groundwater pollution and vulnerability investigations.

  5. The use of geographic information systems technology for salmon habitat analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Gordon, J.V.; Mavros, W.V.; Perry, E.M.; Pinney, C.

    1994-04-01

    Although Geographic Information Systems (GISs) have traditionally been used to analyze terrestrial animal habitats, identify migration patterns, and monitor ecosystems, they have rarely been used to understand aquatic species. The US Army Corps of Engineers is working with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other government agencies to exploit GIS technology for improving the survival of threatened and endangered salmon in the Snake River in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The customized GIS will be used to map the physical environment of the river, to map the current biological environment, and to analyze potential impacts to both of these environments from several mitigation options. Data in both digital and textual formats have been obtained from scientists across the Pacific Northwest who are analyzing the habitats, limnology, and hydrology of the Snake River. The mitigation options focus on studying the effects of lowering the reservoirs of the Snake River in an effort to speed juvenile salmon towards the ocean. The hypothesis being examined is that faster juvenile salmon travel to the ocean may result in higher juvenile survival and greater smolt-to-adult return ratios. Lowering the Snake River reservoirs is expected to have a variety of impacts to the physical environment, including changes to water velocity, temperature, dissolved gasses, and turbidity. Each of these potential changes is being examined to assess their effects on the surrounding terrestrial wildlife and on both the anadromous and resident fish of the Snake River.

  6. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J.; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  7. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns.

  8. Using Blood Informative Transcripts in Geographical Genomics: Impact of Lifestyle on Gene Expression in Fijians

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Artika Praveeta; Arafat, Dalia; Gibson, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In previous geographical genomics studies of the impact of lifestyle on gene expression inferred from microarray analysis of peripheral blood samples, we described the complex influences of culture, ethnicity, and gender in Morocco, and of pregnancy in Brisbane. Here we describe the use of nanofluidic Fluidigm quantitative RT-PCR arrays targeted at a set of 96 transcripts that are broadly informative of the major axes of immune gene expression, to explore the population structure of transcription in Fiji. As in Morocco, major differences are seen between the peripheral blood transcriptomes of rural villagers and residents of the capital city, Suva. The effect is much greater in Indian villages than in Melanesian highlanders and appears to be similar with respect to the nature of at least two axes of variation. Gender differences are much smaller than ethnicity or lifestyle effects. Body mass index is shown to associate with one of the axes as it does in Atlanta and Brisbane, establishing a link between the epidemiological transition of human metabolic disease, and gene expression profiles. PMID:23162571

  9. Geographical Information Systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M V; Sainz-Elipe, S; Nieto, P; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

    2005-03-01

    The WHO recognises Fasciola hepatica to be an important human health problem. The Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia and Chile are those most severely affected by this distomatosis, though areas of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we present results of use of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) forecast model to conduct an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the central part of the Andes mountains. The GIS approach enabled us to develop a spatial and temporal epidemiological model to map the disease in the areas studied and to classify transmission risk into low, moderate and high risk areas so that areas requiring the implementation of control activities can be identified. Current results are available on a local scale for: (1) the northern Bolivian Altiplano, (2) Puno in the Peruvian Altiplano, (3) the Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and (4) the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay, Cotopaxi and Imbabura. Analysis of results demonstrated the validity of a forecast model that combines use of climatic data to calculate of forecast indices with remote sensing data, through the classification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps.

  10. A female black bear denning habitat model using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Hayes, S.G.; Pledger, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic and a raster geographic information system (GIS) to model potential black bear (Ursus americanus) denning habitat in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The Mahalanobis distance statistic was used to represent the standard squared distance between sample variates in the GIS database (forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and forest cover richness) and variates at known bear dens. Two models were developed: a generalized model for all den locations and another specific to dens in rock cavities. Differences between habitat at den sites and habitat across the study area were represented in 2 new GIS themes as Mahalanobis distance values. Cells similar to the mean vector derived from the known dens had low Mahalanobis distance values, and dissimilar cells had high values. The reliability of the predictive model was tested by overlaying den locations collected subsequent to original model development on the resultant den habitat themes. Although the generalized model demonstrated poor reliability, the model specific to rock dens had good reliability. Bears were more likely to choose rock den locations with low Mahalanobis distance values and less likely to choose those with high values. The model can be used to plan the timing and extent of management actions (e.g., road building, prescribed fire, timber harvest) most appropriate for those sites with high or low denning potential. 

  11. Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83 cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27 cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to "jump" between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians.

  12. Spatial analysis of lettuce downy mildew using geostatistics and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, B M; van Bruggen, A H; Subbarao, K V; Pennings, G G

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT The epidemiology of lettuce downy mildew has been investigated extensively in coastal California. However, the spatial patterns of the disease and the distance that Bremia lactucae spores can be transported have not been determined. During 1995 to 1998, we conducted several field- and valley-scale surveys to determine spatial patterns of this disease in the Salinas valley. Geostatistical analyses of the survey data at both scales showed that the influence range of downy mildew incidence at one location on incidence at other locations was between 80 and 3,000 m. A linear relationship was detected between semivariance and lag distance at the field scale, although no single statistical model could fit the semi-variograms at the valley scale. Spatial interpolation by the inverse distance weighting method with a power of 2 resulted in plausible estimates of incidence throughout the valley. Cluster analysis in geographic information systems on the interpolated disease incidence from different dates demonstrated that the Salinas valley could be divided into two areas, north and south of Salinas City, with high and low disease pressure, respectively. Seasonal and spatial trends along the valley suggested that the distinction between the downy mildew conducive and nonconducive areas might be determined by environmental factors.

  13. Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling approach to determine the fastest delivery routes.

    PubMed

    Abousaeidi, Mohammad; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Muhamad, Rusnah

    2016-09-01

    This study involves the adoption of the Geographic Information System (GIS) modeling approach to determine the quickest routes for fresh vegetable delivery. During transport, fresh vegetables mainly deteriorate on account of temperature and delivery time. Nonetheless, little attention has been directed to transportation issues in most areas within Kuala Lumpur. In addition, perishable food normally has a short shelf life, thus timely delivery significantly affects delivery costs. Therefore, selecting efficient routes would consequently reduce the total transportation costs. The regression model is applied in this study to determine the parameters that affect route selection with respect to the fastest delivery of fresh vegetables. For the purpose of this research, ArcGIS software with network analyst extension is adopted to solve the problem of complex networks. The final output of this research is a map of quickest routes with the best delivery times based on all variables. The variables tested from regression analysis are the most effective parameters to make the flow of road networks slower. The objective is to improve the delivery services by achieving the least drive time. The main findings of this research are that Land use such as residential area and population as variables are the effective parameters on drive time.

  14. Using a geographic information system (GIS) to assess pediatric surge potential after an earthquake.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) and geospatial technology (GT) can help hospitals improve plans for postdisaster surge by assessing numbers of potential patients in a catchment area and providing estimates of special needs populations, such as pediatrics. In this study, census-derived variables are computed for blockgroups within a 3-mile radius from Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) and from Los Angeles County-University of Southern California (LAC-USC) Medical Center. Landslide and liquefaction zones are overlaid on US Census Bureau blockgroups. Units that intersect with the hazard zones are selected for computation of pediatric surge potential in case of an earthquake. In addition, cartographic visualization and cluster analysis are performed on the entire 3-mile study area to identify hot spots of socially vulnerable populations. The results suggest the need for locally specified vulnerability models for pediatric populations. GIS and GT have untapped potential to contribute local specificity to planning for surge potential after a disaster. Although this case focuses on an earthquake hazard, the methodology is appropriate for an all-hazards approach. With the advent of Google Earth, GIS output can now be easily shared with medical personnel for broader application and improvement in planning.

  15. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  16. Utilizing geographic information systems technology in the Wyoming cumulative hydrologic impact assessment modeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Hamerlinck, J.D.; Oakleaf, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The coal-permitting process places heavy demands on both permit applicants and regulatory authorities with respect to the management and analysis of hydrologic data. Currently, this correlation is being addressed for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming by the ongoing Cumulative Hydrologic Impact Assessment (CHIA) efforts at the University of Wyoming. One critical component of the CHIA is the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) for support, management, manipulation, pre-analysis, and display of data associated with the chosen groundwater and surface water models. This paper will discuss the methodology in using of GIS technology as an integrated tool with the MODFLOW and HEC-1 hydrologic models. Pre-existing GIS links associated with these two models served as a foundation for this effort. However, due to established standards and site specific factors, substantial modifications were performed on existing tools to obtain adequate results. The groundwater-modeling effort required the use of a refined grid in which cell sizes varied based on the relative locations of ongoing mining activities. Surface water modeling was performed in a semi-arid region with very limited topographic relief and predominantly ephemeral stream channels. These were substantial issues that presented challenges for effective GIS/model integration.

  17. Systematic plan of building Web geographic information system based on ActiveX control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Deren; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Nengcheng

    2003-03-01

    A systematic plan of building Web Geographic Information System (WebGIS) using ActiveX technology is proposed in this paper. In the proposed plan, ActiveX control technology is adopted in building client-side application, and two different schemas are introduced to implement communication between controls in users¡ browser and middle application server. One is based on Distribute Component Object Model (DCOM), the other is based on socket. In the former schema, middle service application is developed as a DCOM object that communicates with ActiveX control through Object Remote Procedure Call (ORPC) and accesses data in GIS Data Server through Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). In the latter, middle service application is developed using Java language. It communicates with ActiveX control through socket based on TCP/IP and accesses data in GIS Data Server through Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). The first one is usually developed using C/C++, and it is difficult to develop and deploy. The second one is relatively easy to develop, but its performance of data transfer relies on Web bandwidth. A sample application is developed using the latter schema. It is proved that the performance of the sample application is better than that of some other WebGIS applications in some degree.

  18. Merging LANDSAT Derived Land Covers into Quad-referenced Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. M.; Ragan, R. M.; Lade, K. P.

    1982-01-01

    An approach for merging multiscene LANDSAT data bases into existing geographic information systems having 5-second or smaller cells is described. The approach uses the output from the State of Maryland's UNIVAC 1180-based LANDSAT classification program ASTEP (Algorithm Simulation Test and Evaluation) developed by NASA. The structure of the technique was designed to address the problems that emerged as part of the LANDSAT classification of the 64,000 square mile Chesapeake water shed involving twelve scenes. The removal of overlap among adjacent scenes, the crossreferencing of ground control points, and the isolation of the appropriate pixels from the LANDSAT data base for subsequent positioning into a file containing ancillary data referenced to a specific USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle sheet are described. Examples illustrate the clustering of classified LANDSAT pixels to define the dominant land use for each of 8,100 cells within a series of quadrangle sheets distributed over the State of Maryland. The approach uses a hard copy terminal tied to an ASTEP algorithm through telephone lines. A coordinate digitizing board for inputing the position of ground control points is also valuable, although manual measurements are possible. The approach is quite efficient and should be especially attractive for use on regional scale studies.

  19. A Geographic Information System framework for the dataset visualization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shufean, Md Abu

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), collecting data from sensor nodes and analyzing them is a challenging task. A Geographic Information System (GIS) could be a better way to analyze, manage, and represent the dataset collected by sensor nodes. Motivated by these considerations, we proposed a system to visualize the WSN dataset in real time using a software implementation of the GIS framework called ArcGIS. In this research, we have implemented our proposed system where a couple of sensor nodes has been deployed to collect Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and water pH value continuously from the John Gray Center pond of Lamar University. To keep track of each sensor node we have accumulated their precise location, sensing time, and corresponding data in our lab. After analyzing couple of data storing technique, we have decided to use PostGIS (a geospatial database) to store data and developed an ArcGIS centric application. Finally, with the help of that application, a web map was designed combining all different data source layers for end users where all the technical details have been encapsulated behind a base map. This web map has been hosted in a web server so that users sitting in any location can easily access and visualize desired data with a real time update. This research work has been supported by National Science Foundation under Grants CNS-0922888 and CNS-1427838.

  20. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  1. Landslide hazard and risk assessment for Ambon city using landslide inventory and geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souisa, Matheus; Hendrajaya, Lilik; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Ambon Island is a volcanic islands arc and included in the territory of the archipelago of small islands are associated with subduction zones that have a degree of high vulnerability to natural disasters, such as erosion and landslides on the slopes of certain conditions. Landslides that occur various in the city of Ambon, usually occurs during the rainy season so that the impacts that occur not only occurs on site but also off site with amount of large sedimentation. This paper presents the application of digital image analysis techniques and tools Geographic Information Systems to describe the degree of landslide hazard and risk areas in locations Ambon City, Moluccas. The cause of the landslide is analyzed through various thematic layers attribute data for the study area. Landslide hazard zonation assessment is done by using historical data, while the landslide risk analysis is done by using the results of landslide hazard assessment and socioeconomic factors by using geospatial models. The risk assessment of landslides can be used to estimate the risk to the population, property and infrastructure. The study results in the form of a map of landslide hazard and the risk of landslides that act to support urban spatial planning based on disaster mitigation.

  2. Evacuation time estimate for total pedestrian evacuation using a queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bharat; Simini, Filippo; Johansson, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a nontrivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow, and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, the number of evacuees, and the resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). Using volunteered geographic information, we divide 50 United Kingdom cities into a total of 704 catchment areas (CAs) which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. 90% of the agents are within ≈6 ,847 m of CA exit nodes with ≈13 ,778 agents/CA. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node, and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in a free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based "queuing network" model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETEs. This relationship could enable emergency planners to make a rapid appraisal of evacuation strategies and help support decisions in the run up to a crisis.

  3. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M.

    2016-01-01

    Because 222Rn is a progeny of 238U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. PMID:26472478

  4. Using geographic information systems in the delineation of wellhead protection areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, J.M. . Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.); Horton, C.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    The 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act established the nationwide wellhead protection program to be administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although individual states have the responsibility to implement wellhead protection, the US EPA provides technical guidance, and approves each wellhead protection plan prepared by the states. A major aspect of wellhead protection strategies is the delineation of wellhead protection areas. These are zones around municipal water supply wells that receive special land use considerations intended to minimize the threat of contamination of the wells. The US EPA has recommended several technical approaches to delineating wellhead protection areas, ranging in sophistication from simple concentric circles around wells to irregular areas determined from groundwater flow and transport analyses. Regardless of the wellhead protection area delineation technique, the resulting area surrounding the municipal well must be accurately mapped. A geographic information system (GIS) approach to mapping the results of wellhead protection area delineation is demonstrated. Using hypothetical groundwater flow regimes, each EPA recommended approach to wellhead protection area delineation is presented in a GIS format. A visual comparison of delineation techniques in terms of area and configuration of the resulting wellhead protection areas is made. Finally, the advantages of using a GIS for representing wellhead protection areas is provided.

  5. Digital terrain model (DTM) integration and three-dimensional query spaces in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Schmidt, Dieter

    1994-08-01

    The integration of digital terrain models (DTM) in geographic information systems (GIS) implies automatically an extension of the GIS reference surface and its query space. It is trivial that a DTM is the natural boundary representation of the earth's surface. Man-made objects, for instance homes, streets, bridges, dams should be considered in a second step because these objects cannot be represented well by boundary surfaces. The link of these objects to DTM can be realized by keys and pointers. Therefore, an efficient DTM integration in GIS is the first task to be solved. The paper introduces DTM data structures represented by NIAM diagrams. Using the entity-relationship model these diagrams are very capable to describe the power of relations. Next a 3-D query space is defined keeping in mind 3-D coordinates and 2- D topological elements. Based on this query space spatial operators are derived which fit in standard SQL vocabulary. The implementation part of the paper uses the exodus storage manger to map the DTM of the Federal State Baden-Wurrtemberg in a spatial database system.

  6. Verification of a national water data base using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX) was developed to assist users of water-resource data in the identification, location, and acquisition of data. The Master Water Data Index (MWDI) of NAWDEX currently indexes the data collected by 423 organizations from nearly 500,000 sites throughout the United Stales. The utilization of new computer technologies permit the distribution of the MWDI to the public on compact disc. In addition, geographic information systems (GIS) are now available that can store and analyze these data in a spatial format. These recent innovations could increase access and add new capabilities to the MWDI. Before either of these technologies could be employed, however, a quality-assurance check of the MWDI needed to be performed. The MWDI resides on a mainframe computer in a tabular format. It was copied onto a workstation and converted to a GIS format. The GIS was used to identify errors in the MWDI and produce reports that summarized these errors. The summary reports were sent to the responsible contributing agencies along with instructions for submitting their corrections to the NAWDEX Program Office. The MWDI administrator received reports that summarized all of the errors identified. Of the 494,997 sites checked, 93,440 sites had at least one error (18.9 percent error rate).

  7. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    PubMed

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  8. Feasibility of Close-Range Photogrammetric Models for Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Luke; /Rice U.

    2011-06-22

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close-range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model was not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  10. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  11. Regression modeling of streamflow, baseflow, and runoff using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanhong; Day, Rick L

    2009-02-01

    Regression models for predicting total streamflow (TSF), baseflow (TBF), and storm runoff (TRO) are needed for water resource planning and management. This study used 54 streams with >20 years of streamflow gaging station records during the period October 1971 to September 2001 in Pennsylvania and partitioned TSF into TBF and TRO. TBF was considered a surrogate of groundwater recharge for basins. Regression models for predicting basin-wide TSF, TBF, and TRO were developed under three scenarios that varied in regression variables used for model development. Regression variables representing basin geomorphological, geological, soil, and climatic characteristics were estimated using geographic information systems. All regression models for TSF, TBF, and TRO had R(2) values >0.94 and reasonable prediction errors. The two best TSF models developed under scenarios 1 and 2 had similar absolute prediction errors. The same was true for the two best TBF models. Therefore, any one of the two best TSF and TBF models could be used for respective flow prediction depending on variable availability. The TRO model developed under scenario 1 had smaller absolute prediction errors than that developed under scenario 2. Simplified Area-alone models developed under scenario 3 might be used when variables for using best models are not available, but had lower R(2) values and higher or more variable prediction errors than the best models.

  12. Spatiotemporal change and ecological modelling of malaria in Turkey by means of geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hakan Mete; Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit

    2010-11-01

    We described the spatiotemporal change of malaria (Plasmodium vivax) in Turkey over 34 years (1975-2008), and assessed the role of environmental variables in this change. We developed seven 5-year-period raster maps by using geo-referenced malaria case data from the centres of 81 provinces and the kriging method with a spherical variogram model in a geographic information systems (GIS) model. We also modelled malaria incidence in GIS by using our average malaria incidence raster map, and complementary spatial database including the raster map layers of 14 environmental variables. We chose linear regression analysis with backward method to investigate relationships among variables and develop a model. The model was run in GIS to obtain a model incidence raster map. We tested the reliability of the model map by residual statistics, and found the model map dependable. Five-year-period maps revealed that the distribution of malaria cases moved from the East Mediterranean region to the Southeast Anatolia region due to changing human activities. The latitude, minimum temperature, distance to seas and elevation variables were found to have significant impacts on malaria. Consequently, the model incidence map established a good background for early warning systems to predict epidemics of malaria following environmental changes.

  13. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis.

  14. Developing geospatial thinking and the science practices of investigation and evalutation with geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kelli

    Geospatial thinking is a subset of spatial thinking, which has been identified by the National Geography Standards as an essential skill for students to gain through geography instruction (Heffron & Downs, 2013). One tool which has been shown to help students develop their geospatial thinking skills is Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (Kim & Bednraz, 2013; Lee & Bednarz, 2009; Patterson, 2007). Much of the research conducted with GIS has been in the context of social studies classrooms. This study examined the use of GIS with seventh grade students in a science classroom. Results of this study indicate that students who use GIS as part of their science instruction are able to practice geospatial thinking skills. In addition, this study examined how GIS could be used to enhance the instruction of the science practices of investigation and evaluation. The Next Generation Science Standards identify certain science practices which students should experience as part of science instruction (NGSS Lead States, 2013). Among those practices are investigation and evaluation. Students in this study used GIS to investigate and evaluate scientific data. Both the teacher and the students were able to identify ways that GIS enhanced both the investigation and evaluation of data.

  15. A Geographic Information System procedure to quantify drainage-basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The Basin Characteristics System (BCS) has been developed to quantify characteristics of a drainage basin. The first of four main BCS processing steps creates four geographic information system (GIS) digital maps representing the drainage divide, the drainage network, elevation contours, and the basin length. The drainage divide and basin length are manually digitized from 1:250,000-scale topographic maps. The drainage network is extracted using GIS software from 1:100,000-scale digital line graph data. The elevation contours are generated using GIS software from 1:250,000-scale digital elevation model data. The second and third steps use software developed to assign attributes to specific features in three of the four digital maps and analyze the four maps to quantify 24 morphometric basin characteristics. The fourth step quantifies two climatic characteristics from digitized State maps of precipitation data. Compared to manual methods of measurement, the BCS provides a reduction in the time required to quantify the 26 basin characteristics. Comparison tests indicate the BCS measurements are not significantly different from manual topographic-map measurements for 11 of 12 primary drainage-basin characteristics. Tests indicate the BCS significantly underestimates basin slope. Comparison-measurement differences for basin slope, main channel slope, and basin relief appear to be due to limitations in the digital elevation model data.

  16. Geographical information system approaches for hazard mapping of dilute lahars on Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnell, A. R.; Barclay, J.; Herd, R. A.; Phillips, J. C.; Lovett, A. A.; Cole, P.

    2012-08-01

    Many research tools for lahar hazard assessment have proved wholly unsuitable for practical application to an active volcanic system where field measurements are challenging to obtain. Two simple routing models, with minimal data demands and implemented in a geographical information system (GIS), were applied to dilute lahars originating from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Single-direction flow routing by path of steepest descent, commonly used for simulating normal stream-flow, was tested against LAHARZ, an established lahar model calibrated for debris flows, for ability to replicate the main flow routes. Comparing the ways in which these models capture observed changes, and how the different modelled paths deviate can also provide an indication of where dilute lahars, do not follow behaviour expected from single-phase flow models. Data were collected over two field seasons and provide (1) an overview of gross morphological change after one rainy season, (2) details of dominant channels at the time of measurement, and (3) order of magnitude estimates of individual flow volumes. Modelling results suggested both GIS-based predictive tools had associated benefits. Dominant flow routes observed in the field were generally well-predicted using the hydrological approach with a consideration of elevation error, while LAHARZ was comparatively more successful at mapping lahar dispersion and was better suited to long-term hazard assessment. This research suggests that end-member models can have utility for first-order dilute lahar hazard mapping.

  17. The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

    2008-10-01

    This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

  18. The application of geographical information systems to important public health problems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanser, Frank C; Le Sueur, David

    2002-12-09

    Africa is generally held to be in crisis, and the quality of life for the majority of the continent's inhabitants has been declining in both relative and absolute terms. In addition, the majority of the world's disease burden is realised in Africa. Geographical information systems (GIS) technology, therefore, is a tool of great inherent potential for health research and management in Africa. The spatial modelling capacity offered by GIS is directly applicable to understanding the spatial variation of disease, and its relationship to environmental factors and the health care system. Whilst there have been numerous critiques of the application of GIS technology to developed world health problems it has been less clear whether the technology is both applicable and sustainable in an African setting. If the potential for GIS to contribute to health research and planning in Africa is to be properly evaluated then the technology must be applicable to the most pressing health problems in the continent. We briefly outline the work undertaken in HIV, malaria and tuberculosis (diseases of significant public health impact and contrasting modes of transmission), outline GIS trends relevant to Africa and describe some of the obstacles to the sustainable implementation of GIS. We discuss types of viable GIS applications and conclude with a discussion of the types of African health problems of particular relevance to the application of GIS.

  19. Geographic information system as country-level development and monitoring tool, Senegal example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Donald G.; Howard, Stephen M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) allow an investigator the capability to merge and analyze numerous types of country-level resource data. Hypothetical resource analysis applications in Senegal were conducted to illustrate the utility of a GIS for development planning and resource monitoring. Map and attribute data for soils, vegetation, population, infrastructure, and administrative units were merged to form a database within a GIS. Several models were implemented using a GIS to: analyze development potential for sustainable dryland agriculture; prioritize where agricultural development should occur based upon a regional food budget; and monitor dynamic events with remote sensing. The steps for implementing a GIS analysis are described and illustrated, and the use of a GIS for conducting an economic analysis is outlined. Using a GIS for analysis and display of results opens new methods of communication between resource scientists and decision makers. Analyses yielding country-wide map output and detailed statistical data for each level of administration provide the advantage of a single system that can serve a variety of users.

  20. Geographic information system for improving maternal and newborn health: recommendations for policy and programs.

    PubMed

    Molla, Yordanos B; Rawlins, Barbara; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Cunningham, Marc; Ávila, Juan Eugenio Hernández; Ruktanonchai, Corrine Warren; Singh, Kavita; Alford, Sylvia; Thompson, Mira; Dwivedi, Vikas; Moran, Allisyn C; Matthews, Zoe

    2017-01-11

    This correspondence argues and offers recommendations for how Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to maternal and newborn health data could potentially be used as part of the broader efforts for ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality. These recommendations were generated from a technical consultation on reporting and mapping maternal deaths that was held in Washington, DC from January 12 to 13, 2015 and hosted by the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) global Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP). Approximately 72 participants from over 25 global health organizations, government agencies, donors, universities, and other groups participated in the meeting.The meeting placed emphases on how improved use of mapping could contribute to the post-2015 United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agenda in general and to contribute to better maternal and neonatal health outcomes in particular. Researchers and policy makers have been calling for more equitable improvement in Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH), specifically addressing hard-to-reach populations at sub-national levels. Data visualization using mapping and geospatial analyses play a significant role in addressing the emerging need for improved spatial investigation at subnational scale. This correspondence identifies key challenges and recommendations so GIS may be better applied to maternal health programs in resource poor settings. The challenges and recommendations are broadly grouped into three categories: ancillary geospatial and MNH data sources, technical and human resources needs and community participation.

  1. Watersheds of the Oak Ridge Reservation in a geographic information system

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.

    1998-05-01

    This work develops a comprehensive set of watershed definitions for the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area. A stream-ordering system is defined based upon the method proposed by Strahler (1952) and using 1:24,000 scale US Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps and the locally standard S-16A Map (USGS 1987) as sources for topographic contours and locations of streams as recommended by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS 1995). For each ordered stream, a contributing watershed or catchment area is delineated and digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), generating over 900 watershed polygons of various orders. This new dataset complements a growing database of georeferenced environmental and cultural data which exist for the Oak Ridge area and are routinely used for socioeconomic and environmental analyses. Because these watersheds are now available in a GIS format, they may be used in a variety of hydrologic analyses, including rainfall/runoff modeling, development of geomorphological parameters, and the modeling of contaminant transport in surface waters. An understanding of the relationships of watersheds to sources of contamination and to administrative and political boundaries is also essential in land use planning and the organization of environmental restoration and waste management activities.

  2. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J; Aday, D Derek; Cope, W Gregory; Kullman, Seth; Rice, James A; Kwak, Thomas J; Law, Mac

    2015-02-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  3. Algorithm for shortest path search in Geographic Information Systems by using reduced graphs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Puente, Rafael; Lazo-Cortés, Manuel S

    2013-01-01

    The use of Geographic Information Systems has increased considerably since the eighties and nineties. As one of their most demanding applications we can mention shortest paths search. Several studies about shortest path search show the feasibility of using graphs for this purpose. Dijkstra's algorithm is one of the classic shortest path search algorithms. This algorithm is not well suited for shortest path search in large graphs. This is the reason why various modifications to Dijkstra's algorithm have been proposed by several authors using heuristics to reduce the run time of shortest path search. One of the most used heuristic algorithms is the A* algorithm, the main goal is to reduce the run time by reducing the search space. This article proposes a modification of Dijkstra's shortest path search algorithm in reduced graphs. It shows that the cost of the path found in this work, is equal to the cost of the path found using Dijkstra's algorithm in the original graph. The results of finding the shortest path, applying the proposed algorithm, Dijkstra's algorithm and A* algorithm, are compared. This comparison shows that, by applying the approach proposed, it is possible to obtain the optimal path in a similar or even in less time than when using heuristic algorithms.

  4. The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of geographic information science to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S Morad; Fiedler, Robert; Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard K

    2008-10-01

    Despite important advances in the prevention and treatment of trauma, preventable injuries continue to impact the lives of millions of people. Motor vehicle collisions and violence claim close to 3 million lives each year worldwide. Public health agencies have promoted the need for systematic and ongoing surveillance as a foundation for successful injury control. Surveillance has been used to quantify the incidence of injury for the prioritization of further research, monitor trends over time, identify new injury patterns, and plan and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts. Advances in capability to handle spatial data and substantial increases in computing power have positioned geographic information science (GIS) as a potentially important tool for health surveillance and the spatial organization of health care, and for informing prevention and acute care interventions. Two themes emerge in the trauma literature with respect to GIS theory and techniques: identifying determinants associated with the risk of trauma to guide injury prevention efforts and evaluating the spatial organization and accessibility of acute trauma care systems. We review the current literature on trauma and GIS research and provide examples of the importance of accounting for spatial scale when using spatial analysis for surveillance. The examples illustrate the effect of scale on incident analysis, the geographic variation of major injury across British Columbia's health service delivery areas (HSDAs) and the rates of variation of injury within individual HSDAs.

  5. The geovisualisation window of the temporal and spatial variability for Volunteered Geographic Information activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynska-Gulij, Beata; Myszczuk, Miłosz

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an attempt to design geographical visualisation tools that allow to tackle the immensity of spatial data provided by Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both in terms of temporal and spatial aspects. In accordance with the assumptions made at the conceptual stage, the final action was the implementation of the window entitled ‘Geovisualisation of the Panoramio.com Activities in District of Poznan 2011’ into the web browser. The concept has been based on a division of the geovisualisation window into three panels, of which the most important - in order to capture spatial variability - have statistical maps at the general level (dot map and choropleth map), while at the detailed level - a dot map on a topographic reference map or tourist map. For two ranges, temporal variability is presented by graphs, while a review of attributes of individual activities of the social website in question is set forward in the table panel. The element that visually interlinks all of the panels is the emphasised individual activity. Problemem podjetym w tych badaniach stało sie wykorzystanie metod z nurtu geograficznej wizualizacji do wskazania cech fenomenu VGI w zakresie zmiennosci czasowo-przestrzennej. Zgodnie z załozeniami poczynionymi w etapie koncepcyjnym finalnym działaniem stało sie zaimplementowanie do przegladarki internetowej okna pod tytułem: ”Geowizualizacja aktywnosci społecznosci Panoramio.com w powiecie poznanskim w 2011 roku”. Koncepcja została oparta na podziale okna geowizualizacji na trzy panele, z których najwazniejsze znaczenie dla uchwycenia zmiennosci przestrzennej na poziomie ogólnym ma kartogram, natomiast na poziomie szczegółowym mapa kropkowa wyswietlana na podkładzie mapy topograficznej lub turystycznej. Zmiennosc czasowa w dwóch zakresach prezentuja wykresy, a przeglad atrybutów poszczególnych aktywnosci prezentowanego portalu społecznosciowego zapewnia tabela. Elementem spajajacym wizualnie wszystkie

  6. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high

  7. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  8. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess Site Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge using Stormwater Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, E. K.; Harmon, R. E.; Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Weir, W. B.; Lozano, S.

    2015-12-01

    We are completing a regional analysis of Santa Cruz and northern Monterey Counties, CA, to assess the conditions amenable to managed aquifer recharge using stormwater runoff. Communities and water supply agencies across CA are struggling to mitigate the ongoing drought and to develop secure and sustainable water supplies to support long-term municipal, agricultural, environmental and other needs. Enhanced storage of groundwater is an important part of this effort in many basins. This work is especially timely because of the recently enacted "Sustainable Groundwater Management Act" (SGMA), which requires the development of groundwater sustainability agencies and implementation of basin management plans in coming decades. Our analysis focuses specifically on the distributed collection of stormwater runoff, a water source that has typically been treated as a nuisance or waste, from drainages having an area on the order of 40-160 hectares. The first part of this project is a geographic information system (GIS) analysis using surface and subsurface data sets. Developing complete and accurate datasets across the study region required considerable effort to locate, assemble, co-register, patch, and reconcile information from many sources and scales. We have complete spatial coverage for surface data, but subsurface data is more limited in lateral extent. Sites that are most suitable for distributed stormwater capture supporting MAR have high soil infiltration capacity, are well-connected to an underlying aquifer with good transmissive and storage properties, and have space to receive MAR. Additional considerations include method of infiltration, slope, and land use and access. Based on initial consideration of surface data and slope, 7% of the complete study region appears to be "suitable or highly suitable" for MAR (in the top third of the rating system), but there is considerable spatial heterogeneity based on the distribution of shallow soils and bedrock geology.

  9. Study on advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    1992-01-01

    Issues related to the reliability of a redundant system with large main memory are addressed. In particular, the Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for Advanced Launch System (ALS) is used as a basis for our presentation. When the system is free of latent faults, the probability of system crash due to nearly-coincident channel faults is shown to be insignificant even when the outputs of computing channels are infrequently voted on. In particular, using channel error maskers (CEMs) is shown to improve reliability more effectively than increasing the number of channels for applications with long mission times. Even without using a voter, most memory errors can be immediately corrected by CEMs implemented with conventional coding techniques. In addition to their ability to enhance system reliability, CEMs--with a low hardware overhead--can be used to reduce not only the need of memory realignment, but also the time required to realign channel memories in case, albeit rare, such a need arises. Using CEMs, we have developed two schemes, called Scheme 1 and Scheme 2, to solve the memory realignment problem. In both schemes, most errors are corrected by CEMs, and the remaining errors are masked by a voter.

  10. Scaling Up: Faculty Workload, Class Size, and Student Satisfaction in a Distance Learning Course on Geographic Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibiase, David; Rademacher, Henry J.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores issues of scalability and sustainability in distance learning. The authors kept detailed records of time they spent teaching a course in geographic information science via the World Wide Web over a six-month period, during which class sizes averaged 49 students. The authors also surveyed students' satisfaction with the…

  11. The Impact of Geographic Information Systems on Emergency Management Decision Making at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Steven Gray

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) reveal relationships and patterns from large quantities of diverse data in the form of maps and reports. The United States spends billions of dollars to use GIS to improve decisions made during responses to natural disasters and terrorist attacks, but precisely how GIS improves or impairs decision making is not…

  12. Teaching Spatial Analysis in Business: The Case of Geographic Information Systems in a Decision Support Systems Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennecke, Brian E.

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasing in importance as a resource for collecting, managing, and analyzing data pertaining to a variety of business problems. Yet, the number of business schools that have incorporated GIS as a significant part of even one of their core business courses is quite small. Thus, little is known about how to…

  13. Exploring the Characteristics of an Optimal Design for Inquiry-Based Geography Education with Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favier, Tim T.; van der Schee, Joop A.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a kind of computer software that allows people to work with digital maps in a fast and flexible way. In the past decade, more and more geography teachers have become interested in the possibilities of using GIS in secondary education. However, teaching with GIS is complex, and little is known about how to do…

  14. Implementation of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Geography Curriculum in Hong Kong: Current Situations and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi-Chung; Lai, Edith; Wong, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Using geographic information system (GIS) in teaching and learning geography is an important direction in the secondary geography curriculum in Hong Kong. In the present study, interviews were conducted individually with 28 geography teachers from different secondary schools in Hong Kong, with a view to finding their views on the inclusion of GIS…

  15. GIS in the Classroom: Using Geographic Information Systems in Social Studies and Environmental Science. [with CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a computer application for urban planning, weather reporting, and geological and demographic studies. This book takes teachers and students to the cutting edge of teaching social studies and environmental education using GIS. Students can use GIS as a tool to explore, question, integrate, analyze, interpret,…

  16. Evaluation of the 3d Urban Modelling Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (3D) modeling of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The modeling of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in 3D by using computer systems. 3D models are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of 3D models for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, 3D City models are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the models vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of 3D city models are called as abstract models. Standardization of technologies used for 3D modeling is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets

  17. Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

    2008-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable

  18. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Michael I.; Lecun, Yann; Solla, Sara A.

    2001-11-01

    The annual conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) is the flagship conference on neural computation. The conference is interdisciplinary, with contributions in algorithms, learning theory, cognitive science, neuroscience, vision, speech and signal processing, reinforcement learning and control, implementations, and diverse applications. Only about 30 percent of the papers submitted are accepted for presentation at NIPS, so the quality is exceptionally high. This CD-ROM contains the entire proceedings of the twelve Neural Information Processing Systems conferences from 1988 to 1999. The files are available in the DjVu image format developed by Yann LeCun and his group at AT&T Labs. The CD-ROM includes free browsers for all major platforms. Michael I. Jordan is Professor of Computer Science and of Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley. Yann LeCun is Head of the Image Processing Research Department at AT&T Labs-Research. Sara A. Solla is Professor of Physics and of Physiology at Northwestern University.

  19. Spatial data in geographic information system format on agricultural chemical use, land use, cropping practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial data in geographic information system format described in this report consist of estimates for all counties in the conterminous United States of the annual use of 96 herbicides in 1989; annual sales of nitrogen fertilizer, in tons, for 1985-91; and agricultural expenses, land use, chemical use, livestock holdings, and cropping practices in 1987. The source information, originally in tabular form, is summarized as digital polygon attribute data in the 18 geographic information system spatial data layers (coverages) provided. The information in these coverages can be used in estimating regional agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices and in producing visual displays and mapping relative rates of agricultural-chemical use or agricultural practices across broad regions of the United States.

  20. Report on New Methods for Representing and Interacting with Qualitative Geographic Information, Stage 2: Task Group 4 Message-Focused Use Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-17

    New Methods for Representing and Interacting with Qualitative Geographic Information Contract #: W912HZ-12-P-0334 Contract Period: July 1, 2014...Penn State University Report on New Methods for Representing and Interacting with Qualitative Geographic Information , Stage 2: Task Group...this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data

  1. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  2. On the Applicability of Geographic Information Systems for Landing-Site Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, S.

    2013-09-01

    As of 2013, a total number of 45 autonomous lander, sample-return or rover missions have been launched to the Moon, Venus, Mars, and Titan since 1960. Slightly less than 50% of these attempts were successful (see [4] and compilation in figure 1). Reports of the National Research Council (NRC) or recent surveys and roadmaps of space agencies clearly state the importance of autonomous units operating on the surface of other planets as precursors to in-depth robotic analyses and human exploration [1, 2, 3]. The selection of landing sites for autonomously operating planetary probes is a complex task, mainly because of partial gaps in the determinability of surface properties based on remote-sensing data, but also because scientific as well as engineering aspects need to be co-evaluated to provide a basis for a successful and effective mission-operation with measurable scientific output. Science criteria are always related to a set of (planet-specific) surface investigations conducted at a distinct location. Engineering constraints pick up science criteria and form an additional set of requirements within a geospatial context. This context makes it attractive to make use of established tools to geospatially analyse, define and rate locations in terms of a feasibility and safety assessment for lander or rover operations. For terrestrial applications, integration, analysis and evaluation of data from a geospatial domain are today usually conducted using highly modifiable but generic geographic information system (GIS) technology (GIST). GIS allow us to define workflow models related to geospatially defined data and to extract information from such investigations. We here want to discuss how standard demands as put forward by recent mission-planning scenarios can be evaluated using standard GIST, i.e. we want to define adaptable workflows for solving characteristic problems. As a second aim, such a procedure should provide a basis for discussion on how such systems can

  3. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  4. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR

  5. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  6. Structure and application of an interface program between a geographic-information system and a ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A computer-program interface between a geographic-information system and a groundwater flow model links two unrelated software systems for use in developing the flow models. The interface program allows the modeler to compile and manage geographic components of a groundwater model within the geographic information system. A significant savings of time and effort is realized in developing, calibrating, and displaying the groundwater flow model. Four major guidelines were followed in developing the interface program: (1) no changes to the groundwater flow model code were to be made; (2) a data structure was to be designed within the geographic information system that follows the same basic data structure as the groundwater flow model; (3) the interface program was to be flexible enough to support all basic data options available within the model; and (4) the interface program was to be as efficient as possible in terms of computer time used and online-storage space needed. Because some programs in the interface are written in control-program language, the interface will run only on a computer with the PRIMOS operating system. (USGS)

  7. Determining accessibility to dermatologists and teledermatology locations in Kentucky: demonstration of an innovative geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Gary William; Buker, Carol Marie

    2010-01-01

    Teledermatology provides a partial solution to the problem of accessibility to dermatology services in underserved areas, yet methodologies to determine the locations and geographic dimensions of these areas and the locational efficiency of remote teledermatology sites have been found wanting. This article illustrates an innovative Geographic Information Systems approach using dermatologists' addresses, U.S. Census population data, and the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System. Travel-time-based service areas were calculated and mapped for each dermatologist in the state of Kentucky and for possible locations of several remote teledermatology sites. Populations within the current and possible remote service areas were determined. These populations and associated maps permit assessment of the locational efficiency of the current distribution of dermatologists, location of underserved areas, and the potential contribution of proposed hypothetical teledermatology sites. This approach is a valuable and practical tool for evaluating access to current distributions of dermatologists as well as planning for and implementing teledermatology.

  8. Spatial problem-solving strategies of middle school students: Wayfinding with geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigglesworth, John C.

    2000-06-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful computer software package that emphasizes the use of maps and the management of spatially referenced environmental data archived in a systems data base. Professional applications of GIS have been in place since the 1980's, but only recently has GIS gained significant attention in the K--12 classroom. Students using GIS are able to manipulate and query data in order to solve all manners of spatial problems. Very few studies have examined how this technological innovation can support classroom learning. In particular, there has been little research on how experience in using the software correlates with a child's spatial cognition and his/her ability to understand spatial relationships. This study investigates the strategies used by middle school students to solve a wayfinding (route-finding) problem using the ArcView GIS software. The research design combined an individual background questionnaire, results from the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test, and analysis of reflective think-aloud sessions to define the characteristics of the strategies students' used to solve this particular class of spatial problem. Three uniquely different spatial problem solving strategies were identified. Visual/Concrete Wayfinders used a highly visual strategy; Logical/Abstract Wayfinders used GIS software tools to apply a more analytical and systematic approach; Transitional Wayfinders used an approach that showed evidence of one that was shifting from a visual strategy to one that was more analytical. The triangulation of data sources indicates that this progression of wayfinding strategy can be correlated both to Piagetian stages of logical thought and to experience with the use of maps. These findings suggest that GIS teachers must be aware that their students' performance will lie on a continuum that is based on cognitive development, spatial ability, and prior experience with maps. To be most effective, GIS teaching

  9. Modeling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Greene, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  10. Geographic Information System Technology Leveraged for Crisis Planning, Emergency, Response, and Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A.; Little, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is piloting the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology that can be leveraged for crisis planning, emergency response, and disaster management/awareness. Many different organizations currently use GIS tools and geospatial data during a disaster event. ASDC datasets have not been fully utilized by this community in the past due to incompatible data formats that ASDC holdings are archived in. Through the successful implementation of this pilot effort and continued collaboration with the larger Homeland Defense and Department of Defense emergency management community through the Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data Working Group (HIFLD WG), our data will be easily accessible to those using GIS and increase the ability to plan, respond, manage, and provide awareness during disasters. The HIFLD WG Partnership has expanded to include more than 5,900 mission partners representing the 14 executive departments, 98 agencies, 50 states (and 3 territories), and more than 700 private sector organizations to directly enhance the federal, state, and local government's ability to support domestic infrastructure data gathering, sharing and protection, visualization, and spatial knowledge management.The HIFLD WG Executive Membership is lead by representatives from the Department of Defense (DoD) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas' Security Affairs - OASD (HD&ASA); the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate's Office of Infrastructure Protection (NPPD IP); the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Integrated Working Group - Readiness, Response and Recovery (IWG-R3); the Department of Interior (DOI) United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP), and DHS Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  11. Participatory geographic information systems for agricultural water management scenario development: A Tanzanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinderby, Steve; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Kongo, Victor; Barron, Jennie

    One of the keys to environmental management is to understand the impact and interaction of people with natural resources as a means to improve human welfare and the consequent environmental sustainability for future generations. In terms of water management one of the on-going challenges is to assess what impact interventions in agriculture, and in particularly different irrigation strategies, will have on livelihoods and water resources in the landscape. Whilst global and national policy provide the overall vision of desired outcomes for environmental management, agricultural development and water use strategies they are often presented with local challenges to embed these policies in the reality on the ground, with different stakeholder groups. The concept that government agencies, advocacy organizations, and private citizens should work together to identify mutually acceptable solutions to environmental and water resource issues is increasing in prominence. Participatory spatial engagement techniques linked to geographic information systems (commonly termed participatory GIS (PGIS)) offers one solution to facilitate such stakeholder dialogues in an efficient and consultative manner. In the context of agricultural water management multi-scale PGIS techniques have recently been piloted as part of the ‘Agricultural Water Management Solutions’ project to investigate the current use and dependencies of water by small-holder farmers a watershed in Tanzania. The piloted approach then developed PGIS scenarios describing the effects on livelihoods and water resources in the watershed when introducing different management technologies. These relatively rapid PGIS multi-scale methods show promise for assessing current and possible future agriculture water management technologies in terms of their bio-physical and socio-economic impacts at the watershed scale. The paper discusses the development of the methodology in the context of improved water management decision

  12. Navigability Potential of Washington Rivers and Streams Determined with Hydraulic Geometry and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2009-01-01

    Using discharge and channel geometry measurements from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and data from a geographic information system, regression relations were derived to predict river depth, top width, and bottom width as a function of mean annual discharge for rivers in the State of Washington. A new technique also was proposed to determine bottom width in channels, a parameter that has received relatively little attention in the geomorphology literature. These regression equations, when combined with estimates of mean annual discharge available in the National Hydrography Dataset, enabled the prediction of hydraulic geometry for any stream or river in the State of Washington. Predictions of hydraulic geometry can then be compared to thresholds established by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources to determine navigability potential of rivers. Rivers with a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second or greater are 'probably navigable' and rivers with a mean annual discharge of 360 cubic feet per second or less are 'probably not navigable'. Variance in the dataset, however, leads to a relatively wide range of prediction intervals. For example, although the predicted hydraulic depth at a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second is 3.5 feet, 90-percent prediction intervals indicate that the actual hydraulic depth may range from 1.8 to 7.0 feet. This methodology does not determine navigability - a legal concept determined by federal common law - instead, this methodology is a tool for predicting channel depth, top width, and bottom width for rivers and streams in Washington.

  13. What are we 'tweeting' about obesity? Mapping tweets with Topic Modeling and Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debarchana Debs; Guha, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Public health related tweets are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter.com. Even more challenging is the visualization and analyses of the spatial patterns encoded in tweets. This study has the following objectives: How can topic modeling be used to identify relevant public health topics such as obesity on Twitter.com? What are the common obesity related themes? What is the spatial pattern of the themes? What are the research challenges of using large conversational datasets from social networking sites? Obesity is chosen as a test theme to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and spatial analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS). The dataset is constructed from tweets (originating from the United States) extracted from Twitter.com on obesity-related queries. Examples of such queries are 'food deserts', 'fast food', and 'childhood obesity'. The tweets are also georeferenced and time stamped. Three cohesive and meaningful themes such as 'childhood obesity and schools', 'obesity prevention', and 'obesity and food habits' are extracted from the LDA model. The GIS analysis of the extracted themes show distinct spatial pattern between rural and urban areas, northern and southern states, and between coasts and inland states. Further, relating the themes with ancillary datasets such as US census and locations of fast food restaurants based upon the location of the tweets in a GIS environment opened new avenues for spatial analyses and mapping. Therefore the techniques used in this study provide a possible toolset for computational social scientists in general and health researchers in specific to better understand health problems from large conversational datasets.

  14. Mapping Zika virus infection using geographical information systems in Tolima, Colombia, 2015-2016

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Galindo-Marquez, Maria Leonor; García-Loaiza, Carlos Julian; Sabogal-Roman, Juan Alejandro; Marin-Loaiza, Santiago; Ayala, Andrés Felipe; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O.; Sarmiento-Ospina, Andrea; Vásquez-Serna, Heriberto; Jimenez-Canizales, Carlos E.; Escalera-Antezana, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Geographical information systems (GIS) have been extensively used for the development of epidemiological maps of tropical diseases, however not yet specifically for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Methods: Surveillance case data of the ongoing epidemics of ZIKV in the Tolima department, Colombia (2015-2016) were used to estimate cumulative incidence rates (cases/100,000 pop.) to develop the first maps in the department and its municipalities, including detail for the capital, Ibagué. The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1®. Two thematic maps were developed according to municipality and communes incidence rates. Results: Up to March 5, 2016, 4,094 cases of ZIKV were reported in Tolima, for cumulated rates of 289.9 cases/100,000 pop. (7.95% of the country). Burden of ZIKV infection has been concentrated in its east area, where municipalities have reported >500 cases/100,000 pop. These municipalities are bordered by two other departments, Cundinamarca (3,778 cases) and Huila (5,338 cases), which also have high incidences of ZIKV infection. Seven municipalities of Tolima ranged from 250-499.99 cases/100,000 pop., of this group five border with high incidence municipalities (>250), including the capital, where almost half of the reported cases of ZIKV in Tolima are concentrated. Conclusions: Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps helps to  guide decisions for the prevention and control of diseases that represent significant issues in the region and the country, but also in emerging conditions such as ZIKV. PMID:27134732

  15. A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    PubMed Central

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie; Stellman, Andrew B; Christian, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively limited epidemiologic and environmental research has been carried out on the distribution and health effects of this contamination. As part of a response to a National Academy of Sciences' request for development of exposure methodologies for carrying out epidemiologic research, a conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed. The GIS is based on a relational database system that integrates extensive data resources on dispersal of herbicides (e.g., HERBS records of Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, gallonage, and chemical agent), locations of military units and bases, dynamic movement of combat troops in Vietnam, and locations of civilian population centers. The GIS can provide a variety of proximity counts for exposure to 9,141 herbicide application missions. In addition, the GIS can be used to generate a quantitative exposure opportunity index that accounts for quantity of herbicide sprayed, distance, and environmental decay of a toxic factor such as dioxin, and is flexible enough to permit substitution of other mathematical exposure models by the user. The GIS thus provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies. To facilitate widespread use of the GIS, a user-friendly software package was developed to permit researchers to assign exposure opportunity indexes to troops, locations, or individuals. PMID:12611661

  16. Modeling agricultural nonpoint source pollution using a geographic information system approach.

    PubMed

    Emili, Lisa A; Greene, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients, is the leading source of water-quality impacts to surface waters in North America. The overall goal of this study was to develop geographic information system (GIS) protocols to facilitate the spatial and temporal modeling of changes in soils, hydrology, and land-cover change at the watershed scale. In the first part of this article, we describe the use of GIS to spatially integrate watershed scale data on soil erodibility, land use, and runoff for the assessment of potential source areas within an intensively agricultural watershed. The agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) model was used in the Muddy Creek, Ontario, watershed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in decreasing sediment and nutrient [phosphorus (P)] pollution. This analysis was accompanied by the measurement of water-quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, hardness, alkalinity, and turbidity) as well as sediment and P loadings to the creek. Practices aimed at increasing year-round soil cover would be most effective in decreasing sediment and P losses in this watershed. In the second part of this article, we describe a method for characterizing land-cover change in a dynamic urban fringe watershed. The GIS method we developed for the Blackberry Creek, Illinois, watershed will allow us to better account for temporal changes in land use, specifically corn and soybean cover, on an annual basis and to improve on the modeling of watershed processes shown for the Muddy Creek watershed. Our model can be used at different levels of planning with minimal data preprocessing, easily accessible data, and adjustable output scales.

  17. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  18. A Global User-Driven Model for Tile Prefetching in Web Geographical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Zhang, Hang; Tan, Xicheng

    2017-01-01

    A web geographical information system is a typical service-intensive application. Tile prefetching and cache replacement can improve cache hit ratios by proactively fetching tiles from storage and replacing the appropriate tiles from the high-speed cache buffer without waiting for a client’s requests, which reduces disk latency and improves system access performance. Most popular prefetching strategies consider only the relative tile popularities to predict which tile should be prefetched or consider only a single individual user's access behavior to determine which neighbor tiles need to be prefetched. Some studies show that comprehensively considering all users’ access behaviors and all tiles’ relationships in the prediction process can achieve more significant improvements. Thus, this work proposes a new global user-driven model for tile prefetching and cache replacement. First, based on all users’ access behaviors, a type of expression method for tile correlation is designed and implemented. Then, a conditional prefetching probability can be computed based on the proposed correlation expression mode. Thus, some tiles to be prefetched can be found by computing and comparing the conditional prefetching probability from the uncached tiles set and, similarly, some replacement tiles can be found in the cache buffer according to multi-step prefetching. Finally, some experiments are provided comparing the proposed model with other global user-driven models, other single user-driven models, and other client-side prefetching strategies. The results show that the proposed model can achieve a prefetching hit rate in approximately 10.6% ~ 110.5% higher than the compared methods. PMID:28085937

  19. Mapping malaria in municipalities of the Coffee Triangle region of Colombia using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Orrego-Acevedo, César A; Zambrano-Muñoz, Yazmin; García-Folleco, Francisco J; Herrera-Giraldo, Albert C; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used extensively for the development of epidemiological maps of malaria but not in the Coffee Triangle region of Colombia, endemic for P. vivax, P. falciparum and P. malariae. Surveillance case data (2007-2011) were used to estimate annual incidence rates per Plasmodium spp. (cases/100,000 pop) to develop the first malaria maps in the 53 municipalities of this region (departments Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda). The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1(®). Thirty thematic maps were developed according to the municipalities, years, parasite etiology, and uncomplicated and complicated cases. A total of 6582 cases were reported (6478 uncomplicated and 104 complicated, 77.8% Risaralda), for a cumulated rate of 269.46 cases/100,000 pop. Among uncomplicated cases, 5722 corresponded to P. vivax (234.25 cases/100,000 pop), 475 to P. falciparum (19.45 cases/100,000 pop), 8 to P. malariae (0.33 cases/100,000 pop) and 273 mixed (P. falciparum/P. vivax) (11.18 cases/100,000 pop). The highest rate reported was in the more undeveloped and rural municipality of Risaralda (Pueblo Rico, 57.7 cases/1000 pop, 2009). The burden of disease was concentrated in one department (>75% of the region). The use of GIS-based epidemiological maps helps to guide decision-making for the prevention and control of this public health problem that still represents a significant issue in the region and the country, particularly in children.

  20. On Improving the Quality and Interpretation of Environmental Assessments using Statistical Analysis and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppiah, R.; Faldi, A.; Laurenzi, I.; Usadi, A.; Venkatesh, A.

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of studies are focused on assessing the environmental footprint of different products and processes, especially using life cycle assessment (LCA). This work shows how combining statistical methods and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with environmental analyses can help improve the quality of results and their interpretation. Most environmental assessments in literature yield single numbers that characterize the environmental impact of a process/product - typically global or country averages, often unchanging in time. In this work, we show how statistical analysis and GIS can help address these limitations. For example, we demonstrate a method to separately quantify uncertainty and variability in the result of LCA models using a power generation case study. This is important for rigorous comparisons between the impacts of different processes. Another challenge is lack of data that can affect the rigor of LCAs. We have developed an approach to estimate environmental impacts of incompletely characterized processes using predictive statistical models. This method is applied to estimate unreported coal power plant emissions in several world regions. There is also a general lack of spatio-temporal characterization of the results in environmental analyses. For instance, studies that focus on water usage do not put in context where and when water is withdrawn. Through the use of hydrological modeling combined with GIS, we quantify water stress on a regional and seasonal basis to understand water supply and demand risks for multiple users. Another example where it is important to consider regional dependency of impacts is when characterizing how agricultural land occupation affects biodiversity in a region. We developed a data-driven methodology used in conjuction with GIS to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the impacts of growing different crops on different species in various biomes of the world.

  1. Mapping of groundwater potential zones across Ghana using remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling.

    PubMed

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Pavelic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater development across much of sub-Saharan Africa is constrained by a lack of knowledge on the suitability of aquifers for borehole construction. The main objective of this study was to map groundwater potential at the country-scale for Ghana to identify locations for developing new supplies that could be used for a range of purposes. Groundwater potential zones were delineated using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques drawing from a database that includes climate, geology, and satellite data. Subjective scores and weights were assigned to each of seven key spatial data layers and integrated to identify groundwater potential according to five categories ranging from very good to very poor derived from the total percentage score. From this analysis, areas of very good groundwater potential are estimated to cover 689,680 ha (2.9 % of the country), good potential 5,158,955 ha (21.6 %), moderate potential 10,898,140 ha (45.6 %), and poor/very poor potential 7,167,713 ha (30 %). The results were independently tested against borehole yield data (2,650 measurements) which conformed to the anticipated trend between groundwater potential and borehole yield. The satisfactory delineation of groundwater potential zones through spatial modeling suggests that groundwater development should first focus on areas of the highest potential. This study demonstrates the importance of remote sensing and GIS techniques in mapping groundwater potential at the country-scale and suggests that similar methods could be applied across other African countries and regions.

  2. Analysis of terrains suitable for tourism and recreation by using geographic information system (GIS).

    PubMed

    Aklıbaşında, Meliha; Bulut, Yahya

    2014-09-01

    The use and utilization areas of geographic information system (GIS) increase every day due to both enabling easiness in storing, updating, grouping, analyzing, correlating, and mapping of data about evaluation factors in planning studies and having quite low error margin depending on the accuracy of data stored. In fact, GIS is also used both in visualization and in various analyses in planning tourism terrains. In this study, the effectiveness of GIS on holistic evaluation of natural and cultural resources in planning tourism terrains was analyzed. Natural and cultural resources in Kayseri Yahyalı were quantified by using ArcGIS 9.3 software from GIS software; data were analyzed and potential tourism and recreation terrains, level of suitability, and rate of coverage were determined. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that 11.847 ha area (6,53%) was quite suitable for such kind of activities, 103.010 ha (56,77%) was suitable, 39.278 ha (21,65%) was less suitable, and 27.314 ha area (15,05%) was not suitable. In the next stage, landscape properties which are suitable for tourism and recreation were evaluated and landscape types were classified in the sense of their tourist attraction. It was determined that the water resources and valley landscapes were the basic sources of the tourism and recreation activities of Yahyalı, and it was determined that the landscape of the forest and mountain was important for variety of the tourism and recreation activities of Yahyalı.

  3. Identification of Evacuation Routes in Tacloban City using Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines is the second most at risk to natural hazards according to the 2014 World Risk Report. On 8 November 2013, category 5 Typhoon Haiyan crossed the central region of the Philippines with maximum sustained wind reaching 315 kph. Considered as one of the strongest typhoons that made landfall in recorded history, Typhoon Haiyan caused USD 8 billion damage to properties, 6,293 deaths, 28,689 injured and 1,061 missing persons. Tacloban City, located in the north-eastern part of the island of Leyte in Eastern Visayas region, is one of the area most devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. The city is susceptible to other natural hazards given its geography, topography and geology. This condition emphasizes the need for preventive measures to avoid further loss of lives and destruction to properties. Evacuation is a mitigating strategy which involves the process of moving people from dangerous places to safer locations. Using Geographic Information System (GIS), a multi-hazard map of Tacloban City was created to determine safe areas for evacuation centers. The optimal route for evacuation was identified using ArcGIS Network Analyst's routing solver based on Dijkstra's algorithm. The medium of transportation used in the analysis is by foot with an average speed of 5.0 kph. Furthermore, the study assumes that all roads are passable and fully functional during the travel period and that there are no structures, trees and other debris that may act as road blockage. The study can be used as a reference in hazard assessment for disaster risk management and evacuation planning. This can be further improved by incorporating behaviour of the affected population and other socio-economic factors, different modes of transportation and detailed analysis of topography.

  4. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community.

  5. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR PLAY PORTFOLIOS TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Seyler; John Grube

    2004-12-10

    Oil and gas have been commercially produced in Illinois for over 100 years. Existing commercial production is from more than fifty-two named pay horizons in Paleozoic rocks ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Pennsylvanian. Over 3.2 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Recent calculations indicate that remaining mobile resources in the Illinois Basin may be on the order of several billion barrels. Thus, large quantities of oil, potentially recoverable using current technology, remain in Illinois oil fields despite a century of development. Many opportunities for increased production may have been missed due to complex development histories, multiple stacked pays, and commingled production which makes thorough exploitation of pays and the application of secondary or improved/enhanced recovery strategies difficult. Access to data, and the techniques required to evaluate and manage large amounts of diverse data are major barriers to increased production of critical reserves in the Illinois Basin. These constraints are being alleviated by the development of a database access system using a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach for evaluation and identification of underdeveloped pays. The Illinois State Geological Survey has developed a methodology that is being used by industry to identify underdeveloped areas (UDAs) in and around petroleum reservoirs in Illinois using a GIS approach. This project utilizes a statewide oil and gas Oracle{reg_sign} database to develop a series of Oil and Gas Base Maps with well location symbols that are color-coded by producing horizon. Producing horizons are displayed as layers and can be selected as separate or combined layers that can be turned on and off. Map views can be customized to serve individual needs and page size maps can be printed. A core analysis database with over 168,000 entries has been compiled and assimilated into the ISGS Enterprise Oracle database. Maps of wells with core data have been generated

  6. Testing a model-driven Geographical Information System for risk assessment during an effusive volcanic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew; Latutrie, Benjamin; Andredakis, Ioannis; De Groeve, Tom; Langlois, Eric; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Del Negro, Ciro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Fujita, Eisuke; Kelfoun, Karim; Rongo, Rocco

    2016-04-01

    RED-SEED stands for Risk Evaluation, Detection and Simulation during Effusive Eruption Disasters, and combines stakeholders from the remote sensing, modeling and response communities with experience in tracking volcanic effusive events. It is an informal working group that has evolved around the philosophy of combining global scientific resources, in the realm of physical volcanology, remote sensing and modeling, to better define and limit uncertainty. The group first met during a three day-long workshop held in Clermont Ferrand (France) between 28 and 30 May 2013. The main recommendation of the workshop in terms of modeling was that there is a pressing need for "real-time input of reliable Time-Averaged Discharge Rate (TADR) data with regular up-dates of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) if modeling is to be effective; the DEMs can be provided by the radar/photogrammetry community." We thus set up a test to explore (i) which model source terms are needed, (ii) how they can be provided and updated, and (iii) how can models be run and applied in an ensemble approach. The test used two hypothetical effusive events in the Chaîne des Puys (Auvergne, France), for which a prototype Geographical Information System (GIS) was set up to allow loss assessment during an effusive crisis. This system drew on all immediately available data for population, land use, communications, utility and building-type. After defining lava flow model source terms (vent location, effusion rate, lava chemistry, temperature, crystallinity and vesicularity), five operational lava flow emplacement models were run (DOWNFLOW, FLOWGO, LAVASIM, MAGFLOW and VOLCFLOW) to produce a projection for likelihood of impact for all pixels within the area covered by the GIS, based on agreement between models. The test thus aimed not to assess the model output, but instead to examine overlapping output. Next, inundation maps and damage reports for impacted zones were produced. The exercise identified several

  7. Spectral Resolution and Coverage Impact on Advanced Sounder Information Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global measurements of the Earth s atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Achieving such measurement improvements requires instrument system advancements. This presentation focuses on the impact of spectral resolution and coverage changes on remote sensing system information content, with a specific emphasis on thermodynamic state and trace species variables obtainable from advanced atmospheric sounders such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) systems on the MetOp and NPP/NPOESS series of satellites. Key words: remote sensing, advanced sounders, information content, IASI, CrIS

  8. Integrative Literature Review: A Review of Literature Related to Geographical Information Systems, Healthcare Access, and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Barbara Ann

    2008-01-01

    Differences in access to healthcare services and the resulting adverse health outcomes are major public health priorities. The Institute of Medicine and the Department of Health and Human Services have identified the need for strategies to improve access to healthcare services and to support the improvement of health outcomes. The literature documents health disparities associated with healthcare access and health outcomes from a geographic perspective. Place of residence, location of healthcare services, and geography in general are important factors in the analysis of health. Geographical information systems (GISs) are an emerging technology in the analysis of health from a geographical or location context. As a type of information technology, GISs are potentially powerful assessment tools for the investigation of healthcare access, health outcomes, and the possible resulting health disparities. Their ability to integrate health data with mapping functions allows for visualization, exploration, and modeling of health patterns. Application of GIS technology using health data can help in describing and explaining disparities in healthcare access and health outcomes. The studies reviewed demonstrated the use of GISs to investigate various aspects of healthcare access and health outcomes, including environmental variables of Lyme disease, sociodemographic variables and teen pregnancy, geographical disparities in breast cancer mortality by racial groups, PCP and AIDS prevalence, and factors of a leptospirosis disease outbreak. The literature reviewed shows effective integration and analysis of health data using GIS technology. PMID:18698429

  9. Towards a Quantitative Performance Measurement Framework to Assess the Impact of Geographic Information Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Van Orshoven, J.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decennia, the use of Geographic Information (GI) has gained importance, in public as well as in private sector. But even if many spatial data and related information exist, data sets are scattered over many organizations and departments. In practice it remains difficult to find the spatial data sets needed, and to access, obtain and prepare them for using in applications. Therefore Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) haven been developed to enhance the access, the use and sharing of GI. SDIs consist of a set of technological and non-technological components to reach this goal. Since the nineties many SDI initiatives saw light. Ultimately, all these initiatives aim to enhance the flow of spatial data between organizations (users as well as producers) involved in intra- and inter-organizational and even cross-country business processes. However, the flow of information and its re-use in different business processes requires technical and semantic interoperability: the first should guarantee that system components can interoperate and use the data, while the second should guarantee that data content is understood by all users in the same way. GI-standards within the SDI are necessary to make this happen. However, it is not known if this is realized in practice. Therefore the objective of the research is to develop a quantitative framework to assess the impact of GI-standards on the performance of business processes. For that purpose, indicators are defined and tested in several cases throughout Europe. The proposed research will build upon previous work carried out in the SPATIALIST project. It analyzed the impact of different technological and non-technological factors on the SDI-performance of business processes (Dessers et al., 2011). The current research aims to apply quantitative performance measurement techniques - which are frequently used to measure performance of production processes (Anupindi et al., 2005). Key to reach the research objectives

  10. Mobile Technologies and Geographic Information Systems to Improve Health Care Systems: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has employed mobile technologies and geographic information systems (GIS) for enhancing health care and health information systems, but there is yet a lack of studies of how these two types of systems are integrated together into the information infrastructure of an organization so as to provide a basis for data analysis and decision support. Integration of data and technical systems across the organization is necessary for efficient large-scale implementation. Objective The aim of this paper is to identify how mobile technologies and GIS applications have been used, independently as well as in combination, for improving health care. Methods The electronic databases PubMed, BioMed Central, Wiley Online Library, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched to retrieve English language articles published in international academic journals after 2005. Only articles addressing the use of mobile or GIS technologies and that met a prespecified keyword strategy were selected for review. Results A total of 271 articles were selected, among which 220 concerned mobile technologies and 51 GIS. Most articles concern developed countries (198/271, 73.1%), and in particular the United States (81/271, 29.9%), United Kingdom (31/271, 11.4%), and Canada (14/271, 5.2%). Applications of mobile technologies can be categorized by six themes: treatment and disease management, data collection and disease surveillance, health support systems, health promotion and disease prevention, communication between patients and health care providers or among providers, and medical education. GIS applications can be categorized by four themes: disease surveillance, health support systems, health promotion and disease prevention, and communication to or between health care providers. Mobile applications typically focus on using text messaging (short message service, SMS) for communication between patients and health care providers, most prominently

  11. The Geographic Information System techniques impact analyze of Office's Properties in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Biere, R. A.; Moix, M. B.

    2007-05-01

    The changes in the characteristics and needs in the cities structures means new challenges in the space to the economics activities. The increasing predominance of the tertiary industry, of offices or I+D buildings, like an effect of the economic transformation implies new forms, new technical characteristics and similar alternatives locations accordant with a changing demand. The project that is presented here, is developed by the Centre of Land Policy and Valuations of the University Polytechnic of Catalonia for the company "Servicios de Geo-marketing Inmobiliario S.L.' (SGMI, Real State Geo- marketing Services S.L.) The process consists in the generation of a geographic information system to the analyses of the characteristics office's buildings of Barcelona in the sense to introduce the property office's buildings of Barcelona into a database for the geo-marketing. This application allows the access to the necessary information of technical and constructive characteristics of the office's buildings, summoned by the most emblematic or central locations to the best technical level in their constructions towards facilitating the maximum knowledge the citizen in order to assure the choice according to the needs for every profile of demand. The work has consisted basically in defining the technical criteria of evaluation of the building, to systematize those characteristics in some indicators (variable) capable of expressing the level of quality of every variable, to establish a system measurement of greater to smaller value explained to the quality. Systematizing the collection of information of a total of 683 buildings of Barcelona and of some municipalities of its periphery, through a visit to every building, to process the data obtained to a database and to standardize the value of quality for every indicator and set of indicators towards determining a final qualification, obtained from the different physical, constructive and qualitative characteristics of

  12. National Conference on the Educational Applications of Geographic Information Systems (EdGIS): Conference Report (1st, Washington, D.C., January 27-29, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstow, Daniel, Ed.; And Others

    The goals of the Educational Applications of Geographic Information Systems (EdGIS) Conference were to: showcase current applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and other mapping software in pre-college education; develop a better understanding of the current state of the art in both GIS software and related…

  13. GeoMEx: Geographic Information System (GIS) Prototype for Mars Express Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Frigeri, A.; Ivanov, A. B.

    2013-09-01

    As of today almost a decade of observational data have been returned by the multidisciplinary instruments on-board the ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. All data are archived into the ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which is the central repository for all ESA's Solar System missions [1]. Data users can perform advanced queries and retrieve data from the PSA using graphical and map-based search interfaces, or via direct FTP download [2]. However the PSA still offers limited geometrical search and visualisation capabilities that are essential for scientists to identify their data of interest. A former study has shown [3] that this limitation is mostly due to the fact that (1) only a subset of the instruments observations geometry information has been modeled and ingested into the PSA, and (2) that the access to that information from GIS software is impossible without going through a cumbersome and undocumented process. With the increasing number of Mars GIS data sets available to the community [4], GIS software have become invaluable tools for researchers to capture, manage, visualise, and analyse data from various sources. Although Mars Express surface imaging data are natural candidates for use in a GIS environment, other non-imaging instruments data (subsurface, atmosphere, plasma) integration is being investigated [5]. The objective of this work is to develop a GIS prototype that will integrate all the Mars Express instruments observations geometry information into a spatial database that can be accessed from external GIS software using standard WMS and WFS protocols. We will firstly focus on the integration of surface and subsurface instruments data (HRSC, OMEGA, MARSIS). In addition to the geometry information, base and context maps of Mars derived from surface mapping instruments data will also be ingested into the system. The system back-end architecture will be implemented using open-source GIS frameworks: PostgreSQL/PostGIS for the database, and Map

  14. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  15. Have I Been a Data Scientist from the Start? Parallels from the Geographic Information Science Community in the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not

  16. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  17. Evolution of natural history information in the 21st century – developing an integrated framework for biological and geographical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Threats to marine and estuarine species operate over many spatial scales, from nutrient enrichment at the watershed/estuarine scale to invasive species and climate change at regional and global scales. To help address research questions across these scales, we provide here a standardized framework for a biogeographical information system containing queriable biological data that allows extraction of information on multiple species, across a variety of spatial scales based on species distributions, natural history attributes and habitat requirements. As scientists shift from research on localized impacts on individual species to regional and global scale threats, macroecological approaches of studying multiple species over broad geographical areas are becoming increasingly important. The standardized framework described here for capturing and integrating biological and geographical data is a critical first step towards addressing these macroecological questions and we urge organizations capturing biogeoinformatics data to consider adopting this framework.

  18. Energy Facility Siting by Means of Environmental Modelling with LANDSAT, Thematic Mapper and Geographic Information System (GIS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Currently based on ground and aerial surveys, the land cover data base of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is routinely used for modelling the effects of alternative generating plant and transmission line sites on the local and regional environment. The development of a satellite-based geographic information system would facilitate both the preparation of environmental impact statements by power companies and assessment of the data by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A cooperative project is planned to demonstrate the methodology for integrating satellite data into an existing geographic information system, d to further evaluate the ability of satellite data in modeling environmental conditions that would be applied in the preparation and assessment of environmental impact statements.

  19. Food Delivery System with the Utilization of Vehicle Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and A Star Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Gunawan, D.; Andayani, U.; Sari Lubis, Elita; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Food delivery system is one kind of geographical information systems (GIS) that can be applied through digitation process. The main case in food delivery system is the way to determine the shortest path and food delivery vehicle movement tracking. Therefore, to make sure that the digitation process of food delivery system can be applied efficiently, it is needed to add shortest path determination facility and food delivery vehicle tracking. This research uses A Star (A*) algorithm for determining shortest path and location-based system (LBS) programming for moving food delivery vehicle object tracking. According to this research, it is generated the integrated system that can be used by food delivery driver, customer, and administrator in terms of simplifying the food delivery system. Through the application of shortest path and the tracking of moving vehicle, thus the application of food delivery system in the scope of geographical information system (GIS) can be executed.

  20. Boston and New England: Advancing the Revolution in Geographic Education in a Region of Change. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikora, Theodore S., Ed.; Young, Stephen S., Ed.

    This collection of essays offers ideas, observations, maps, photographs, and descriptions of Boston (Massachusetts) and New England. The 13 essays in the collection include: (1) "An Introduction to New England and Boston: Advancing the Revolution in Geographic Education in a Region of Change" (Theodore S. Pikora; Stephen S. Young); (2)…

  1. Application of Radar Data to Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanZyl, Jakob J.

    2000-01-01

    The field of synthetic aperture radar changed dramatically over the past decade with the operational introduction of advance radar techniques such as polarimetry and interferometry. Radar polarimetry became an operational research tool with the introduction of the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system in the early 1980's, and reached a climax with the two SIR-C/X-SAR flights on board the space shuttle Endeavour in April and October 1994. Radar interferometry received a tremendous boost when the airborne TOPSAR system was introduced in 1991 by NASA/JPL, and further when data from the European Space Agency ERS-1 radar satellite became routinely available in 1991. Several airborne interferometric SAR systems are either currently operational, or are about to be introduced. Radar interferometry is a technique that allows one to map the topography of an area automatically under all weather conditions, day or night. The real power of radar interferometry is that the images and digital elevation models are automatically geometrically resampled, and could be imported into GIS systems directly after suitable reformatting. When combined with polarimetry, a technique that uses polarization diversity to gather more information about the geophysical properties of the terrain, a very rich multi-layer data set is available to the remote sensing scientist. This talk will discuss the principles of radar interferometry and polarimetry with specific application to the automatic categorization of land cover. Examples will include images acquired with the NASA/JPL AIRSAR/TOPSAR system in Australia and elsewhere.

  2. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    ARL-TR-7212 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting ...ARL-TR-7212 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model...SUBTITLE Investigating surface bias errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) 5a

  3. Predicting Database Requirements for Geographic Information Systems in the Year 2000: Long-Term Design Issues for GRASS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    M.A., D.R. Oestreicher, and R.J. Stevenson, "The Evans & Sutherland View of Tomorrow’s Supercomputing Environment," Proc. IEEE COMPCON 89 (February...34 Proc. ACSM-ASPRS, Vol. 4 (March 1991), pp 107-116. Manola, F., J. Orenstein , and U. Dayal, "Geographic Information Processing in the PROBE Database... Orenstein , J., and F.A. Manola, "PROBE Spatial Data Modeling and Query Processing in an Image Processing Database Application," IEEE Trans. on Software

  4. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  5. Nation-Wide, Web-Based, Geographic Information System for the Integrated Surveillance and Control of Dengue Fever in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases. PMID:23936394

  6. Ohio River main stem study - The role of geographic information systems and remote sensing in flood damage assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwardo, H. A.; Moulis, F. R.; Merry, C. J.; Mckim, H. L.; Kerber, A. G.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pittsburgh District, Corps of Engineers, has conducted feasibility analyses of various procedures for performing flood damage assessments along the main stem of the Ohio River. Procedures using traditional, although highly automated, techniques and those based on geographic information systems have been evaluated at a test site, the City of New Martinsville, Wetzel County, WV. The flood damage assessments of the test site developed from an automated, conventional structure-by-structure appraisal served as the ground truth data set. A geographic information system was developed for the test site which includes data on hydraulic reach, ground and reference flood elevations, and land use/cover. Damage assessments were made using land use mapping developed from an exhaustive field inspection of each tax parcel. This ground truth condition was considered to provide the best comparison of flood damages to the conventional approach. Also, four land use/cover data sets were developed from Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data. One of these was also used to develop a damage assessment of the test site. This paper presents the comparative absolute and relative accuracies of land use/cover mapping and flood damage assessments, and the recommended role of geographic information systems aided by remote sensing for conducting flood damage assessments and updates along the main stem of the Ohio River.

  7. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

  8. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  9. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  10. Component 1: Current and Future Methods for Representing and Interacting with Qualitative Geographic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-26

    the top of the mockup . The styles indicate each location’s membership in a second class of categories (thematic, temporal, sentiment, or certainty...Weinreich. 2003. Comparing Link Marker Visualization Techniques: Changes in reading behavior. In 12th International World Wide Web Conference, 736-745...MacEachren (2011) Supporting geographically-aware web document foraging and sensemaking. Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 35, 192-207

  11. Regional Variation in the Severity of Pesticide Exposure Outcomes: Applications of Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Scan Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Sudakin, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In a previous study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial scan statistics were utilized to assess regional clustering of symptomatic pesticide exposure incidents that were reported to a state Poison Control Center (PCC) during a single year. In the current study, we analyzed five subsequent years of PCC data to test whether there are significant geographic differences in pesticide exposure incidents resulting in serious (moderate, major, and fatal) medical outcomes. Methods A Poison Control Center provided data on unintentional pesticide exposure incidents for the time period 2001−2005. Data were abstracted to identify the geographic location of the caller, the location where the exposure occurred, the exposure route, and the medical outcome. Results The results yielded 273 incidents resulting in moderate (n=261), major effects (n=10), or fatalities (n=2). Analysis of these data using spatial scan statistics resulted in the identification of a geographic area consisting of 2 adjacent counties (one urban, one rural) where statistically significant clustering of serious outcomes was observed. The relative risk of moderate, major, and fatal outcomes was 2.0 in this spatial cluster (p=0.0005). Conclusions Poison Control Center data, GIS, and spatial scan statistics can be effectively utilized to identify clustering of serious incidents involving human exposure to pesticides. These analyses may be useful for public health officials to target preventive interventions. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the potential explanations for geographical clustering, and to assess whether preventive interventions have an impact on reducing pesticide exposure incidents resulting in serious medical outcomes. PMID:19306192

  12. Databases and Geographical Information Systems at the research/teaching interface: palaeoclimate proxies, freshwater biodiversity and the OMEGA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2013-04-01

    The Mutual Ostracod Temperature Range (MOTR) method provides Quaternary palaeotemperature range estimates based on fossil ostracod assemblages calibrated using modern distributional databases and climate data. Over the past five years, aspects of the development and application of the MOTR method have been incorporated into undergraduate teaching in two second-year modules (Global Environmental Change and Digital Worlds: Cartography, Geographical Information Systems and Modelling) via lectures and practical exercises. Consequently, several students became sufficiently interested and enthused to undertake successful major projects aimed at developing, testing and applying aspects of the method, leading in turn to postgraduate work on the same topic in two cases and in a third case to co-authorship of a research publication. Thus both research and teaching have benefited from the integration of an innovative geoscience application with undergraduate coursework. The scope of MOTR applications is being expanded from European to global via the Ostracod Metadatabase of Environmental and Geographical Attributes (OMEGA) project; the current focus is on harmonising North American and European datasets, supported by the EU-funded (FP7) BioFresh project which is building a global information platform with access to all available databases of freshwater biodiversity. Undergraduate participation will be sought to underpin a Citizen Science initiative aimed at checking, correcting and validating the geographic referencing of species' records in the databases, using datasets exported as Keyhole Markup Language files for use in Google Earth.

  13. An Overview of Geographic Information System and its Role and Applicability in Environmental Monitoring and Process Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav; Chovanec, Roman; Rošková, Dana

    2010-01-01

    The geographical information system (GIS) is a tool used generically for any computer-based capability for manipulating geographical data. The hardware and software functions of GIS include data input, data storage, data management (data manipulation, updating, changing, exchange) and data reporting (retrieval, presentation, analysis, combination, etc.). All of these actions and operations are applied to GIS as a tool that forms its database. The paper describes the types of the GIS data formats (vector, raster), database object definitions, relationships, geometric features, and the data organization structure. Some GIS applications and examples are given for better understanding of how GIS data can be used in GIS applications, with the respect to data formats, including surface elevation and slope from digital elevation model data (DEM), with the applicability in water industry.

  14. Geographic Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  15. Using a geographic information system and scanning technology to create high-resolution land-use data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Craig A.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) procedure was developed to compile low-altitude aerial photography, digitized data, and land-use data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Consolidated Farm Service Agency (CFSA) offices into a high-resolution (approximately 5 meters) land-use GIS data set. The aerial photography consisted of 35-mm slides which were scanned into tagged information file format (TIFF) images. These TIFF images were then imported into the GIS where they were registered into a geographically referenced coordinate system. Boundaries between land use were delineated from these GIS data sets using on-screen digitizing techniques. Crop types were determined using information obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture CFSA offices. Crop information not supplied by the CFSA was attributed by manual classification procedures. Automated methods to provide delineation of the field boundaries and land-use classification were investigated. It was determined that using these data sources, automated methods were less efficient and accurate than manual methods of delineating field boundaries and classifying land use.

  16. Improving Micro-Planning in Education through a Geographical Information System: Studies on Ethiopia and Palestine. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attfield, Ian; Tamiru, Mathewos; Parolin, Bruno; De Grauwe, Anton

    This book contains reports of two projects--one in Ethiopia, one in Palestine--that integrated a Geographical Information System (GIS) into the educational planning process. (A GIS is a computer program that combines two databases: numerical data such as traditional data on schools, teachers, and students; and geographic data such as the location…

  17. Development, description, and application of a geographic information system data base for water resources in Karst Terrane in Greene County, Missouri. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, L.A.; Thomson, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    A geographic information system data base was developed for Greene County, Missouri, to provide data for use in the planning for the protection of water resources. The data base contains the following map layers: geology, cave entrances and passages, county and quadrangle boundary, dye traces, faults, geographic names, hypsography, hydrography, lineaments. Ozark aquifer potentiometric surface, public land survey system, sinkholes, soils, springs, and transportation.

  18. Using Participatory Methods and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Prepare for an HIV Community-Based Trial in Vulindlela, South Africa (Project Accept-HPTN 043)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirowodza, Admire; van Rooyen, Heidi; Joseph, Philip; Sikotoyi, Sindisiwe; Richter, Linda; Coates, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Recent attempts to integrate geographic information systems (GIS) and participatory techniques, have given rise to terminologies such as "participatory GIS" and "community-integrated GIS". Although GIS was initially developed for physical geographic application, it can be used for the management and analysis of health and…

  19. From data to information: Tools and techniques educators can use to enhance Google Earth imagery with geographic information systems data and three dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, M.

    2007-12-01

    As with any educational technology, moving beyond basic information delivery to dynamic use can be a challenge and Google Earth (GE) is no exception. Moving beyond annotated placemarks and pictures, educators can utilize free, free-to-educators, and low cost tools to develop learning experiences within GE to facilitate dynamic interaction with real world data in the form of three dimensional models (3D) and geographic information systems data (GIS). Students take an active role in knowledge construction through self-directed navigation in 3D, seeing features of the landscape not in snapshot views found in textbooks, but in situ and in context. By incorporating categorized data, such as what is commonly found in GIS, an added dimension of human interaction can be incorporated. For example, GIS layers such as landuse, soil type, etc. provide students with data tools for investigating the role their community plays in supporting migrating Monarch butterfly habitat. Functionality for changing the appearance of layers in GE facilitates interaction with geospatial data in a manner that creates a type of "visual" GIS and can serve as an advanced organizer for later use of more powerful GIS software. GE can also be used as a metaphor to create a new context for an otherwise abstract concept, for example, scaling 3D models of the sun and planets to the size of a well known football stadium and placing each planet at the corresponding scaled distances from that location. Photorealistic 3D models created using SketchUp and Anim8or may help students relate to an otherwise abstract concept of planetary size and distances. Finally, digital elevation models (DEM) draped with imagery not available in GE or with GIS data can be used to make topic-specific 3D models either used within GE or in a 3D model viewer embedded in a website or email. With a little instruction, students can quickly learn how to make their own models as well. Procedures and software to accomplish each of

  20. Analysis of Relationships between Altitude and Distance from Volcano with Stomach Cancer Incidence Using a Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Amani, F; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Barzegari, S; Hassanlouei, B; Sadrkabir, M; Farzaneh, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world, with a wide variation in incidence rates across different geographical areas. In Iran GC is the most common cancer in males and it is reported to be the third most prevalent after breast and colorectal in females. A geographical information system (GIS) allows investigation of the geographical distribution of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between gastric cancer and effective climatic factors using GIS. The dispersion distribution and the relationship between environmental factors effective on cancer were measured using Arc GIS. Of all cases, 672 (73.8%) were in males with a sex ratio of 3 to 1. The highest incidence by cities was seen in Namin with 137.5 per 100,000. The results of this study showed that the distribution of GC around the Sabalan volcanic mountain was significantly higher than other places in the same province. These results can be considered as a window to future comprehensive research on gastric cancer.