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Sample records for advanced gestational age

  1. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    ... looking at the baby's weight, length, head circumference , vital signs, reflexes, muscle tone, posture, and the condition of the skin and hair. If the baby's gestational age findings after birth match the calendar age, the baby ...

  2. Advanced gestational age increases serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels in abstinent pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F; Savich, Renate D; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F; Savage, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as 'positive' for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further.

  3. Congenital heart disease infant death rates decrease as gestational age advances from 34 to 40 weeks.

    PubMed

    Cnota, James F; Gupta, Resmi; Michelfelder, Erik C; Ittenbach, Richard F

    2011-11-01

    To describe congenital heart disease death rates in infants born between 34 and 40 weeks, estimate the relationship between gestational age and congenital heart disease infant death rates, and compare congenital heart disease death rates across 1- and 2-week intervals in gestational age. The 2000 to 2003 national linked birth/infant death cohort datasets were obtained. Congenital heart disease deaths were identified by using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes. Proportional death rates were calculated by using congenital heart disease deaths and all live births. The relationship between congenital heart disease death rates and gestational age was determined. Death rates were compared across intervals. A total of 14.9 million records were analyzed. Congenital heart disease deaths occurred in 4736 infants (0.04%) born between 34 and 40 weeks. There was a significant, negative linear relationship between congenital heart disease death rate and gestational age (R(2) = 0.97). Comparisons across 1-week intervals varied (P = .02-.23). All 2-week intervals were statistically significant (P < .01). Congenital heart disease death rates decrease as gestational age approaches 40 weeks. These results should be considered before elective delivery for the sole indication of prenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Small for gestational age (SGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002302.htm Small for gestational age (SGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small for gestational age means that a fetus or ...

  5. Large for gestational age (LGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002248.htm Large for gestational age (LGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger ...

  6. Appropriate for gestational age (AGA)

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age; Gestation; Development - AGA; Growth - AGA; Neonatal care - AGA; Newborn care - AGA ... Gestational age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is. It is ...

  7. Has the outcome for extremely low gestational age (ELGA) infants improved following recent advances in neonatal intensive care?

    PubMed

    Battin, M; Ling, E W; Whitfield, M F; Mackinnon, M; Effer, S B

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine (a) the survival of extremely low-gestational-age (ELGA) infants born at 23-28 weeks' gestational age (GA) and (b) the neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months corrected age for those born at 23-25 weeks' GA during 1991-1993, when antenatal steroids, surfactant, and dexamethasone for bronchopulmonary dysplasia had become accepted treatments; and to compare with an earlier (1983-1989), previously published large cohort (in a presurfactant era) from our institution. Perinatal and neonatal data on all births delivered at 23-28 weeks' GA at British Columbia's tertiary perinatal center were analyzed for survival rates by GA. Survivors of those born at 23-25 weeks' GA underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a corrected chronological age of 18 months. The recent cohort (n = 333) of live birth infants, compared to the earlier cohort (n = 911 ) showed a trend toward an overall improved survival to discharge (72 vs. 65%, p = 0.06). Further analysis showed that improved survival was seen only in 26- to 28-week GA infants (86 vs. 76%, p = 0.01), but not in 23- to 25-week GA infants (44 vs. 44%, p = 0.9), even when adjusted for gender or twin births. In addition, the incidence of major impairment at 18 months (36% in both periods) remained high. Reanalysis of 24- to 25-week GA infants again showed no evidence of improved survival (53 vs. 50%) or improved outcome at 18 months (major handicap rate 32%; vs. 34%). Survival rates improved for 26- to 28-week GA infants, but the survival rate and incidence of major impairment had not improved for of 23- to 25-week GA infants.

  8. Size for Gestational Age and Neonatal Temperament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    The appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants from 30 pairs of full-term and 15 pairs of preterm same-sex twins were compared for neonatal temperament. The evaluation of neonatal temperament included ratings of irritability, resistance to soothing, activity level, reactivity, and reinforcement value. Results…

  9. Outcomes of Small for Gestational Age Infants < 27 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Lilia C.; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha; Li, Lei; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Bara, Rebecca; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether small for gestational age (SGA) infants <27 weeks gestation is associated with mortality, morbidity, growth and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ corrected age (CA). Study design This was a retrospective cohort study from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network’s Generic Database and Follow-up Studies. Infants born at <27 weeks’ gestation from January 2006 to July 2008 were included. SGA was defined as birth weight <10th percentile for gestational age by the Olsen growth curves. Infants with birth weight ≥10th percentile for gestational age were classified as non-SGA. Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal outcomes and neurodevelopmental data were compared between the groups. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as any of the following: cognitive score <70 on BSID III, moderate or severe cerebral palsy, bilateral hearing loss (+/− amplification) or blindness (vision <20/200). Logistic regression analysis evaluated the association between SGA status and death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Results There were 385 SGA and 2586 non-SGA infants. Compared with the non-SGA group, mothers of SGA infants were more likely to have higher level of education, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension and antenatal corticosteroid exposure. SGA infants were more likely to have postnatal growth failure, a higher mortality and to have received prolonged mechanical ventilation and postnatal steroids. SGA status was associated with higher odds of death or neurodevelopmental impairment [OR 3.91 (95% CI: 2.91–5.25), P<0.001]. Conclusion SGA status among infants <27 weeks’ gestation was associated with an increased risk for postnatal steroid use, mortality, growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months’ CA. PMID:23415614

  10. Predicting gestational age using neonatal metabolic markers

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Dagle, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate gestational age estimation is extremely important for clinical care decisions of the newborn as well as for perinatal health research. Although prenatal ultrasound dating is one of the most accurate methods for estimating gestational age, it is not feasible in all settings. Identifying novel and accurate methods for gestational age estimation at birth is important, particularly for surveillance of preterm birth rates in areas without routine ultrasound dating. Objective We hypothesized that metabolic and endocrine markers captured by routine newborn screening could improve gestational age estimation in the absence of prenatal ultrasound technology. Study Design This is a retrospective analysis of 230,013 newborn metabolic screening records collected by the Iowa Newborn Screening Program between 2004 and 2009. The data were randomly split into a model-building dataset (n = 153,342) and a model-testing dataset (n = 76,671). We performed multiple linear regression modeling with gestational age, in weeks, as the outcome measure. We examined 44 metabolites, including biomarkers of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root-mean-square error were used to evaluate models in the model-building dataset that were then tested in the model-testing dataset. Results The newborn metabolic regression model consisted of 88 parameters, including the intercept, 37 metabolite measures, 29 squared metabolite measures, and 21 cubed metabolite measures. This model explained 52.8% of the variation in gestational age in the model-testing dataset. Gestational age was predicted within 1 week for 78% of the individuals and within 2 weeks of gestation for 95% of the individuals. This model yielded an area under the curve of 0.899 (95% confidence interval 0.895−0.903) in differentiating those born preterm (<37 weeks) from those born term (≥37 weeks). In the subset of

  11. Predicting gestational age using neonatal metabolic markers.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Berberich, Stanton L; Dagle, John M

    2016-04-01

    Accurate gestational age estimation is extremely important for clinical care decisions of the newborn as well as for perinatal health research. Although prenatal ultrasound dating is one of the most accurate methods for estimating gestational age, it is not feasible in all settings. Identifying novel and accurate methods for gestational age estimation at birth is important, particularly for surveillance of preterm birth rates in areas without routine ultrasound dating. We hypothesized that metabolic and endocrine markers captured by routine newborn screening could improve gestational age estimation in the absence of prenatal ultrasound technology. This is a retrospective analysis of 230,013 newborn metabolic screening records collected by the Iowa Newborn Screening Program between 2004 and 2009. The data were randomly split into a model-building dataset (n = 153,342) and a model-testing dataset (n = 76,671). We performed multiple linear regression modeling with gestational age, in weeks, as the outcome measure. We examined 44 metabolites, including biomarkers of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the root-mean-square error were used to evaluate models in the model-building dataset that were then tested in the model-testing dataset. The newborn metabolic regression model consisted of 88 parameters, including the intercept, 37 metabolite measures, 29 squared metabolite measures, and 21 cubed metabolite measures. This model explained 52.8% of the variation in gestational age in the model-testing dataset. Gestational age was predicted within 1 week for 78% of the individuals and within 2 weeks of gestation for 95% of the individuals. This model yielded an area under the curve of 0.899 (95% confidence interval 0.895-0.903) in differentiating those born preterm (<37 weeks) from those born term (≥37 weeks). In the subset of infants born small-for-gestational age

  12. Estimating Gestational Age From Ultrasound Fetal Biometrics.

    PubMed

    Skupski, Daniel W; Owen, John; Kim, Sungduk; Fuchs, Karin M; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2017-08-01

    To compare the accuracy of a new formula with one developed in 1984 (and still in common use) and to develop and compare racial and ethnic-specific and racial and ethnic-neutral formulas. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons was a prospective cohort study that recruited women in four self-reported racial-ethnic groups-non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and Asian-with singleton gestations from 12 U.S. centers (2009-2013). Women with a certain last menstrual period confirmed by first-trimester ultrasonogram had longitudinal fetal measurements by credentialed study ultrasonographers blinded to the gestational age at their five follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed with linear mixed models to develop gestational age estimating formulas. Repeated cross-validation was used for validation. The estimation error was defined as the mean squared difference between the estimated and observed gestational age and was used to compare the formulas' accuracy. The new formula estimated the gestational age (±2 SD) within ±7 days from 14 to 20 weeks of gestation, ±10 days from 21 to 27 weeks of gestation, and ±17 days from 28 to 40 weeks of gestation. The new formula performed significantly better than a formula developed in 1984 with an estimation error of 10.4 compared with 11.2 days from 21 to 27 weeks of gestation and 17.0 compared with 19.8 days at 28-40 weeks of gestation, respectively. Racial and ethnic-specific formulas did not outperform the racial and ethnic-neutral formula. The NICHD gestational age estimation formula is associated with smaller errors than a well-established historical formula. Racial and ethnic-specific formulas are not superior to a racial-ethnic-neutral one.

  13. Estimation of gestational age from hand and foot length.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G P; Kumar, U K

    1994-01-01

    Abortion, foeticide and infanticide have been practised from time immemorial by both primitive and civilized societies. Establishing the precise duration of gestation is an important point in the total medical evidentiary picture of infanticide. In this study, an attempt has been made to establish the gestational age of the foetus using foot and hand length. This study will be of help in establishing the gestational age when the foetus is fragmented. Results obtained were significant in establishing the gestational age.

  14. Gestational age-dependent risk factors for preterm birth: associations with maternal education and age early in gestation.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Wynant, Willy; Lo, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) before 37 weeks can occur over a wide range of gestational ages, but few studies have assessed if associations between risk factors and PTB vary over the duration of gestation. We sought to evaluate if associations between two major risk factors (maternal education and age) and PTB depend on gestational age at delivery. We estimated hazard ratios of PTB for education and age in a time-to-event analysis using a retrospective cohort of 223,756 live singleton births from the province of Québec, Canada for the years 2001-2005. Differences in hazards of maternal education and age with PTB were assessed over gestational age in a Cox proportional hazards model using linear and nonlinear time interaction terms, adjusting for maternal characteristics. Associations of PTB with lower (vs. higher) education and older (vs. younger) age strengthened progressively at earlier gestational ages, such that the risk of PTB for maternal education and age was not constant over the course of gestation. Associations of PTB with risk factors such as maternal low education and older age may be stronger early in gestation. Models that capture the time-dependent nature of PTB may be useful when the goal is to assess associations at low gestational ages, and to avoid masked or biased associations early in gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of Gestational Age: Implications for Developmental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Allen, Marilee C.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews prenatal and postnatal methods of gestational age estimation and evaluates implementation of this information in research. Recommendations concerning the assignment of gestational age in the perinatal period and the use of age correction for preterm infants are offered. (Author/BC)

  16. Risk factors for classical hysterotomy by gestational age.

    PubMed

    Osmundson, Sarah S; Garabedian, Matthew J; Lyell, Deirdre J

    2013-10-01

    To examine the likelihood of classical hysterotomy across preterm gestational ages and to identify factors that increase its occurrence. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort collected by the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Network of all women with singleton gestations who underwent a cesarean delivery with a known hysterotomy. Comparisons were made based on gestational age. Factors thought to influence hysterotomy type were studied, including maternal age, body mass index, parity, birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) status, fetal presentation, labor preceding delivery, and emergent delivery. Approximately 36,000 women were eligible for analysis, of whom 34,454 (95.7%) underwent low transverse hysterotomy and 1,562 (4.3%) underwent classical hysterotomy. The median gestational age of women undergoing a classical hysterotomy was 32 weeks and the incidence peaked between 24 0/7 weeks and 25 6/7 weeks (53.2%), declining with each additional week of gestation thereafter (P for trend <.001). In multivariable regression, the likelihood of classical hysterotomy was increased with SGA (n=258; odds ratio [OR] 2.71; confidence interval [CI] 1.78-4.13), birth weight 1,000 g or less (n=467; OR 1.51; CI 1.03-2.24), and noncephalic presentation (n=783; OR 2.03; CI 1.52-2.72). The likelihood of classical hysterotomy was decreased between 23 0/7 and 27 6/7 weeks of gestation and after 32 weeks of gestation when labor preceded delivery, and increased between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks of gestation and after 32 weeks of gestation by multiparity and previous cesarean delivery. Emergent delivery did not predict classical hysterotomy. Fifty percent of women at 23-26 weeks of gestation who undergo cesarean delivery have a classical hysterotomy, and the risk declines steadily thereafter. This likelihood is increased by fetal factors, especially SGA and noncephalic presentation. : II.

  17. Thrombocytopenia in Small for Gestational Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Robert D.; Baer, Vickie L.; Henry, Erick; Snow, Gregory L.; Butler, Allison; Sola-Visner, Martha C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia is common among small for gestational age neonates (SGA; birth weight <10th % reference range) but several aspects of this thrombocytopenia are unclear, including the incidence, typical nadir, duration, association with preeclampsia, mechanism, and risk of death. METHODS Using nine years of multihospital records we studied SGA neonates with ≥2 platelet counts <150,000/μL in their first week. RESULTS We found first-week thrombocytopenia in 31% (905 of 2891) of SGA neonates vs. 10% of non-SGA matched-controls (p<0.0001). One hundred-two of the 905 had a recognized cause of thrombocytopenia (DIC, early-onset sepsis, ECMO). This group had a 65% mortality rate. The remaining 803 did not have an obvious cause for their thrombocytopenia. We termed these the “thrombocytopenia of SGA”. They had a mortality rate of 2% (p<0.0001) and a mean nadir count on day 4 of 93,000/μL (standard deviation, 51,580/μL, 10th % 50,000/μL, 90th % 175,000/μL). By day 14, platelet counts were ≥150,000/μL in >half of the patients. Severely SGA neonates (<1st %) had lower counts and longer thrombocytopenia duration (p<0.001). High nucleated red cell counts at birth correlated with low platelets (p<0.0001). Platelet transfusions were given to 23% and counts typically >tripled. Thrombocytopenia was associated with SGA status more so than with the diagnosis of maternal preeclampsia. CONCLUSIONS SGA neonates with clearly recognized varieties of thrombocytopenia have a high mortality rate. In contrast the “thrombocytopenia of SGA” is a hyporegenerative condition of moderate severity and two weeks duration, associated with evidence of intrauterine hypoxia, and associated with a low mortality rate. PMID:26216323

  18. Recent Declines in Induction of Labor by Gestational Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Individual live birth in a singleton (one fetus) pregnancy. Singleton induction rate : Number of labor inductions for singleton births per 100 singleton births. Gestational age categories : Early preterm: Births prior to 34 completed weeks of ...

  19. Placental immune state shifts with gestational age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Emma L; Sierra, Luz-Jeannette; Barila, Guillermo O; Brown, Amy G; Porrett, Paige M; Elovitz, Michal A

    2018-06-01

    Placental immunologic functions are implicated in both the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and the pathogenesis of obstetric complications. Immune populations at the maternal-fetal interface are hypothesized to support fetomaternal tolerance, defend the fetus from infection, and contribute to labor initiation. Despite the many potential roles of placental immune cells in normal and abnormal pregnancy, little is known about placental immune population dynamics over gestation, particularly near parturition. A daily placental immune cell census was established in a murine model by flow cytometry from mid to late gestation and compared to the maternal systemic immune census. Shifts in the placental immune state were further characterized through cytokine ELISAs. The placental immune census is distinct from the maternal systemic immune census, although the cells are primarily maternal in origin. Near term parturition, the placenta contains fewer CD11c-positive myeloid cells and regulatory T cells, and there is a concurrent decrease in placental IL-9 and IL-35. The immune profile of the placenta demonstrates a decrease in both regulatory immune cell types and cytokines late in gestation. Establishing the placental immune population dynamics over a healthy pregnancy will allow future investigation of placental immune cells during abnormal pregnancy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Estimation of Gestational Age at Birth in Database Studies.

    PubMed

    Eberg, Maria; Platt, Robert W; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-11-01

    Studies on the safety of prenatal medication use require valid estimation of the pregnancy duration. However, gestational age is often incompletely recorded in administrative and clinical databases. Our objective was to compare different approaches to estimating the pregnancy duration. Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics, we examined the following four approaches to estimating missing gestational age: (1) generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data; (2) multiple imputation; (3) estimation based on fetal birth weight and sex; and (4) conventional approaches that assigned a fixed value (39 weeks for all or 39 weeks for full term and 35 weeks for preterm). The gestational age recorded in Hospital Episode Statistics was considered the gold standard. We conducted a simulation study comparing the described approaches in terms of estimated bias and mean square error. A total of 25,929 infants from 22,774 mothers were included in our "gold standard" cohort. The smallest average absolute bias was observed for the generalized estimating equation that included birth weight, while the largest absolute bias occurred when assigning 39-week gestation to all those with missing values. The smallest mean square errors were detected with generalized estimating equations while multiple imputation had the highest mean square errors. The use of generalized estimating equations resulted in the most accurate estimation of missing gestational age when birth weight information was available. In the absence of birth weight, assignment of fixed gestational age based on term/preterm status may be the optimal approach.

  1. Newborn Plasma Glucose Concentration Nadirs by Gestational-Age Group.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Bai, Shasha; Rozance, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The glucose concentrations and times to nadir for newborns of all gestational ages when intrapartum glucose-containing solutions are not routinely provided are unknown. To characterize and compare patterns of initial glucose concentration nadirs by gestational-age groups. A cross-sectional cohort study of 1,366 newborns born in 1998 at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, appropriate for gestational age, nonasphyxiated, nonpolycythemic, and not infants of diabetic mothers, were included. Initial plasma glucose concentrations, before intravenous fluids or feedings, were plotted against time after birth for 4 gestational-age groups (full term [FT], ≥37-42 weeks; late preterm [LPT], ≥34 and < 37 weeks; preterm [PT], ≥28 and < 34 weeks; and extremely low gestational age newborns [ELGAN], 23 and < 28 weeks of gestation). ELGAN had the earliest nadir at 61 ± 4 min, followed by PT newborns (71 ± 2 min), and then LPT and FT newborns at 92-93 min. The time to nadir for ELGAN and PT newborns was significantly earlier than for FT newborns. Glucose nadir concentrations for ELGAN, PT, and LPT newborns were significantly lower than for FT newborns. LPT newborns' pattern of glucose paralleled those of FT newborns, with values approximately 5-6 mg/dL lower during the first 3 h. Plasma glucose nadirs occurred at different times among gestational-age groups during the early postnatal period as follows: ELGAN < PT < LPT ≈ FT. In order to potentially prevent low glucose concentrations at the time of the nadir, exogenous glucose should be provided to all newborns as soon as possible after birth. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Trends in gestational age at time of surgical abortion for fetal aneuploidy and structural abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anne R; Horvath, Sarah K; Castaño, Paula M

    2017-03-01

    Screening for fetal aneuploidy has evolved over the past 2 decades. Whether these advances impact gestational age at abortion has received little study. We sought to describe trends in the gestational age at the time of abortion by fetal diagnosis over an 11-year study period. We hypothesized that gestational age at time of abortion would decrease for fetal aneuploidy but remain unchanged for structural abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective case series of all women undergoing surgical abortion for fetal aneuploidy or structural abnormalities up to 24 weeks' gestation from 2004 through 2014 in a hospital operating room setting at a single, urban medical center. We excluded labor induction abortions (<1% of abortions at our medical center) and suction aspirations performed in the office practice. We performed suction aspiration up to 14 weeks and dilation and evacuation after that gestational age. We describe the median gestational age at abortion by fetal indication and year. For women undergoing abortion for fetal aneuploidy (n = 392), the median gestational age at time of abortion decreased from 19.0 weeks (interquartile range 18.0-21.0) in 2004 to 14.0 weeks (interquartile range 13.0-17.0) in 2014 (Kruskal-Wallis P < .0001). For women undergoing abortion for fetal structural abnormalities (n = 586), the median gestational age was ≥20 weeks for each year during the study interval (P = .1). As gestational age decreased in the fetal aneuploidy group, fewer women underwent dilation and evacuation and more became eligible for suction aspiration (<14 weeks). In 2004, >90% of women underwent dilation and evacuation for either indication. By 2014, 31% of women with fetal aneuploidy were eligible for suction aspiration compared to 11% of those with structural anomalies. Gestational age at the time of abortion for fetal aneuploidy decreased substantially from 2004 through 2014; earlier abortion is safer for women. In contrast, women seeking abortion for fetal

  3. Adverse effects of small for gestational age differ by gestational week among very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Erik A; Foglia, Elizabeth E; Dysart, Kevin C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Aghai, Zubair H; Cook, Alison; Greenspan, Jay S; DeMauro, Sara B

    2018-05-05

    To characterise the excess risk for death, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and stage 3-5 retinopathy of prematurity independently associated with birth small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm infants, stratified by completed weeks of gestation. Retrospective cohort study using the Optum Neonatal Database. Study infants were born <32 weeks gestation without severe congenital anomalies. SGA was defined as a birth weight <10th percentile. The excess outcome risk independently associated with SGA birth among SGA babies was assessed using adjusted risk differences (aRDs). Of 6708 infants sampled from 717 US hospitals, 743 (11.1%) were SGA. SGA compared with non-SGA infants experienced higher unadjusted rates of each study outcome except grade 3-4 IVH among survivors. The excess risk independently associated with SGA birth varied by outcome and gestational age. The highest aRD for death (0.27; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.40) occurred among infants born at 24 weeks gestation and declined as gestational age increased. In contrast, the peak aRDs for BPD among survivors (0.32; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.44) and the composites of death or BPD (0.35; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.46) and death or major morbidity (0.35; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.45) occurred at 27 weeks gestation. The risk-adjusted probability of dying or developing one or more of the evaluated morbidities among SGA infants was similar to that of non-SGA infants born approximately 2-3 weeks less mature. The excess risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with being born SGA varies by adverse outcome and gestational age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Morbidity and Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants at 22 to 29 Weeks' Gestation.

    PubMed

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Geraci, Marco; Edwards, Erika M; Horbar, Jeffrey D

    2018-02-01

    To identify the relative risks of mortality and morbidities for small for gestational age (SGA) infants in comparison with non-SGA infants born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation. Data were collected (2006-2014) on 156 587 infants from 852 US centers participating in the Vermont Oxford Network. We defined SGA as sex-specific birth weight <10th centile for gestational age (GA) in days. Binomial generalized additive models with a thin plate spline term on GA by SGA were used to calculate the adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes by GA. Compared with non-SGA infants, the risk of patent ductus arteriosus decreased for SGA infants in early GA and then increased in later GA. SGA infants were also at increased risks of mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, and chronic lung disease. These risks of adverse outcomes, however, were not homogeneous across the GA range. Early-onset sepsis was not different between the 2 groups for the majority of GAs, although severe intraventricular hemorrhage was decreased among SGA infants for only gestational week 24 through week 25. SGA was associated with additional risks to mortality and morbidities, but the risks differed across the GA range. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Gestational Age at First Antenatal Care Visit in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the gestational age at first antenatal care (ANC) visit and factors associated with timely initiation of ANC in Malawi in a context where maternal and child health services are generally provided for free. Lognormal survival models are applied to Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of women (n = 13,588) of child-bearing age. The findings of this study show that less than 30 % of pregnant women initiate ANC within the World Health Organization recommended gestational timeframe of 16 weeks or earlier. The hazard analysis shows a gradient in the initiation of ANC by maternal education level, with least educated mothers most likely to delay their first ANC visit. However, after adjusting for variables capturing intimate partner violence in the multivariate models, the effect of maternal education attenuated and lost statistical significance. Other significant predictors of gestational age at first ANC include media exposure, perceived distance from health facility, age, and birth order. The findings of the study link domestic violence directly with the gestational age at which mothers initiate ANC, suggesting that gender-based violence may operate through delayed initiation of ANC to undermine maternal and child health outcomes.

  6. Refractive error at birth and its relation to gestational age.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Sara; Varghese, Raji Mathew; Gupta, Nidhi; Ojha, Rishikant; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2005-06-01

    The refractive status of premature infants is not well studied. This study was done to find the norms of refractive error in newborns at different gestational ages. One thousand two hundred three (1203) eyes were examined for refractive error by streak retinoscopy within the first week of life between June 2001 and September 2002. Tropicamide eye drops (0.8%) with phenylephrine 0.5% were used to achieve cycloplegia and mydriasis. The refractive error was measured in the vertical and horizontal meridia in both eyes and was recorded to the nearest dioptre (D). The neonates were grouped in five gestational age groups ranging from 24 weeks to 43 weeks. Extremely preterm babies were found to be myopic with a mean MSE (mean spherical equivalent) of -4.86 D. The MSE was found to progressively decrease (become less myopic) with increasing gestation and was +2.4 D at term. Astigmatism of more than 1 D spherical equivalent was seen in 67.8% of the eyes examined. Among newborns with > 1 D of astigmatism, the astigmatism was with-the-rule (vertical meridian having greater refractive power than horizontal) in 85% and against-the-rule in 15%. Anisometropia of more than 1 D spherical equivalent was seen in 31% babies. Term babies are known to be hypermetropic, and preterm babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are known to have myopia. This study provides data on the mean spherical equivalent, the degree of astigmatism, and incidence of anisometropia at different gestational ages. This is the largest study in world literature looking at refractive errors at birth against gestational age. It should help understand the norms of refractive errors in preterm babies.

  7. Fetal eyeball volume: relationship to gestational age and biparietal diameter.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Feldman, Yulia; Degani, Shimon; Grinin, Vitali; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    To measure and determine normal values of the fetal eyeball volume between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation. The volume of the fetal eyeball was measured with three-dimensional ultrasound between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation using the VOCAL software.Only singleton pregnancies without fetal growth restriction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or major fetal malformation were included. Over all, 203 women were studied. In 125 both eyeballs were measured while in 78 only one eyeball was measured. The volume of the eyeball correlated strongly with gestational age (right: R = 0.946, P < 0.001, n = 171. left: R = 0.945, P < 0.001, n = 156), and with the biparietal diameter (BPD) (right: R = 0.949, P < 0.001, n = 171. left: R = 0.953, P < 0.001, n = 156). Using regression analysis the best correlation between eyeball volume and the BPD were: square of right eyeball = -0.180 + 0.187 BPD, square of left eyeball = -0.182 + 0.187 BPD. The volume of the eyeball has strong positive correlations with gestational age and BPD. Our data may be helpful in fetuses suspected of having eye anomalies.

  8. Gestational age and school achievement: a population study.

    PubMed

    Searle, Amelia K; Smithers, Lisa G; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess A; Lynch, John W

    2017-09-01

    Academic achievement varies according to gestational age but it is unclear whether achievement varies within 'term' (37-41 weeks gestation) or for 'post-term' births (≥42 weeks). We examined gestational age from preterm to post-term against a national minimum standard for academic achievement in population data. Literacy and numeracy data of 8-year-old South Australian grade 3 children in 2008-2010 were linked to routinely collected perinatal data (N=28 155). Longer gestation from 23 to 45 weeks was associated with lower risk of poor literacy and numeracy. Adjusted relative risks for being at or below national minimum standard ranged from 1.12 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.22) for 'late preterm' (32-36 weeks) for numeracy, to 1.84 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.30) for 'early preterm' (23-31 weeks) for writing. Within term, every additional week of gestational age was associated with small decreased risks of poor literacy and numeracy (eg, relative risks for poor numeracy 1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20 for 37 weeks). Population-attributable fractions for poor achievement were highest among children born 'early term' (37-39 weeks) due to their higher population prevalence. Shorter gestational age was associated with increased risk of poor literacy/numeracy. While children born 'early term' experience only between 1% and 10% increased risk, they constitute a larger proportion of children with poor educational achievement than preterm children, and thus are important to consider for supportive interventions to improve population-level achievement gains. The seemingly lower risk for post-term children showed large error estimates and warrants further consideration within even larger populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Genetic Analyses in Small-for-Gestational-Age Newborns.

    PubMed

    Stalman, Susanne E; Solanky, Nita; Ishida, Miho; Alemán-Charlet, Cristina; Abu-Amero, Sayeda; Alders, Marielle; Alvizi, Lucas; Baird, William; Demetriou, Charalambos; Henneman, Peter; James, Chela; Knegt, Lia C; Leon, Lydia J; Mannens, Marcel M A M; Mul, Adi N; Nibbering, Nicole A; Peskett, Emma; Rezwan, Faisal I; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; van der Post, Joris A M; Kamp, Gerdine A; Plötz, Frans B; Wit, Jan M; Stanier, Philip; Moore, Gudrun E; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2018-03-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) can be the result of fetal growth restriction, which is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Mechanisms that control prenatal growth are poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to gain more insight into prenatal growth failure and determine an effective diagnostic approach in SGA newborns. We hypothesized that one or more copy number variations (CNVs) and disturbed methylation and sequence variants may be present in genes associated with fetal growth. A prospective cohort study of subjects with a low birth weight for gestational age. The study was conducted at an academic pediatric research institute. A total of 21 SGA newborns with a mean birth weight below the first centile and a control cohort of 24 appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns were studied. Array comparative genomic hybridization, genome-wide methylation studies, and exome sequencing were performed. The numbers of CNVs, methylation disturbances, and sequence variants. The genetic analyses demonstrated three CNVs, one systematically disturbed methylation pattern, and one sequence variant explaining SGA. Additional methylation disturbances and sequence variants were present in 20 patients. In 19 patients, multiple abnormalities were found. Our results confirm the influence of a large number of mechanisms explaining dysregulation of fetal growth. We concluded that CNVs, methylation disturbances, and sequence variants all contribute to prenatal growth failure. These genetic workups can be an effective diagnostic approach in SGA newborns.

  10. [Growth patterns of appropriate for gestational age infants of gestational diabetic mothers during the first year].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Zhang, Y; Mo, Y X; Chen, Z; Sun, Y H; Ding, Z B

    2016-08-02

    To explore the growth pattern of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants of mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objects of this study were offspring of women who delivered in our hospital from January to December 2011. The GDM group included 70 AGA infants (36 male cases and 34 female cases) of mother with GDM. The control group included 154 AGA infants (66 male cases and 88 female cases) of women with normal glucose tolerance. The data of demographic characteristics of mothers of two groups were collected. Body weight and length of infants in two groups were measured at 3, 6 and 12 months age respectively. Body mass index (BMI), weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months and 6-12 months) of infants in two groups were also calculated. Body weight, length and BMI of male AGA infants in GDM group were less than that of control group at 3 months and 6 months age, but more than that of control group at 12 months age, however, there were no significant differences between two group(P>0.05). The weight and height gain during infancy (0-3 months, 3-6 months) of male AGA infants in GDM group were lower than that of control group, but the difference was statistically significant only at 3-6 months[(1.1±0.4) vs (1.4±0.4) kg, P=0.040; (4.9±2.3) vs (6.3±1.2) cm, P=0.026]. The weight and height gain during infancy (6-12 months) of male AGA infants of gestational diabetic mothers were higher than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant[(2.1±0.5) vs (1.8±0.5) kg, P=0.361; (8.4±1.3) vs (7.8±1.4) cm, P=0.464]. Male infants of gestational diabetic mothers grew slowly during their infancy of 0-6 months, and then their growth became increasingly fast, which suggested that the influence of intrauterine hyperglycemia environment of GDM mothers on fetal growth might continue after birth.

  11. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  12. Gestational Age is Dimensionally Associated with Structural Brain Network Abnormalities Across Development.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Rula; Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Xia, Cedric Huchuan; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Pehlivanova, Marieta; Moore, Tyler M; Garcia de La Garza, Angel; Roalf, David R; Rosen, Adon F G; Lorch, Scott A; Ruparel, Kosha; Shinohara, Russell T; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Satterthwaite, Theodore D

    2018-04-21

    Prematurity is associated with diverse developmental abnormalities, yet few studies relate cognitive and neurostructural deficits to a dimensional measure of prematurity. Leveraging a large sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (age 8-22 years) studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined how variation in gestational age impacted cognition and brain structure later in development. Participants included 72 preterm youth born before 37 weeks' gestation and 206 youth who were born at term (37 weeks or later). Using a previously-validated factor analysis, cognitive performance was assessed in three domains: (1) executive function and complex reasoning, (2) social cognition, and (3) episodic memory. All participants completed T1-weighted neuroimaging at 3 T to measure brain volume. Structural covariance networks were delineated using non-negative matrix factorization, an advanced multivariate analysis technique. Lower gestational age was associated with both deficits in executive function and reduced volume within 11 of 26 structural covariance networks, which included orbitofrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well as subcortical regions including the hippocampus. Notably, the relationship between lower gestational age and executive dysfunction was accounted for in part by structural network deficits. Together, these findings emphasize the durable impact of prematurity on cognition and brain structure, which persists across development.

  13. Foetal haemoglobin concentration at postmenstrual age is unaffected by gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuki; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Kono, Ruri; Hayakawa, Ikuyo; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Background Our aim was to determine whether the postnatal age or postmenstrual age is a more appropriate criterion for evaluating foetal haemoglobin concentrations. Methods Blood samples ( n = 1095) were obtained from 394 infants and were divided into two groups based on gestational age at birth: <37 weeks ( n = 491) and ≥37 weeks ( n = 604). (1) Foetal haemoglobin concentrations divided by one month at age after birth were compared between the groups. (2) Foetal haemoglobin concentrations divided into ≤9 months from last menstruation and one month thereafter were compared between the groups. Results In samples from infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age at birth, the median foetal haemoglobin concentrations were 69.5%, 21.4% and 3.6% at 0-1 month, 2-3 months and ≥5 months after birth, respectively. The median foetal haemoglobin concentrations in infants <37 weeks' gestational age at birth were 75.5%, 62.7% and 5.1% at 0-1 month, 2-3 months and ≥5 months after birth, respectively. The median foetal haemoglobin concentrations in infants <37 weeks' gestational age at birth were significantly higher than that in infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age at birth at all postnatal age points. (2) There was no significant difference between the groups at all age points after nine months of postmenstrual age: 72.5 and 75.3% at 9-10 months, 25.1 and 26.6% at 11-12 months and 5.5 and 4.6% at >13 months after last menstruation in infants ≥37 and <37 weeks' gestational age at birth, respectively. Conclusions Evaluation of foetal haemoglobin concentrations at postmenstrual age is unaffected by gestational age at birth.

  14. GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH AND RISK OF TESTICULAR CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Kristina; Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Sieh, Weiva; Sundquist, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Most testicular germ cell tumors originate from carcinoma in situ cells in fetal life, possibly related to sex hormone imbalances in early pregnancy. Previous studies of association between gestational age at birth and testicular cancer have yielded discrepant results and have not examined extreme preterm birth. Our objective was to determine whether low gestational age at birth is independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. We conducted a national cohort study of 354,860 men born in Sweden in 1973–1979, including 19,214 born preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) of whom 1,279 were born extremely preterm (22–29 weeks), followed for testicular cancer incidence through 2008. A total of 767 testicular cancers (296 seminomas and 471 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors) were identified in 11.2 million person-years of follow-up. Extreme preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard ratio 3.95; 95% CI, 1.67–9.34) after adjusting for other perinatal factors, family history of testicular cancer, and cryptorchidism. Only five cases (three seminomas and two nonseminomas) occurred among men born extremely preterm, limiting the precision of risk estimates. No association was found between later preterm birth, post-term birth, or low or high fetal growth and testicular cancer. These findings suggest that extreme but not later preterm birth may be independently associated with testicular cancer in later life. They are based on a small number of cases and will need confirmation in other large cohorts. Elucidation of the key prenatal etiologic factors may potentially lead to preventive interventions in early life. PMID:22314417

  15. Haemostatic profile of healthy premature small for gestational age neonates.

    PubMed

    Mitsiakos, George; Giougi, Evaggelia; Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Tsakalidis, Christos; Papaioannou, Georgia; Malindretos, Pavlos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    The pathogenetic profile of premature Small for Gestational Age (SGA) neonates is strongly related to their haemostatic equilibrium, which is inadequately understood. To evaluate coagulation and fibrinolysis in premature SGA neonates before intervening with Vitamin K administration. We performed a comparison of coagulation, natural inhibitors and fibrinolysis between SGA and Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) infants born prematurely [gestational age (G.A.) <37 weeks]. Study population consisted of 139 preterm newborns, 68 of whom were SGA (25 males and 43 females), while 71 were AGA (37 males and 34 females) that consisted the control group. Blood samples were obtained within 30 minutes following birth and before the administration of vitamin K. Investigation included: PT, INR, APTT, fibrinogen, coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, von Willebrand factor, protein C and free protein S, antithrombin (AT), APCR, tPA and PAI-1. The independent t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the differences between the values of haemostatic parameters. Premature SGA infants presented significantly lower levels of fibrinogen (p<0.029) and higher levels of VIIIc factor, APCR, tPA and PAI-1 (p<0.041, 0.017, 0.021 and 0.019 respectively). The two groups had similar demographic characteristics (except from birth weight), without significant differences in the values of other haemostatic parameters. Despite the statistically significant differentiation in the levels of fibrinogen, VIIIc factor, APCR, tPA and PAI-1, the rest of haemostatic parameters have similar values between SGA and AGA preterms. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nationwide singleton birth weight percentiles by gestational age in Taiwan, 1998-2002.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Wu, Hui-Chen; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Liao, Hua-Fang; Su, Yi-Ning; Lin, Shio-Jean; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2006-01-01

    There are limited nationwide population-based data about birth weight percentiles by gestational age in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop updated intrauterine growth charts that are population based and contain the information of birth weight percentiles by gestational age for singleton newborns in Taiwan. We abstracted and analyzed the birth registration database from the Ministry of the Interior in Taiwan during the period of 1998-2002 that consisted of over one million singleton births. Percentiles of birth weight for each increment of gestational week from 21 to 44 weeks were estimated using smoothed means and standard deviations. The analyses revealed that birth weight rose with advancing gestational age, with greater slopes during the third trimester and then leveled off beyond 40 weeks of gestational age. The male to female ratio ranged from 1.088 to 1.096. The mean birth weights during the period of 1998-2002 were higher than those previously reported for the period of 1945-1967; while the birth weight distribution and percentile during the period of 1998-2002 were similar to those reported for the period of 1979-1989. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of birth weigh at 40th gestational age among the male newborns were 2914, 3374, and 3890 g respectively; and for the female newborns 2816, 3250, and 3747 g. At the gestational age of 37 weeks, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of birth weigh among the male newborns were 2499, 2941, and 3433 g respectively; and for the female newborns 2391, 2832, and 3334 g. From 1998 to 2002, there was a gradual increase in the prevalence of low birth weight and preterm birth together with the percentage of infants born to foreign-born mothers. This study provides the first nationwide singleton intrauterine growth charts in Taiwan that are population-based and gender-specific. The normative data are particularly useful for the investigation of predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth.

  17. Ultrasound during mid-gestation: Agreement with physical foetal and placental measurements and use in predicting gestational age in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jones, A K; Gately, R E; McFadden, K K; Hoffman, M L; Pillai, S M; Zinn, S A; Govoni, K E; Reed, S A

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of poor maternal nutrition and litter size on foetal growth during mid-gestation, pregnant ewes (n = 82) were fed 100%, 60% or 140% of NRC TDN beginning at day 30.2 ± 0.2 of gestation. Transabdominal ultrasound was performed weekly between day 46.0 ± 0.4 and 86.0 ± 0.7 to monitor foetal heart width (HW), umbilical diameter (UMB), rib width (RW) and placentome outer (OD) and inner diameter (ID). Data were analysed with repeated-measures using the mixed procedure for effects of maternal diet, litter size and gestation, and equations predictive of gestational age were generated using the regression procedure. To determine the agreement of ultrasound measurement and actual size, ewes (n = 20-21) were euthanized at day 45 or 90 to obtain corresponding postmortem measurements for Bland-Altman analysis. The HW, UMB and placentome OD and ID increased with gestation (p < .0001) but were unaffected by maternal diet or litter size (p ≥ .12). Ultrasound underestimated postmortem measurements of HW (14.8%), UMB (7.3%), placentome OD (4.5%) and ID (37.3%) at day 90 of gestation. Ultrasound underestimated RW at day 45 (7.7%) but overestimated RW (23.8%) at day 90, indicating inconsistent bias when reporting RW by ultrasound. Combining the HW, UMB, RW and placentome OD generated the strongest equation predictive of gestational age (R 2  = .91). These findings indicate that during mid-gestation, maternal diet or litter size did not affect HW, UMB or placentome diameters and these factors can be used to estimate gestational age. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Prediction of gestational age based on genome-wide differentially methylated regions.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, J; Håberg, S E; Magnus, P; Reese, S E; Gjessing, H K; Magnus, M C; Parr, C L; Page, C M; London, S J; Nystad, W

    2016-10-07

    We explored the association between gestational age and cord blood DNA methylation at birth and whether DNA methylation could be effective in predicting gestational age due to limitations with the presently used methods. We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort study (MoBa) with Illumina HumanMethylation450 data measured for 1753 newborns in two batches: MoBa 1, n = 1068; and MoBa 2, n = 685. Gestational age was computed using both ultrasound and the last menstrual period. We evaluated associations between DNA methylation and gestational age and developed a statistical model for predicting gestational age using MoBa 1 for training and MoBa 2 for predictions. The prediction model was additionally used to compare ultrasound and last menstrual period-based gestational age predictions. Furthermore, both CpGs and associated genes detected in the training models were compared to those detected in a published prediction model for chronological age. There were 5474 CpGs associated with ultrasound gestational age after adjustment for a set of covariates, including estimated cell type proportions, and Bonferroni-correction for multiple testing. Our model predicted ultrasound gestational age more accurately than it predicted last menstrual period gestational age. DNA methylation at birth appears to be a good predictor of gestational age. Ultrasound gestational age is more strongly associated with methylation than last menstrual period gestational age. The CpGs linked with our gestational age prediction model, and their associated genes, differed substantially from the corresponding CpGs and genes associated with a chronological age prediction model.

  19. Gestational age estimation on United States livebirth certificates: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Wier, Megan L; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Gestational age on the birth certificate is the most common source of population-based gestational age data that informs public health policy and practice in the US. Last menstrual period is one of the oldest methods of gestational age estimation and has been on the US Standard Certificate of Live Birth since 1968. The 'clinical estimate of gestation', added to the standard certificate in 1989 to address missing or erroneous last menstrual period data, was replaced by the 'obstetric estimate of gestation' on the 2003 revision, which specifically precludes neonatal assessments. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these measures, potential research implications and challenges accompanying the transition to the obstetric estimate.

  20. Pregnancy outcomes in women aged 35 years or older with gestational diabetes - a registry-based study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, Reeta; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Gissler, Mika; Selander, Tuomas; Heinonen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of women ≥ 35 years to women <35 years with and without gestational diabetes. The data include 230,003 women <35 years and 53,321 women ≥ 35 years and their newborns from 2004 to 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were preterm delivery (<28, 28-31 and 32-36 weeks' gestation), Apgar scores <7 at 5 min, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, asphyxia, preeclampsia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), shoulder dystocia and large for gestational age (LGA). In comparison to women <35 with normal glucose tolerance, preeclampsia (OR 1.57, CI 1.30-1.88), admission to the NICU (OR 3.30, CI 2.94-3.69) and shoulder dystocia (OR 2.12, CI 1.05-4.30) were highest in insulin-treated women ≥ 35 years. In women ≥35, diet- and insulin-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased the rates of preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia and admission to NICU (OR 3.07 CI 2.73-3.45). The effect of advanced maternal age was observed in very preterm delivery (<28 weeks), fetal death, preeclampsia and NICU. The increase in preeclampsia was statistically significant. GDM at advanced age is a high risk state and, more specifically, the risk caused by age and GDM appear to be increasing in preeclampsia.

  1. Small for gestational age and obesity related comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yong Hee

    2018-01-01

    Infant born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of perinatal morbidity, persistent short stature and metabolic alterations in later life. The result of SGA followed by rapid weight gain during early postnatal life has been associated with increased long-term risks for central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, increased fat mass, and cardiovascular disease. We should carefully monitor their weight during infancy and childhood to prevent excessive rates of weight gain. ‘Healthy catch up growth’ may decreased the risk of obesity-related comorbidities in SGA. Establishing the optimal growth patterns in SGA to minimize short- and long-term risks is important, and further studies will be needed. This review discusses recent studies concentrating on obesity-related morbidities in SGA infants that may provide insight into growth monitoring. PMID:29609443

  2. Small for gestational age and obesity: epidemiology and general risks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung

    2018-01-01

    Children born small for gestational age (SGA) have several life-long consequences. Previous epidemiological studies investigated from childhood to adulthood reported that a number of chronic diseases originate in the prenatal period. With the emerging era of obesity epidemic, more concerns are related to being obese than being short-statured in SGA children. The exact mechanisms are uncertain; however, growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis disturbance by fetal programming and accelerated postnatal weight gain contributed to central adiposity in SGA children. In this review, we summarized the definitions and prevalence of SGA, epidemiology, and general risks of obesity in SGA children. Early interventions, before and after birth, are needed for healthy catch-up growth to prevent later obesity and related complications. PMID:29609444

  3. Maternal cotinine level during pregnancy and birthweight for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Peacock, J L; Cook, D G; Carey, I M; Jarvis, M J; Bryant, A E; Anderson, H R; Bland, J M

    1998-08-01

    Recent studies have found that cotinine is a better predictor of birthweight than the number of cigarettes smoked in pregnancy. In this paper we test this hypothesis and use cotinine to explore the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on birthweight. In all, 1254 white women were interviewed at booking, 28 and 36 weeks about the number and brand of cigarette smoked. Cotinine was assayed from blood samples taken on the day of interview. The outcome was birthweight for gestational age. There was good agreement between self-reported smoker/non-smoker status and maternal cotinine with 1.3% women mis-reported as non-smokers at booking, 0.6% and 1.8% mis-reported at 28 and 36 weeks respectively. Among smokers, cotinine was more closely related to birthweight than the number of cigarettes smoked at all three time points (r = -0.25 versus r = -0.16 at booking). A reduction in cotinine between booking and 28 weeks was associated with increased birthweight but the effect was not statistically significant. Among non-smokers the association between birthweight and cotinine was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal height, parity, sex and gestational age. Difference in mean birthweight between non-smokers in the lower and upper quintiles of cotinine was 0.2% (95% CI: -2.4, 2.8). Pooling the results of 10 studies plus our own gave an estimated difference in mean birthweight between women unexposed and exposed to passive smoke of 31 g (95% CI: 19, 44). Cotinine is a better predictor of birthweight than the reported number of cigarettes smoked. If biochemical analysis is impossible, then self-reported smoking habit should be obtained prospectively using a structured approach. Any effect on birthweight of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy is small compared with the effects of maternal active smoking.

  4. Changes in Cesarean Delivery Rates by Gestational Age: United States, 1996-2011

    MedlinePlus

    ... cesarean delivery rate : Number of births in multiple pregnancies delivered by cesarean per 100 multiple births. Gestational age categories Early preterm : Births prior to 34 completed weeks of ...

  5. Parenting and Cognitive and Psychomotor Delay Due to Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2017-01-01

    Background: To examine whether different dimensions of parenting at different ages help small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children "catch-up" the normal children in cognition and psychomotor. Methods: We analyzed data of 800 children born SGA and 3,000 children born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) from the Early Childhood…

  6. Variation between last-menstrual-period and clinical estimates of gestational age in vital records.

    PubMed

    Qin, Cheng; Hsia, Jason; Berg, Cynthia J

    2008-03-15

    An accurate assessment of gestational age is vital to population-based research and surveillance in maternal and infant health. However, the quality of gestational age measurements derived from birth certificates has been in question. Using the 2002 US public-use natality file, the authors examined the agreement between estimates of gestational age based on the last menstrual period (LMP) and clinical estimates in vital records across durations of gestation and US states and explored reasons for disagreement. Agreement between the LMP and the clinical estimate of gestational age varied substantially across gestations and among states. Preterm births were more likely than term births to have disagreement between the two estimates. Maternal age, maternal education, initiation of prenatal care, order of livebirth, and use of ultrasound had significant independent effects on the disagreement between the two measures, regardless of gestational age, but these factors made little difference in the magnitude of gestational age group differences. Information available on birth certificates was not sufficient to understand this disparity. The lowest agreement between the LMP and the clinical estimate was observed among preterm infants born at 28-36 weeks' gestation, who accounted for more than 90% of total preterm births. This finding deserves particular attention and further investigation.

  7. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  8. Cardiopulmonary adaptation in large for gestational age infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

    PubMed

    Vela-Huerta, M; Aguilera-López, A; Alarcón-Santos, S; Amador, N; Aldana-Valenzuela, C; Heredia, A

    2007-09-01

    To compare cardiopulmonary adaptation in large for gestational age infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers. Color Doppler echocardiography was performed in 113 (22 large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers, 21 of nondiabetic mothers and 70 adequate for gestational age newborns) full-term infants. Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly higher in infants of diabetic mothers than in those of nondiabetic mothers and normal infants at 24 h (38.5 vs. 32.5, and 35.5 mmHg, respectively). However, slow fall in this parameter was shown in all large for gestational age infants. Open ductus arteriosus was frequent in all large for gestational age infants, but its closure was significantly delayed in infants of diabetic mothers. Septal hypertrophy was higher in infants of diabetic mothers than in large for gestational age infants of nondiabetic mothers. Large for gestational age infants born from nondiabetic mothers showed delayed fall in pulmonary arterial pressure similar to those born from diabetic mothers but showed lower proportion of septal hypertrophy. Patent ductus arteriosus persisted for longer period of time in all large for gestational age infants than in normal infants, but its closure was significantly delayed in infants of diabetic mothers.

  9. Association between placentome size, measured using transrectal ultrasonography, and gestational age in cattle.

    PubMed

    Adeyinka, F D; Laven, R A; Lawrence, K E; van Den Bosch, M; Blankenvoorde, G; Parkinson, T J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate whether fetal age could be accurately estimated using placentome size. Fifty-eight cows with confirmed conception dates in two herds were used for the study. The length of the long axis and cross-sectional area of placentomes close to the cervix were measured once every 10 days between approximately 60-130 days of gestation and once every 15 days between 130-160 days of gestation. Four to six placentomes were measured using transrectal ultrasonography in each uterine horn. A linear mixed model was used to establish the factors that were significantly associated with log mean placentome length and to create an equation to predict gestational age from mean placentome length. Limits of agreement analysis was then used to evaluate whether the predictions were sufficiently accurate for mean placentome length to be used, in practice, as a method of determining gestational age. Only age of gestation (p<0.001) and uterine horn (p=0.048) were found to have a significant effect on log mean placentome length. From the three models used to predict gestational age the one that used log mean placentome length of all placentomes, adjusting for the effect of horn, had the smallest 95% limits of agreement; ±33 days. That is, predicted gestational age had a 95% chance of being between 33 days greater and 33.7 days less than actual age. This is approximately twice that reported in studies using measurement of fetal size. Measurement of placentomes near to the cervix using transrectal ultrasonography was easily achieved. There was a significant association between placentome size and gestational age, but between-cow variation in placentome size and growth resulted in poor agreement between placentome size and gestational age. Although placentomes can be easily visualised during diagnosis of pregnancy using transrectal ultrasonography, mean placentome size should not be used to estimate gestational age.

  10. Advancing gestation does not attenuate biobehavioural coherence between psychological distress and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2013-04-01

    Despite little evidence to suggest that HPA axis responses to psychological provocation are attenuated during pregnancy, it is widely held that dampening of the HPA axis response to psychological distress serves a protective function for the mother and fetus. The current study was designed to assess changes in biobehavioral coherence between psychological distress and cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Ambulatory assessment of ecologically relevant psychological distress and salivary cortisol were repeated in all three trimesters for 82 pregnant women. Samples were collected 5 times per day over the course of 2 days in each trimester. Psychological distress and cortisol were positively associated, β=.024, p<.01, indicating that increases in psychological distress were associated with increases in cortisol. Gestational age did not moderate this association, β=.0009, p=.13, suggesting that negative psychological experiences remain potent stimuli for the HPA axis during pregnancy. Biobehavioral coherence between ecologically relevant experiences of psychological distress and cortisol is not attenuated with advancing gestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Down Syndrome: Gestational Age-Related Neonatal Anthropometrics for Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Paul F; Jung, Anna-Maria; Stierkorb, Eva; Monz, Dominik; Gortner, Ludwig; Rohrer, Tilman R

    2016-01-01

    Neonates with Down syndrome (DS) weigh less, are smaller and have increased first-year mortality, especially if born small for gestational age (GA). DS-specific GA-related neonatal anthropometrics for Germany are lacking. To construct reference tables and centile curves for birth weight (g), crown-heel length (cm) and head circumference (cm) by sex and GA for German DS neonates. Retrospective anthropometric data from live-born singleton DS neonates born in Germany from January 1966 to June 2010 were collected using standardized questionnaires and patient records. Reference tables were created based on means and standard deviations. The 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th centile curves were constructed and smoothed using running medians and Cole's LMS method. Anthropometric measurements were obtained for 1,304 DS neonates [males/females: 713/591 (54.7%/45.3%)]. Reference tables and centile charts were constructed from 3,542 (males/females: 1,932/1,610) observations for GA 32-41 weeks. Compared with general-population newborns, prematurity was increased (21.1 vs. 6.3%) at GA 32-36 weeks. Term-born (GA 40 weeks) male and female DS neonates were 352.5 and 223.5 g lighter and 1.5 and 1.4 cm smaller than general-population neonates, and head circumference was also 1.4 and 1.5 cm smaller, respectively. This is the first study to report GA-related, sex-specific reference tables and centile charts of birth weight, length and head circumference for DS neonates born in Germany. Compared with the general German population, DS newborns are more frequently born prematurely, weigh less, are smaller and have a smaller head circumference at birth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Utilizing Infant Cry Acoustics to Determine Gestational Age.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa; Sahin, Suzan; Sari, Fatma N; Tatar, Emel C; Uras, Nurdan; Oguz, Suna S; Korkmaz, Mehmet H

    2017-07-01

    The date of last menstruation period and ultrasonography are the most commonly used methods to determine gestational age (GA). However, if these data are not clear, some scoring systems performed after birth can be used. New Ballard Score (NBS) is a commonly used method in estimation of GA. Cry sound may reflect the developmental integrity of the infant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the infants' GA and some acoustic parameters of the infant cry. A prospective single-blind study was carried out. In this prospective study, medically stable infants without any congenital craniofacial anomalies were evaluated. During routine blood sampling, cry sounds were recorded and acoustic analysis was performed. Step-by-step multiple linear regression analysis was performed. The data of 116 infants (57 female, 59 male) with the known GA (34.6 ± 3.8 weeks) were evaluated and with Apgar score of higher than 5. The real GA was significantly and well correlated with the estimated GA according to the NBS, F0, Int, Jitt, and latency parameters. The obtained stepwise linear regression analysis model was formulized as GA=(31.169) - (0.020 × F0)+(0.286 × GA according to NBS) - (0.003 × Latency)+(0.108 × Int) - (0.367 × Jitt). The real GA could be determined with a ratio of 91.7% using this model. We have determined that after addition of F0, Int, Jitt, and latency to NBS, the power of GA estimation would be increased. This simple formula can be used to determine GA in clinical practice but validity of such prediction formulas needs to be further tested. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Tunay, Zuhal Ozen; Acar, Damla Erginturk; Erol, Muhammet Kazım; Sener, Ender; Acar, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age), birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001), but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5). Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively). Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  14. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies on infants and children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants and children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study....

  15. Accuracy of gestational age estimated by menstrual dating in women seeking abortion beyond nine weeks.

    PubMed

    Norman, Wendy V; Bergunder, Jeannette; Eccles, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    We sought to quantify the accuracy of estimating gestational age by reported last menstrual period among women seeking surgical abortion. We observed that women seeking surgical abortion underestimated their gestational age when making the appointment, leading to poor allocation of resources. This tendency to underestimate has not previously been reported and differs from the accurate dating reported among women choosing either medical abortion or continuation of the pregnancy. We performed a retrospective review of randomly selected medical records for women with abortions scheduled at 9 to 20 weeks' gestation (n = 415) at two clinics in Vancouver between 2002 and 2008. The mean gestational age calculated by menstrual dates (14.3, SD 3.9) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4) weeks less than that calculated by ultrasound (15.5, SD 3.4) (P < 0.001). Greater gestational age was associated with a larger discrepancy (r = 0.192, P < 0.001). Variables other than gestational age (maternal age, parity, previous abortions, illicit drug use, and contraceptive method at conception) were not significant predictors of inaccurate menstrual dating. Women seeking surgical abortion for pregnancies of 9 to 20 weeks underreport gestational age by an average of 1.2 weeks using menstrual dating. We found that women who intended to continue with their pregnancy overestimated their gestational age, those seeking very early abortion estimated most accurately, and those seeking surgical abortion at more than nine weeks had a clinically significant underestimation of their gestational age. Clinicians referring and counselling women who are considering surgical abortion must facilitate timely access to clinical or ultrasound dating of their pregnancy.

  16. Influence of Gestational Age and Postnatal Age on Speech Sound Processing in NICU infants

    PubMed Central

    Key, Alexandra P.F.; Lambert, E. Warren; Aschner, Judy L.; Maitre, Nathalie L.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effect of gestational (GA) and postnatal (PNA) age on speech sound perception in infants. Auditory ERPs were recorded in response to speech sounds (CV syllables) in 50 infant NICU patients (born at 24–40 weeks gestation) prior to discharge. Efficiency of speech perception was quantified as absolute difference in mean amplitudes of ERPs in response to vowel (/a/–/u/) and consonant (/b/–/g/, /d/–/g/) contrasts within 150–250, 250–400, 400–700 ms after stimulus onset. Results indicated that both GA and PNA affected speech sound processing. These effects were more pronounced for consonant than vowel contrasts. Increasing PNA was associated with greater sound discrimination in infants born at or after 30 weeks GA, while minimal PNA-related changes were observed for infants with GA less than 30 weeks. Our findings suggest that a certain level of brain maturity at birth is necessary to benefit from postnatal experience in the first 4 months of life, and both gestational and postnatal ages need to be considered when evaluating infant brain responses. PMID:22332725

  17. Gestational age assessment in malaria pregnancy cohorts: a prospective ultrasound demonstration project in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Blair J; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Membe, Gladys; Nyirenda, Osward; Mawindo, Patricia; Kuyenda, Redson; Malenga, Albert; Masonbrink, Abbey; Makanani, Bonus; Thesing, Phillip; Laufer, Miriam K

    2013-06-04

    Malaria during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for low birth weight (<2500 grams). Distinguishing infants that are born premature (< 37 weeks) from those that are growth-restricted (less than the 10th percentile at birth) requires accurate assessment of gestational age. Where ultrasound is accessible, sonographic confirmation of gestational age is more accurate than menstrual dating. The goal was to pilot the feasibility and utility of adding ultrasound to an observational pregnancy malaria cohort. In July 2009, research staff (three mid-level clinical providers, one nurse) from The Blantyre Malaria Project underwent an intensive one-week ultrasound training to perform foetal biometry. Following an additional four months of practice and remote image review, subjects from an ongoing cohort were recruited for ultrasound to determine gestational age. Gestational age at delivery established by ultrasound was compared with postnatal gestational age assessment (Ballard examination). One hundred and seventy-eight women were enrolled. The majority of images were of good quality (94.3%, 509/540) although a learning curve was apparent with 17.5% (24/135) images of unacceptable quality in the first 25% of scans. Ultrasound was used to date 13% of the pregnancies when menstrual dates were unknown and changed the estimated gestational age for an additional 25%. There was poor agreement between the gestational age at delivery as established by the ultrasound protocol compared to that determined by the Ballard examination (bias 0.8 weeks, limits of agreement -3.5 weeks to 5.1 weeks). The distribution of gestational ages by Ballard suggested a clustering of gestational age around the mean with 87% of the values falling between 39 and 41 weeks. The distribution of gestational age by ultrasound confirmed menstrual dates was more typical. Using ultrasound confirmed dates as the gold standard, 78.5% of preterm infants were misclassified as term and 26.8% of small

  18. Gestational age assessment in malaria pregnancy cohorts: a prospective ultrasound demonstration project in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for low birth weight (<2500 grams). Distinguishing infants that are born premature (< 37 weeks) from those that are growth-restricted (less than the 10th percentile at birth) requires accurate assessment of gestational age. Where ultrasound is accessible, sonographic confirmation of gestational age is more accurate than menstrual dating. The goal was to pilot the feasibility and utility of adding ultrasound to an observational pregnancy malaria cohort. Methods In July 2009, research staff (three mid-level clinical providers, one nurse) from The Blantyre Malaria Project underwent an intensive one-week ultrasound training to perform foetal biometry. Following an additional four months of practice and remote image review, subjects from an ongoing cohort were recruited for ultrasound to determine gestational age. Gestational age at delivery established by ultrasound was compared with postnatal gestational age assessment (Ballard examination). Results One hundred and seventy-eight women were enrolled. The majority of images were of good quality (94.3%, 509/540) although a learning curve was apparent with 17.5% (24/135) images of unacceptable quality in the first 25% of scans. Ultrasound was used to date 13% of the pregnancies when menstrual dates were unknown and changed the estimated gestational age for an additional 25%. There was poor agreement between the gestational age at delivery as established by the ultrasound protocol compared to that determined by the Ballard examination (bias 0.8 weeks, limits of agreement -3.5 weeks to 5.1 weeks). The distribution of gestational ages by Ballard suggested a clustering of gestational age around the mean with 87% of the values falling between 39 and 41 weeks. The distribution of gestational age by ultrasound confirmed menstrual dates was more typical. Using ultrasound confirmed dates as the gold standard, 78.5% of preterm infants were misclassified as

  19. Distinguishing pathological from constitutional small for gestational age births in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2009-10-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) can occur following a pathological process or may represent constitutionally small fetuses. However, distinguishing these processes is often difficult, especially in large studies, where the term SGA is often used as a proxy for restricted fetal growth. Since biologic variation in fetal size is largely a third trimester phenomenon, we hypothesized that the definition of SGA at term may include a sizeable proportion of constitutionally small fetuses. In contrast, since biologic variation in fetal size is not fully expressed in (early) preterm gestations, it is plausible that SGA in early preterm gestations would comprise a large proportion of growth restricted fetuses. We compared mortality and morbidity rates between SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies. A population-based study of over 19million non-malformed, singleton births (1995-04) in the United States was performed. Gestational age (24-44weeks) was based on a clinical estimate. SGA and AGA were defined as sex-specific birthweight <10th and 25-74th centiles, respectively, for gestational age. All analyses were adjusted for a variety of confounding factors. Excess mortality risk in SGA and AGA babies. On an additive scale, stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were higher at every preterm gestation among SGA than AGA births, and similar at term gestations. An inverse relationship between gestational age and excess deaths between SGA and AGA babies delivered at <37weeks was evident. In early preterm gestations, the definition of SGA may well be justified as a proxy for IUGR. In contrast, SGA babies that are delivered at term are likely to be constitutionally small.

  20. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  1. Gestational age estimates from singleton births conceived using assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, William M; Schieve, Laura A; Dietz, Patricia M

    2007-09-01

    Information on gestational age for public health research and surveillance in the US is usually obtained from vital records and is primarily based on the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP). However, using LMP as a marker of conception is subject to a variety of errors and results in misclassification of gestational age. Pregnancies conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART) are unique in that the estimates of gestational age are not based on the LMP, but on the date when fertilisation actually occurred, and thus most gestational age errors are likely to be due to errors introduced in recording and data entry. The purpose of this paper was to examine the birthweight distribution by gestational age for ART singleton livebirths reported to a national ART surveillance system. Gestational age was categorised as 20-27, 28-31, 32-36 and 37-44 weeks; birthweight distributions were plotted for each category. The distributions of very-low-birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g), moderately low-birthweight (1500-2499 g) and normal-birthweight infants for each gestational week were examined. At both 20-27 and 28-31 weeks, there was an extended right tail to the distribution and a small second mode. At 32-36 weeks, there were long tails in either direction and at 37-44 weeks, an extended tail to the left. There was a high proportion of VLBW infants at low gestational ages and a decreasing proportion of VLBW infants with increasing gestational age. However, there was also a fairly constant proportion of normal-birthweight infants at every gestational age below 34 weeks, which suggested misclassification of gestational age. Approximately 12% of ART births classified as 28-31 weeks' gestation had a birthweight in the second mode of the birthweight distribution compared with approximately 29% in national vital statistics data. Even when the birthweight and dates of conception and birth are known, questions remain regarding the residual amount of

  2. Maternal-fetal disposition of glyburide in pregnant mice is dependent on gestational age.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Diana L; Risler, Linda J; Liang, Chao-Kang J; Rice, Kenneth M; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Mao, Qingcheng

    2014-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a major complication of human pregnancy. The oral clearance (CL) of glyburide, an oral antidiabetic drug, increases 2-fold in pregnant women during late gestation versus nonpregnant controls. In this study, we examined gestational age-dependent changes in maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics (PK) of glyburide and metabolites in a pregnant mouse model. Nonpregnant and pregnant FVB mice were given glyburide by retro-orbital injection. Maternal plasma was collected over 240 minutes on gestation days (gd) 0, 7.5, 10, 15, and 19; fetuses were collected on gd 15 and 19. Glyburide and metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and PK analyses were performed using a pooled data bootstrap approach. Maternal CL of glyburide increased approximately 2-fold on gd 10, 15, and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls. Intrinsic CL of glyburide in maternal liver microsomes also increased as gestation progressed. Maternal metabolite/glyburide area under the curve ratios were generally unchanged or slightly decreased throughout gestation. Total fetal exposure to glyburide was <5% of maternal plasma exposure, and was doubled on gd 19 versus gd 15. Fetal metabolite concentrations were below the limit of assay detection. This is the first evidence of gestational age-dependent changes in glyburide PK. Increased maternal glyburide clearance during gestation is attributable to increased hepatic metabolism. Metabolite elimination may also increase during pregnancy. In the mouse model, fetal exposure to glyburide is gestational age-dependent and low compared with maternal plasma exposure. These results indicate that maternal glyburide therapeutic strategies may require adjustments in a gestational age-dependent manner if these same changes occur in humans. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal gestational age and cerebellar appearance in healthy pregnant Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Orji, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Fetal biometry by ultrasound provides reliable and important information about fetal growth and wellbeing. Evaluation of the fetal posterior fossa is useful in the assessment of neural tube-defects. Studies on normal ultrasound fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter across gestational age (GA) are scanty in the Nigerian medical literature. This study was carried out to study normal fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter at various GAs among healthy pregnant Nigerian Africans. This was a prospective study of 450 healthy singleton pregnant women between 13 and 42 weeks gestation. A curvilinear probe with a 3.5 MHz transducer of a SonoAce X6 (Medison Inc., Korea 2010) scanner was used to assess fetal transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and appearance. GA was also determined using fetal biometric parameters such as the biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference. Fetal cerebellar appearance was correlated against GA. The cerebellar appearance was graded into: Grade I: 164 fetuses (36.4%), Grade II; 102 fetuses (22.7%) and Grade III: 184 fetuses (40.9%). Mean GA and TCD was 21 weeks and 21.2 mm for Grade I; 28 weeks and 32.6 mm for Grade II; and 35 weeks and 47.1 mm for Grade III. There was significance difference among the cerebellar grades at the GA groups and transverse cerebellar diameter (P < 0.000). There is a gradual and steady change in ultrasonographic appearance of the fetal cerebellar and diameter appearance with advancing gestation. The changes ranged from anechoic, "pair of eye glass" appearance at second trimester to relatively echogenic, "dumb-bell" appearance at early third trimester, and solid, "fan-shape" in late third trimester.

  4. Determining gestational age and preterm birth in rural Guatemala: A comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John R; Thompson, Lisa M; Díaz Artiga, Anaité; Bryan, Joe P; Arriaga, William E; Omer, Saad B; McCracken, John P

    2018-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods-last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment-against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala. Pregnant women (n = 188) were recruited with a gestational age <20 weeks and followed until delivery. Ultrasound was performed by trained physicians and LMP was collected during recruitment. NB was performed on infants within 96 hours of birth by trained study nurses. LMP and NB accuracy at determining gestational age and identifying prematurity was assessed by comparing them to ultrasound. By ultrasound, infant mean gestational age at birth was 38.3 weeks (SD = 1.6) with 16% born at less than 37 gestation. LMP was more accurate than NB (mean difference of +0.13 weeks for LMP and +0.61 weeks for NB). However, LMP and NB estimates had low agreement with ultrasound-determined gestational age (Lin's concordance<0.48 for both methods) and preterm birth (κ<0.29 for both methods). By LMP, 18% were judged premature compared with 6% by NB. LMP underestimated gestational age among women presenting later to prenatal care (0.18 weeks for each additional week). Gestational age for preterm infants was overestimated by nearly one week using LMP and nearly two weeks using NB. New Ballard neuromuscular measurements were more predictive of preterm birth than those measuring physical criteria. In an indigenous population in highland Guatemala, LMP overestimated prematurity by 2% and NB underestimated prematurity by 10% compared with ultrasound estimates. New, simple and accurate methods are needed to identify preterm birth in resource-limited settings worldwide.

  5. Determining gestational age and preterm birth in rural Guatemala: A comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lisa M.; Díaz Artiga, Anaité; Bryan, Joe P.; Arriaga, William E.; Omer, Saad B.; McCracken, John P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is the leading cause of death among children <5 years of age. Accurate determination of prematurity is necessary to provide appropriate neonatal care and guide preventive measures. To estimate the most accurate method to identify infants at risk for adverse outcomes, we assessed the validity of two widely available methods—last menstrual period (LMP) and the New Ballard (NB) neonatal assessment—against ultrasound in determining gestational age and preterm birth in highland Guatemala. Methods Pregnant women (n = 188) were recruited with a gestational age <20 weeks and followed until delivery. Ultrasound was performed by trained physicians and LMP was collected during recruitment. NB was performed on infants within 96 hours of birth by trained study nurses. LMP and NB accuracy at determining gestational age and identifying prematurity was assessed by comparing them to ultrasound. Results By ultrasound, infant mean gestational age at birth was 38.3 weeks (SD = 1.6) with 16% born at less than 37 gestation. LMP was more accurate than NB (mean difference of +0.13 weeks for LMP and +0.61 weeks for NB). However, LMP and NB estimates had low agreement with ultrasound-determined gestational age (Lin’s concordance<0.48 for both methods) and preterm birth (κ<0.29 for both methods). By LMP, 18% were judged premature compared with 6% by NB. LMP underestimated gestational age among women presenting later to prenatal care (0.18 weeks for each additional week). Gestational age for preterm infants was overestimated by nearly one week using LMP and nearly two weeks using NB. New Ballard neuromuscular measurements were more predictive of preterm birth than those measuring physical criteria. Conclusion In an indigenous population in highland Guatemala, LMP overestimated prematurity by 2% and NB underestimated prematurity by 10% compared with ultrasound estimates. New, simple and accurate methods are needed to identify preterm birth in resource

  6. Determinants and consequences of discrepancies in menstrual and ultrasonographic gestational age estimates.

    PubMed

    Morin, Isabelle; Morin, Lucie; Zhang, Xun; Platt, Robert W; Blondel, Béatrice; Bréart, Gérard; Usher, Robert; Kramer, Michael S

    2005-02-01

    To assess the association between maternal and fetal characteristics and discrepancy between last normal menstrual period and early (<20 weeks) ultrasound-based gestational age and the association between discrepancies and pregnancy outcomes. Hospital-based cohort study. Montreal, Canada. A total of 46,514 women with both menstrual- and early ultrasound-based gestational age estimates. Positive (last normal menstrual period > early ultrasound, i.e. menstrual-based gestational age is higher than early ultrasound-based gestational age, so that the expected date of delivery is earlier with the menstrual-based gestational age) discrepancies > or =+7 days, mean birthweight, low birthweight, stillbirth and in-hospital neonatal death. Multiparous mothers and those with diabetes, small stature or high pre-pregnancy body mass index were more likely to have positive discrepancies. The proportion of women with discrepancies > or =+7 days was significantly higher among chromosomally malformed and female fetuses. The mean birthweight declined with increasingly positive differences. The risk of low birthweight was significantly higher for positive differences. Associations with fetal growth measures were more plausible with early ultrasound estimates. Although most discrepancies between last normal menstrual period- and early ultrasound-based gestational age are attributable to errors in menstrual dating, our results suggest that some positive differences reflect early growth restriction.

  7. Preconceptional and gestational weight trajectories and risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age baby in rural Gambia12

    PubMed Central

    Elmrayed, Seham AA; Sosseh, Fatou; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal nutritional status is a key determinant of small for gestational age (SGA), but some knowledge gaps remain, particularly regarding the role of the energy balance entering pregnancy. Objective: We investigated how preconceptional and gestational weight trajectories (summarized by individual-level traits) are associated with SGA risk in rural Gambia. Design: The sample comprised 670 women in a trial with serial weight data (7310 observations) that were available before and during pregnancy. Individual trajectories from 6 mo before conception to 30 wk of gestation were produced with the use of multilevel modeling. Summary traits were expressed as weight z scores [weight z score at 3 mo preconception (zwt−3 mo), weight z score at conception, weight z score at 3 mo postconception, weight z score at 7 mo postconception (zwt+7 mo), and conditional measures that represented the change from the preceding time] and were related to SGA risk with the use of Poisson regression with confounder adjustment; linear splines were used to account for nonlinearity. Results: Maternal weight at each time point had a consistent nonlinear relation with SGA risk. For example, the zwt−3 mo estimate was stronger in women with values ≤0.5 (RR: 0.736; 95% CI: 0.594, 0.910) than in women with values >0.5 (RR: 0.920; 95% CI: 0.682, 1.241). The former group had the highest observed SGA prevalence. Focusing on weight change, only conditional zwt+7 mo was associated with SGA and only in women with values >−0.5 (RR: 0.579; 95% CI: 0.463, 0.724). Conclusions: Protection against delivering an SGA neonate offered by greater preconceptional or gestational weight may be most pronounced in more undernourished and vulnerable women. Independent of this possibility, greater second- and third-trimester weight gain beyond a threshold may be protective. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com/ as ISRCTN49285450. PMID:28490512

  8. Preconceptional and gestational weight trajectories and risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age baby in rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William; Elmrayed, Seham Aa; Sosseh, Fatou; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-06-01

    Background: Maternal nutritional status is a key determinant of small for gestational age (SGA), but some knowledge gaps remain, particularly regarding the role of the energy balance entering pregnancy. Objective: We investigated how preconceptional and gestational weight trajectories (summarized by individual-level traits) are associated with SGA risk in rural Gambia. Design: The sample comprised 670 women in a trial with serial weight data (7310 observations) that were available before and during pregnancy. Individual trajectories from 6 mo before conception to 30 wk of gestation were produced with the use of multilevel modeling. Summary traits were expressed as weight z scores [weight z score at 3 mo preconception ( z wt -3 mo ), weight z score at conception, weight z score at 3 mo postconception, weight z score at 7 mo postconception ( z wt +7 mo ), and conditional measures that represented the change from the preceding time] and were related to SGA risk with the use of Poisson regression with confounder adjustment; linear splines were used to account for nonlinearity. Results: Maternal weight at each time point had a consistent nonlinear relation with SGA risk. For example, the z wt -3 mo estimate was stronger in women with values ≤0.5 (RR: 0.736; 95% CI: 0.594, 0.910) than in women with values >0.5 (RR: 0.920; 95% CI: 0.682, 1.241). The former group had the highest observed SGA prevalence. Focusing on weight change, only conditional z wt +7 mo was associated with SGA and only in women with values >-0.5 (RR: 0.579; 95% CI: 0.463, 0.724). Conclusions: Protection against delivering an SGA neonate offered by greater preconceptional or gestational weight may be most pronounced in more undernourished and vulnerable women. Independent of this possibility, greater second- and third-trimester weight gain beyond a threshold may be protective. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com/ as ISRCTN49285450.

  9. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Gestational Age at Birth and Brain White Matter Development in Term-Born Infants and Children.

    PubMed

    Ou, X; Glasier, C M; Ramakrishnaiah, R H; Kanfi, A; Rowell, A C; Pivik, R T; Andres, A; Cleves, M A; Badger, T M

    2017-12-01

    Studies on infants and children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants and children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using DTI tract-based spatial statistics methods, we evaluated white matter microstructures in 2 groups of term-born (≥37 weeks of gestation) healthy subjects: 2-week-old infants ( n = 44) and 8-year-old children ( n = 63). DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were calculated by voxelwise and ROI methods and were correlated with gestational age at birth, with potential confounding factors such as postnatal age and sex controlled. Fractional anisotropy values, which are markers for white matter microstructural integrity, positively correlated ( P < .05, corrected) with gestational age at birth in most major white matter tracts/regions for the term infants. Mean diffusivity values, which are measures of water diffusivities in the brain, and axial and radial diffusivity values, which are markers for axonal growth and myelination, respectively, negatively correlated ( P < .05, corrected) with gestational age at birth in all major white matter tracts/regions excluding the body and splenium of the corpus callosum for the term infants. No significant correlations with gestational age were observed for any tracts/regions for the term-born 8-year-old children. Our results indicate that longer gestation during the normal term period is associated with significantly greater infant white matter development (as reflected by higher fractional anisotropy and lower mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity values); however, similar associations were not observable in later childhood. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  12. [Risk factors of small for the gestational age neonates in a hospital of Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Mariaca, J Eduardo; Pizango-Mallqui, Orion; Alburquerque-Duglio, Miguel; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Identify risk factors for at-term small for gestational age newborns. Retrospective cohort study using data from the Maternal Perinatal Information System of the Maria Auxiliadora Hospital of Lima, from the period 2000-2010. Maternal age, parity, education level, marital status, pregestational body mass index, number of prenatal care visits, presence of conditions such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, urinary tract infection and gestational diabetes as risk factors in small for gestational age newborns were evaluated. The weight for gestational age was calculated based on Peruvian percentiles. Crude relative risk (RR) and adjusted (ARR) were calculated with confidence intervals of 95% using log-binomial generalized linear models. 64,670 pregnant women were included. The incidence for small for gestational age was 7.2%. Preeclampsia (ARR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.15), eclampsia (ARR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.38 to 4.35), low maternal weight (ARR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.54), nulliparity (ARR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.42), age ≥35 years (ARR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04 -1.29), having prenatal care visits from 0 to 2 (ARR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.32 to 1.55) and 3 to 5 (ARR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.32) were risk factors for small for gestational age. It is necessary to identify pregnant women with risk factors such as those found to decrease the condition of small for gestational age. Actions should emphasize modifiable factors, such as the frequency of prenatal care visits.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of the Cervical Texture by Ultrasound and Correlation with Gestational Age.

    PubMed

    Baños, Núria; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Migliorelli, Federico; Triginer, Laura; Cobo, Teresa; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard; Palacio, Montse

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative texture analysis has been proposed to extract robust features from the ultrasound image to detect subtle changes in the textures of the images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative cervical texture analysis to assess cervical tissue changes throughout pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study including singleton pregnancies between 20.0 and 41.6 weeks of gestation from women who delivered at term. Cervical length was measured, and a selected region of interest in the cervix was delineated. A model to predict gestational age based on features extracted from cervical images was developed following three steps: data splitting, feature transformation, and regression model computation. Seven hundred images, 30 per gestational week, were included for analysis. There was a strong correlation between the gestational age at which the images were obtained and the estimated gestational age by quantitative analysis of the cervical texture (R = 0.88). This study provides evidence that quantitative analysis of cervical texture can extract features from cervical ultrasound images which correlate with gestational age. Further research is needed to evaluate its applicability as a biomarker of the risk of spontaneous preterm birth, as well as its role in cervical assessment in other clinical situations in which cervical evaluation might be relevant. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Glutamine metabolism in advanced age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine, reviewed extensively in the last century, is a key substrate for the splanchnic bed in the whole body and is a nutrient of particular interest in gastrointestinal research. A marked decrease in the plasma glutamine concentration has recently been observed in neonates and adults during acute illness and stress. Although some studies in newborns have shown parenteral and enteral supplementation with glutamine to be of benefit (by decreasing proteolysis and activating the immune system), clinical trials have not demonstrated prolonged advantages such as reductions in mortality or risk of infections in adults. In addition, glutamine is not able to combat the muscle wasting associated with disease or age-related sarcopenia. Oral glutamine supplementation initiated before advanced age in rats increases gut mass and improves the villus height of mucosa, thereby preventing the gut atrophy encountered in advanced age. Enterocytes from very old rats continuously metabolize glutamine into citrulline, which allowed, for the first time, the use of citrulline as a noninvasive marker of intestinal atrophy induced by advanced age. PMID:26936258

  15. [Renal response to intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate in newborn infants of different gestational ages].

    PubMed

    Jasso-Gutiérrez, L; Araujo, B; Fuse-Moteji, R; del Castillo, E D

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised a series of 16 neonates made up of 5 patients of 33 weeks of gestation, 5 infants of 35 weeks and 6 more of 40 weeks of gestation. Blood pH, PaCO2 and HCO3- were measured together with bicarbonate, ammonium, titrable acidity and hydrogen ions in urine before and after intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate. Before infusion of bicarbonate, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity in urine were higher in accordance with a greater gestational age. As the administration of bicarbonate elapsed, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity dropped with increase in concentration of bicarbonate. A hypothesis is set forth that the differences found in the factors evaluated in urine before administration of bicarbonate depend on the physiologic characteristics set in the newborn by gestational age.

  16. A two-component Bayesian mixture model to identify implausible gestational age.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian-Khoshnoud, Maryam; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Faradmal, Javad; Yavangi, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birth weight and gestational age are two important variables in obstetric research. The primary measure of gestational age is based on a mother's recall of her last menstrual period. This recall may cause random or systematic errors. Therefore, the objective of this study is to utilize Bayesian mixture model in order to identify implausible gestational age. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical documents of 502 preterm infants born and hospitalized in Hamadan Fatemieh Hospital from 2009 to 2013 were gathered. Preterm infants were classified to less than 28 weeks and 28 to 31 weeks. A two-component Bayesian mixture model was utilized to identify implausible gestational age; the first component shows the probability of correct and the second one shows the probability of incorrect classification of gestational ages. The data were analyzed through OpenBUGS 3.2.2 and 'coda' package of R 3.1.1. Results: The mean (SD) of the second component of less than 28 weeks and 28 to 31 weeks were 1179 (0.0123) and 1620 (0.0074), respectively. These values were larger than the mean of the first component for both groups which were 815.9 (0.0123) and 1061 (0.0074), respectively. Conclusion: Errors occurred in recording the gestational ages of these two groups of preterm infants included recording the gestational age less than the actual value at birth. Therefore, developing scientific methods to correct these errors is essential to providing desirable health services and adjusting accurate health indicators.

  17. Refractive Status at Birth: Its Relation to Newborn Physical Parameters at Birth and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Raji Mathew; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Puliyel, Jacob Mammen; Varughese, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. Methods All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE), astigmatism and anisometropia) with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. Results Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. Conclusion This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error, especially in developing

  18. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Mola, Christian Loret de; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-10-01

    We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight-but not with head circumference-persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Cognitive functioning in toddlerhood: The role of gestational age, attention capacities, and maternal stimulation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maingay-Visser, Arnoldina P G F; Spanjerberg, Louise; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2018-04-01

    Why do many preterm children show delays in development? An integrated model of biological risk, children's capacities, and maternal stimulation was investigated in relation to cognitive functioning at toddler age. Participants were 200 Dutch children (gestational age = 32-41 weeks); 51% boys, 96% Dutch nationality, 71.5% highly educated mothers. At 18 months, attention capacities were measured using eye-tracking, and maternal attention-directing behavior was observed. Cognitive functioning was measured at 24 months using the Bayley-III-NL. Cognitive functioning was directly predicted by children's attention capacities and maternal attention-maintaining behavior. Gestational age was indirectly related to cognitive functioning through children's attention capacities and through maternal attention-redirecting behavior. In this way, a combination of gestational age, children's attention capacities, and maternal stimulation was associated with early cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Mediation analysis of gestational age, congenital heart defects, and infant birth-weight.

    PubMed

    Wogu, Adane F; Loffredo, Christopher A; Bebu, Ionut; Luta, George

    2014-12-17

    In this study we assessed the mediation role of the gestational age on the effect of the infant's congenital heart defects (CHD) on birth-weight. We used secondary data from the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (1981-1989). Mediation analysis was employed to investigate whether gestational age acted as a mediator of the association between CHD and reduced birth-weight. We estimated the mediated effect, the mediation proportion, and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) using several methods. There were 3362 CHD cases and 3564 controls in the dataset with mean birth-weight of 3071 (SD = 729) and 3353 (SD = 603) grams, respectively; the mean gestational age was 38.9 (SD = 2.7) and 39.6 (SD = 2.2) weeks, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the estimated mediated effect by gestational age was 113.5 grams (95% CI, 92.4-134.2) and the mediation proportion was 40.7% (95% CI, 34.7%-46.6%), using the bootstrap approach. Gestational age may account for about 41% of the overall effect of heart defects on reduced infant birth-weight. Improved prenatal care and other public health efforts that promote full term delivery, particularly targeting high-risk families and mothers known to be carrying a fetus with CHD, may therefore be expected to improve the birth-weight of these infants and their long term health.

  1. Fetal kidney length as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Mete G; Mustafa, Aynur; Ozcan, Huseyin C; Tepe, Neslihan B; Kurt, Huseyin; Akcil, Emre; Gunduz, Reyhan

    2016-05-01

    To determine the validity of fetal kidney length and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in labor dating.  This prospective study included 180 pregnant women followed up in the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. The gestational age (GA) was estimated by early fetal ultrasound measures and last menstrual period. Routine fetal biometric parameters, fetal kidney length, and amniotic fluid index were measured. We studied the correlation between fetal kidney length, amniotic fluid index, and gestational age.  The mean gestational age depending on last menstrual period and early ultrasound was 31.98±4.29 (24-39 weeks). The mean kidney length was 35.66±6.61 (19-49 mm). There was a significant correlation between gestational age and fetal kidney length (r=0.947, p=0.001). However, there was a moderate negative correlation between GA and AFI. Adding fetal kidney length to the routine biometrics improved the effectiveness of the model used to estimate GA (R2=0.965 to R2=0.987).  Gestational age can be better predicted by adding fetal kidney length to other routine parameters.

  2. Extremely preterm infants small for gestational age are at risk for motor impairment at 3 years corrected age.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takeshi; Mandai, Tsurue; Iwatani, Sota; Koda, Tsubasa; Nagasaka, Miwako; Fujita, Kaori; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Tanimura, Kenji; Deguchi, Masashi; Yamada, Hideto; Iijima, Kazumoto; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have targeted psychomotor development and associated perinatal risk factors in Japanese very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who are severely small for gestational age (SGA). A single-center study was conducted in 104 Japanese VLBW infants who were born preterm, due to maternal, umbilical cord, or placental abnormalities, between 2000 and 2007. Psychomotor development as a developmental quotient (DQ) was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development at 3 years corrected age. Severely SGA was defined as birth weight or length below -2 standard deviation values of the mean values at the same gestation. VLBW infants were divided into 2 subgroups based on gestational age at birth: ⩾28 weeks (n=64) and <28 weeks (n=40). DQs of infants with severe SGA were compared with those of infants who were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Factors associated with developmental disabilities in VLBW infants with severe SGA (n=23) were determined. In the group born at ⩾28 weeks gestation, infants with severe SGA had normal DQ values and did not significantly differ from those with AGA. However, in the group born at <28 weeks gestation, severe SGA infants had significantly lower postural-motor DQ values than AGA infants. Gestational age <28 weeks was an independent factor for low postural-motor DQ, regardless of the cause of severe SGA or pregnancy termination. Extremely preterm newborns with severe SGA are at risk of motor developmental disability at age 3 years. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  4. The significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Sun; Cho, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Han Sung; Sohn, In Sook; Hwang, Han Sung

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the placental weight, volume, and density, and investigate the significance of placental ratios in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age (SGA), preeclampsia (PE), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Two hundred and fifty-four pregnant women were enrolled from August 2005 through July 2013. Participants were divided into four groups: control (n=82), SGA (n=37), PE (n=102), and GDM (n=33). The PE group was classified as PE without intrauterine growth restriction (n=65) and PE with intrauterine growth restriction (n=37). Birth weight, placental weight, placental volume, placental density, and placental ratios including birth weight/placental weight ratio (BPW) and birth weight/placental volume ratio (BPV) were compared between groups. Birth weight, placental weight, and placental volume were lower in the SGA group than in the control group. However, the BPW and BPV did not differ between the two groups. Birth weight, placental weight, placental volume, BPW, and BPV were all significantly lower in the PE group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, birth weight, BPW, and BPV were higher in the GDM group, whereas placental weight and volume did not differ in the two groups. Placental density was not significantly different among the four groups. Placental ratios based on placental weight, placental volume, placental density, and birth weight are helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of complicated pregnancies. Moreover, they can be used as predictors of pregnancy complications.

  5. Cognitive Functioning in Toddlerhood: The Role of Gestational Age, Attention Capacities, and Maternal Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Maingay-Visser, Arnoldina P. G. F.; Spanjerberg, Louise; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2018-01-01

    Why do many preterm children show delays in development? An integrated model of biological risk, children's capacities, and maternal stimulation was investigated in relation to cognitive functioning at toddler age. Participants were 200 Dutch children (gestational age = 32-41 weeks); 51% boys, 96% Dutch nationality, 71.5% highly educated mothers.…

  6. Homocysteine in small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates from mothers receiving folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thushari S; Lindner, Ulrike; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karandagoda, Wimal; Gortner, Ludwig; Obeid, Rima

    2010-08-01

    Prematurity and small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates are at risk for postnatal complications. Concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) might be related to neonatal outcome. We hypothesized that concentrations of tHcy are not related to growth restriction in neonates from mothers receiving 5 mg/day folic acid. We studied a total of 133 preterm neonates from normotensive mothers; SGA (n=96) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, n=37). Concentrations of tHcy, folate and vitamin B12 were measured in venous umbilical cord plasma. AGA preterm neonates had higher mean birth weight (BW) compared to SGA preterms (2472 g vs. 2007 g; p<0.001) of comparable mean gestational age (GA) (35.1 vs. 35.7 weeks; p=0.059). Concentrations of tHcy (4.86 vs. 4.95 micromol/L), folate (63.3 vs. 55.7 nmol/L), and vitamin B12 (409 vs. 394 pmol/L) were not significantly different between the groups. GA was a strong positive predictor, BW was a significant negative predictor of cord plasma folate. Vitamin B12 concentration was a significant negative predictor of cord tHcy. Concentrations of tHcy did not differ between SGA and AGA preterm neonates born to mothers supplemented with folic acid. This finding argues against a causal role for folate deficiency or increased tHcy in growth restriction.

  7. Centile charts for birthweight for gestational age for Scottish singleton births

    PubMed Central

    Bonellie, Sandra; Chalmers, James; Gray, Ron; Greer, Ian; Jarvis, Stephen; Williams, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Background Centile charts of birthweight for gestational age are used to identify low birthweight babies. The charts currently used in Scotland are based on data from the 1970s and require updating given changes in birthweight and in the measurement of gestational age since then. Methods Routinely collected data of 100,133 singleton births occurring in Scotland from 1998–2003 were used to construct new centile charts using the LMS method. Results Centile charts for birthweight for sex and parity groupings were constructed for singleton birth and compared to existing charts used in Scottish hospitals. Conclusion Mean birthweight has been shown to have increased over recent decades. The differences shown between the new and currently used centiles confirm the need for more up-to-date centiles for birthweight for gestational age. PMID:18298810

  8. Preterm birth-associated cost of early intervention services: an analysis by gestational age.

    PubMed

    Clements, Karen M; Barfield, Wanda D; Ayadi, M Femi; Wilber, Nancy

    2007-04-01

    Characterizing the cost of preterm birth is important in assessing the impact of increasing prematurity rates and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of therapies to prevent preterm delivery. To assess early intervention costs that are associated with preterm births, we estimated the program cost of early intervention services for children who were born in Massachusetts, by gestational age at birth. Using the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data Set, birth certificates for infants who were born in Massachusetts between July 1999 and June 2000 were linked to early intervention claims through 2003. We determined total program costs, in 2003 dollars, of early intervention and mean cost per surviving infant by gestational age. Costs by plurality, eligibility criteria, provider discipline, and annual costs for children's first 3 years also were examined. Overall, 14,033 of 76,901 surviving infants received early intervention services. Program costs totaled almost $66 million, with mean cost per surviving infant of $857. Mean cost per infant was highest for children who were 24 to 31 weeks' gestational age ($5393) and higher for infants who were 32 to 36 weeks' gestational age ($1578) compared with those who were born at term ($725). Cost per surviving infant generally decreased with increasing gestational age. Among children in early intervention, mean cost per child was higher for preterm infants than for term infants. At each gestational age, mean cost per surviving infant was higher for multiples than for singletons, and annual early intervention costs were higher for toddlers than for infants. Compared with their term counterparts, preterm infants incurred higher early intervention costs. This information along with data on birth trends will inform budget forecasting for early intervention programs. Costs that are associated with early childhood developmental services must be included when considering the long-term costs of prematurity.

  9. Reexamining the effects of gestational age, fetal growth, and maternal smoking on neonatal mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, Cande V; Platt, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (<2,500 g) is a strong predictor of infant mortality. Yet low birth weight, in isolation, is uninformative since it is comprised of two intertwined components: preterm delivery and reduced fetal growth. Through nonparametric logistic regression models, we examine the effects of gestational age, fetal growth, and maternal smoking on neonatal mortality. Methods We derived data on over 10 million singleton live births delivered at ≥ 24 weeks from the 1998–2000 U.S. natality data files. Nonparametric multivariable logistic regression based on generalized additive models was used to examine neonatal mortality (deaths within the first 28 days) in relation to fetal growth (gestational age-specific standardized birth weight), gestational age, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. All analyses were further adjusted for the confounding effects due to maternal age and gravidity. Results The relationship between standardized birth weight and neonatal mortality is nonlinear; mortality is high at low z-score birth weights, drops precipitously with increasing z-score birth weight, and begins to flatten for heavier infants. Gestational age is also strongly associated with mortality, with patterns similar to those of z-score birth weight. Although the direct effect of smoking on neonatal mortality is weak, its effects (on mortality) appear to be largely mediated through reduced fetal growth and, to a lesser extent, through shortened gestation. In fact, the association between smoking and reduced fetal growth gets stronger as pregnancies approach term. Conclusions Our study provides important insights regarding the combined effects of fetal growth, gestational age, and smoking on neonatal mortality. The findings suggest that the effect of maternal smoking on neonatal mortality is largely mediated through reduced fetal growth. PMID:15574192

  10. Efficacy of surfactant at different gestational ages for infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Chen, Long; Li, Renjun; Zhao, Jinning; Wu, Xiushuang; Li, Xue; Shi, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Since exogenous surfactant replacement therapy was first used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), it has become the main method for treatment of RDS. However, in some infants, death is inevitable despite intensive care and surfactant replacement therapy, especially in near-term and term infants. The main purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of pulmonary surfactant for infants at different gestational ages and to investigate whether exogenous surfactant replacement therapy is effective for all newborns with RDS. Data on surfactant replacement therapy, including blood gas, oxygenation function parameters and therapy results, were collected from 135 infants who were diagnosed with RDS during three years at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. According to gestational age, the subjects were classified into three groups as follows: group 1: gestational age <35 weeks (n=54); group 2: 35 weeks ≤ gestational age <37 weeks (n=35); group 3: gestational age ≥37 weeks (n=46). Six hours after surfactant was given, there were significantly better blood gas results in group 1 and worse results in groups 2 and 3. Similar oxygenation function parameter results were observed in the three groups. In addition, there was a trend toward an increased rate of repeated surfactant administration with increasing gestational age. For near-term and term infants, the efficacy of surfactant therapy was not as good as it was for preterm infants. The causes of RDS in near-term and term infants might be different from those in preterm infants and should be studied further. PMID:26550326

  11. Postnatal growth and development in the preterm and small for gestational age infant.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    A clear relationship exists between undernutrition, poorer growth and poor development in term and preterm infants. However, preterm infants are at greater risk than term infants. Undernutrition is more common and 'programmed' growth rates are almost six times faster. Thus, even short periods of nutritional deprivation may have significant effects. Recent advances have led to an improvement in early growth but very low birthweight infants remain small for gestational age at hospital discharge. Studies suggest that a 'window of opportunity' exists after hospital discharge, in that better growth between discharge and 2-3 months corrected age is paralleled by better development, and poorer growth is associated with poorer development. However, interventions aimed at improving growth and development have yielded varying results. This may partly be related to differences in study design as well as the composition of the nutrient-enriched formulas. Irrespective, one point is concerning, i.e. infant boys appear to be at a developmental disadvantage when fed a term infant formula after discharge. A single study has also suggested that dietary intervention can improve brain growth in term and preterm infants with perinatal brain injury. However, concern has been expressed about rapid 'catch-up' growth in preterm infants and the development of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Data from our group do not support the idea of increased or altered adiposity in preterm infants fed a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of advancing gestation and non-Caucasian race on ductus arteriosus gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Waleh, Nahid; Barrette, Anne Marie; Dagle, John M.; Momany, Allison; Jin, Chengshi; Hills, Nancy K.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Reese, Jeff; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify genes affected by advancing gestation and racial/ethnic origin in human ductus arteriosus (DA). Study design We collected three sets of DA tissue (n=93, n=89, n=91; total = 273 fetuses) from second trimester pregnancies. We examined four genes, with DNA polymorphisms that distribute along racial lines, to identify "Caucasian" and "Non-Caucasian" DA. We used RT-PCR to measure RNA expression of 48 candidate genes involved in functional closure of the DA, and used multivariable regression analyses to examine the relationships between advancing gestation, "Non-Caucasian" race, and gene expression. Results Mature gestation and Non-Caucasian race are significant predictors for identifying infants who will close their patent DA when treated with indomethacin. Advancing gestation consistently altered gene expression in pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction (e.g., calcium-channels, potassium-channels, and endothelin signaling), contractile protein maturation, tissue remodeling, and prostaglandin and nitric oxide signaling in all three tissue sets. None of the pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction appeared to be altered in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Two genes, SLCO2A1 and NOS3, (involved with prostaglandin reuptake/metabolism and nitric oxide production, respectively) were consistently decreased in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Conclusions Prostaglandins and nitric oxide are the most important vasodilators opposing DA closure. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin production, but not nitric oxide production. Because decreased SLCO2A1 and NOS3 expression can lead to increased prostaglandin and decreased nitric oxide concentrations, we speculate that prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation may play a more dominant role in maintaining the "Non-Caucasian" PDA, making it more likely to close when inhibited by indomethacin. PMID:26265282

  13. Mid-pregnancy maternal leptin levels, birthweight for gestational age and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Monal R; Holzman, Claudia; Tian, Yan; Evans, Rhobert W; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-04-01

    Maternal blood leptin levels are positively associated with adiposity. Recent studies suggest that leptin is also abundantly produced by the placenta and may function as a regulator of foetal growth. Our goal was to examine mid-pregnancy levels of leptin in maternal blood in relation to birthweight for gestational age (BW/GA) and timing of delivery after accounting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (prepreg-BMI) and pregnancy complications. Data were from 1304 subcohort mother/infant pairs who participated in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study (1998-2004). Leptin levels, measured at 16-27 weeks' gestation, were log-transformed. Geometric mean (GMean) leptin levels were estimated by weighted linear regression with gestational age at blood draw as a covariate. GMean was re-transformed to the original scale for reporting. Using the GMeans leptin in mothers of term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates as the referent (25·2 μg/l), we observed lower levels in mothers of preterm-AGA (21·9 μg/l), term small-for-gestational age (SGA) (20·3 μg/l) and preterm-SGA neonates (21·7 μg/l). Results were largely unchanged after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Leptin levels were higher in mothers who delivered large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates, both preterm (33·6 μg/l) and term (29·1 μg/l), but the GMeans were markedly attenuated after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. The association between BW/GA and maternal leptin levels after adjustment for prepreg-BMI may represent: (i) a residual effect of maternal adiposity that is not fully captured by BMI; and/or (ii) variation in placental leptin levels entering the maternal circulation. In conclusion, mid-pregnancy maternal blood leptin levels may be an early indicator of foetal growth status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Discordant twins with the smaller baby appropriate for gestational age--unusual manifestation of superfoetation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baijal, Noopur; Sahni, Mohit; Verma, Neeraj; Kumar, Amit; Parkhe, Nittin; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2007-01-19

    Documentation of superfoetation is extremely rare in humans., The younger foetus has invariably been small for gestational age (estimated from the date of the last menstrual bleed) in all the cases reported in the literature. We report a case where the younger twin was of appropriate size for gestation. The first of twins was of 32 weeks gestation and the baby was of appropriate size and development for the gestational age. The second twin was of 36 weeks gestation. Gestational age was estimated with the New Ballard score, x-ray of the lower limbs, dental age on x-ray, and ophthalmic examination. Bleeding on implantation of the first foetus probably helped demarcate the two pregnancies. Dental age and the New Ballard score can be used to diagnose superfoetation in discordant twins, when detailed first trimester ultra-sound data is not available.

  15. Discordant twins with the smaller baby appropriate for gestational age – unusual manifestation of superfoetation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Baijal, Noopur; Sahni, Mohit; Verma, Neeraj; Kumar, Amit; Parkhe, Nittin; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2007-01-01

    Background Documentation of superfoetation is extremely rare in humans., The younger foetus has invariably been small for gestational age (estimated from the date of the last menstrual bleed) in all the cases reported in the literature. We report a case where the younger twin was of appropriate size for gestation. Case Presentation The first of twins was of 32 weeks gestation and the baby was of appropriate size and development for the gestational age. The second twin was of 36 weeks gestation. Gestational age was estimated with the New Ballard score, x-ray of the lower limbs, dental age on x-ray, and ophthalmic examination. Conclusion Bleeding on implantation of the first foetus probably helped demarcate the two pregnancies. Dental age and the New Ballard score can be used to diagnose superfoetation in discordant twins, when detailed first trimester ultra-sound data is not available. PMID:17239246

  16. Estimation of Gestational Age, Using Neonatal Anthropometry: A Cross-sectional Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Rajat; Faridi, M.M.A.; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Prematurity is a significant contributor to neonatal mortality in India. Conventionally, assessment of gestational age of newborns is based on New Ballard Technique, for which a paediatric specialist is needed. Anthropometry of the newborn, especially birthweight, has been used in the past to predict the gestational age of the neonate in peripheral health facilities where a trained paediatrician is often not available. We aimed to determine if neonatal anthropometric parameters, viz. birthweight, crown heel-length, head-circumference, mid-upper arm-circumference, lower segment-length, foot-length, umbilical nipple distance, calf-circumference, intermammary distance, and hand-length, can reliably predict the gestational age. The study also aimed to derive an equation for the same. We also assessed if these neonatal anthropometric parameters had a better prediction of gestational age when used in combination compared to individual parameters. We evaluated 1,000 newborns in a cross-sectional study conducted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital in Delhi. Detailed anthropometric estimation of the neonates was done within 48 hours after birth, using standard techniques. Gestational age was estimated using New Ballard Scoring. Out of 1,250 consecutive neonates, 1,000 were included in the study. Of them, 800 randomly-selected newborns were used in devising the model, and the remaining 200 newborns were used in validating the final model. Quadratic regression analysis using stepwise selection was used in building the predictive model. Birthweight (R=0.72), head-circumference (R=0.60), and mid-upper arm-circumference (R=0.67) were found highly correlated with gestation. The final equation to assess gestational age was as follows: Gestational age (weeks)=5.437×W–0.781×W2+2.815×HC–0.041×HC2+0.285×MUAC–22.745 where W=Weight, HC=Head-circumference and MUAC=Mid-upper arm-circumference; Adjusted R=0.76. On validation, the predictability of this equation is 46% (±1 week), 75

  17. Postnatal Brain Growth Assessed by Sequential Cranial Ultrasonography in Infants Born <30 Weeks' Gestational Age.

    PubMed

    Cuzzilla, R; Spittle, A J; Lee, K J; Rogerson, S; Cowan, F M; Doyle, L W; Cheong, J L Y

    2018-06-01

    Brain growth in the early postnatal period following preterm birth has not been well described. This study of infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age and without major brain injury aimed to accomplish the following: 1) assess the reproducibility of linear measures made from cranial ultrasonography, 2) evaluate brain growth using sequential cranial ultrasonography linear measures from birth to term-equivalent age, and 3) explore perinatal predictors of postnatal brain growth. Participants comprised 144 infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age at a single center between January 2011 and December 2013. Infants with major brain injury seen on cranial ultrasonography or congenital or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. Brain tissue and fluid spaces were measured from cranial ultrasonography performed as part of routine clinical care. Brain growth was assessed in 3 time intervals: <7, 7-27, and >27 days' postnatal age. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients and mixed-effects regression. A total of 429 scans were assessed for 144 infants. Several linear measures showed excellent reproducibility. All measures of brain tissue increased with postnatal age, except for the biparietal diameter, which decreased within the first postnatal week and increased thereafter. Gestational age of ≥28 weeks at birth was associated with slower growth of the biparietal diameter and ventricular width compared with gestational age of <28 weeks. Postnatal corticosteroid administration was associated with slower growth of the corpus callosum length, transcerebellar diameter, and vermis height. Sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with slower growth of the transcerebellar diameter. Postnatal brain growth in infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age can be evaluated using sequential linear measures made from routine cranial ultrasonography and is associated with perinatal predictors of long-term development. © 2018 by American Journal of

  18. Association between gestational age and bovine fetal characteristics measured by transcutaneous ultrasound over the right flank of the dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Hunnam, J C; Parkinson, T J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; McDougall, S

    2009-09-01

    To determine bovine fetal characteristics significantly associated with increasing gestational age as measured via transcutaneous ultrasonography over the right flank. The length of gestation at date of pregnancy diagnosis via transcutaneous and transrectal ultrasonography was determined for 224 dairy cattle by estimation from subsequent calving dates. A separate dataset was created for each measurable fetal characteristic (i.e. thoracic diameter, abdominal diameter, umbilical diameter, placentome length and placentome height) and risk factors significantly associated with gestational age at pregnancy diagnosis within each dataset, including the fetal characteristic, were identified. Abdominal diameter was the most frequently observed fetal characteristic and thoracic diameter was the least. Gestational age at pregnancy diagnosis (d) was significantly associated with fetal thoracic diameter (P < 0.01), abdominal diameter (P < 0.01) and umbilical diameter (P = 0.02) when measured via transcutaneous ultrasound. Within each model, sire breed, dam breed, dam age and/or calf sex were also significantly associated with gestational age. Gestational age at pregnancy diagnosis was not significantly associated with either placentome height or length (P > 0.05). Fetal thoracic diameter, abdominal diameter and umbilical diameter were found to be significantly associated with gestational age between approximate days 73 to 190 of gestation. Transcutaneous ultrasonography may prove a useful method of estimating gestational age in the absence of accurate breeding records.

  19. Maternal and placental risk factors for light-for-gestational-age births.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Keiko; Endo, Toshiaki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Izumi, Hisako; Asakura, Sumiyo; Mori, Mitsuru

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate risk factors for births of light-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. A survey was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Sapporo Medical University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan from 2013 to 2014. LGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) are defined as having a birthweight below the 10th percentile and between the 10th percentile and 90th percentile for gestational age at birth in the population standard of gestational age, sex, and parity, respectively. An odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for LGA were calculated by analysis using the logistic regression model. In total, 307 inpatients (94.2%) participated in the study out of 326 consecutive post-partum inpatients. Among them, 37 infants and 237 infants were classified into the LGA and AGA groups, respectively. As a result of multivariable analysis, prevalence of gestational hypertension (OR = 8.96, 95%CI 1.81-44.35) and the presence of placental infarction (OR = 9.65, 95%CI 1.76-53.01) were significantly associated with an increased risk of LGA. Placentas weighing 510-603 g and ≥604 g were significantly associated with reduced risk of LGA (OR = 0.04, 95%CI 0.01-0.29 and OR = 0.03, 95%CI 0.01-0.32, respectively), and higher placental weights were significantly observed in the trend for reduced LGA risk (P for trend < 0.001). We found that the prevalence of gestational hypertension, lower placental weight, and the presence of placental infarctions were all independently associated with the risk of LGA. Placental abnormalities may be etiologically important for LGA risk, though further research is necessary. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  1. Respiratory morbidity in twins by birth order, gestational age and mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at <37 weeks, registered in a national database, in the period 2003-2012 were classified into four gestational age groups: 33-36, 30-32, 28-29, and <28 weeks. Outcome variables included transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and need for assisted ventilation. A total of 1836 twins were born vaginally, and 2142 twins were born by cesarean delivery, for a grand total of 3978 twins. TTN did not appear to be related to birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages <30 weeks. Mode of delivery and birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.

  2. The relation of birth weight and gestational age to biological, occupational and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Velonakis, E G; Maghiorakos, P; Tzonou, A; Barrat, J; Proteau, J; Ladopoulos, I

    1997-01-01

    The data of the 2,040 single births, born during 1987 at the "Saint Antoine" Hospital in Paris, were analysed in order to identify the impact of various biological, occupational, and socioeconomic factors on gestational age and birth weight. Birth weight is associated with the height of the mother and the weight gained during pregnancy. It is lower for mothers with preeclampsia during the current or previous pregnancies or with urogenital infections during the current pregnancy and for mothers with one or more induced abortions. Girls weigh less than boys. Parity has a positive relation to the baby's weight, while manual work seems to have a negative one. APGAR score and duration of the pregnancy are associated with the birth weight. Placenta previa, preeclampsia and urinary infections affect the gestational age. A short pause period in work is related to a shorter gestational age. Weight gain is associated with a prolonged duration of the pregnancy. Gestational age and birth weight are associated with the nationality of the mother, especially in some ethnic groups, and with marital status.

  3. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  4. The pattern of antenatal visits with emphasis on gestational age at booking in Riyadh Health Centres.

    PubMed

    al-Shammari, S A; Khoja, T; Jarallah, J S

    1994-04-01

    1344 expectant mothers were selected by random sampling from the catchment population of 15 health centres in Riyadh. The health centres were taken to represent all areas of urban Riyadh. These mothers were asked to complete a pre-designed questionnaire in Arabic and undergo a structured interview by trained midwives to explore their knowledge, attitude and practice toward antenatal visits. It was found that the average gestational age at booking was 13 weeks. The number of antenatal visits achieved during the current pregnancy was 6. 97% of expectant mothers were aware of the importance of antenatal visits. Various demographic characteristics were studied in relation to the number of antenatal visits achieved and the gestational age at booking. It was found that the level of education of both husband and wife and poor obstetric history significantly affected gestational age at booking, (P-values) were less than 0.03 and 0.002 respectively). However the family income and gestational age at booking affected the number of antenatal visits (P-values were less than 0.0003 and 0.0001 respectively). The respondents' most striking reason for non-compliance was related to accessibility to health centre. 23.3% thought that the health centres were far away from their residence and they needed to involve the husbands in driving them to health centres. Recommendations were given to improve aspects of accessibility and inviting more antenatal visits in addition to improving quality of such service.

  5. Delivery room triage of large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Leandro; Rath, Krista; Zheng, Katherine; Landon, Mark B; Nankervis, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    To review our 4-year experience (2008-2011) with delivery room triage of large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers. Retrospective cohort investigation of 311 large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers (White's Class A1 (77), A2 (87), B (77), and C-R (70)). Of 311 women, 31% delivered at 34-36 weeks gestational age and 69% at term. While 70% were delivered by cesarean, 30% were vaginal deliveries. A total of 160 asymptomatic infants were triaged from the delivery room to the well baby nursery. Of these, 55 (34%) developed hypoglycemia. In 43 cases, the hypoglycemia was corrected by early feedings; in the remaining 12, intravenous dextrose treatment was required. A total of 151 infants were triaged from the delivery room to the neonatal intensive care unit. Admission diagnoses included respiratory distress (51%), prevention of hypoglycemia (27%), prematurity (21%), and asphyxia (1%). Hypoglycemia affected 66 (44%) of all neonatal intensive care unit infants. Safe triage of asymptomatic large for gestational age infants of diabetic mothers from the delivery room to well baby nursery can be accomplished in the majority of cases. Those infants in need of specialized care can be accurately identified and effectively treated in the neonatal intensive care unit setting.

  6. The Two-Way Street: Interaction and Development in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Jan

    Because small for gestational age (SGA) infants are a heterogeneous group known to be at increased risk of learning and behavioral disorders, a study was conducted to replicate and extend findings on developmental patterns of SGA infants in the first year. The study presented, as well, an opportunity to explore the effects, found in a previous…

  7. Non-invasive tool for foetal sex determination in early gestational age.

    PubMed

    Mortarino, M; Garagiola, I; Lotta, L A; Siboni, S M; Semprini, A E; Peyvandi, F

    2011-11-01

    Free foetal DNA in maternal blood during early pregnancy is an ideal source of foetal genetic material for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of free foetal DNA analysis at early gestational age as pretest for the detection of specific Y-chromosome sequences in maternal plasma of women who are carriers of X-linked disorders, such as haemophilia. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of maternal plasma was performed for the detection of the SRY or DYS14 sequence. A group of 208 pregnant women, at different gestational periods from 4 to 12 weeks, were tested to identify the optimal period to obtain an adequate amount of foetal DNA for prenatal diagnosis. Foetal gender was determined in 181 pregnant women sampled throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome and foetal gender were confirmed using karyotyping, ultrasonography or after birth. The sensitivity, which was low between 4th and 7th week (mean 73%), increased significantly after 7+1th weeks of gestation (mean 94%). The latter sensitivity after 7+1th week of gestation is associated to a high specificity (100%), with an overall accuracy of 96% for foetal gender determination. This analysis demonstrates that foetal gender determination in maternal plasma is reliable after the 9th week of gestation and it can be used, in association with ultrasonography, for screening to determine the need for chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis of X-linked disorders, such as haemophilia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Prenatal and post-natal cost of small for gestational age infants: a national study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Alicia; Filipovic-Pierucci, Antoine; Baud, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Ego, Anne; Charles, Marie-Aline; Goffinet, François; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2017-03-21

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk for preterm birth morbidities as well as a range of adverse perinatal outcomes that result in part from associated premature birth. We sought to evaluate the costs of SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants in France from pregnancy through the first year of life and separate the contributions of prematurity from the contribution of foetal growth on costs. This is a cross-sectional population-based study using national hospital discharge data from French public and private hospitals. SGA infants were defined as newborns with a birth weight below the 10th percentile of French intrauterine growth curves adjusted for foetal sex. AGA infants were defined as newborns with a birth weight between the 25th and the 75th. All births were selected between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2011. Costs were calculated from the hospital perspective for both mothers and children using their diagnostic related group and the French national cost study. Hospital outcomes were extracted from the database and compared by gestational age and mode of delivery. Of 777,720 total births in 2011, 84,688 SGA births (10.9%) and 395,760 AGA births (50.8%) were identified. After adjustment for gestational age, the cost for an SGA infant was €2,783 higher than for an AGA infant. The total maternal and infant hospital cost of SGA in France was estimated at 23% the total cost for deliveries. The high cost is explained by higher complication rates, more frequent hospital readmissions and longer lengths of stay. Being small for gestational age is an independent contributor to 1-year hospital costs for both mothers and infants.

  9. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Trends in Risk Over Time.

    PubMed

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D E; Henriksen, T B; Hjort, L; Parner, E T

    2016-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified preterm birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow-up study including live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1980 and 2009, identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry, a study population of 1,775,397 children. We used a Cox regression model combined with spline to study the risk for ASD by gestational age across three decades of birth cohorts. We included 19,020 children diagnosed with ASD. Across all birth year cohorts, we found that the risk of being diagnosed with ASD increased with lower gestational age (P-value: <0.01). Across all gestational weeks, we found a statistically significant higher risk estimates in birth cohort 1980 to 1989, compared to birth cohorts 1990 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009, respectively. No statistically significant difference in risk estimates was observed between birth cohort 1990 to 1999 and 2000 to 2009. The observed time trend in risk of ASD after preterm birth may reflect: (1) a change in the risk profile of persons with ASD due to the broadening of ASD diagnostic criteria over time; or (2) improved neonatal care for low GA infants, which has reduced risk of adverse outcomes like ASD in preterm children. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Estimation of gestational age from study of amniotic fluid and clinical assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, T. V.; Harding, P. G.; Jaco, N. T.

    1977-01-01

    Study of 108 samples of amniotic fluid obtained between 28 and 42 weeks' gestation from 101 patients revealed that in normal pregnancies the creatinine concentration, lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and percentage of fat cells correlated better with the gestational age of the newborn--assessed by clinical criteria--than did the bilirubin and sodium concentrations. A creatinine concentration of 1.75 mg/dL or more, an L/S ratio of 4 or more and a fat cell percentage of 10 or more correlated significantly with a gestational age of 37 weeks or more. In abnormal pregnancies (those with obstetric or medical complications, or both) the mean creatinine concentration in the amniotic fluid was significantly less than expected for gestational age in fetal dysmaturity and greater than expected when the mother had diabetes. The mean L/S ratio in the amniotic fluid was elevated when the mother had hypertension or smoked and in cases of fetal dysmaturity or long interval between rupture of the membranes and delivery, whereas it was significantly lower than normal when the mother had diabetes. The mean bilirubin concentration in the amniotic fluid was significantly lower than normal when the mother had hypertension. When the mother had diabetes, maturity of the fetal lung, liver, skin and brain appeared to be delayed, according to the values for the amniotic fluid constituents. PMID:912615

  11. Gestational age and dose influence on placental transfer of 63Ni in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-W; Gu, J-Y; Li, Z; Song, Y-F; Wu, W-S; Hou, Y-P

    2010-04-01

    The effects of gestational age and dose of nickel exposure on regulating and influencing placental transfer were investigated. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 12, 15 or 20 were injected intraperitoneally with saline, 64,320 or 640 kBq/kg body weight of (63)Ni. Twenty-four hours after administration, samples were harvested from each for measurement of radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting and for autoradiography. In placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal membrane, (63)Ni concentrations increased with increasing doses and gestational age. In fetus, (63)Ni concentrations reached a maximum on GD 15 and then declined on GD 20 although they maintained a dose-dependency for each GD group. In fetal blood on GD 20, (63)Ni concentration increased dose-dependently and was higher than in maternal blood. The autoradiographs demonstrated that (63)Ni radioactivity was located within placental basal lamina, fetal bones and most organs. These findings suggest that the nickel uptake, retention and transport in placenta increase dose- and gestation age-dependently, and nickel transfer through placental barrier is primarily from mother into the fetus, but hardly from fetus to mother. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First-trimester increase in oxidative stress and risk of small-for-gestational-age fetus.

    PubMed

    Potdar, N; Singh, R; Mistry, V; Evans, M D; Farmer, P B; Konje, J C; Cooke, M S

    2009-04-01

    Investigation of increased oxidative stress in early pregnancy and association with an increased risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetus. Longitudinal case-control study. University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK. Low-risk pregnant women with no current or pre-existing medical illness were recruited at a large teaching hospital from 2004 to 2006. Recruitment performed at the time of the dating ultrasound scan (12+/-2 weeks of gestation). Spot urine samples collected at 12+/-2 and 28+/-2 weeks of gestation were analysed for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry). SGA was defined as birthweight <10th centile based on customised centile calculator (www.gestation.net). This identified the cases (n=55), whereas controls (n=55) were mothers whose babies were appropriate for gestational age (AGA, birthweight 10th-90th centile). Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism v.5. The relationship between maternal urinary 8-oxodG at different gestations and customised SGA was investigated by nonparametric tests. Customised SGA and AGA pregnancies. Urinary 8-oxodG concentrations were significantly increased in pregnancies with subsequent SGA compared with concentrations in normal pregnancies; 12 weeks: 2.8 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.96-3.67) versus 2.2 (IQR 1.26-3.28) pmol 8-oxodG/micromol creatinine (P=0.0007); 28 weeks: 2.21 (IQR 1.67-3.14) versus 1.68 (IQR 1.16-2.82) pmol 8-oxodG/micromol creatinine (P<0.0002). Concentrations decreased significantly between week 12 and 28 (P=0.04 and P=0.02 for controls and cases). In this study, urinary 8-oxodG at 12 and 28 weeks were elevated in SGA compared with AGA pregnancies. This may reflect early placental changes predating clinical features of SGA.

  13. Validity of gestational age estimates by last menstrual period and neonatal examination compared to ultrasound in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Deputy, Nicholas P; Nguyen, Phuong H; Pham, Hoa; Nguyen, Son; Neufeld, Lynnette; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-01-11

    Accurate estimation of gestational age is important for both clinical and public health purposes. Estimates of gestational age using fetal ultrasound measurements are considered most accurate but are frequently unavailable in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of last menstrual period and Farr neonatal examination estimates of gestational age, compared to ultrasound estimates, in a large cohort of women in Vietnam. Data for this analysis come from a randomized, placebo-controlled micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. We analyzed 912 women with ultrasound and prospectively-collected last menstrual period estimates of gestational age and 685 women with ultrasound and Farr estimates of gestational age. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test to assess differences in gestational age estimated by last menstrual period or Farr examination compared to ultrasound and computed the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) to quantify agreement between methods. We computed the Kappa coefficient (κ) to quantify agreement in preterm, term and post-term classification. The median gestational age estimated by ultrasound was 273.9 days. Gestational age was slightly overestimated by last menstrual period (median 276.0 days, P < 0.001) and more greatly overestimated by Farr examination (median 286.7 days, P < 0.001). Gestational age estimates by last menstrual period and ultrasound were moderately correlated (ICC = 0.78) and concordant (CCC = 0.63), whereas gestational age estimates by Farr examination and ultrasound were weakly correlated (ICC = 0.26) and concordant (CCC = 0.05). Last menstrual period and ultrasound estimates of gestational age were within ± 14 days for 88.4% of women; Farr and ultrasound estimates were within ± 14 days for 55.8% of women. Last menstrual period and ultrasound estimates of gestational age had higher

  14. Estimation of gestational age in early pregnancy from crown-rump length when gestational age range is truncated: the case study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fetal ultrasound scanning is considered vital for routine antenatal care with first trimester scans recommended for accurate estimation of gestational age (GA). A reliable estimate of gestational age is key information underpinning clinical care and allows estimation of expected date of delivery. Fetal crown-rump length (CRL) is recommended over last menstrual period for estimating GA when measured in early pregnancy i.e. 9+0-13+6 weeks. Methods The INTERGROWTH-21st Project is the largest prospective study to collect data on CRL in geographically diverse populations and with a high level of quality control measures in place. We aim to develop a new gestational age estimation equation based on the crown-rump length (CRL) from women recruited between 9+0-13+6 weeks. The main statistical challenge is modelling data when the outcome variable (GA) is truncated at both ends, i.e. at 9 and 14 weeks. We explored three alternative statistical approaches to overcome the truncation of GA. To evaluate these strategies we generated a data set with no truncation of GA that was similar to the INTERGROWTH-21st Project CRL data, which we used to explore the performance of different methods of analysis of these data when we imposed truncation at 9 and 14 weeks of gestation. These 3 methods were first tested in a simulation based study using a previously published dating equation by Verburg et al. and evaluated how well each of them performed in relation to the model from which the data were generated. After evaluating the 3 approaches using simulated data based on the Verburg equations, the best approach will be applied to the INTERGROWTH-21st Project data to estimate GA from CRL. Results Results of these rather “ad hoc” statistical methods correspond very closely to the “real data” for Verburg, a data set that is similar to the INTERGROWTH-21st project CRL data set. Conclusions We are confident that we can use these approaches to get reliable estimates based

  15. [Association between neontal morbidity, gestational age and developmental delays in moderate to late preterm children].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut, Luisa; Pérez, Marcela; Muñoz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Brown adipose tissue in young adults who were born preterm or small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Anna; Rydén, Henric; Anderstam, Björn; Hellström, Ann; Skorpil, Mikael

    2018-06-27

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present and functions to dissipate energy as heat in young adults and can be assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate the voxel fat fraction, i.e. proton density fat fraction (PDFF). It is hypothesized that subjects born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) may exhibit disrupted BAT formation coupled to metabolic factors. Our purpose was to assess the presence of BAT in young adults born extremely preterm or SGA in comparison with controls. We studied 30 healthy subjects (median age, 21 years): 10 born extremely preterm, 10 full term but SGA and 10 full term with a normal birth weight (controls). We utilized an MRI technique combining multiple scans to enable smaller echo spacing and an advanced fat-water separation method applying graph cuts to estimate B0 inhomogeneity. We measured supraclavicular/cervical PDFF, R2*, fat volume, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucagon, thyroid stimulating hormone and the BAT-associated hormones fibroblast growth factor 21 and irisin. The groups did not significantly differ in supraclavicular/cervical PDFF, R2*, fat volume or hormone levels. The mean supraclavicular/cervical PDFF was equivalent between the groups (range 75-77%). Young adults born extremely preterm or SGA show BAT development similar to those born full term at a normal birth weight. Thus, the increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in these groups is not due to the absence of BAT, although our results do not exclude possible BAT involvement in this scenario. Larger studies are needed to understand these relationships.

  17. Australian national birthweight percentiles by sex and gestational age for twins, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuoyang; Umstad, Mark P; Hilder, Lisa; Xu, Fenglian; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-08

    Birthweight remains one of the strongest predictors of perinatal mortality and disability. Birthweight percentiles form a reference that allows the detection of neonates at higher risk of neonatal and postneonatal morbidity. The aim of the study is to present updated national birthweight percentiles by gestational age for male and female twins born in Australia. Population data were extracted from the Australian National Perinatal Data Collection for twins born in Australia between 2001 and 2010. A total of 43,833 women gave birth to 87,666 twins in Australia which were included in the study analysis. Implausible birthweights were excluded using Tukey's methodology based on the interquartile range. Univariate analysis was used to examine the birthweight percentiles for liveborn twins born between 20 and 42 weeks gestation. Birthweight percentiles by gestational age were calculated for 85,925 live births (43,153 males and 42,706 females). Of these infants, 53.6% were born preterm (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) while 50.2% were low birthweight (<2500 g) and 8.7% were very low birthweight (<1500 g). The mean birthweight decreased from 2462 g in 2001 to 2440 g in 2010 for male twins, compared with 2485 g in 1991-94. For female twins, the mean birthweight decreased from 2375 g in 2001 to 2338 g in 2010, compared with 2382 g in 1991-94. The birthweight percentiles provide clinicians and researchers with up-to-date population norms of birthweight percentiles for twins in Australia.

  18. Comparison of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between mothers with small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age newborns in Kerman.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Amiri Moghadam, Tayebeh; Arasteh, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes but its relationship with fetal growth is unknown. We compared the 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between mothers and their small for gestational age (SGA) newborns with mothers and their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns. The study population included pregnant women that referred to Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman from 2012 to 2013. The case and control group consisted of 40 pregnant mothers with SGA and AGA newborns, respectively. The maternal and infants 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in the two groups. 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was statistically higher in women with SGA newborns in comparison to women with AGA newborns (p=0.003).Vitamin D deficiency was higher among the SGA newborns in comparison to AGA newborns (25% vs. 17.5%), although this finding was not statistically meaningful (p=0.379). The relationship of vitamin D deficiency levels between mothers and infants in both the SGA group and the AGA group was significant. Our study reveals a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women with SGA infants in comparison to women with AGA children. In addition, maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with its deficiency in newborns.

  19. Human placental growth hormone is increased in maternal serum at 20 weeks of gestation in pregnancies with large-for-gestational-age babies.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shutan; Vickers, Mark H; Taylor, Rennae S; Jones, Beatrix; Fraser, Mhoyra; McCowan, Lesley M E; Baker, Philip N; Perry, Jo K

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal serum concentrations of placental growth hormone (GH-V), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and 2, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and 3 and birth weight in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) cases in a nested case-control study. Maternal serum samples were selected from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) biobank in Auckland, New Zealand. Serum hormone concentrations were determined by ELISA. We found that maternal serum GH-V concentrations at 20 weeks of gestation in LGA pregnancies were significantly higher than in AGA and SGA pregnancies. Maternal GH-V concentrations were positively correlated to birth weights and customized birth weight centiles, while IGFBP-1 concentrations were inversely related to birth weights and customized birth weight centiles. Our findings suggest that maternal serum GH-V and IGFBP-1 concentrations at 20 weeks' gestation are associated with fetal growth.

  20. Women Born Preterm or with Inappropriate Weight for Gestational Age Are at Risk of Subsequent Gestational Diabetes and Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Damm, Peter; Greisen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low birthweight, which can be caused by inappropriate intrauterine growth or prematurity, is associated with development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as pre-eclampsia later in life, but the relative effects of prematurity and inappropriate intrauterine growth remain uncertain. Methods Through nation-wide registries we identified all Danish mothers in the years 1989–2007. Two separate cohorts consisting mothers born 1974–1977 (n = 84219) and 1978–1981 (n = 32376) were studied, due to different methods of registering birthweight and gestational age in the two periods. Data was linked with information on GDM, pre-eclampsia and education. Results In a multivariate logistic regression model the odds of developing GDM was increased by 5–7% for each week the mother was born before term (p = 0.018 for 1974–1977, p = 0.048 for 1978–1981), while the odds were increased by 13–17% for each standard deviation (SD) reduction in birthweight for gestational age for those who were small or normal for gestational age (p<0.0001 and p = 0.035) and increased by 118–122% for each SD increase above the normal range (p<0.0001 and p = 0.024). The odds of pre-eclampsia was increased by 3–5% for each week the mother was born before term (p = 0.064 and p = 0.04), while the odds were increased 11–12% for each SD reduction in birthweight for gestational age (p<0.0001 and p = 0.0002). Conclusion In this cohort of young Danish mothers, being born premature or with increasingly low birthweight for gestational age was associated with an increased risk of GDM and pre-eclampsia in adulthood, while increasingly high birthweight for gestational age was associated with an increased risk of GDM and a decreased risk of pre-eclampsia. Inappropriate weight for gestational age was a more important risk factor than prematurity. PMID:22479500

  1. Mid-pregnancy maternal leptin levels, birthweight for gestational age and preterm delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, M.R.; Holzman, C.; Tian, Y.; Evans, R. W.; Sikorskii, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Maternal blood leptin levels are positively associated with adiposity. Recent studies suggest that leptin is also abundantly produced by the placenta and may function as a regulator of fetal growth. Our goal was to examine mid-pregnancy levels of leptin in maternal blood in relation to birthweight for gestational age (BW/GA) and timing of delivery after accounting for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (prepreg-BMI) and pregnancy complications. Patients Data were from 1,304 sub-cohort mother/infant pairs who participated in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study (1998–2004). Measurements Leptin levels, measured at 16–27 weeks’ gestation, were log-transformed. Geometric mean (GMean) leptin levels were estimated by weighted linear regression with gestational age at blood draw as a covariate. GMean was re-transformed to the original scale for reporting. Results Using the GMeans leptin in mothers of term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates as the referent (25.2 μg/L), we observed lower levels in mothers of preterm AGA (21.9 μg/L), term small-for-gestational age (SGA) (20.3 μg/L), and preterm SGA neonates (21.7 μg/L). Results were largely unchanged after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Leptin levels were higher in mothers who delivered large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates, both preterm (33.6 μg/L) and term (29.1 μg/L), but the GMeans were markedly attenuated after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Conclusion The association between BW/GA and maternal leptin levels after adjustment for prepreg-BMI may represent: 1) a residual effect of maternal adiposity that is not fully captured by BMI; and/or 2) variation in placental leptin levels entering the maternal circulation. In conclusion, mid-pregnancy maternal blood leptin levels may be an early indicator of fetal growth status. PMID:22934578

  2. Reference curves of birth weight, length, and head circumference for gestational ages in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haksari, Ekawaty L; Lafeber, Harrie N; Hakimi, Mohammad; Pawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth

    2016-11-21

    The birth weight reference curve to estimate the newborns at risk in need of assessment and monitoring has been established. The previous reference curves from Indonesia, approximately 8 years ago, were based on the data collected from teaching hospitals only with limited gestational ages. The aims of the study were to update the reference curves for birth weight, supine length and head circumference for Indonesia, and to compare birth weight curves of boys and girls, first child and later children, and the ones in the previous studies. Data were extracted from the Maternal-Perinatal database between 1998-2007. Only live singletons with recorded gestational ages of 26 to 42 weeks and the exact time of admission to the neonatal facilities delivered or referred within 24 h of age to Sardjito Hospital, five district hospitals and five health centers in Yogyakarta Special Territory were included. Newborns with severely ill conditions, congenital anomaly and chromosomal abnormality were excluded. Smoothening of the curves was accomplished using a third-order polynomial equation. Our study included 54,599 singleton live births. Growth curves were constructed for boys (53.3%) and girls (46.7%) for birth weight, supine length, and head circumference. At term, mean birth weight for each gestational age of boys was significantly higher than that of girls. While mean birth weight for each gestational age of first-born-children, on the other hand was significantly lower than that of later-born-children. The mean birth weight was lower than that of Lubchenco's study. Compared with the previous Indonesian study by Alisyahbana, no differences were observed for the aterm infants, but lower mean birth weight was observed in preterm infants. Updated neonatal reference curves for birth weight, supine length and head circumference are important to classify high risk newborns in specific area and to identify newborns requiring attention.

  3. Trimester of maternal gestational weight gain and offspring body weight at birth and age five.

    PubMed

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire E; Shrimali, Bina P; Eskenazi, Brenda; Lahiff, Maureen; Lindquist, Allison R; Abrams, Barbara F

    2012-08-01

    To investigate associations of trimester-specific GWG with fetal birth size and BMI at age 5 years. We examined 3,015 singleton births to women without pregnancy complications from the Child Health and Development Studies prospective cohort with measured weights during pregnancy. We used multivariable regression to examine the associations between total and trimester gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight for gestational age and child BMI outcomes, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and smoking; paternal overweight, gestational age, and infant sex. We explored differences in associations by maternal BMI and infant sex. GWG in all trimesters was significantly and independently associated with birth weight with associations stronger, though not significantly, in the second trimester. First trimester GWG was associated with child BMI outcomes (OR for child overweight = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.09). Each kg of first trimester GWG was significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score in women of low (β = 0.099; 95% CI = 0.034, 0.163) and normal (β = 0.028; 95% CI = 0.012, 0.044), but not high pre-pregnancy BMI. GWG in all trimesters was associated with birth weight; only first trimester GWG was associated with child BMI. If replicated, this information could help specify recommendations for maternal GWG and elucidate mechanisms connecting GWG to child BMI.

  4. The ELGAN study of the brain and related disorders in extremely low gestational age newborns.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, T M; Allred, E N; Dammann, O; Hirtz, D; Kuban, K C K; Paneth, N; Leviton, A

    2009-11-01

    Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) are at increased risk for structural and functional brain abnormalities. To identify factors that contribute to brain damage in ELGANs. Multi-center cohort study. We enrolled 1506 ELGANs born before 28 weeks gestation at 14 sites; 1201 (80%) survived to 2 years corrected age. Information about exposures and characteristics was collected by maternal interview, from chart review, microbiologic and histological examination of placentas, and measurement of proteins in umbilical cord and early postnatal blood spots. Indicators of white matter damage, i.e. ventriculomegaly and echolucent lesions, on protocol cranial ultrasound scans; head circumference and developmental outcomes at 24 months adjusted age, i.e., cerebral palsy, mental and motor scales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and a screen for autism spectrum disorders. ELGAN Study publications thus far provide evidence that the following are associated with ultrasongraphically detected white matter damage, cerebral palsy, or both: preterm delivery attributed to preterm labor, prelabor premature rupture of membranes, or cervical insufficiency; recovery of microorganisms in the placenta parenchyma, including species categorized as human skin microflora; histological evidence of placental inflammation; lower gestational age at delivery; greater neonatal illness severity; severe chronic lung disease; neonatal bacteremia; and necrotizing enterocolitis. In addition to supporting a potential role for many previously identified antecedents of brain damage in ELGANs, our study is the first to provide strong evidence that brain damage in extremely preterm infants is associated with microorganisms in placenta parenchyma.

  5. Breast milk fat content of mothers to small-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Domany, K Armoni; Mandel, D; Kedem, M Hausman; Lubetzky, R

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the composition of human milk (HM) expressed by mothers of asymmetrically growth-restricted infants. To test the null hypothesis that lactating mothers of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants produce milk with fat content similar to that of lactating mothers of infants whose growth is appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fifty-six lactating mothers of newborns (26 SGA and 30 AGA) were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. Creamatocrit (CMT) levels in HM were measured at 72 h, 7 days and 14 days postdelivery in capillary tubes after centrifugation at 9000 r.p.m. for 5 min. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal age, body mass index, gestational age (GA), pregnancy weight gain and parity. They differed significantly in terms of infant's birth weight by design. The mean CMT levels at the three time points were similar for the two groups. This remained true when timing of the sample (colostrum, transitional, mature milk) was introduced as a confounder in the analysis of variance (general linear model). Fat content of HM is not affected by fetal growth status. We suggest that mothers of SGA infants may be reassured that their milk contains adequate amount of fat that is appropriate for the growth of their infants.

  6. Investigation of the effect of changes in muscle strength in gestational age upon fear of falling and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Atay, Emrah; Başalan Iz, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is the investigation of the effect of changes in muscle strength in gestational age upon fear of falling and quality of life. This longitudinal, descriptive study included a sample of 37 pregnant women who volunteered to participate. The research data were collected at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation. Data collection instruments included a newly developed questionnaire form, the Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale, a visual analog scale, and the Turkish language version of the WHO Quality of Life Scale. Upper body flexibility was measured by the back scratch test, while muscle strength was measured by a handgrip dynamometer and balance by the unipedal stance test. It was found that, as pregnancy advanced, pregnant women had an increased fear of falling, as well as elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. Participants suffered significant impairments in their balance, handgrip strength, and quality of life within the physical, psychological, and environmental domains. As pregnancy advances, muscle strength decreases and the fear of falling experienced by pregnant women increases, which significantly impairs the quality of life in the domains of environment, physical, and mental health.

  7. Pregnant Women's Knowledge and Beliefs about the Safety and Outcomes of Delivery at Various Gestational Ages.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Melody A; Swamy, Geeta K; Wheeler, Sarahn M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives  Despite the morbidity associated with late preterm and early-term births, there is limited data on pregnant women's perception of neonatal risk based on gestational age (GA). Therefore, our objective was to determine pregnant women's perception of neonatal risks at varying GAs. Method  Through an anonymous 24-question survey, pregnant women were asked to designate the GA at delivery that is desirable, safe, and defined as full term. Responses were compared based on race, history of preterm birth, and medical comorbidities. Results  Among the 233 survey respondents, the majority (62.9%) desired delivery at 36 to 39 weeks' gestation. Black women were more likely to desire delivery at 28 to 35 weeks compared with other racial/ethnic groups ( p  = 0.005). Women with a history of preterm birth or medical complications were less likely to desire delivery at 40 weeks. More than 40% of respondents thought delivery at 8 months of pregnancy was safe and 40.3% responded that 37 weeks' gestation is considered term. Conclusion  Misconceptions surrounding the definition of a term pregnancy are pervasive and vary by race, obstetric history, and medical comorbidities. Our findings highlight the need for patient education about appropriate gestational length, especially in minority and high-risk populations.

  8. Systemic inflammation in the extremely low gestational age newborn following maternal genitourinary infections

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Beatty, Noah; Sassi, Rita R. S.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Problem Gestational genitourinary infections are associated with life-long disabilities, but it is unknown if neonatal inflammation is involved. Method Mothers of 914 infants born before 28th gestation week reported cervical/vaginal infection (CVI), and/or urine/bladder/kidney infection (UTI), or neither. Inflammation proteins measured in baby’s blood on postnatal days 1, 7 and 14 were considered elevated if in the top quartile for gestational age. Logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders assessed odds ratios. Results Compared to neither UTI/CVI, mothers with CVI were more likely to have infants with elevated CRP, SAA, MPO, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6R, TNF-α, RANTES, ICAM-3, E-selectin and VEGF-R2 on day 1; those with UTI were more likely to have infants with elevated MPO, IL-6R, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, and RANTES on day 7. Placental anaerobes and genital micoplasma were more common in pregnancies with CVI. Conclusion Gestational UTI/CVI should be targeted for preventing systemic inflammation in the very preterm newborn. PMID:25164433

  9. Preterm delivery at low gestational age: risk factors for short latency. A multivariated analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marzano, Sara; Padula, Francesco; Meloni, Paolo; Anceschi, Maurizio Marco

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for a short latency in preterm delivery at low gestational ages (GA). Study design A retrospective analysis involving, between January 2004 and May 2006, 204 singleton pregnancies with admission diagnosis of preterm labor and, in particular, 91 pregnant women admitted between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks’ gestation. Results In pregnant women with a diagnosis of preterm labor at 24-31+6 weeks’ gestation, at ROC curve, a value of considering WBC and cervical dilatation, combined in the following formula (75.237 - (2.290 * “WBC”) - (10.787 * “cervical dilatation”)) <=33.101 has a 74.2% Sensitivity and a 78.3% Specificity in predicting a latency =< 4 days (+LR 3.42 and -LR 0.33) and a 70% Sensitivity and a 84.3% Specificity in predicting GA at delivery at 24-31 weeks’ gestation (+LR 4.46 and -LR 0.36). Conclusion We suggest a more strictly monitoring and a more aggressive therapy in presence of prognostic parameters of shorter latency. PMID:22439021

  10. EFFECTS OF MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES AND BISPHENOL A DURING PREGNANCY ON GESTATIONAL AGE

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Barry; Vetrano, Anna M.; Archer, Faith E.; Marcella, Stephen W.; Buckley, Brian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Robson, Mark G.; Klim, Jammie; Azhar, Sana; Cavin, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, present in high concentrations in numerous consumer products. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to phthalates and BPA in pregnancy is associated with shortened gestation. Methods Urinary phthalate and BPA metabolites from 72 pregnant women were measured at the last obstetric clinic visit prior to delivery. Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration. Results IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 day decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants. Conclusions We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free + glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-γ transcription factor, androgen precursors, and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor. PMID:23795657

  11. Effects of maternal exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A during pregnancy on gestational age.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Barry; Vetrano, Anna M; Archer, Faith E; Marcella, Stephen W; Buckley, Brian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Robson, Mark G; Klim, Jammie; Azhar, Sana; Cavin, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Rich, David Q

    2014-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, present in high concentrations in numerous consumer products. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to phthalates and BPA in pregnancy is associated with shortened gestation. Urinary phthalate and BPA metabolites from 72 pregnant women were measured at the last obstetric clinic visit prior to delivery. Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration. IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 d decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants. We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free + glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-γ transcription factor, androgen precursors and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor.

  12. Premature brain aging in humans exposed to maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Roseboom, Tessa J; Schwab, Matthias; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to undernutrition is widespread in both developing and industrialized countries, causing irreversible damage to the developing brain, resulting in altered brain structure and decreased cognitive function during adulthood. The Dutch famine in 1944/45 was a humanitarian disaster, now enabling studies of the effects of prenatal undernutrition during gestation on brain aging in late adulthood. We hypothesized that study participants prenatally exposed to maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) would demonstrate altered brain structure resembling premature brain aging in late adulthood, expecting the effect being stronger in men. Utilizing the Dutch famine birth cohort (n = 118; mean age: 67.5 ± 0.9 years), this study implements an innovative biomarker for individual brain aging, using structural neuroimaging. BrainAGE was calculated using state-of-the-art pattern recognition methods, trained on an independent healthy reference sample, then applied to the Dutch famine MRI sample, to evaluate the effects of prenatal undernutrition during early gestation on individual brain aging in late adulthood. Exposure to famine in early gestation was associated with BrainAGE scores indicative of an older-appearing brain in the male sample (mean difference to subjects born before famine: 4.3 years, p < 0.05). Furthermore, in explaining the observed variance in individual BrainAGE scores in the male sample, maternal age at birth, head circumference at birth, medical treatment of hypertension, history of cerebral incidences, actual heart rate, and current alcohol intake emerged to be the most influential variables (adjusted R 2  = 0.63, p < 0.01). The findings of our study on exposure to prenatal undernutrition being associated with a status of premature brain aging during late adulthood, as well as individual brain structure being shaped by birth- and late-life health characteristics, are strongly supporting the critical importance of sufficient nutrient

  13. Neonatal screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in preterm and small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, F; Lunardi, S; Liumbruno, A; Ferri, G; Madrigali, V; Fiorentini, E; Forli, F; Berrettini, S; Boldrini, A; Ghirri, P

    2014-10-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection affects many organs: reticuloendothelial and central nervous system are particularly involved. Congenital CMV infection is the leading cause of non-genetic sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing impairment can be present at birth or it can occur months or even years after birth. It is as well an important risk factor for antenatal stillbirth, preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) condition. For these reasons we should early identify congenital CMV infection investigating at least at risk newborns such as preterm or SGA babies given that a simple and standardized method for a large scale screening program is lacking. In our study, we found an association between congenital CMV infection and preterm births (3.03%) and with SGA condition (3.7%). Consequently, routine CMV urine detection should be performed at least in all babies born before 37 weeks of gestational age and in term SGA newborns.

  14. Magnesium sulphate at 30 to 34 weeks' gestational age: neuroprotection trial (MAGENTA)--study protocol.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Wilkinson, Dominic; Ashwood, Pat; Haslam, Ross

    2013-04-09

    Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages.The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of death or cerebral palsy in their children at two years' corrected age. Randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial. Women, giving informed consent, at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks' gestation, where birth is planned or definitely expected within 24 hours, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of magnesium sulphate.Trial entry & randomisation: Eligible women will be randomly allocated to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo.Treatment groups: Women in the magnesium sulphate group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing 8 g magnesium sulphate heptahydrate [16 mmol magnesium ions]. Women in the placebo group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%). Both treatments will be administered through a dedicated IV infusion line over 30 minutes.Primary study outcome: Death or cerebral palsy measured in children at two years' corrected age. 1676 children are required to detect a decrease in the combined outcome of death or cerebral palsy, from 9.6% with placebo to 5.4% with magnesium sulphate (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). Given the magnitude of the protective effect in the systematic review, the ongoing uncertainty about benefits at later gestational ages, the serious health and cost consequences of cerebral palsy for the child, family and society, a trial of magnesium sulphate for women at

  15. Defining Smallness for Gestational Age in the Early Years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    PubMed Central

    Rogvi, Rasmus á.; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Background Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973, but due to variable data quality, data is most often used only from 1981 onwards, and birth registers in other countries may have similar problems for the early years. We wanted to examine whether the data can be used for identification of children born SGA and used in future research. Methodology/Principal Findings All persons born between 1974 and 1996 were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (n = 1.704.890). Immigrants and children without data on gestational age and birth weight were excluded, and a total of 1.348.106 children were included in the analysis. The difference between the different variables used in the history of the registry were examined, and the quality of data in the birth registry from 1974-1981 was examined and compared to subsequent years. Data on birth weight and gestational age in the early years of the registry is inconsistent, and the identification of children born SGA is inaccurate, with 49% false-positives. The biggest source of error is due to the rough and inaccurate intervals used for gestational age. By using –3 standard deviations as a cut-off for the identification of children born SGA, the number of false-positives was reduced to 9%, while the amount of false-negatives were increased. Conclusion Choosing –3 standard deviations for identifying children born SGA is a viable, though not optimal solution for identifying children born SGA. Overall the data in the registry is of sufficient quality to be used in further medical research. PMID:21304958

  16. Early biometric lag in the prediction of small for gestational age neonates and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Nadav; Pessel, Cara; Coletta, Jaclyn; Krieger, Abba M; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2011-01-01

    An early fetal growth lag may be a marker of future complications. We sought to determine the utility of early biometric variables in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this retrospective cohort study, the crown-rump length at 11 to 14 weeks and the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, humerus length, transverse cerebellar diameter, and estimated fetal weight at 18 to 24 weeks were converted to an estimated gestational age using published regression formulas. Sonographic fetal growth (difference between each biometric gestational age and the crown-rump length gestational age) minus expected fetal growth (number of days elapsed between the two scans) yielded the biometric growth lag. These lags were tested as predictors of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (≤10th percentile) and preeclampsia. A total of 245 patients were included. Thirty-two (13.1%) delivered an SGA neonate, and 43 (17.6%) had the composite outcome. The head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight lags were identified as significant predictors of SGA neonates after adjusted analyses (P < .05). The addition of either the estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference lag to maternal characteristics alone significantly improved the performance of the predictive model, achieving areas under the curve of 0.72 and 0.74, respectively. No significant association was found between the biometric lag variables and the development of preeclampsia. Routinely available biometric data can be used to improve the prediction of adverse outcomes such as SGA. These biometric lags should be considered in efforts to develop screening algorithms for adverse outcomes.

  17. Gestational age and birth weight centiles of singleton babies delivered normally following spontaneous labor, in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed

    Attanayake, K; Munasinghe, S; Goonewardene, M; Widanapathirana, P; Sandeepani, I; Sanjeewa, L

    2018-03-31

    To estimate the gestational age and birth weight centiles of babies delivered normally, without any obstetric intervention, in women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies establishing spontaneous onset of labour. Consecutive women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, attending the Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the Teaching Hospital Mahamodara Galle, Sri Lanka, with confirmed dates and establishing spontaneous onset of labor and delivering vaginally between gestational age of 34 - 41 weeks, without any obstetric intervention , during the period September 2013 to February 2014 were studied. The gestational age at spontaneous onset of labor and vaginal delivery and the birth weights of the babies were recorded. There were 3294 consecutive deliveries during this period, and of them 1602 (48.6%) met the inclusion criteria. Median gestational age at delivery was 275 days (range 238-291 days, IQR 269 to 280 days) and the median birth weight was 3000 g (range1700g - 4350g; IQR 2750-3250g). The 10th, 50th and 90th birth weight centiles of the babies delivered at a gestational age of 275 days were approximately 2570g, 3050g and 3550g respectively. The median gestational age among women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies who established spontaneous onset of labor and delivered vaginally, without any obstetric intervention, was approximately five days shorter than the traditionally accepted 280 days. At a gestational age of 275 days, the mean birth weight was approximately 3038g and the 50th centile of the birth weight of the babies delivered was approximately 3050g.

  18. Large for Gestational Age Newborns from Mothers Without Diabetes Mellitus Tend to Become Tall and Lean Toddlers.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Pérez-Cruz, Miriam; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Díaz, Marta; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    A longitudinal study with dual x-ray absorptiometry disclosed that infants born large for gestational age from mothers without diabetes mellitus and without excessive gestational weight gain tend to be long with increased adipose tissue as newborns and tall and lean as toddlers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of gestational age classifications: date of last menstrual period vs. clinical estimate.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Martha S; Alexander, Greg R; Buekens, Pierre; Vahratian, Anjel

    2007-06-01

    The purpose was to compare the two different measures of gestational age currently used on birth certificates (the duration of pregnancy based on the date of last menstrual period [LMP] and the clinical estimate [CE] as related to health status indicators. We contrasted these measures by race/ethnicity. NCHS natality files for 2000-2002 were used, selecting cases of single live birth to U.S. resident mothers with both LMP and CE gestational age information. Approximately 75% of the records had valid LMP and CE values and for approximately one-half of these, the LMP and CE values did not exactly agree. Overall and for each race and ethnic group, the LMP measures resulted in higher proportions of very preterm, preterm, postterm and SGA births. CE value provided preterm rates of 7.9% and for LMP, 9.9%. The odds ratio of preterm birth for African-Americans using the CE measure was 1.78 [95% Cl 1.77-1.79]. The odds ratio using LMP was 1.93 [95% Cl 1.92-1.94]. Whites were the referent population. Different measures of gestational age result in different overall and race-specific rates of very preterm, preterm, postterm, and SGA births. These findings indicate that substituting or combining these measures may have consequences.

  20. The Effect of Gestational Age on Angiogenic Gene Expression in the Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaswani, Kanchan; Hum, Melissa Wen-Ching; Chan, Hsiu-Wen; Ryan, Jennifer; Wood-Bradley, Ryan J.; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Mitchell, Murray D.; Armitage, James A.; Rice, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The placenta plays a central role in determining the outcome of pregnancy. It undergoes changes during gestation as the fetus develops and as demands for energy substrate transfer and gas exchange increase. The molecular mechanisms that coordinate these changes have yet to be fully elucidated. The study performed a large scale screen of the transcriptome of the rat placenta throughout mid-late gestation (E14.25–E20) with emphasis on characterizing gestational age associated changes in the expression of genes invoved in angiogenic pathways. Sprague Dawley dams were sacrificed at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25 and E20 (n = 6 per group) and RNA was isolated from one placenta per dam. Changes in placental gene expression were identifed using Illumina Rat Ref-12 Expression BeadChip Microarrays. Differentially expressed genes (>2-fold change, <1% false discovery rate, FDR) were functionally categorised by gene ontology pathway analysis. A subset of differentially expressed genes identified by microarrays were confirmed using Real-Time qPCR. The expression of thirty one genes involved in the angiogenic pathway was shown to change over time, using microarray analysis (22 genes displayed increased and 9 gene decreased expression). Five genes (4 up regulated: Cd36, Mmp14, Rhob and Angpt4 and 1 down regulated: Foxm1) involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel morphogenesis were subjected to further validation. qPCR confirmed late gestational increased expression of Cd36, Mmp14, Rhob and Angpt4 and a decrease in expression of Foxm1 before labour onset (P<0.0001). The observed acute, pre-labour changes in the expression of the 31 genes during gestation warrant further investigation to elucidate their role in pregnancy. PMID:24391823

  1. Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 37–41 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (37–41 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.2–1.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.6–2.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (37–41 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue. PMID:23589812

  2. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (<35 years) mothers. Seventy-two lactating mothers (38 older, 34 younger) of newborns were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  3. Maternal Microbe-Specific Modulation of Inflammatory Response in Extremely Low-Gestational-Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Yamamoto, Hidemi; Delaney, Mary L.; DuBois, Andrea M.; Allred, Elizabeth; Leviton, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The fetal response to intrauterine inflammatory stimuli appears to contribute to the onset of preterm labor as well as fetal injury, especially affecting newborns of extremely low gestational age. To investigate the role of placental colonization by specific groups of microorganisms in the development of inflammatory responses present at birth, we analyzed 25 protein biomarkers in dry blood spots obtained from 527 newborns delivered by Caesarean section in the 23rd to 27th gestation weeks. Bacteria were detected in placentas and characterized by culture techniques. Odds ratios for having protein concentrations in the top quartile for gestation age for individual and groups of microorganisms were calculated. Mixed bacterial vaginosis (BV) organisms were associated with a proinflammatory pattern similar to those of infectious facultative anaerobes. Prevotella and Gardnerella species, anaerobic streptococci, peptostreptococci, and genital mycoplasmas each appeared to be associated with a different pattern of elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins. Lactobacillus was associated with low odds of an inflammatory response. This study provides evidence that microorganisms colonizing the placenta provoke distinctive newborn inflammatory responses and that Lactobacillus may suppress these responses. PMID:21264056

  4. Delayed presentation of prolonged hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in a preterm small-for-gestational age neonate.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jin Ho; Chandran, Suresh; Agarwal, Prathibha; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel

    2013-12-18

    Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in small-for-gestational age infants usually presents in the first two postnatal days. We present a preterm, small-for-gestational age infant who had hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia on day 13 of life. A female twin infant weighing 1390 g was born at 32(+6) weeks of gestation. Her glycaemic profile was normal till day 13 of life, after which she was noted to be lethargic and hypoglycaemic and had hyperinsulinism, hypoketonaemia and hypofattyacidaemia, requiring high glucose infusion rate to maintain normoglycaemia, while negative for septic markers and metabolic screen. Initially, there was no response to diazoxide and the genetic studies for ABCC8 and KCNJ11 gene mutations were negative. Delayed response to diazoxide was followed by complete resolution of hypoglycaemia in 5 months. This case highlights the importance of glucose monitoring in small-for-date infants for hypoglycaemia till they achieve full feeds and gain weight. Early recognition and appropriate management of hypoglycaemia in this group of infants have important implications for neurodevelopmental outcome.

  5. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p < 0.001) at HINE and namely, at 3 months for the subsections "cranial nerve" and "posture" and at every age for "tone"; no gender differences has been evidenced in neurological performances. At the MDI, very preterms showed significant lower scores (p < 0.01) than both late-preterm and term born infants; gender differences were observed for preterms only (very and late), with best performances for females. Our results point out the presence of gestational age and gender-dependent differences in the development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Auditory pathway maturational study in small for gestational age preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Diniz, Edna Maria Albuquerque; Guinsburg, Ruth; Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2014-01-01

    To follow up the maturation of the auditory pathway in preterm infants small for gestational age (SGA), through the study of absolute and interpeak latencies of auditory brainstem response (ABR) in the first six months of age. This multicentric prospective cross-sectional and longitudinal study assessed 76 newborn infants, 35 SGA and 41 appropriate for gestational age (AGA), born between 33 and 36 weeks in the first evaluation. The ABR was carried out in three moments (neonatal period, three months and six months). Twenty-nine SGA and 33 AGA (62 infants), between 51 and 54 weeks (corrected age), returned for the second evaluation. In the third evaluation, 49 infants (23 SGA and 26 AGA), with age range from 63 to 65 weeks (corrected age), were assessed. The bilateral presence of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and normal tympanogram were inclusion criteria. It was found interaural symmetry in both groups. The comparison between the two groups throughout the three periods studied showed no significant differences in the ABR parameters, except for the latencies of wave III in the period between three and six months. As for the maturation with tone burst 0.5 and 1 kHz, it was found that the groups did not differ. The findings suggest that, in the premature infants, the maturational process of the auditory pathway occurs in a similar rate for SGA and AGA. These results also suggest that prematurity is a more relevant factor for the maturation of the auditory pathway than birth weight.

  7. Rates of stillbirth by gestational age and cause in Inuit and First Nations populations in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Zoungrana, Hamado; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-04-02

    Inuit and First Nations populations have higher rates of stillbirth than non-Aboriginal populations in Canada do, but little is known about the timing and cause of stillbirth in Aboriginal populations. We compared gestational age- and cause-specific stillbirth rates in Inuit and First Nations populations with the rates in the non-Aboriginal population in Quebec. Data included singleton stillbirths and live births at 24 or more gestational weeks among Quebec residents from 1981 to 2009. We calculated odds ratios (ORs), rate differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the retrospective cohort of Inuit and First Nations births relative to non-Aboriginal births using fetuses at risk (i.e., ongoing pregnancies) as denominators and adjusting for maternal characteristics. The main outcomes were stillbirth by gestational age (24-27, 28-36, ≥ 37 wk) and cause of death. Rates of stillbirth per 1000 births were greater among Inuit (6.8) and First Nations (5.7) than among non-Aboriginal (3.6) residents. Relative to the non-Aboriginal population, the risk of stillbirth was greater at term (≥ 37 wk) than before term for both Inuit (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.8) and First Nations (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 3.3) populations. Causes most strongly associated with stillbirth were poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies among the Inuit, and hypertension and diabetes among the First Nations residents. Stillbirth rates in Aboriginal populations were particularly high at term gestation. Poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies were important causes of stillbirth among the Inuit, and diabetic and hypertensive complications were important causes in the First Nations population. Prevention may require improvements in pregnancy and obstetric care.

  8. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Abrar A; Wang, Alex Y; Hilder, Lisa; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Farquhar, Cindy; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2018-02-01

    Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 non-ART and 15 416 ART)-393 491 singletons and 10 877 twins or high order multiples. All births (≥20 weeks of gestation and/or ≥400 g of birthweight) in five states and territories in Australia during the period 2007-2009 were included in the study, using National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC). Primary outcome measures were rates of stillbirth, neonatal and perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the likelihood of perinatal death. Rates of multiple birth and low birthweight were significantly higher in ART group compared to the non-ART group (P < 0.01). Overall perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher for ART births (16.5 per 1000 births, 95% CI 14.5-18.6), compared to non-ART births (11.3 per 1000 births, 95% CI 11.0-11.6) (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.68). However, gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births (including both singletons and multiples) was lower for very preterm (<32 weeks' gestation) and moderate to late preterm births (32-36 weeks' gestation) (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.70 and AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.53-0.70, respectively) compared to non-ART births. Congenital abnormality and spontaneous preterm were the most common causes of neonatal deaths in both ART and non-ART group. Due to different cut-off limit for perinatal period in Australia, the results of this study should be interpreted with cautions for other countries. Australian

  9. Association of Temporal Changes in Gestational Age With Perinatal Mortality in the United States, 2007-2015.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Cande V; Goldenberg, Robert L; Friedman, Alexander M; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2018-05-14

    Whether the changing gestational age distribution in the United States since 2005 has affected perinatal mortality remains unknown. To examine changes in gestational age distribution and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality. This retrospective cohort study examined trends in US perinatal mortality by linking live birth and infant death data among more than 35 million singleton births from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2015. Year of birth and changes in gestational age distribution. Changes in the proportion of births at gestational ages 20 to 27, 28 to 31, 32 to 33, 34 to 36, 37 to 38, 39 to 40, 41, and 42 to 44 weeks; changes in perinatal mortality (stillbirth at ≥20 weeks, and neonatal deaths at <28 days) rates; and contribution of gestational age changes to perinatal mortality. Trends were estimated from log-linear regression models adjusted for confounders. Among the 34 236 577 singleton live births during the study period, the proportion of births at all gestational ages declined, except at 39 to 40 weeks, which increased (54.5% in 2007 to 60.2% in 2015). Overall perinatal mortality declined from 9.0 to 8.6 per 1000 births (P < .001). Stillbirths declined from 5.7 to 5.6 per 1000 births (P < .001), and neonatal mortality declined from 3.3 to 3.0 per 1000 births (P < .001). Although the proportion of births at gestational ages 34 to 36, 37 to 38, and 42 to 44 weeks declined, perinatal mortality rates at these gestational ages showed annual adjusted relative increases of 1.0% (95% CI, 0.6%-1.4%), 2.3% (95% CI, 1.9%-2.8%), and 4.2% (95% CI, 1.5%-7.0%), respectively. Neonatal mortality rates at gestational ages 34 to 36 and 37 to 38 weeks showed a relative adjusted annual increase of 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.6%) and 3.1% (95% CI, 2.1%-4.1%), respectively. Although the proportion of births at gestational age 39 to 40 weeks increased, perinatal mortality showed an annual relative adjusted decline of -1.3% (95% CI, -1.8% to -0.9%). The

  10. The rate of preterm birth in the United States is affected by the method of gestational age assignment.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Elaine L; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the rate of preterm birth in the United States using 2 different methods of gestational age assignment and determine which method more closely correlates with the known morbidities associated with preterm birth. Using National Center for Health Statistics data from 2012 United States birth certificates, we computed the rate of preterm birth defined as a birth at 36 or fewer completed weeks with gestational age assigned using the obstetric estimate as specified in the revised birth certificate. This rate was then compared with the rate when gestational age is calculated using the last menstrual period alone. The rates of neonatal morbidities associated with preterm birth were examined for each method of assigning gestational age. The rate of preterm birth was 9.7% when the obstetric estimate is used to calculate gestational age, which is significantly different from the rate of 11.5% when gestational age is calculated using the last menstrual period alone. In addition, the neonates identified as preterm by obstetric estimate were more likely to qualify as low birthweight (54% vs 42%; P < .001) and suffer morbidities such as need for assisted ventilation and surfactant use than those identified with the last menstrual period alone. That is to say obstetric estimate is more sensitive and specific for preterm birth by all available markers of prematurity. The preterm birth rate is 9.7% vs 11.5% and more closely correlates with adverse neonatal outcomes associated with preterm birth when gestational age is assigned using the obstetric estimate. This method of gestational age assignment is currently used by most industrialized nations and should be considered for future reporting of US outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestational age, sex and maternal parity correlate with bone turnover in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hany; Moustafa, Mohamed F; Amer, Hanna A; Hassanein, Sahar; Keeves, Christine; Patel, Kantilal

    2005-05-01

    Factors affecting bone turnover in premature infants are not entirely clear but certainly are different from those influencing bones of adults and children. To identify fetal and maternal factors that might influence bone turnover, we prospectively studied 50 infants (30 preterm and 20 full-term) born at Ain Shams University Obstetric Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Maternal parity and medical history and infant's weight, gestational age, gender and anthropometrical measurements were recorded. Cord blood samples were collected and serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) was assessed as a marker for fetal bone formation. First morning urine samples were collected and pyridinoline cross-links of collagen (Pyd) were measured as an index for bone resorption. Serum PICP was higher in premature infants when compared with full-term infants (73.30 +/- 15.1 versus 64.3 +/- 14.7, p = 0.022) and was higher in male premature infants when compared with females (81.64 +/- 9.06 versus 66.0 +/- 15.7, p = 0.018). In a multiple regression model using PICP as the dependent variable and controlling for different infant and maternal conditions, PICP significantly correlated with infant gender (r = 8.26 +/- 4.1, p = 0.05) maternal parity (r = -2.106 +/- 0.99, p = 0.041) and diabetes (r = 22.488 +/- 8.73, p = 0.041). Urine Pyd tended to increase in premature infants (612 +/- 308 versus 434 +/- 146, p = 0.057) and correlated significantly with gestational age (r = -63.93 +/- 19.55, p = 0.002). Therefore, bone formation (PICP) is influenced by fetal age and gender, as well as maternal parity and diabetes. Bone resorption (Pyd) is mostly dependent on gestational age only. Further in-depth studies are needed to enrich management of this vulnerable population.

  12. The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Downey, Eimear; O'Mahony, James A; O'Shea, Carol-Anne; Ryan, C Anthony; Kelly, Alan L; Bertram, Hanne C

    2016-05-19

    Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5-7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery.

  13. The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Downey, Eimear; O’Mahony, James A.; O’Shea, Carol-Anne; Ryan, C. Anthony; Kelly, Alan L.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5–7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery. PMID:27213440

  14. Unexpected heaping in reported gestational age for women undergoing medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Sivin, Irving; Trussell, James; Lichtenberg, E Steve; Fjerstad, Mary; Cleland, Kelly; Cullins, Vanessa

    2009-09-01

    In August 2006, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Planned Parenthood) conducted an extensive audit of first-trimester medical abortions with oral mifepristone plus buccal misoprostol through 56 days of gestation so that patients could be given accurate information about the success rate of the new regimen. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this buccal misoprostol regimen and to examine correlates of its success during routine service delivery. Audits in 10 large urban service points were conducted in 2006 to estimate the success rates of the buccal regimen. Success was defined as medical abortion without vacuum aspiration. We discovered unexpected heaping of reported gestational age (GA) on days divisible by 7. Such heaping, which has not been reported in the literature, would make it more difficult to detect a modest trend in declining effectiveness with increasing GA, if there were one. High coefficients of variation of sac size and crown-rump length characterize the early gestational weeks. We suspect, but are unable to prove, that the source of the heaping found in our investigation is a tendency for operators of ultrasound machines at some sites to simplify reporting by rounding a portion of the results to a date corresponding to the nearest complete gestational week. We believe that immediate supervisory awareness and feedback may reduce the extent of the problem. However, the problem may persist in multiple-site studies given the underlying variability of ultrasound measurements with differently calibrated machines and different rules for recording data, some of which may permit acceptance of an estimate based on the stated date of the last menses, if it differs by no more than 2 or 3 days from the ultrasound result.

  15. Universal gestational age effects on cognitive and basic mathematic processing: 2 cohorts in 2 countries.

    PubMed

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment. These estimations were used to predict IQ, mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment in the EPICure Study (171 children <26 weeks GA). For children born <34 weeks GA, each lower week decreased IQ and mathematic attainment scores by 2.34 (95% CI: -2.99, -1.70) and 2.76 (95% CI: -3.40, -2.11) points, respectively. There were no differences among children born 34-41 weeks GA. Similarly, for children born <36 weeks GA, mathematic processing scores decreased by 1.77 (95% CI: -2.20, -1.34) points with each lower GA week. The prediction function generated using BLS data accurately predicted the effect of GA on IQ and mathematic processing among EPICure children. However, these children had better attainment than predicted by BLS. Prematurity has adverse effects on basic mathematic processing following birth at all gestations <36 weeks and on IQ and mathematic attainment <34 weeks GA. The ability to predict IQ and mathematic processing scores from one cohort to another among children cared for in different eras and countries suggests that universal neurodevelopmental factors may explain the effects of gestation at birth. In contrast, mathematic attainment may be improved by schooling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal Gestational Age Effects on Cognitive and Basic Mathematic Processing: 2 Cohorts in 2 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. Study design The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment. These estimations were used to predict IQ, mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment in the EPICure Study (171 children <26 weeks GA). Results For children born <34 weeks GA, each lower week decreased IQ and mathematic attainment scores by 2.34 (95% CI: −2.99, −1.70) and 2.76 (95% CI: −3.40, −2.11) points, respectively. There were no differences among children born 34-41 weeks GA. Similarly, for children born <36 weeks GA, mathematic processing scores decreased by 1.77 (95% CI: −2.20, −1.34) points with each lower GA week. The prediction function generated using BLS data accurately predicted the effect of GA on IQ and mathematic processing among EPICure children. However, these children had better attainment than predicted by BLS. Conclusions Prematurity has adverse effects on basic mathematic processing following birth at all gestations <36 weeks and on IQ and mathematic attainment <34 weeks GA. The ability to predict IQ and mathematic processing scores from one cohort to another among children cared for in different eras and countries suggests that universal neurodevelopmental factors may explain the effects of gestation at birth. In contrast, mathematic attainment may be improved by schooling. PMID:25842966

  17. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  18. Cardiorespiratory parameters and their relation with gestational age and level of oral feeding skills in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Prade, Leila Sauer; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    To correlate cardiorespiratory parameters with gestational age and level of oral feeding skills in the first oral feeding in preterm infants. Study participants were 37 clinically stable preterm infants. Cardiorespiratory rate was assessed before and after introduction of oral feeding. The newborns were divided into three strata according to gestational age at birth. Oral skill was classified into four levels: I - low oral skill and low resistance to feeding; II - low oral skill and high resistance to feeding; III - high oral skill and low resistance to feeding; IV - high oral skill and high resistance to feeding. No difference was observed in heart and respiratory rate between the strata of gestational age at birth and between the levels of oral skill. Comparison between pre- and post-cardiorespiratory rates within each level of oral skill and stratum of gestational age showed difference between heart rate in the strata of gestational ages of 30 to 33 weeks and of 34 to 36 weeks, as well as between oral skill of levels I, II, and IV. With regard to the comparison between pre- and post- respiratory rates, difference was found in the oral skill of level I. Differences were observed between pre- and post-prandial cardiorespiratory rates regarding the first oral feeding, as well as between strata of gestational age at birth and levels of oral feeding skills.

  19. Induction of labor versus expectant management of large-for-gestational-age infants in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yvonne W.; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-01-01

    Background There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. Methods and findings To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (>90th centile) births, 1992–2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Secondary outcomes included obstetric anal sphincter injury, 5-minute Apgar<7 and birth injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to control for potential confounding. We found that among the 722 women induced at week 38, there was a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery (aOR = 1.44 95% CI:1.20–1.72), compared to those with expectant management (n = 44 081). There was no significant difference between the groups in regards to risk of instrumental vaginal delivery (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI:0.85–1.30), obstetric anal sphincter injury (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI:0.55–1.19), nor 5-minute Apgar<7 (aOR = 1.06, 95% CI:0.58–1.94) or birth injury (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.49–1.38). Similar comparisons for induction of labor at 39, 40 or 41 weeks compared to expectant management with delivery at a later gestational age, showed increased rates of cesarean delivery for induced women. Conclusions In women with LGA infants, induction of labor at 38 weeks gestation is associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery compared to expectant management, with no difference in neonatal morbidity. PMID:28727729

  20. Immune Regulatory Properties of CD117pos Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Vary According to Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Di Trapani, Mariano; Bassi, Giulio; Fontana, Emanuela; Giacomello, Luca; Pozzobon, Michela; Guillot, Pascale V.; De Coppi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic Fluid Stem (AFS) cells are broadly multipotent fetal stem cells derived from the positive selection and ex vivo expansion of amniotic fluid CD117/c-kitpos cells. Considering the differentiation potential in vitro toward cell lineages belonging to the three germ layers, AFS cells have raised great interest as a new therapeutic tool, but their immune properties still need to be assessed. We analyzed the in vitro immunological properties of AFS cells from different gestational age in coculture with T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. Nonactivated (resting) first trimester-AFS cells showed lower expression of HLA class-I molecules and NK-activating ligands than second and third trimester-AFS cells, whose features were associated with lower sensitivity to NK cell-mediated lysis. Nevertheless, inflammatory priming with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) enhanced resistance of all AFS cell types to NK cytotoxicity. AFS cells modulated lymphocyte proliferation in a different manner according to gestational age: first trimester-AFS cells significantly inhibited T and NK cell proliferation, while second and third trimester-AFS cells were less efficient. In addition, only inflammatory-primed second trimester-AFS cells could suppress B cell proliferation, which was not affected by the first and third trimester-AFS cells. Indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase pathway was significantly involved only in T cell suppression mediated by second and third trimester-AFS cells. Overall, this study shows a number of significant quantitative differences among AFS cells of different gestational age that have to be considered in view of their clinical application. PMID:25072397

  1. [The relationship between metabolic disorders and small for gestational age with idiopathic premature adrenarche].

    PubMed

    Mejorado Molano, Francisco Javier; Andrés Zallo, Laura; Fornos Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez Segura, Pilar; Gavela Pérez, Teresa; Sanz Calvo, María Luisa; Soriano Guillén, Leandro

    2017-11-01

    There is still controversy on the relationship between idiopathic premature adrenarche (IPA) and a history of small for gestational age, as well as the concomitant presence of obesity and other metabolic disturbances. An attempt is made to study these potential associations in a cohort of girls with IPA from our hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted that included girls with a diagnosis of IPA from the Paediatric Department of the Fundación Jiménez Díaz (Madrid, Spain) between January 2007 and May 2015. A record was made of family and personal history with perinatal data, as well as anthropometric data and biochemical values at the time of diagnosis. Out of a total of 76 girls with IPA, 2.7% had a history of small for gestational age. When body mass index was analysed according to modified criteria of WHO 2007/Cole 2000, 11.8% were overweight, and 11.8% were obese at diagnosis. Using the criteria set by the Spanish Ministry of Health, 6.6% were overweight and 18.4% obese, with 21.2% of the girls being insulin resistance, and 13.95% having dyslipidaemia. None of them had hypertension. From a comparative analysis between normal and overweight and obesity IPA girls, the latter had significantly higher levels of triglycerides and insulin, a higher HOMA index, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. IPA girls included in the study do not have a higher prevalence of small for gestational age compared to the general population. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls with IPA is not higher than the prevalence in the normal population. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Postnatal gestational age estimation using newborn screening blood spots: a proposed validation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Malia S Q; Hawken, Steven; Atkinson, Katherine M; Milburn, Jennifer; Pervin, Jesmin; Gravett, Courtney; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Rahman, Anisur; Lackritz, Eve; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Kumanan

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge of gestational age (GA) is critical for guiding neonatal care and quantifying regional burdens of preterm birth. In settings where access to ultrasound dating is limited, postnatal estimates are frequently used despite the issues of accuracy associated with postnatal approaches. Newborn metabolic profiles are known to vary by severity of preterm birth. Recent work by our group and others has highlighted the accuracy of postnatal GA estimation algorithms derived from routinely collected newborn screening profiles. This protocol outlines the validation of a GA model originally developed in a North American cohort among international newborn cohorts. Methods Our primary objective is to use blood spot samples collected from infants born in Zambia and Bangladesh to evaluate our algorithm’s capacity to correctly classify GA within 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Secondary objectives are to 1) determine the algorithm's accuracy in small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age infants, 2) determine its ability to correctly discriminate GA of newborns across dichotomous thresholds of preterm birth (≤34 weeks, <37 weeks GA) and 3) compare the relative performance of algorithms derived from newborn screening panels including all available analytes and those restricted to analyte subsets. The study population will consist of infants born to mothers already enrolled in one of two preterm birth cohorts in Lusaka, Zambia, and Matlab, Bangladesh. Dried blood spot samples will be collected and sent for analysis in Ontario, Canada, for model validation. Discussion This study will determine the validity of a GA estimation algorithm across ethnically diverse infant populations and assess population specific variations in newborn metabolic profiles. PMID:29104765

  3. Influence of Gestational Age and Body Weight on the Pharmacokinetics of Labetalol in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, James H.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Hardman, Jennifer; Endres, Loraine; Jenkins, Thomas M.; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Geller, Stacie; Deyo, Kelly; Fischer, Patricia A.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labetalol is frequently prescribed for treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. However, the influence of pregnancy on labetalol pharmacokinetics is uncertain, with inconsistent findings reported by previous studies. This study examined the population pharmacokinetics of oral labetalol during and after pregnancy in women receiving labetalol for hypertension. Methods Data were collected from 57 women receiving the drug for hypertension from the 12th week of pregnancy through 12 weeks postpartum using a prospective, longitudinal design. A sparse sampling strategy guided collection of plasma samples. Samples were assayed for labetalol by high performance liquid chromatography. Estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters and covariate effects was performed by nonlinear mixed effects modeling using NONMEM. Final population model was validated by bootstrap analysis and visual predictive check. Simulations were performed with the final model to evaluate the appropriate body weight to guide labetalol dosing. Results Lean body weight (LBW) and gestational age, i.e., weeks of pregnancy, were identified as significantly influencing oral clearance (CL/F) of labetalol, with CL/F ranging from 1.4-fold greater than postpartum values at 12 weeks gestational age to 1.6-fold greater at 40 weeks. Doses adjusted for LBW provide more consistent drug exposure than doses adjusted for total body weight. The apparent volumes of distribution for the central compartment and at steady-state were 1.9-fold higher during pregnancy. Conclusions Gestational age and LBW impact the pharmacokinetics of labetalol during pregnancy and have clinical implications for adjusting labetalol doses in these women. PMID:24297680

  4. Longitudinal growth of head circumference in term symmetric and asymmetric small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harvinder; Bhalla, A K; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-07-01

    To study longitudinal growth pattern of head circumference of full-term symmetric and asymmetric small for gestational age (SGA) infants of the two sexes during first year of life. Mixed-longitudinal growth research design. Head circumference amongst full-term 100 symmetric, 100 asymmetric as well as 100 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants was measured at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age using standardized technique and instrument. The mean head circumference of male symmetric SGA infants measured significantly (p≤0.001) smaller than asymmetric SGA infants while, in female symmetric SGA infants it measured shorter beyond 6 months. As compared to AGA infants, head circumference in symmetric and asymmetric SGA infants measured significantly smaller in size. Growth velocity for head circumference amongst symmetric and asymmetric SGA male infants did not show statistically significant differences. Rate of head circumference growth remained significantly higher amongst female asymmetric SGA infants than the symmetric ones between 3 and 6 months while, a reversal of trend was observed between 9 and 12 months. The better growth attainments for head circumference of male and female asymmetric SGA infants than their symmetric SGA counterparts during first postnatal year of life may be attributed to the continuation of influence of "head sparing" experienced by asymmetric SGA babies during prenatal life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxygen saturation targeting by pulse oximetry in the extremely low gestational age neonate: a quixotic quest.

    PubMed

    Cummings, James J; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-04-01

    A collaboration of comparative effectiveness research trials of pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2) targeting in extremely low-gestational-age neonates have begun to report their aggregate results. We examine the results of those trials, collectively referred to as the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis or NeOProM. We also discuss the uncertainties that remain and the clinical challenges that lie ahead. The primary outcome from NeOProM was a composite of death or disability at 18-24 months corrected age. In 2016 the last of these reports was published. Although there were no differences in the primary outcome overall, analyses of secondary outcomes and data subsets following a pulse oximeter revision show significant treatment differences between targeting a lower compared with a higher SpO2. NeOProM represents the largest collaborative clinical research study of SpO2 targets in extremely low-gestational-age neonates. Although aggregate results give us some insight into the feasibility and efficacy of SpO2 targeting in this population, many questions remain. A patient-level analysis, tracking individual outcomes based on actual SpO2 experienced, may shed some light on these questions. However, finding a single optimal SpO2 range seems unlikely.

  6. Reduced genetic influence on childhood obesity in small for gestational age children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) are at increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life, a risk which is magnified if followed by accelerated postnatal growth. We investigated whether common gene variants associated with adult obesity were associated with increased postnatal growth, as measured by BMI z-score, in children born SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative. Methods A total of 37 candidate SNPs were genotyped on 547 European children (228 SGA and 319 AGA). Repeated measures of BMI (z-score) were used for assessing obesity status, and results were corrected for multiple testing using the false discovery rate. Results SGA children had a lower BMI z-score than non-SGA children at assessment age 3.5, 7 and 11 years. We confirmed 27 variants within 14 obesity risk genes to be individually associated with increasing early childhood BMI, predominantly in those born AGA. Conclusions Genetic risk variants are less important in influencing early childhood BMI in those born SGA than in those born AGA, suggesting that non-genetic or environmental factors may be more important in influencing childhood BMI in those born SGA. PMID:23339409

  7. Learning-based prediction of gestational age from ultrasound images of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Namburete, Ana I L; Stebbing, Richard V; Kemp, Bryn; Yaqub, Mohammad; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Alison Noble, J

    2015-04-01

    We propose an automated framework for predicting gestational age (GA) and neurodevelopmental maturation of a fetus based on 3D ultrasound (US) brain image appearance. Our method capitalizes on age-related sonographic image patterns in conjunction with clinical measurements to develop, for the first time, a predictive age model which improves on the GA-prediction potential of US images. The framework benefits from a manifold surface representation of the fetal head which delineates the inner skull boundary and serves as a common coordinate system based on cranial position. This allows for fast and efficient sampling of anatomically-corresponding brain regions to achieve like-for-like structural comparison of different developmental stages. We develop bespoke features which capture neurosonographic patterns in 3D images, and using a regression forest classifier, we characterize structural brain development both spatially and temporally to capture the natural variation existing in a healthy population (N=447) over an age range of active brain maturation (18-34weeks). On a routine clinical dataset (N=187) our age prediction results strongly correlate with true GA (r=0.98,accurate within±6.10days), confirming the link between maturational progression and neurosonographic activity observable across gestation. Our model also outperforms current clinical methods by ±4.57 days in the third trimester-a period complicated by biological variations in the fetal population. Through feature selection, the model successfully identified the most age-discriminating anatomies over this age range as being the Sylvian fissure, cingulate, and callosal sulci. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arithmetic learning in advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Kremser, Christian; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Gizewski, Elke; Benke, Thomas; Delazer, Margarete

    2018-01-01

    Acquisition of numerical knowledge and understanding of numerical information are crucial for coping with the changing demands of our digital society. In this study, we assessed arithmetic learning in older and younger individuals in a training experiment including brain imaging. In particular, we assessed age-related effects of training intensity, prior arithmetic competence, and neuropsychological variables on the acquisition of new arithmetic knowledge and on the transfer to new, unknown problems. Effects were assessed immediately after training and after 3 months. Behavioural results showed higher training effects for younger individuals than for older individuals and significantly better performance after 90 problem repetitions than after 30 repetitions in both age groups. A correlation analysis indicated that older adults with lower memory and executive functions at baseline could profit more from intensive training. Similarly, training effects in the younger group were higher for those individuals who had lower arithmetic competence and executive functions prior to intervention. In younger adults, successful transfer was associated with higher executive functions. Memory and set-shifting emerged as significant predictors of training effects in the older group. For the younger group, prior arithmetic competence was a significant predictor of training effects, while cognitive flexibility was a predictor of transfer effects. After training, a subgroup of participants underwent an MRI assessment. A voxel-based morphometry analysis showed a significant interaction between training effects and grey matter volume of the right middle temporal gyrus extending to the angular gyrus for the younger group relative to the older group. The reverse contrast (older group vs. younger group) did not yield any significant results. These results suggest that improvements in arithmetic competence are supported by temporo-parietal areas in the right hemisphere in younger

  9. Arithmetic learning in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Zamarian, Laura; Scherfler, Christoph; Kremser, Christian; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Gizewski, Elke; Benke, Thomas; Delazer, Margarete

    2018-01-01

    Acquisition of numerical knowledge and understanding of numerical information are crucial for coping with the changing demands of our digital society. In this study, we assessed arithmetic learning in older and younger individuals in a training experiment including brain imaging. In particular, we assessed age-related effects of training intensity, prior arithmetic competence, and neuropsychological variables on the acquisition of new arithmetic knowledge and on the transfer to new, unknown problems. Effects were assessed immediately after training and after 3 months. Behavioural results showed higher training effects for younger individuals than for older individuals and significantly better performance after 90 problem repetitions than after 30 repetitions in both age groups. A correlation analysis indicated that older adults with lower memory and executive functions at baseline could profit more from intensive training. Similarly, training effects in the younger group were higher for those individuals who had lower arithmetic competence and executive functions prior to intervention. In younger adults, successful transfer was associated with higher executive functions. Memory and set-shifting emerged as significant predictors of training effects in the older group. For the younger group, prior arithmetic competence was a significant predictor of training effects, while cognitive flexibility was a predictor of transfer effects. After training, a subgroup of participants underwent an MRI assessment. A voxel-based morphometry analysis showed a significant interaction between training effects and grey matter volume of the right middle temporal gyrus extending to the angular gyrus for the younger group relative to the older group. The reverse contrast (older group vs. younger group) did not yield any significant results. These results suggest that improvements in arithmetic competence are supported by temporo-parietal areas in the right hemisphere in younger

  10. Cerebral palsy: phenotypes and risk factors in term singletons born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Freire, Gabrielle; Shevell, Michael; Oskoui, Maryam

    2015-03-01

    Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of developing cerebral palsy (CP). The pathophysiology behind this association remains unclear. We compare the clinical profile of children with CP born SGA to other children with CP. We hypothesize that differences noted will support antenatal causes of CP in children born SGA. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of term singletons with CP, extracting data from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry. SGA was determined as birth weight for gestational age and sex below the tenth percentile. Mothers of children with CP born SGA were more likely to be of African-American ethnicity (RR 2.54, 95% CI 1.20-5.39), have intrauterine infections (RR 2.22, 95% CI 1.09-4.50) and have gestational hypertension (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.06-3.00). Children with CP born SGA had smaller head circumferences at birth (p < 0.001) and higher frequencies of emergency cesarean-section (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.22-1.92), birth asphyxia (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.0-2.32), and placental abnormalities (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.10). Children with CP born SGA had greater fine motor (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.11), gross motor (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.12-2.10) and communication impairment (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.40), and a higher frequency of cognitive impairment (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.69). Children with CP born SGA have different clinical factors and phenotypic profiles than other children with CP. These differences support the hypothesis of antenatal and perinatal causes of CP in children born SGA. Future case control studies would be desired to further define this causal pathway. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin may enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity in children and women born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Anna; Vanpée, Mireille; Hall, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Children born small for gestational age (SGA) are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Lipodystrophy leads to early type 2 diabetes and leptin reverses the metabolic consequences of the disease. Low IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) can predict the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine leptin, insulin, and IGFBP1 in children and adult women born preterm or SGA to evaluate the role of leptin as a compensatory mechanism in insulin resistance development. Methods Seventy-six children (8.5–10 years, 41 girls and 35 boys) and 45 women (23–30 years) were studied. The children comprised subjects born appropriate for gestational age (<30 gestational weeks) (n=22), born SGA at term (n=23), and full-term normal-weight controls (n=31). Among the women, the corresponding figures were, n=10, n=18, and n=17 respectively. Fasting levels of IGFBP1, leptin, insulin, and IGF1 were determined and total adiponectin only in women. Results In girls and women, term SGA subjects had higher leptin levels in relation to BMI SDS (P=0.042 and P=0.03 respectively). More than half of IGFBP1 variability was explained by leptin and insulin in children. In term SGA women, IGFBP1 level was lower compared with controls (P=0.012) and the regression line of IGFBP1 on insulin was suppressed below −1 s.d. of a reference material. Conclusion Leptin levels were elevated in term SGA girls and women, in particular in adult women, but not found in preterm girls and women. IGFBP1 was lower in term SGA women. In children, leptin and insulin were strong suppressors of IGFBP1. We speculate that higher leptin levels could be a protective event to enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity. PMID:23781317

  12. Differential Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Expression in Preeclamptic, Intrauterine Growth Restricted, and Gestational Diabetic Placentas.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kristen L; Mejia, Camilo A; Jordan, Clinton; Nelson, Michael B; Howell, Brian M; Jones, Cameron M; Reynolds, Paul R; Arroyo, Juan A

    2016-02-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a receptor implicated in the modulation of inflammation. Inflammation has been associated with pregnancy pathologies including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to examine placental RAGE expression in PE, IUGR, and GDM complications. Human placental tissues were obtained for RAGE determination using Q-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Invasive trophoblast cells were cultured and treated with AGES for RAGE activation studies. Compared to control placenta, we observed: (i) decreased RAGE gene expression during GDM, (ii) increased RAGE protein in the PE placenta, and (iii) decreased RAGE protein in the IUGR placenta. In trophoblast cells exposed AGEs, we observed: (i) decreased trophoblast invasion, (ii) increased c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and (iii) increased TNF-α and IL-1β secretion. We conclude that placental RAGE is activated during PE and that RAGE-mediated inflammation in the trophoblast involves increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Maria; de Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Wijk, Bernadette C. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 4- to 7-year-old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA) show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth [SGA+; six boys, seven girls; mean age 6.3 year (SD = 0.9)] and children born appropriate for gestational age [AGA; seven boys, three girls; mean age 6.0 year (SD = 1.2)] participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used non-parametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At the time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed significantly lower head circumference (HC) and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth. PMID:24068993

  14. Lipoprotein particle concentration measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is associated with gestational age at delivery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grace, M R; Vladutiu, C J; Nethery, R C; Siega-Riz, A M; Manuck, T A; Herring, A H; Savitz, D; Thorp, J T

    2018-06-01

    To estimate the association between lipoprotein particle concentrations in pregnancy and gestational age at delivery. Prospective cohort study. The study was conducted in the USA at the University of North Carolina. We assessed 715 women enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study from 2001 to 2005. Fasting blood was collected at two time points (<20 and 24-29 weeks of gestation). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantified lipoprotein particle concentrations [low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL)] and 10 subclasses of lipoproteins. Concentrations were assessed as continuous measures, with the exception of medium HDL which was classified as any or no detectable level, given its distribution. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) for gestational age at delivery adjusting for covariates. Gestational age at delivery, preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation), and spontaneous preterm birth. At <20 weeks of gestation, three lipoproteins were associated with later gestational ages at delivery [large LDL NMR (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96), total VLDL NMR (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98), and small VLDL NMR (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.98], whereas large VLDL NMR (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.41) was associated with a greater hazard of earlier delivery. At 24-28 weeks of gestation, average VLDL NMR (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.51) and a detectable level of medium HDL NMR (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.02) were associated with earlier gestational ages at delivery. In this sample of pregnant women, particle concentrations of VLDL NMR , LDL NMR , IDL NMR , and HDL NMR were each independently associated with gestational age at delivery for all deliveries or spontaneous deliveries <37 weeks of gestation. These findings may help formulate hypotheses for future studies of the complex relationship between maternal lipoproteins and preterm birth. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may identify lipoprotein

  15. [Comparative analysis of risk factors for preterm and small-for-gestational-age births].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin-Qi; Cui, Qi-Liang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the risk factors between preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. A total of 1 270 newborns who had no obstetric risk factors or maternal diseases were enrolled in this study. Their mothers' stature, body weight, passive smoking, and history of abnormal pregnancy were investigated using the self-designed questionnaire. The infants were divided into four groups: preterm, appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), SGA, and term infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the risk factors between preterm and SGA births. A weight gain less than 9 kg during pregnancy increased the risks of preterm (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07) and SGA (OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.56-2.58). The histories of abortion (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.93) and preterm birth (OR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.81-3.92) were independent risk factors for preterm births, while low pre-pregnancy body mass index (<18.5) (OR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.53-3.16), short stature (<1.55 m) (OR=2.46, 95% CI: 1.78-3.48), and passive smoking (OR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.65-2.98) were independent risk factors for SGA births. Due to different risk factors between preterm and SGA births, specific preventive measures should be taken pertinently to reduce the incidence of the two bad pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in South American countries.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Gili, Juan A; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2015-03-01

    We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000-2011 in eight South American countries. The sample included 60,480 singleton live births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries-Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela-we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them.

  17. Born Small for Gestational Age and Poor School Performance - How Small Is Too Small?

    PubMed

    Lindström, Linda; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bergman, Eva; Lundgren, Maria

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between severity of small for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of poor school performance, and to investigate whether adult stature modifies this risk. 1,088,980 Swedish children born at term between 1973 and 1988 were categorized into severe SGA (less than -3 standard deviations (SD) of expected birth weight), moderate SGA (-2.01 to -3 SD), mild SGA (-1.01 to -2 SD), and appropriate for gestational age (-1 to 0.99 SD). The risk of poor school performance at the time of graduation from compulsory school (grades <10th percentile) was calculated using unconditional logistic regression models and adjusted for socio-economic factors. In a sub-analysis, we stratified boys by adult stature, and adjusted for maternal but not paternal height. All SGA groups were significantly associated with an increased risk of poor school performance, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals ranging from 1.85 (1.65-2.07) for severe SGA to 1.25 (1.22-1.28) for mild SGA. In the sub-analysis, all birth weight groups were associated with an increased risk of poor school performance among boys with short stature compared to those with non-short stature. Mild SGA is associated with a significantly increased risk of poor school performance, and the risk increases with severity of SGA. Further, this risk diminishes after adequate catch-up growth. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Global and Regional Differences in Brain Anatomy of Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    De Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; Boersma, Maria; Veltman, Dick J.; Barkhof, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    In children who are born small for gestational age (SGA), an adverse intrauterine environment has led to underdevelopment of both the body and the brain. The delay in body growth is (partially) restored during the first two years in a majority of these children. In addition to a negative influence on these physical parameters, decreased levels of intelligence and cognitive impairments have been described in children born SGA. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain anatomy in 4- to 7-year-old SGA children with and without complete bodily catch-up growth and compared them to healthy children born appropriate for gestational age. Our findings demonstrate that these children strongly differ on brain organisation when compared with healthy controls relating to both global and regional anatomical differences. Children born SGA displayed reduced cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, smaller volumes of subcortical structures and reduced cortical surface area. Regional differences in prefrontal cortical thickness suggest a different development of the cerebral cortex. SGA children with bodily catch-up growth constitute an intermediate between those children without catch-up growth and healthy controls. Therefore, bodily catch-up growth in children born SGA does not implicate full catch-up growth of the brain. PMID:21931650

  19. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, E. Christina M.; Simonsen, Jacob; Melbye, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time. Methods A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979–2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA) and large (LGA) gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort. Results Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30–3.64) and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60–1.87) in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20–29 years) were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99–1.46) in years 1979–1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04–2.51) in years 1989–1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life. PMID:26390219

  1. Mothers, places and small for gestational age births: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Li, Xinjun; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether neighbourhood deprivation increases the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age (SGA) infant, after accounting for individual-level maternal socioeconomic characteristics. An open cohort of women, aged 20-44 years, was followed from 1 January 1992 through 31 December 2004 for first singleton births. The women's residential addresses during the two consecutive years preceding the birth of their infants were geocoded and classified into three levels of neighbourhood deprivation. Gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound examinations. Multilevel logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Sweden. During the study period, women gave birth to 720 357 infants, of whom 20 487 (2.8%) were SGA. Age-adjusted incidence rates of SGA births increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the total population, 2.5% of births in the least deprived neighbourhoods and 3.5% of births in the most deprived neighbourhoods were SGA. A similar pattern of higher incidence with increasing level of neighbourhood-level deprivation was observed across all individual-level sociodemographic categories, including maternal age, marital status, family income, educational attainment, employment, mobility and urban/rural status. High neighbourhood-level deprivation remained significantly associated with SGA risk after adjusting for maternal sociodemographic characteristics (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34). This study is the largest to date of the influence of neighbourhood on SGA birth, with SGA confirmed by ultrasound examination. Results suggest that the characteristics of a mother's neighbourhood affect the risk of delivering an SGA infant independently of maternal sociodemographic characteristics.

  2. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  3. Gestational age and adolescent mental health: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, H S; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-09-01

    Preterm, and more recently early term, birth has been identified as a risk factor for poor health. Whether the sequelae of late preterm or early term birth extends to poor mental health and well-being in adolescence is unclear and has not been systematically assessed. Linear regression was used to assess the adjusted associations of gestational age (very/moderate preterm (<34 weeks, n=85), late preterm (34-36 weeks, n=305), early term (37-38 weeks, n=2228), full term (39-40 weeks, n=4018), late term (41 weeks, n=809), post-term (≥42 weeks, n=213)) with self-reported self-esteem at ∼11 years (n=6935), parent-reported Rutter score assessing the common emotional and behavioural problems at ∼7 years (n=6292) and ∼11 years (n=5596) and self-reported depressive symptoms at ∼13 years (n=5795) in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort 'Children of 1997' where gestational age has little social patterning. Very/moderate preterm birth was associated with higher Rutter subscore for hyperactivity (ß coefficients 0.5, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.00) at ∼7 years but not at ∼11 years, adjusted for sex, age, socio-economic position, parents' age at birth, birth order and secondhand smoke exposure. Similarly adjusted, late preterm, early term, late term and post-term birth were not associated with self-esteem or depressive symptoms. In a population-representative birth cohort from a non-Western-developed setting, gestational age had few associations with mental health and well-being in adolescence, whereas very preterm birth was specifically associated with hyperactivity in childhood. Inconsistencies with studies from Western settings suggest setting specific unmeasured confounding may underlie any observed associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Influence of pre-pregnancy obesity on the development of macrosomia and large for gestational age in women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-F; Wang, H-J; Ao, D; Liu, Z; Wang, Y; Yang, H-X

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-pregnancy obesity on macrosomia and large for gestational age (LGA). We conducted a prospective cohort study of 587 GDM women and 478 non-GDM women from 2012 to 2013. We collected their data of the pre-pregnancy weight, sociodemographic data, medical histories, clinical treatment, and followed-up the outcomes of delivery including birth weight. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test associations between pre-pregnant obesity and macrosomia/LGA and between GDM and macrosomia/LGA. Of 1065 women we studied, obese women had 4.17 times and 2.27 times increased risk of developing macrosomia (95% CI: 2.52 to 6.91) and LGA (95% CI: 1.60 to 3.21), respectively, than non-obese women after adjustment for maternal age, gestational weeks and GDM. We did not find GDM is a risk factor for macrosomia or LGA after GDM treatment. Pre-pregnancy obesity accounts for a high prevalence of macrosomia. Interventions that focus on pre-pregnancy obesity have the potential to reach far more women at risk of macrosomia.

  5. Morphopathological features in tissues of alpha-mannosidosis guinea pigs at different gestational ages.

    PubMed

    Auclair, D; Hopwood, J J

    2007-10-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by a reduction in alpha-D-mannosidase and intralysosomal accumulation of undegraded mannose-containing oligosaccharides. The alpha-mannosidosis guinea pig exhibits pathological similarities to its human counterpart, which make it a valuable animal model. To trace the progression of alpha-mannosidosis during foetal development, brain and visceral organs from affected and unaffected guinea pigs at 30, 36, 38, 51 and 65 days of gestation (dg) were examined by light and electron microscopy (term: approximately 68 dg). In the affected brain, distended lysosomes (vacuoles) were scarce up to 38 dg and were seen in few differentiating neuronal cells but mostly in macrophages, pericytes and endothelial cells. At 51 and 65 dg, several vacuoles were observed in some neurones, in many Purkinje cells, pericytes, endothelial and microglial cells, and in few cerebellar internal granule cells. Myelination had started by 51 dg. Non-myelinated axonal spheroids were detected in the brainstem at 65 dg. In the kidney cortex and liver, an increase in vacuolation was noticed between 36 and 65 dg. Some vacuolated cells were also noticed in the lungs and spleen at 51 and 65 dg. Altogether, these histological observations suggest that alpha-mannosidosis is unlikely to affect ontogenesis before the second half of gestation in guinea pigs; however, the morphopathological features recorded during the last quarter of gestation (which may roughly correspond to the period covering near term to 1-2 years of age in human) were clearly noticeable and may have had some impact.

  6. Working memory mediates the effects of gestational age at birth on expressive language development in children.

    PubMed

    Riva, Valentina; Cantiani, Chiara; Dionne, Ginette; Marini, Andrea; Mascheretti, Sara; Molteni, Massimo; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    This study tested the role of temporary memory, measured by phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and verbal working memory (vWM), as a mediator of the effect of 3 putative risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, birth gestational age) upon expressive and receptive language. A community-based sample of 646 Italian children aged 6-11 years was assessed with a comprehensive battery of language and cognitive tests. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether memory mediates environmental/biological effects on language. The results demonstrated a developmental cascade of effects, whereby the duration of pregnancy drives vWM functioning that, in turn, may affect expressive linguistic outcome Conclusion: Treatments focused on vWM, specifically to preterm children, may improve their language development, with enduring consequences on educational and psychosocial outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Maternal gestational diabetes and childhood obesity at age 9-11: results of a multinational study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei; Liu, Enqing; Qiao, Yijuan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Johnson, William D; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, José A R; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Hu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and childhood obesity at age 9-11 years in 12 countries around the world. A multinational cross-sectional study of 4740 children aged 9-11 years was conducted. Maternal GDM was diagnosed according to the ADA or WHO criteria. Height and waist circumference were measured using standardised methods. Weight and body fat were measured using a portable Tanita SC-240 Body Composition Analyzer. Multilevel modelling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. The prevalence of reported maternal GDM was 4.3%. The overall prevalence of childhood obesity, central obesity and high body fat were 12.3%, 9.9% and 8.1%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted (maternal age at delivery, education, infant feeding mode, gestational age, number of younger siblings, child unhealthy diet pattern scores, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleeping time, sedentary time, sex and birthweight) odds ratios among children of GDM mothers compared with children of non-GDM mothers were 1.53 (95% CI 1.03, 2.27) for obesity, 1.73 (95% CI 1.14, 2.62) for central obesity and 1.42 (95% CI 0.90, 2.26) for high body fat. The positive association was still statistically significant for central obesity after additional adjustment for current maternal BMI but was no longer significant for obesity and high body fat. Maternal GDM was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity at 9-11 years old but this association was not fully independent of maternal BMI.

  8. Twins' risk of childhood asthma mediated by gestational age and birthweight.

    PubMed

    Ullemar, V; Lundholm, C; Almqvist, C

    2015-08-01

    Children born with low gestational age (GA) or low birthweight (BW) are at increased risk of asthma. Twins as compared to singletons are on average more likely to be born with lower GA and BW and have been hypothesized to comprise a high-risk population for asthma. Many previous studies have not accounted for potential confounders or mediators. To investigate the association between twinship and childhood asthma or early life wheeze and identify potential mediators, such as GA/BW. The study population consisted of two cohorts including all children born in Sweden from 1 January 1993 to 1 June 2001 (n = 756,363 singletons, n = 22,478 twins) and 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2009 (n = 456,239 singletons, n = 12,872 twins). Asthma was defined using validated register-based outcomes of diagnosis or medication. The data were analysed using logistic (older cohort) and Cox regression (younger cohort). Adjusted models incorporated potential confounding or mediating factors including gestational age and birthweight. In the younger cohort, the crude hazard ratio (HR) of asthma medication after 1.5 years of age was 1.12 (95% CI 1.01-1.23), and fully adjusted HR was 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.89. Crude HR of asthma diagnosis in the same age group was 1.14 (95% CI 0.99-1.30), fully adjusted 0.78 (0.68-0.98). Adjusted analyses in the older group yielded similar results. Twins were at significantly higher unadjusted risk of asthma or early life wheeze compared to singletons in the younger, but not in the older cohort. Associations attenuated following adjustment for GA/BW, suggesting that GA/BW mediates the effect of twinship on asthma risk. After adjustments, twins were at lower risk of asthma outcomes, possibly due to unmeasured confounding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Maternal gestational diabetes and childhood obesity at age 9–11: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pei; Liu, Enqing; Qiao, Yijuan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Johnson, William D.; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José A.R.; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and childhood obesity at age 9–11 years in 12 countries around the world. Methods A multinational cross-sectional study of 4,740 children aged 9–11 years was conducted. Maternal GDM was diagnosed according to the ADA or WHO criteria. Height and waist circumference were measured using standardised methods. Weight and body fat were measured using a portable Tanita SC-240 Body Composition Analyzer. Multilevel modelling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. Results The prevalence of reported maternal GDM was 4.3%. The overall prevalence of childhood obesity, central obesity and high body fat were 12.3%, 9.9% and 8.1%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted (maternal age at delivery, education, infant feeding mode, gestational age, number of younger siblings, child unhealthy diet pattern scores, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleeping time, sedentary time, sex and birthweight) odds ratios among children of GDM mothers compared with children of non-GDM mothers were 1.53 (95% CI 1.03, 2.27) for obesity, 1.73 (95% CI 1.14, 2.62) for central obesity and 1.42 (95% CI 0.90, 2.26) for high body fat. The positive association was still statistically significant for central obesity after additional adjustment for current maternal BMI but was no longer significant for obesity and high body fat. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal GDM was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity at 9–11 years old but this association was not fully independent of maternal BMI. PMID:27510911

  10. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  11. Presentation to delivery interval in women with early preterm delivery presenting with preterm labor: the effect of gestational age.

    PubMed

    Ashwal, Eran; Shinar, Shiri; Wertheimer, Avital; Reina, Luciena; Miremberg, Hadas; Aviram, Amir; Yogev, Yariv; Hiersch, Liran

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the association between gestational age at presentation and interval to delivery in women with early spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). A retrospective cohort study of women who presented with threatened preterm labor (tPTL) and intact membranes and had a spontaneous PTD <34 weeks in a university-affiliated hospital (2009-2015). The interval from presentation to delivery was compared between different gestational age subgroups. Of 67 550 deliveries during the study period, 252 met inclusion criteria. This cohort was divided to three gestational age subgroups at presentation: 24-28 6/7 weeks (n = 83), 29-31 6/7 weeks (n = 61) and 32-33 6/7 weeks (n = 108). Median time from presentation to delivery was 24.5 h. An inverse relation was observed between gestational age at presentation and admission-delivery interval (group A: 74.7 h, group B: 21.0 h, group C: 14.0 h, p < 0.001). Gestational age at presentation is inversely related to admission-delivery interval in women with tPTL and intact membranes.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  13. Texas Medicaid Payment Reform: Fewer Early Elective Deliveries And Increased Gestational Age And Birthweight.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, Heather M; McCullough, J Mac; Fertig, Angela R; Dowd, Bryan E; Riley, William J

    2017-03-01

    Infants born at full term have better health outcomes. However, one in ten babies in the United States are born via a medically unnecessary early elective delivery: induction of labor, a cesarean section, or both before thirty-nine weeks gestation. In 2011 the Texas Medicaid program sought to reduce the rate of early elective deliveries by denying payment to providers for the procedure. We examined the impact of this policy on clinical care practice and perinatal outcomes by comparing the changes in Texas relative to comparison states. We found that early elective delivery rates fell by as much as 14 percent in Texas after this payment policy change, which led to gains of almost five days in gestational age and six ounces in birthweight among births affected by the policy. The impact on early elective delivery was larger in magnitude for minority patients. Other states may look to this Medicaid payment reform as a model for reducing early elective deliveries and disparities in infant health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding and childhood overweight at age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Bider-Canfield, Z; Martinez, M P; Wang, X; Yu, W; Bautista, M P; Brookey, J; Page, K A; Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A H

    2017-04-01

    Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal exposures and childhood overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) at age 2 years. Mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight were more likely to have EGWG, GDM and less likely to breastfeed ≥6 months. Mothers with GDM had 40-49% lower EGWG rates and similar breastfeeding rates compared with mothers without GDM. Analysis adjusted for exposures and covariates revealed an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with childhood overweight at age 2 years of 2.34 (2.09-2.62), 1.50 (1.34-1.68), 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 0.95 (0.83-1.10) and 0.76 (0.69-0.83) for maternal obesity, overweight, EGWG, GDM and breastfeeding ≥6 months vs. <6 months, respectively. In this large clinical cohort, GDM was not associated with, but maternal pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight and EGWG were independently associated with an increased risk, and breastfeeding ≥6 months was associated with a decreased risk of childhood overweight at age 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Neuromotor Development of Children Aged 6 and 7 Years Born before the 30th Week Gestation.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Joanna; Zajkiewicz, Katarzyna; Wacław-Abdul, Kamila; Baran, Joanna; Szymczyk, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the level of neuromotor function and somatic development in 6- and 7-year-old children born before the 30th week gestation with that in full-term children at the same age, as well as the correlation between prematurity and motor development. The study group consisted of prematurely born 40 children. Their mean gestational age at birth was 27.8 ± 1.6 weeks (range 24-30 weeks). The control group consisted of 40 healthy children born with normal birth weight (>2500 g). The neuromotor function was assessed using Touwen neurological examination criteria. During the examination, the attention was focused on the hand preference, laterality, synkinesis, and asymmetry. In addition, children's weight, height, and BMI index were measured. Premature children showed much worse results than full-term ones in hand function ( p < 0,001). They obtained the best results in paper tearing while crossing the body midline turned out to be the most difficult. Considering the quality of walking, the biggest difficulty for the premature children was to walk backwards along the straight line while during normal walking they showed the best results. The results for the muscle tone subcategory in the study group were also significantly worse than those in control group ( p < 0,001), as well as the total outcome for the movement coordination and diadochokinesis subcategories ( p < 0,001). The nondisabled, prematurely born children have significantly lower average outcomes regarding hand function, quality of walking, muscle tone, coordination, and diadochokinesis at age of six to seven, compared to the full-term peers.

  16. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  17. Effect of antenatal corticosteroids on fetal growth and gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kellie E; Willan, Andrew R; Hannah, Mary E; Ohlsson, Arne; Kelly, Edmond N; Matthews, Stephen G; Saigal, Saroj; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Ross, Susan; Delisle, Marie-France; Amankwah, Kofi; Guselle, Patricia; Gafni, Amiram; Lee, Shoo K; Armson, B Anthony

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the effect of multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids on neonatal size, controlling for gestational age at birth and other confounders, and to determine whether there was a dose-response relationship between number of courses of antenatal corticosteroids and neonatal size. This is a secondary analysis of the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study, a double-blind randomized controlled trial of single compared with multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk for preterm birth and in which fetuses administered multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids weighed less, were shorter, and had smaller head circumferences at birth. All women (n=1,858) and children (n=2,304) enrolled in the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study were included in the current analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were undertaken. Compared with placebo, neonates in the antenatal corticosteroids group were born earlier (estimated difference and confidence interval [CI]: -0.428 weeks, CI -0.10264 to -0.75336; P=.01). Controlling for gestational age at birth and confounding factors, multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were associated with a decrease in birth weight (-33.50 g, CI -66.27120 to -0.72880; P=.045), length (-0.339 cm, CI -0.6212 to -0.05676]; P=.019), and head circumference (-0.296 cm, -0.45672 to -0.13528; P<.001). For each additional course of antenatal corticosteroids, there was a trend toward an incremental decrease in birth weight, length, and head circumference. Fetuses exposed to multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were smaller at birth. The reduction in size was partially attributed to being born at an earlier gestational age but also was attributed to decreased fetal growth. Finally, a dose-response relationship exists between the number of corticosteroid courses and a decrease in fetal growth. The long-term effect of these findings is unknown

  18. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Oser, Nadine; Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Bechtel, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Datta, Alexandre N

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA) with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age. We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females) enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm), 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm), and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm)) all born appropriate for GA (AGA) and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education. Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children. In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation). In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  19. Umbilical cord blood bilirubins, gestational age, and maternal race predict neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Adrian; Grogan, Tristan R; Wegrzyn, Grace H; Ly, Karrie V; Walker, Valencia P; Calkins, Kara L

    2018-01-01

    No validated biomarker at birth exists to predict which newborns will develop severe hyperbilirubinemia. This study's primary aim was to build and validate a prediction model for severe hyperbilirubinemia using umbilical cord blood bilirubins (CBB) and risk factors at birth in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility. This study's secondary aim was to compare the accuracy of CBB to the direct antigen titer. Inclusion criteria for this prospective cohort study included: ≥35 weeks gestational age, mother with blood type O and/or Rh negative or positive antibody screen, and <24 hours of age. The primary outcome was severe hyperbilirubinemia, defined as phototherapy during the initial hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were a total serum bilirubin concentration >95th and >75th percentile during the initial hospital stay. The predictive performance and accuracy of the two tests (CBB and direct antigen titer) for each outcome was assessed using area under a receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. When compared to neonates who did not receive phototherapy (n = 463), neonates who received phototherapy (n = 36) had a greater mean CBB ± standard deviation (2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.4 mg/dL, p<0.001). For every 0.3 mg/dL increase in CBB, a neonate was 3.20 (95% confidence interval, 2.31-4.45), 2.10 (1.63-2.70), and 3.12 (2.44-3.99) times more likely to receive phototherapy or have a total serum bilirubin concentration >95th and >75th percentile, respectively. The AUC ± standard error (95% confidence interval) for CBB for phototherapy and a total serum bilirubin concentration >95th and >75th percentile was 0.89 ± 0.03 (0.82-0.95), 0.81 ± 0.04 (0.73-0.90), and 0.84 ± 0.02 (0.80-0.89), respectively. However, the AUC for gestational age and maternal Asian race for these outcomes was only 0.55 ± 0.05 (0.45-0.66), 0.66 ± 0.05 (0.56-0.76), and 0.57 ± 0.04 (0.05-0.64), respectively. When the CBB was combined with

  20. [Dynamic changes of lung function in infant of different gestational ages].

    PubMed

    Qi, Li-feng; Yu, Jia-lin; Liu, Xiao-hong; Wei, Min-chao

    2013-06-25

    To explore the dynamic changes of lung function in infants born at different gestational ages without respiratory complications. A total of 110 cases of hospitalized neonatal patients were retrospectively recruited and analyzed at Shenzhen Children's Hospital from July 2010 to August 2012. By gestational age they were divided into 3 groups of full term (37-40 weeks, n = 55, 29 males and 26 females) with an average birth weight (3.1 ± 0.3) kg, late preterm group (34- < 37 weeks, n = 30, 18 males and 12 females) with an average birth weight (2.1 ± 0.3) kg and early preterm (<34 weeks, n = 25, 16 males and 9 females )with an average birth weight (1.4 ± 0.3) kg. At Days 1, 14 and 28, lung function parameters of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clear index (LCI) were measured by multiple breath washouts with an ultrasonic flow meter and tidal breathing. One-way ANOVA was used for each index. Tidal expiratory flow 75% remaining tidal volume (TEF75), tidal expiratory flow 50% remaining tidal volume (TEF50) and tidal expiratory flow 25% remaining tidal volume (TEF25) gradually increased at Days 1, 14 and 28 in 3 groups. However respiratory rate (RR) gradually decreased. Compared with full term and late preterm, the early preterm infants had lower TEF75, TEF50 and TEF25, lower the ratios of time to peak expiratory flow and expiratory time (TPTEF/TE), lower ratios of volume to peak expiratory flow and expiratory volume (VPEF/VE) ((71 ± 21) and (66 ± 16) vs (55 ± 19)ml/s, (70 ± 20) and (62 ± 17) vs (51 ± 16)ml/s, (54 ± 17) and (51 ± 13) vs (38 ± 10)ml/s, 37% ± 8% and 34% ± 9% vs 29% ± 6%, 38% ± 6% and 33% ± 8% vs 28% ± 7%, F = 5.82, 8.74, 11.30, 7.72, 16.40, all P < 0.01), higher RR and LCI at Day 28((49 ± 6) and (51 ± 8) vs (56 ± 7)/min, 8.6 ± 2.7 and 8.9 ± 2.2 vs 10.8 ± 2.0,F = 10.09, 7.15, both P < 0.05). At a matched post-menstrual age of 40 weeks, compared with full term and late preterm, the early preterm group had lower TEF50, TEF25

  1. Small for gestational age and perinatal mortality at term: An audit in a Dutch national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J M; Scherjon, Sicco A; Bergman, Klasien A; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C J

    2017-08-01

    To assess the underlying risk factors for perinatal mortality in term born small for gestational age infants. We performed a population based nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands of 465,532 term born infants from January 2010 to January 2013. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Also audit results were studied for detailed care information. We studied 162 small for gestational age infants who died in the perinatal period. Risk factors were: gestational age at 37completed weeks (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2.6, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-4.3), male gender (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-1.9), South Asian ethnicity (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8.4), African (aOR 3.5, 95% CI 1.9-6.5) and other non-Western ethnicity (aOR 1.9, CI 1.2-3.1). At 37 completed weeks gestation audit results showed that 26% of the women smoked, 91% were boys and in all but one case death occurred before birth. In 61% of all deceased SGA infants born at 37 completed weeks gestation referral from primary care by independent midwives to the obstetrician took place because of antepartum death before labor. Gestational age of 37 completed weeks, male gender, South Asian, African or other non-Western ethnicity and smoking are associated with perinatal mortality in SGA infants. These risk factors concern the complete term population starting at 37 weeks or even earlier. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop accurate diagnostic tests to screen for SGA before 36 weeks gestation to prevent perinatal mortality at term in SGA infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Caesarean section and risk of autism across gestational age: a multi-national cohort study of 5 million births.

    PubMed

    Yip, Benjamin Hon Kei; Leonard, Helen; Stock, Sarah; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Francis, Richard W; Gissler, Mika; Gross, Raz; Schendel, Diana; Sandin, Sven

    2017-04-01

    The positive association between caesarean section (CS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be attributed to preterm delivery. However, due to lack of statistical power, no previous study thoroughly examined this association across gestational age. Moreover, most studies did not differentiate between emergency and planned CS. Using population-based registries of four Nordic countries and Western Australia, our study population included 4 987 390 singletons surviving their first year of life, which included 671 646 CS deliveries and 31 073 ASD children. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CS, adjusted for gestational age, site, maternal age and birth year. Stratified analyses were conducted by both gestational age subgroups and by week of gestation. We compared emergency versus planned CS to investigate their potential difference in the risk of ASD. Compared with vaginal delivery, the overall adjusted OR for ASD in CS delivery was 1.26 (95% CI 1.22-1.30). Stratified ORs were 1.25 (1.15-1.37), 1.16 (1.09-1.23), 1.34 (1.28-1.40) and 1.17 (1.04-1.30) for subgroups of gestational weeks 26-36, 37-38, 39-41 and 42-44, respectively. CS was significantly associated with risk of ASD for each week of gestation, from week 36 to 42, consistently across study sites (OR ranged 1.16-1.38). There was no statistically significant difference between emergency and planned CS in the risk of ASD. Across the five countries, emergency or planned CS is consistently associated with a modest increased risk of ASD from gestational weeks 36 to 42 when compared with vaginal delivery. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  3. Gestational age specific stillbirth risk among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women in Queensland, Australia: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Coory, Michael; Smith, Gordon C S; Boyle, Frances M; Vlack, Susan; Middleton, Philippa; Roe, Yvette; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-07-15

    In Australia, significant disparity persists in stillbirth rates between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian) and non-Indigenous women. Diabetes, hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and small-for-gestational age (SGA) have been identified as important contributors to higher rates among Indigenous women. The objective of this study was to examine gestational age specific risk of stillbirth associated with these conditions among Indigenous and non-Indigenous women. Retrospective population-based study of all singleton births of at least 20 weeks gestation or at least 400 grams birthweight in Queensland between July 2005 and December 2011 using data from the Queensland Perinatal Data Collection, which is a routinely-maintained database that collects data on all births in Queensland. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95 % confidence intervals, adjusting for maternal demographic and pregnancy factors. Of 360987 births analysed, 20273 (5.6 %) were to Indigenous women and 340714 (94.4 %) were to non-Indigenous women. Stillbirth rates were 7.9 (95 % CI 6.8-9.2) and 4.1 (95 % CI 3.9-4.3) per 1000 births, respectively. For both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women across most gestational age groups, antepartum haemorrhage, SGA, pre-existing diabetes and pre-existing hypertension were associated with increased risk of stillbirth. There were mixed results for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and a consistently raised risk of stillbirth was not seen for gestational diabetes. This study highlights gestational age specific stillbirth risk for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women; and disparity in risk at term gestations. Improving access to and utilisation of appropriate and responsive healthcare may help to address disparities in stillbirth risk for Indigenous women.

  4. The Probability of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome as a Function of Gestational Age and Lecithin/Sphingomyelin Ratio

    PubMed Central

    St. Clair, Caryn; Norwitz, Errol R.; Woensdregt, Karlijn; Cackovic, Michael; Shaw, Julia A.; Malkus, Herbert; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Illuzzi, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to define the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) as a function of both lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and gestational age. Amniotic fluid L/S ratio data were collected from consecutive women undergoing amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity at Yale-New Haven Hospital from January 1998 to December 2004. Women were included in the study if they delivered a live-born, singleton, nonanomalous infant within 72 hours of amniocentesis. The probability of RDS was modeled using multivariate logistic regression with L/S ratio and gestational age as predictors. A total of 210 mother-neonate pairs (8 RDS, 202 non-RDS) met criteria for analysis. Both gestational age and L/S ratio were independent predictors of RDS. A probability of RDS of 3% or less was noted at an L/S ratio cutoff of ≥3.4 at 34 weeks, ≥2.6 at 36 weeks, ≥1.6 at 38 weeks, and ≥1.2 at term. Under 34 weeks of gestation, the prevalence of RDS was so high that a probability of 3% or less was not observed by this model. These data describe a means of stratifying the probability of neonatal RDS using both gestational age and the L/S ratio and may aid in clinical decision making concerning the timing of delivery. PMID:18773379

  5. A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-05-01

    To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

  6. Gestational age of pregnancy loss in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Ticconi, Carlo; Giuliani, Emma; Sorge, Roberto; Patrizi, Lodovico; Piccione, Emilio; Pietropolli, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the gestational age (GA) of pregnancy loss in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and to determine whether the miscarriages occur at similar GA in RM women. This retrospective study was carried out in a university hospital and included 288 women with unexplained RM. The GA at which each miscarriage occurred was carefully determined. Overall, 739 miscarriages were analyzed. RM women had miscarriages at a median GA of 7 weeks (range: 3-20). In RM women, 47.2% (n = 136) experienced miscarriages within a 1-week range of GA and 53.4% (n = 154) had miscarriages in the same period of fetal development (pre-embryonic, embryonic or fetal). Women with unexplained RM tend to have miscarriages at the same GA, which is characteristic for each patient. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Brain development, intelligence and cognitive outcome in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    de Bie, H M A; Oostrom, K J; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as short stature, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. In addition, SGA children have decreased levels of intelligence and cognition, although the effects are mostly subtle. The overall outcome of each child is the result of a complex interaction between intrauterine and extrauterine factors. Animal and human studies show structural alterations in the brains of individuals with IUGR/SGA. The presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in the brain implies that the brain is also a target for GH. Exogenous GH theoretically has the ability to act on the brain. This is exemplified by the effects of GH on cognition in GH-deficient adults. In SGA children, data on the effect of exogenous GH on intelligence and cognition are scant and contradictory.

  8. Clinical and molecular characterisation of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in infants born small-for-gestational age.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ved Bhushan; Flanagan, Sarah E; Kumaran, Anitha; Shield, Julian P; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid; Kapoor, Ritika R

    2013-07-01

    To characterise the phenotype and genotype of neonates born small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight <10th centile) who developed hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH). Clinical information was prospectively collected on 27 SGA neonates with HH, followed by sequencing of KCNJ11 and ABCC8. There was no correlation between the maximum glucose requirement and serum insulin levels. Serum insulin level was undetectable in five infants (19%) during hypoglycaemia. Six infants (22%) required diazoxide treatment >6 months. Normoglycaemia on diazoxide <5 mg/kg/day was a safe predictor of resolved HH. Sequencing of KCNJ11/ABCC8 did not identify any mutations. Serum insulin levels during hypoglycaemia taken in isolation can miss the diagnosis of HH. SGA infants may continue to have hypofattyacidaemic hypoketotic HH beyond the first few weeks of life. Recognition and treatment of this group of patients are important and may have important implications for neurodevelopmental outcome of these patients.

  9. Anatomically realistic reference models of pregnant women for gestation ages of 13, 18, and 26 weeks.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, T; Saito, K; Takahashi, M; Ito, K; Watanabe, S

    2008-01-01

    The safety of a human body exposed to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has become important today. In recent times, conducting numerical dosimetry on the mother and the fetus during pregnancy has become a particularly important issue. This paper outlines the development of pregnant woman models that were adjusted to the reference values of physiological characteristics of maternal tissues in pregnant women for gestation ages of 13, 18, and 26 weeks The models are composed of voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm(3), and there are 56 tissue types. The basic specific absorption rate (SAR) characteristics in the pregnant woman models for whole-body exposure to RF electromagnetic fields that were calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method are described here.

  10. Clinical and molecular characterisation of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in infants born small-for-gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Ved Bhushan; Flanagan, Sarah E; Kumaran, Anitha; Shield, Julian P; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid; Kapoor, Ritika R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterise the phenotype and genotype of neonates born small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight <10th centile) who developed hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH). Methods Clinical information was prospectively collected on 27 SGA neonates with HH, followed by sequencing of KCNJ11 and ABCC8. Results There was no correlation between the maximum glucose requirement and serum insulin levels. Serum insulin level was undetectable in five infants (19%) during hypoglycaemia. Six infants (22%) required diazoxide treatment >6 months. Normoglycaemia on diazoxide <5 mg/kg/day was a safe predictor of resolved HH. Sequencing of KCNJ11/ABCC8 did not identify any mutations. Conclusions Serum insulin levels during hypoglycaemia taken in isolation can miss the diagnosis of HH. SGA infants may continue to have hypofattyacidaemic hypoketotic HH beyond the first few weeks of life. Recognition and treatment of this group of patients are important and may have important implications for neurodevelopmental outcome of these patients. PMID:23362136

  11. A home calendar and recall method of last menstrual period for estimating gestational age in rural Bangladesh: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Gernand, Alison D; Paul, Rina Rani; Ullah, Barkat; Taher, Muhammad A; Witter, Frank R; Wu, Lee; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-10-21

    The best method of gestational age assessment is by ultrasound in the first trimester; however, this method is impractical in large field trials in rural areas. Our objective was to assess the validity of gestational age estimated from prospectively collected date of last menstrual period (LMP) using crown-rump length (CRL) measured in early pregnancy by ultrasound. As part of a large, cluster-randomized, controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, we collected dates of LMP by recall and as marked on a calendar every 5 weeks in women likely to become pregnant. Among those with a urine-test confirmed pregnancy, a subset with gestational age of <15 weeks (n = 353) were enrolled for ultrasound follow-up to measure CRL. We compared interview-assessed LMP with CRL gestational age estimates and classification of preterm, term, and post-term births. LMP-based gestational age was higher than CRL by a mean (SD) of 2.8 (10.7) days; differences varied by maternal education and preterm birth (P < 0.05). Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was good at ultrasound [0.63 (95 % CI 0.56, 0.69)] and at birth [0.77 (95 % CI 0.73, 0.81)]. Validity of classifying preterm birth was high but post-term was lower, with specificity of 96 and 89 % and sensitivity of 86 and 67 %, respectively. Results were similar by parity. Prospectively collected LMP provided a valid estimate of gestational age and preterm birth in a rural, low-income setting and may be a suitable alternative to ultrasound in programmatic settings and large field trials. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470.

  12. Gene expression of placental hormones regulating energy balance in small for gestational age neonates.

    PubMed

    Struwe, Ellen; Berzl, Gabriele M; Schild, Ralf L; Dötsch, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is associated with an increased risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease in later life. To further elucidate mechanisms that might be involved in the process of prenatal programming, we measured the adipokines leptin, resistin, and adiponectin and the GH-releasing hormone ghrelin in the placenta of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. The control group included 24 placentas of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns, in the study group were 16 placentas of SGA neonates. Gene expression of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and ghrelin was examined. For hormones showing alterations in gene regulation placental protein expression was measured by Western blot. Placental mRNA expression of leptin was significantly increased in SGA placentas (p=0.0035, related to beta-actin). Protein concentration was increased, as well. There were no differences in placental resistin, adiponectin, or ghrelin gene expressions between SGA neonates and controls. Leptin was the only hormone to demonstrate a significant inverse correlation with birth weight (r=-0.44, p=0.01). Adiponectin correlated significantly with leptin (r=0.53, p=0.0023) and ghrelin (r=0.50, p=0.0045). Placental leptin gene expression and protein concentration showed the expected increase in the SGA group. Leptin was inversely correlated with birth weight. Positive correlation of adiponectin with leptin and ghrelin expression suggests an interaction between these hormones in the placenta. However, the unchanged expression of resistin, adiponectin, and ghrelin in SGA placentas and the absence of correlation with birth weight cast doubt whether these hormones produced in the placenta play a key role in fetal programming.

  13. The regulation of oxytocin and oxytocin receptor in human placenta according to gestational age.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Chul; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kang, Seong Soo; Yang, Hoe-Saeng; Kim, Sun Suk; An, Beum-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a peptide hormone that plays a central role in the regulation of parturition and lactation. OXT signaling is mediated by OXT receptor (OXTR), which shows species- and tissue-specific expressions and gene regulation. In the present study, we examined the synthesis of OXT and OXTR in human placenta tissue according to gestational age. A total of 48 placentas were divided into early preterm, late preterm and term groups depending on gestational age, and expression of OXT and OXTR was evaluated. First, OXT and OXTR mRNA and protein were detected in normal placenta tissue via Q-PCR, Dot-blot and Western blot assay. Both OXT and OXTR levels in normal placenta increased gradually in the late stage of pregnancy, suggesting that local OXT may play a critical role in the function of the placenta. To determine the regulatory mechanism of OXT, placental BeWo cells were administrated estrogen (E2) or progesterone (P 4 ), and expression of OXT and OXTR was tested. The mRNA and protein levels of OXT and OXTR were upregulated by E2 but blocked by co-treatment with P 4 In order to confirm the estrogen receptor (ESR)-mediated signaling, we administrated ESR antagonists together with E2 to BeWo cells. As a result, both OXT and OXTR were significantly altered by ESR1 antagonist (MPP) while moderately regulated by ESR2 antagonist (PHTPP). These results suggest that OXT and OXTR are controlled mainly by E2 in the placenta via ESR1 and thus may play physiological functions in the human placenta during the late stage of pregnancy. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Estimating gestational age at birth from fundal height and additional anthropometrics: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pugh, S J; Ortega-Villa, A M; Grobman, W; Newman, R B; Owen, J; Wing, D A; Albert, P S; Grantz, K L

    2018-02-23

    Accurate assessment of gestational age (GA) is critical to paediatric care, but is limited in developing countries without access to ultrasound. Our objectives were to assess the accuracy of prediction of GA at birth and preterm birth classification using routinely collected anthropometry measures. Prospective cohort study. United States. A total of 2334 non-obese and 468 obese pregnant women. Enrolment GA was determined based on last menstrual period, confirmed by first-trimester ultrasound. Maternal anthropometry and fundal height (FH) were measured by a standardised protocol at study visits; FH alone was additionally abstracted from medical charts. Neonatal anthropometry measurements were obtained at birth. To estimate GA at delivery, we developed three predictor models using longitudinal FH alone and with maternal and neonatal anthropometry. For all predictors, we repeatedly sampled observations to construct training (60%) and test (40%) sets. Linear mixed models incorporated longitudinal maternal anthropometry and a shared parameter model incorporated neonatal anthropometry. We assessed models' accuracy under varied scenarios. Estimated GA at delivery. Prediction error for various combinations of anthropometric measures ranged between 13.9 and 14.9 days. Longitudinal FH alone predicted GA within 14.9 days with relatively stable prediction errors across individual race/ethnicities [whites (13.9 days), blacks (15.1 days), Hispanics (15.5 days) and Asians (13.1 days)], and correctly identified 75% of preterm births. The model was robust to additional scenarios. In low-risk, non-obese women, longitudinal FH measures alone can provide a reasonably accurate assessment of GA when ultrasound measures are not available. Longitudinal fundal height alone predicts gestational age at birth when ultrasound measures are unavailable. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Gestation age dependent transfer of human immunoglobulins across placenta in timed-pregnant guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanqun; Ma, Li; Norton, Malgorzata G; Stuart, Christine; Zhao, Zhong; Toibero, Denise; Dahlen, Shelby; Zhong, Lilin; Zhang, Pei; Struble, Evi B

    2015-12-01

    When administered during pregnancy, antibodies and other biologic drugs that contain the Fc part of the IgG molecule can traverse the placenta. Although it is generally accepted that the FcRn receptor mediates this process, gaps remain in our understanding of underlying details in humans and in common laboratory animal species. We expanded our previous studies in timed-pregnant guinea pigs to both measure the transport of human (h) IgG at earlier gestation ages in vivo and evaluate FcRn function in vitro using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) that express guinea pig (gp) FcRn. In timed-pregnant guinea pigs both the average concentration of hIgG in the fetus and its ratio to maternal hIgG concentration increase exponentially with gestation age. Thus, hIgG fetal:maternal concentration ratios increase from an average of 1% to 3%, 17%, and 76% on GD ∼26, 35, 46, and 54, respectively. In vitro, gpFcRn immobilized on a solid surface can bind hIgG and gpIgG preparations in a similar manner. All engineered human Fc isotype-specific constructs were internalized by MDCK-gpFcRn cells at significant levels. While not significant, their recycling and hIgG transcytosis by this cell line also trend higher than background controls. Pregnant guinea pigs exhibit similarities with humans in the degree and timing of transplacental transfer as well as the ability of their FcRn to bind and internalize hIgG in vitro. Further studies are needed to guide building appropriate systems for the evaluation of FcRn mediated function of human immunoglobulin therapies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and the association with small-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John M D; Wall, Clare; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2010-06-01

    Maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy is important for the growth and development of the fetus. The effects of pre-pregnancy nutrition (estimated by maternal size) are well documented. There is little information in today's Western society on the effect of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on the fetus. The aim of the study was to describe dietary patterns of a cohort of mothers during pregnancy (using principal components analysis with a varimax rotation) and assess the effect of these dietary patterns on the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) baby. The study was a case-control study investigating factors related to SGA. The population was 1714 subjects in Auckland, New Zealand, born between October 1995 and November 1997, about half of whom were born SGA ( < or = 10th percentile for sex and gestation). Maternal dietary information was collected using FFQ after delivery for the first and last months of pregnancy. Three dietary patterns (traditional, junk and fusion) were defined. Factors associated with these dietary patterns when examined in multivariable analyses included marital status, maternal weight, maternal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, mothers who had higher 'traditional' diet scores in early pregnancy were less likely to deliver a SGA infant (OR = 0.86; 95 % CI 0.75, 0.99). Maternal diet, particularly in early pregnancy, is important for the development of the fetus. Socio-demographic factors tend to be significantly related to dietary patterns, suggesting that extra resources may be necessary for disadvantaged mothers to ensure good nutrition in pregnancy.

  17. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in babies of different gestational ages.

    PubMed

    Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). We established blood and urine iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation.

  18. [Fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth].

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui; Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Li, Huan; Wen, Wei; Huang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Yu-Ping; Yu, Yan-Liang; Chen, Li-Lian; Yuan, Rui-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines. The extremely preterm infant and early preterm infant groups had a significantly lower content of long-chain acylcarnitines in the umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth than the moderate-to-late preterm infant group (P<0.05), and the content was positively correlated with gestational age (P<0.01). On the second day after birth, the low-dose fat emulsion subgroup had a significantly higher content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines than the high-dose fat emulsion subgroup among the extremely preterm infants (P<0.05). In the early preterm infant and moderate-to-late preterm infant groups, there were no significant differences in the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines between the low- and high-dose fat emulsion subgroups within 3 days after birth. Compared with moderate-to-late preterm infants, extremely preterm infants and early preterm infants have a lower capacity to metabolize long-chain fatty acids within 3 days after birth. Early preterm infants and moderate-to-late preterm infants may tolerate high-dose fat emulsion in the early stage after birth, but extremely preterm infants may have an insufficient capacity to metabolize high-dose fat emulsion.

  19. Effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on gene methylation and being small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y-Y; Huang, X-L; Liang, H; Zhang, Z-F; Xu, J-H; Chen, J-P; Yuan, W; He, L; Wang, L; Miao, M-H; Du, J; Li, D-K

    2016-10-01

    Being small for gestational age (SGA), a foetal growth abnormality, has a long-lasting impact on childhood health. Its aetiology and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Underlying epigenetic changes of imprinted genes have emerged as a potential pathological pathway because they may be associated with growth, including SGA. As a common methyl donor, folic acid (FA) is essential for DNA methylation, synthesis and repair, and FA supplementation is widely recommended for women planning pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate the inter-relationships among methylation levels of two imprinted genes [H19 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and MEST DMRs], maternal FA supplementation and SGA. We conducted a case-control study. Umbilical cord blood was taken from 39 SGA infants and 49 controls whose birth weights are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). DNA methylation levels of H19 and MEST DMRs were determined by an analysis of mass array quantitative methylation. Statistically significantly higher methylation levels were observed at sites 7.8, 9 and 17.18 of H19 (P = 0.030, 0.016 and 0.050, respectively) in the SGA infants compared to the AGA group. In addition, the association was stronger in male births where the mothers took FA around conception at six H19 sites (P = 0.004, 0.005, 0.048, 0.002, 0.021 and 0.005, respectively). Methylation levels at H19 DMRs were higher in SGA infants compared to AGA controls. It appears that the association may be influenced by maternal peri-conception FA supplementation and also be sex-specific. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Early-Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Are Not Improving for Infants Born at <25 Weeks' Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Douglas E.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Vohr, Betty R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age of infants born with extremely low birth weight at an estimated gestational age of <25 weeks during 2 periods: 1999–2001 (epoch 1) and 2002–2004 (epoch 2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Perinatal and neonatal variables and outcomes were compared between epochs. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age were evaluated with neurologic exams and Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Logistic regression analyses determined the independent risk of epoch for adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Infant survival was similar between epochs (epoch 1, 35.4%, vs epoch 2, 32.3%; P = .09). A total of 411 of 452 surviving infants in epoch 1 and 405 of 438 surviving infants in epoch 2 were evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Cesarean delivery (P = .03), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (P = .004), and late sepsis (P = .01) were more common in epoch 2, but postnatal steroid use was dramatically reduced (63.5% vs 32.8%; P < .0001). Adverse outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age were common in both epochs. Moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 11.1% of surviving infants in epoch 1 and 14.9% in epoch 2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–2.71]; P = .15), the Mental Developmental Index was <70 in 44.9% in epoch 1 and 51% in epoch 2 (OR: 1.30 [95% CI: 0.91–1.87]; P = .15), and neurodevelopmental impairment was diagnosed in 50.1% of surviving infants in epoch 1 and 58.7% in epoch 2 (OR: 1.4 [95% CI: 0.98–2.04]; P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Early-childhood outcomes for infants born at <25 weeks' estimated gestational age were unchanged between the 2 periods. PMID:21187312

  1. Cord blood calcium, phosphate, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase gestational age-specific reference intervals for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Lyon, Andrew W; Rose, M Sarah

    2011-08-31

    The objective was to determine the influence of gestational age, maternal, and neonatal variables on reference intervals for cord blood bone minerals (calcium, phosphate, magnesium) and related laboratory tests (alkaline phosphatase, and albumin-adjusted calcium), and to develop gestational age specific reference intervals based on infants without influential pathological conditions. Cross-sectional study. 702 babies were identified as candidates for this study in a regional referral neonatal unit. After exclusions (for anomalies, asphyxia, maternal magnesium sulfate administration, and death), relationships were examined between cord blood serum laboratory analytes (calcium, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin-adjusted calcium) with gestation age and also with maternal and neonatal variables using multiple linear regression. Infants with influential pathological conditions were omitted from the development of gestational age specific reference intervals for the following categories: 23-27, 28-31, 32-34, 35-36 and > 36 weeks. Among the 506 preterm and 54 terms infants included in the sample. Phosphate, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase in cord blood serum decreased with gestational age, calcium increased with gestational age. Those who were triplets, small for gestational age, and those whose mother had pregnancy-induced hypertension were influential for most of the analytes. The reference ranges for the preterm infants ≥ 36 weeks were: phosphate 1.5 to 2.6 mmol/L (4.5 to 8.0 mg/dL), calcium: 2.1 to 3.1 mmol/L (8.3 to 12.4 mg/dL); albumin-adjusted calcium: 2.3 to 3.2 mmol/L (9.1 to 12.9 mg/dL); magnesium 0.6 to 1.0 mmol/L (1.4 to 2.3 mg/dL), and alkaline phosphatase 60 to 301 units/L. These data suggest that gestational age, as well as potentially pathogenic maternal and neonatal variables should be considered in the development of reference intervals for preterm infants.

  2. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  3. Gestational age specific neonatal survival in the State of Qatar (2003-2008) - a comparative study with international benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Al-Rifai, Hilal; Masoud, Ahmed; Lutfi, Samawal; Salama, Husam; Abdoh, Ghassan; Omar, Fahmi; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    To analyze and compare the current gestational age specific neonatal survival rates between Qatar and international benchmarks. An analytical comparative study. Women's Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, from 2003-2008. Six year's (2003-2008) gestational age specific neonatal mortality data was stratified for each completed week of gestation at birth from 24 weeks till term. The data from World Health Statistics by WHO (2010), Vermont Oxford Network (VON, 2007) and National Statistics United Kingdom (2006) were used as international benchmarks for comparative analysis. A total of 82,002 babies were born during the study period. Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) dropped from 6/1000 in 2003 to 4.3/1000 in 2008 (p < 0.05). The overall and gestational age specific neonatal mortality rates of Qatar were comparable with international benchmarks. The survival of < 27 weeks and term babies was better in Qatar (p=0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) as compared to VON. The survival of > 32 weeks babies was better in UK (p=0.01) as compared to Qatar. The relative risk (RR) of death decreased with increasing gestational age (p < 0.0001). Preterm babies (45%) followed by lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies (26.5%) were the two leading causes of neonatal deaths in Qatar. The current total and gestational age specific neonatal survival rates in the State of Qatar are comparable with international benchmarks. In Qatar, persistently high rates of low birth weight and lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies significantly contribute towards neonatal mortality.

  4. [Turner's syndrome: subjects with a normal body mass at birth grow taller than born small for gestational age].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Stupnicki, Romuald; Milde, Katarzyna; Szufladowicz-Woźniak, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Body mass deficit at birth is one of the characteristic features observed in Turner's syndrome (TS). Body mass is lower than expected for gestational age in about 90% of TS-babies, and is below -2 SD (i.e. "small for gestational age") in about 20% of patients. The aim of the study was to compare the growth courses of TS-girls born with normal and deficient body mass. A group of 157 TS-girls, delivered at term (> or =38 weeks of gestation), were studied. Body mass of 80 girls ranged from -0.5 to +0.5 SD and body length was above -2 SD (AGA group); another 54 girls had body mass below -2 SD and body length above -2 SD (disproportional SGA group), and 23 girls had both body mass and length below -2 SD (proportional SGA group). Turner's syndrome was confirmed by chromosome analysis. Body mass at birth (BMB) was related to the norms for gestational age (GA) designed by Usher and McLean. Newborns, whose BMB was lower than -2 SD for GA, were considered small for gestational age (SGA). Postnatal body height and mass values were related to Polish norms for females with Turner's syndrome and to the norms for healthy female population. In the spontaneously growing TS-girls from the AGA group, a total of 275 measurements of body mass and height were carried out, the respective numbers for DSGA and PSGA groups were 176 and 100. Mean differences between the actual and expected body height for the AGA, DSGA and PSGA groups amounted to 0.40+/- 1.02, -0.21+/-0.88 and -0.95+/-0.80 SD TS, respectively, all means differing highly significantly (p<0.001) from each other. It may be concluded that spontaneously growing girls with Turner's syndrome, who had a normal (for gestational age) body mass at birth, attain a higher stature than girls with body mass deficit.

  5. Gestational age, gender and parity specific centile charts for placental weight for singleton deliveries in Aberdeen, UK.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Bhattacharya, S; Horgan, G W

    2013-03-01

    The weight of the placenta is a crude but useful proxy for its function in vivo. Accordingly extremes of placental weight are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes while even normal variations in placental size may impact lifelong health. Centile charts of placental weight for gestational age and gender are used to identify placental weight extremes but none report the effect of parity. Thus the objective was to produce gender and gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight in nulliparous and multiparous women. Data was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank for all women delivering singleton babies in Aberdeen city and district after 24 weeks gestation. Gestational age specific centile charts for placental weight by gender and parity grouping (n = 88,649 deliveries over a 30 year period) were constructed using the LMS method after exclusion of outliers (0.63% of deliveries meeting study inclusion criteria). Tables and figures are presented for placental weight centiles according to gestational age, gender and parity grouping. Tables are additionally presented for the birth weight to placental weight ratio by gender. Placental weight and the fetal:placental weight ratio were higher in male versus female deliveries. Placental weight was greater in multiparous compared with nulliparous women. We present strong evidence that both gender and parity grouping influence placental weight centiles. The differences at any given gestational age are small and the effects of parity are greater overall than those of gender. In contrast the birth weight to placental weight ratio differs by gender only. These UK population specific centile charts may be useful in studies investigating the role of the placenta in mediating pregnancy outcome and lifelong health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age neonates: current evidence.

    PubMed

    Poets, Christian F; Lorenz, Laila

    2018-05-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most frequent complications in extremely low gestational age neonates, but has remained largely unchanged in rate. We reviewed data on BPD prevention focusing on recent meta-analyses. Interventions with proven effectiveness in reducing BPD include the primary use of non-invasive respiratory support, the application of surfactant without endotracheal ventilation and the use of volume-targeted ventilation in infants requiring endotracheal intubation. Following extubation, synchronised nasal ventilation is more effective than continuous positive airway pressure in reducing BPD. Pharmacologically, commencing caffeine citrate on postnatal day 1 or 2 seems more effective than a later start. Applying intramuscular vitamin A for the first 4 weeks reduces BPD, but is expensive and painful and thus not widely used. Low-dose hydrocortisone for the first 10 days prevents BPD, but was associated with almost twice as many cases of late-onset sepsis in infants born at 24-25 weeks' gestation. Inhaled corticosteroids, despite reducing BPD, were associated with a higher mortality rate. Administering dexamethasone to infants still requiring mechanical ventilation around postnatal weeks 2-3 may represent the best trade-off between restricting steroids to infants at risk of BPD while still affording high efficacy. Finally, identifying infants colonised with ureaplasma and treating those requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation with azithromycin is another promising approach to BPD prevention. Further interventions yet only backed by cohort studies include exclusive breastmilk feeding and a better prevention of nosocomial infections. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Nitrosatable Drug Exposure during Pregnancy and Preterm and Small-for-Gestational-Age Births.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Brender, Jean D; Shipp, Eva M; Huber, John C; Zheng, Qi; McDonald, Thomas J; Sharkey, Joseph R; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Werler, Martha M; Kelley, Katherine E; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Nitrosatable drugs react with nitrite in the stomach to form N-nitroso compounds, observed in animal models to result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as birth defects and reduced fetal weight. Previous studies examining prenatal exposure to medications classified as nitrosatable have reported an increased risk of preterm births (PTBs) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Using data from mothers (controls) of babies without major birth defects from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, prenatal nitrosatable drug usage by trimester and month of gestation was examined in relation to PTBs and SGA infants. Positive associations were observed with nitrosatable drug use and PTBs, with the strongest relationship with second trimester exposure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.37, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10, 1.70]). Of the nitrosatable functional groups, secondary amines were the most notable, with a higher association among women with second (aHR 1.37, [95% CI 1.05, 1.79]) and third (aHR 1.34, [95% CI 1.02, 1.76]) trimester exposure compared with women with no prenatal nitrosatable drug use. Among SGA infants, a borderline association was noted with amide exposure during the third trimester (adjusted odds ratio 1.43 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 2.05]). Prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, particularly secondary amines, might increase the risk of PTBs. However, prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs was not associated with SGA infants, with the exception of amide drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nutritional requirements and feeding recommendations for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Tudehope, David; Vento, Maximo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Pachi, Paulo

    2013-03-01

    We define the small for gestational age (SGA) infant as an infant born ≥ 35 weeks' gestation and <10th percentile on the Fenton Growth Chart. Policy statements from many organizations recommend mother's own milk for SGA infants because it meets most of their nutritional requirements and provides short- and long-term benefits. Several distinct patterns of intrauterine growth restriction are identified among the heterogeneous grouping of SGA infants; each varies with regard to neonatal morbidities, requirements for neonatal management, postnatal growth velocities, neurodevelopmental progress, and adult health outcomes. There is much we do not know about nutritional management of the SGA infant. We need to identify and define: infants who have "true" growth restriction and are at high risk for adverse metabolic outcomes in later life; optimal growth velocity and "catch-up" growth rates that are conducive with life-long health and well being; global approaches to management of hypoglycemia; and an optimal model for postdischarge care. Large, rigorously conducted trials are required to determine whether aggressive feeding of SGA infants results in improved nutritional rehabilitation, growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Before birth, maternal supplementation with specific nutrients reduces the rate and severity of growth restriction and may prevent nutrient deficiency states if infants are born SGA. After birth, the generally accepted goal is to provide enough nutrients to achieve postnatal growth similar to that of a normal fetus. In addition, we recommend SGA infants be allowed to "room in" with their mothers to promote breastfeeding, mother-infant attachment, and skin-to-skin contact to assist with thermoregulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of gestational age with the option of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormalities incompatible with neonatal survival.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Flavia; Fustinoni, Suzete Maria; Pinto, Vânia Lopes; Melo, Patrícia de Souza; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel

    2016-01-01

    To identify the profile of women seen in a Fetal Medicine unit, diagnosed with fetal abnormality incompatible with neonatal survival in their current pregnancy, and to check the association of gestational age upon diagnosis with the option of pregnancy termination. This is a retrospective cohort study carried out in the Fetal Medicine Outpatients Clinic of a university hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, using medical records of pregnant women with fetus presenting abnormalities incompatible with neonatal survival. The sample comprised 94 medical records. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19, was used for the data statistical analysis. The population of the study included young adult women, who had complete or incomplete high school education, employed, with family income of one to three minimum wages, single, nonsmokers, who did not drink alcoholic beverages or used illicit drugs. Women with more advanced gestational age upon fetal diagnosis (p=0.0066) and/or upon admission to the specialized unit (p=0.0018) presented a lower percentage of termination of pregnancy. Due to characteristics different from those classically considered as of high gestational risk, these women might not be easily identified during the classification of gestational risk, what may contribute to a late diagnosis of fetal diseases. Early diagnosis enables access to specialized multiprofessional care in the proper time for couple's counseling on the possibility of requesting legal authorization for pregnancy termination. Identificar o perfil de mulheres atendidas em um serviço de Medicina Fetal, que receberam diagnóstico de anomalia fetal incompatível com a sobrevida neonatal na gestação atual, e verificar a associação da idade gestacional no diagnóstico com a opção pela interrupção da gravidez. Trata-se de um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, realizado no ambulatório de Medicina Fetal de um hospital universitário da cidade de S

  10. Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.

    PubMed

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-07-01

    Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution exposure in association with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero exposure to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 exposure during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational age. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational age were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational age were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational age, in twins born moderate to late preterm. Copyright

  11. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Contreras, Claudia; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in humans) with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research. PMID:22254007

  12. [Hospital Admissions due to cyanosis episodes in newborns with gestational age of 34 weeks or more].

    PubMed

    Casanueva, C Paulina; Cifuentes, R Javier

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed between January 2007 and December 2012 to assess the admission rates of newborns due to episodes of cyanosis Retrospective study that included all the newborns hospitalized with episodes of cyanosis between January 2007 and December 2012. In them were employed two study protocols that considered first and second line tests, the latter in view of recurrence of events. The first line protocol considered general biochemical tests, chest x-ray and echocardiography in selected cases, while the second line protocol included electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, nuclear magnetic resonance of the brain, expanded metabolic screening, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, and in case of seizures, cytochemical, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for herpes. A total of 98 (2.8%) out of 3,454 newborns were admitted due to episodes of cyanosis. Gestational age: 37.8+1.4 weeks, birth weight: 3,145+477 g. Maternal age: 32+4.8 years. Disease was present in 19.4% of mothers; gestational diabetes (8.1%), pregnancy induced hypertension (5.1%), intrahepatic cholestasis (3.1%), and intrauterine growth retardation (3.1%). Gender: 48.8% male, 51.2% female (NS). Birth: caesarean section, 68.4%, and vaginal delivery, 31.6%. Age on admission 1.9+1.4 days. Hospital stay: 4.2+4.2 days. First line tests were performed in 100% of patients with 39.8% fulfilling the criteria for second line study. A condition was detected in 21.4%, with convulsive syndrome was the most frequent (33%). Newborns with an identified condition had 3.8+2.7 episodes versus 1.5+2,4 in those without diagnosis (NS). A home oxygen monitor was given to 15.4%. There were no re-admissions. Most newborns admitted due to cyanosis are discharged with a condition of unknown origin. In this study, convulsive syndrome was the most frequent cause. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index, maternal weight gain and small for gestational age].

    PubMed

    Peng, Tingting; Yue, Fujuan; Wang, Fang; Feng, Yongliang; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Suping; Zhang, Yawei; Yang, Hailan

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) birth so as to provide evidence for the development of comprehensive prevention programs on SGA birth. Between March, 2012 and July, 2014, 4 754 pregnant women were asked to fill in the questionnaires which were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University. Data related to general demographic characteristics, pregnancy and health status of those pregnant women was collected and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and maternal weight gain were calculated. Subjects were divided into different groups before the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on SGA birth were estimated. The overall incidence of SGA birth was 9.26% (440/4 754). Proportions of SGA birth from pre-pregnant, underweight group, normal weight group, overweight and obese groups were 9.85%, 8.54% and 9.45%, respectively. Results from multi-factor logistic regression analyses showed that after adjusting the confounding factors as age, history on pregnancies etc., women with high pre-pregnancy BMI showed a lower incidence of SGA than those under normal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR = 0.714, 95% CI: 0.535-0.953). Different weight gains during pregnancy were statistically significant (χ(2) = 8.811, P = 0.012). Incidence of SGA birth that was below the recommended range in the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines (12.20%) was higher than those within (9.23%) or beyond (8.45%) the recommended range. Results from the multi-factor logistic regression analyses showed that, after adjusting the confounding factors as age, pregnancy history etc., factor as weight gain below the recommended level could increase the risk of SGA (OR = 1.999, 95% CI: 1.487-2.685). In the underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese groups, with weight gain during pregnancy below the range, the incidence of SGA showed an

  14. The Long-Term Outcome of Children by Birth Weight and Gestational Age. High-Risk Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

    This report is comprised of three separate studies conducted at the University of Colorado Medical Center. In the first study, answers to the following questions were sought: (1) What kinds of late morbidity occur at different birth weights and gestational ages? and (2) Has a vigorous approach to metabolic support in the newborn period changed the…

  15. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT BIRTH BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND ULTRASOUND DURING THE FIRST TRIMESTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age (GA) but may be unreliable. Ultrasound in the first trimester is generally considered a highly accurate method of pregnancy dating. The authors compared first trimester report of LMP and first trime...

  16. PREDICTIVE ACCURACY OF TRANSCEREBELLAR DIAMETER IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER FOETAL BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ESTIMATION AMONG PREGNANT NIGERIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Adeyekun, A A; Orji, M O

    2014-04-01

    To compare the predictive accuracy of foetal trans-cerebellar diameter (TCD) with those of other biometric parameters in the estimation of gestational age (GA). A cross-sectional study. The University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Four hundred and fifty healthy singleton pregnant women, between 14-42 weeks gestation. Trans-cerebellar diameter (TCD), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC) values across the gestational age range studied. Correlation and predictive values of TCD compared to those of other biometric parameters. The range of values for TCD was 11.9 - 59.7mm (mean = 34.2 ± 14.1mm). TCD correlated more significantly with menstrual age compared with other biometric parameters (r = 0.984, p = 0.000). TCD had a higher predictive accuracy of 96.9% ± 12 days), BPD (93.8% ± 14.1 days). AC (92.7% ± 15.3 days). TCD has a stronger predictive accuracy for gestational age compared to other routinely used foetal biometric parameters among Nigerian Africans.

  17. Cardiovascular programming in children born small for gestational age and relationship with prenatal signs of severity.

    PubMed

    Crispi, Fatima; Figueras, Francesc; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Bartrons, Joaquim; Bijnens, Bart; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular function in children who were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses. This was a prospective study including 100 controls and 50 children diagnosed in utero as SGA after 34 weeks subdivided into the following categories: SGA and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) according to the absence or presence, respectively, of weight centile less than 3 or abnormal cerebroplacental Doppler. Postnatal cardiovascular outcome was evaluated at 3-6 years of age by echocardiography, blood pressure, and carotid ultrasound. Both SGA and IUGR presented in childhood more globular hearts, reduced longitudinal motion, and impaired relaxation with an increase in radial function. Both groups showed increased blood pressure and carotid intima-media thickness. There was a linear tendency to worse cardiovascular results in IUGR as compared with SGA. Fetal cardiovascular programming occurs in SGA, regardless of Doppler and weight centile. These findings challenge the concept of constitutionally small and warrant further investigation to identify predictors of cardiovascular outcome in SGA. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleotide supplementation and the growth of term small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, M.; Davies, D. P.; Jenkins, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    A double blind randomised controlled trial in small for gestational age (SGA) infants, whose intestinal mucosa was shown to be functionally impaired as a result of intrauterine undernutrition, was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation of a milk formula could improve catchup growth. Anthropometric data were collected on 74 infants, 39 randomly allocated to the nucleotide supplemented group (group N) and 35 to a standard formula group (group S). From study entry to 2 months of age, infants in group N had significantly higher mean rates of weight gain (106.3 compared with 94.7 g/kg baseline weight/week) and length gain (21.8 v 19.7 mm/m baseline length/week). Over the whole six months for which the trial formula was provided group N had significantly higher mean rates of gain of weight (80.1 compared with 71.8 g/kg baseline weight/week), length (16.2 compared with 15.0 mm/m baseline length/week), and head circumference (11.8 compared with 10.8 mm/m baseline head circumference/week). Catchup growth in SGA infants is therefore improved by nucleotide supplementation of infant formula. PMID:8777659

  19. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Dobkins, Karen R; Bosworth, Rain G; McCleery, Joseph P

    2009-09-30

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a approximately 21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed.

  20. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants

    PubMed Central

    Dobkins, Karen R.; Bosworth, Rain G.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a ~21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed. PMID:19810800

  1. Small for gestational age birth outcomes in pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV.

    PubMed

    Jao, Jennifer; Sigel, Keith M; Chen, Katherine T; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Posada, Roberto; Shust, Gail; Wisnivesky, Juan; Abrams, Elaine J; Sperling, Rhoda S

    2012-04-24

    To compare small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight in children born to women with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) vs. those with behaviorally acquired HIV (BAH). Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live born at a single hospital in New York City from January 2004 to April 2011. We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, antiretroviral therapy (ART), mode of HIV acquisition, and pregnancy outcomes on study participants. We compared rates of these exposures among participants by method of HIV acquisition. Generalized Estimating Equation was applied to evaluate the effect of HIV acquisition type on SGA birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 87 live births evaluated, 17 were born to 14 women with PAH. Overall, 20 (23%) were SGA. Eight of these SGA neonates were born preterm. Live births to women with PAH were more likely to be born SGA in our unadjusted analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-12.41). After adjusting for mother's age, substance use during pregnancy, nadir CD4 cell count during pregnancy, viral suppression at delivery, and second-line ART use during pregnancy, this relationship persisted with an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% CI = 1.03-31.61). In comparison to infants born to women with BAH, infants born to women with PAH were at high risk for compromised intrauterine growth. Future studies are warranted to determine possible causal mechanisms.

  2. Birth weight and gestational age characteristics of children with autism, including a comparison with other developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Diana; Bhasin, Tanya Karapurkar

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the birth weight and gestational age distributions and prevalence rates of autism with those of other developmental disabilities and to estimate the birth weight-and gestational age-specific risks for autism. For the first objective, a retrospective cohort of children born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1981-1993 who survived to 3 years of age was identified through vital records. Children in the cohort who had developmental disabilities (autism, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, or vision impairment) and were still residing in metropolitan Atlanta at 3 to 10 years of age were identified through the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program. A nested case-control sample from the cohort was used for the second objective; all cohort children identified with autism were case participants, and control participants were cohort children who were not identified as having developmental disabilities or receiving special education services. The prevalence of autism in low birth weight or preterm children was markedly lower than those of other developmental disabilities. In multivariate analyses, birth weight of <2500 g and preterm birth at <33 weeks' gestation were associated with an approximately twofold increased risk for autism, although the magnitude of risk from these factors varied according to gender (higher in girls) and autism subgroup (higher for autism accompanied by other developmental disabilities). For example, a significant fourfold increased risk was observed in low birth weight girls for autism accompanied by mental retardation, whereas there was no significantly increased risk observed in low birth weight boys for autism alone. Gender and autism subgroup differences in birth weight and gestational age, resulting in lower gender ratios with declining birth weight or gestational age across all autism subgroups, might be markers for etiologic heterogeneity in autism.

  3. The associations between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios and the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus and large-for-gestational-age infant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyu; Xu, Shuqia; Chen, Haitian; Zhong, Lieqiang; Wang, Zilian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios and the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant. This was a single-centre prospective observational study. Six hundred and thirty-six women with a singleton pregnancy were recruited. Lipids profile, HbA1c and glucose were measured at the time of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 24-28 gestational weeks. TG/HDL-C ratios were calculated and clinical data including perinatal parameters were analysed. The prevalence of GDM was 17·30% (n = 110) and LGA was 3·93% (n = 25) in this study. TG/HDL-C ratios were found to be significantly higher in GDM group (P < 0·01) and LGA group (P = 0·045) compared with those in non-GDM group and non-LGA group, respectively. TG/HDL-C ratios were independently associated with the risks of GDM (OR = 1·64, P = 0·02) and LGA (OR = 2·87, P < 0·01). The area under the combined ROC curve of TG/HDL-C ratio and HbA1c to detect GDM was 0·705 (95% CI, 0·637-0·772). Furthermore, the area under the ROC curve of TG/HDL-C ratio combined with HbA1c and prepregnancy BMI to detect LGA was 0·806 (95% CI, 0·719-0·893). TG/HDL-C ratios in combination with HbA1c and prepregnancy BMI can be good markers to predict the risks of GDM and delivering LGA infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association of first-trimester maternal lipid profiles and triglyceride-glucose index with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and large for gestational age newborn.

    PubMed

    Pazhohan, Azar; Rezaee Moradali, Monireh; Pazhohan, Nahideh

    2017-11-20

    To evaluate the association of maternal first-trimester plasma lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and triglyceride (TyG) index with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and large for gestational age (LGA) infant in Iranian mothers. Nine hundred and fifty-four healthy pregnant women were prospectively followed till after delivery. Maternal fasting lipids and glucose concentration were measured at nine-week gestation on average. We used generalized linear models to calculate the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. The incidence of GDM and LGA infants among our participants was 18.4% and 26.1%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the increase in FPG, triglyceride, TG/HDL-C ratio, as well as TyG index with the risk of GDM and LGA infant. After adjusting for potential confounders, the relative risk of GDM in women in the top tertile of FPG, triglyceride (TG), triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) and TyG index was 4.2-, 4.2-, 3.9-, and 4.9-folds of its risk in women in the bottom tertile, respectively. Also after adjusting for GDM, the relative risk of LGA infants in women in the top tertile of FPG, TG, TG/HDL-C ratio and TyG index was 3.9-, 4.3-, 4.8-, and 5.3-folds of its risk in women in the bottom tertile, respectively. Based on our findings, TyG index is more robust early predictors of GDM and LGA in Iranian women.

  5. Maternal-Fetal Disposition of Glyburide in Pregnant Mice Is Dependent on Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Diana L.; Risler, Linda J.; Liang, Chao-Kang J.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Shen, Danny D.; Hebert, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a major complication of human pregnancy. The oral clearance (CL) of glyburide, an oral antidiabetic drug, increases 2-fold in pregnant women during late gestation versus nonpregnant controls. In this study, we examined gestational age–dependent changes in maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics (PK) of glyburide and metabolites in a pregnant mouse model. Nonpregnant and pregnant FVB mice were given glyburide by retro-orbital injection. Maternal plasma was collected over 240 minutes on gestation days (gd) 0, 7.5, 10, 15, and 19; fetuses were collected on gd 15 and 19. Glyburide and metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and PK analyses were performed using a pooled data bootstrap approach. Maternal CL of glyburide increased approximately 2-fold on gd 10, 15, and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls. Intrinsic CL of glyburide in maternal liver microsomes also increased as gestation progressed. Maternal metabolite/glyburide area under the curve ratios were generally unchanged or slightly decreased throughout gestation. Total fetal exposure to glyburide was <5% of maternal plasma exposure, and was doubled on gd 19 versus gd 15. Fetal metabolite concentrations were below the limit of assay detection. This is the first evidence of gestational age–dependent changes in glyburide PK. Increased maternal glyburide clearance during gestation is attributable to increased hepatic metabolism. Metabolite elimination may also increase during pregnancy. In the mouse model, fetal exposure to glyburide is gestational age–dependent and low compared with maternal plasma exposure. These results indicate that maternal glyburide therapeutic strategies may require adjustments in a gestational age–dependent manner if these same changes occur in humans. PMID:24898265

  6. The Independent Importance of Pre-pregnancy Weight and Gestational Weight Gain for the Prevention of Large-for Gestational Age Brazilian Newborns.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Marco F; Czarnobay, Sandra A; Kroll, Caroline; Figueirêdo, Katherinne B W; Mastroeni, Silmara S B S; Silva, Jean C; Khan, Mohammad K A; Loehr, Sarah; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To study the independent effect of pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain (GWG), and other important risk factors on newborn birth weight. Methods Baseline data of 435 adult women and their singletons born between January and February 2012 at a public hospital in Brazil were used. Logistic regression was applied to determine the independent importance of pre-pregnancy weight and GWG for large for gestational age (LGA) newborns. Results Among all mothers, 37.9 % were overweight and obese before pregnancy and 45.3 % experienced excessive GWG. Among the newborns, 24.4 % were classified as LGA. Univariate analysis showed an association of family income, GWG, pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG with LGA newborns. Smoking before and during pregnancy was associated with a decreased likelihood of giving birth to an LGA newborn compared to mothers who did not smoke. After adjustment for confounding variables, age at birth of first child, GWG, HbA1c and pre-pregnancy weight-GWG were significant and independent determinants of giving birth to an LGA newborn. Mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight and excessive GWG were more likely to deliver an LGA newborn (OR 2.54, P < 0.05) compared to mothers who were normal weight and experienced adequate GWG. Conclusions for Practice Age at first birth of child, GWG, HbA1c and pre-pregnancy overweight combined with excessive GWG are independent determinants of LGA newborns. The results of this study suggest that both primary prevention of overweight in women of childbearing age and management of GWG may be important strategies to reduce the number of LGA newborns and, consequently, the long-term public health burden of obesity.

  7. Ambient temperature and air quality in relation to small for gestational age and term low birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sandie; Zhu, Yeyi; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposures to extreme ambient temperature and air pollution are linked to adverse birth outcomes, but the associations with small for gestational age (SGA) and term low birthweight (tLBW) are unclear. We aimed to investigate exposures to site-specific temperature extremes and selected criteria air pollutants in relation to SGA and tLBW. Methods We linked medical records of 220,572 singleton births (2002–2008) from 12 US sites to local temperature estimated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and air pollution estimated by modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Exposures to hot (>95th percentile) and cold (<5th percentile) were defined using site-specific distributions of daily temperature over three-month preconception, each trimester, and whole-pregnancy. Average concentrations of five criteria air pollutants and six fine particulate matter constituents were also calculated for these pregnancy windows. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations calculated the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for SGA (weight <10th percentile conditional on gestational age and sex) and tLBW (≥37 weeks and <2,500 grams) associated with an interquartile range increment of air pollutants, and cold or hot compared to mild (5–95th percentile) temperature. Models were adjusted for maternal demographics, lifestyle, and clinical factors, season, and site. Results Compared to mild temperature, cold exposure during trimester 2 [RR: 1.21 (1.05–1.38)], trimester 3 [RR: 1.18 (1.03–1.36)], and whole-pregnancy [RR: 2.57 (2.27–2.91)]; and hot exposure during trimester 3 [RR: 1.31 (1.15–1.50)] and whole-pregnancy [RR: 2.49 (2.20–2.83)] increased tLBW risk. No consistent association was observed between temperature and SGA. Air pollutant analyses were generally null but preconception elemental carbon was associated with a 4% increase in SGA while dust particles increased tLBW by 10%. Particulate matter ≤10 microns in the

  8. Assessment of MRI-Based Automated Fetal Cerebral Cortical Folding Measures in Prediction of Gestational Age in the Third Trimester.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Awate, S P; Licht, D J; Clouchoux, C; du Plessis, A J; Avants, B B; Vossough, A; Gee, J C; Limperopoulos, C

    2015-07-01

    Traditional methods of dating a pregnancy based on history or sonographic assessment have a large variation in the third trimester. We aimed to assess the ability of various quantitative measures of brain cortical folding on MR imaging in determining fetal gestational age in the third trimester. We evaluated 8 different quantitative cortical folding measures to predict gestational age in 33 healthy fetuses by using T2-weighted fetal MR imaging. We compared the accuracy of the prediction of gestational age by these cortical folding measures with the accuracy of prediction by brain volume measurement and by a previously reported semiquantitative visual scale of brain maturity. Regression models were constructed, and measurement biases and variances were determined via a cross-validation procedure. The cortical folding measures are accurate in the estimation and prediction of gestational age (mean of the absolute error, 0.43 ± 0.45 weeks) and perform better than (P = .024) brain volume (mean of the absolute error, 0.72 ± 0.61 weeks) or sonography measures (SDs approximately 1.5 weeks, as reported in literature). Prediction accuracy is comparable with that of the semiquantitative visual assessment score (mean, 0.57 ± 0.41 weeks). Quantitative cortical folding measures such as global average curvedness can be an accurate and reliable estimator of gestational age and brain maturity for healthy fetuses in the third trimester and have the potential to be an indicator of brain-growth delays for at-risk fetuses and preterm neonates. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on gestational age at birth and risk of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Suri, Rita; Altshuler, Lori; Hellemann, Gerhard; Burt, Vivien K; Aquino, Ana; Mintz, Jim

    2007-08-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure and maternal depression on infant gestational age at birth and risk of preterm birth. Ninety women were followed in a prospective, naturalistic design through pregnancy with monthly assessments of symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV mood module for depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants included 49 women with major depressive disorder who were treated with antidepressants during pregnancy (group 1), 22 women with major depressive disorder who were either not treated with antidepressants or had limited exposure to them during pregnancy (group 2), and 19 healthy comparison subjects (group 3). The primary outcome variables were the infants' gestational age at birth, birth weight, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and admission to the special care nursery. Groups 1, 2, and 3 differed significantly in gestational age at birth (38.5 weeks, 39.4 weeks, 39.7 weeks, respectively), rates of preterm birth (14.3%, 0%, 5.3%, respectively), and rates of admission to the special care nursery (21%, 9%, 0%, respectively). Birth weight and Apgar scores did not differ significantly between groups. Mild to moderate depression during pregnancy did not affect outcome measures. Prenatal antidepressant use was associated with lower gestational age at birth and an increased risk of preterm birth. Presence of depressive symptoms was not associated with this risk. These results suggest that medication status, rather than depression, is a predictor of gestational age at birth.

  10. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Kelly R; Zhang, Lei; Seidel, Frank G

    2015-08-01

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study.

  11. Associations of maternal pre-pregnancy underweight with small-for-gestational-age and spontaneous preterm birth, and optimal gestational weight gain in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kana; Aoki, Shigeru; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Okuda, Mika; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2014-04-01

    To determine associations of maternal pre-pregnancy underweight with poor outcomes and evaluate how gestational weight gain affects risks for such outcomes in pre-pregnancy underweight Japanese women. By analyzing the January 2001-December 2012 hospital database, we retrospectively identified 6954 women with pre-pregnancy normal weights (body mass index, 18.5-24.9 kg/m²) and 1057 pre-pregnancy underweight women (body mass index, <18.5 kg/m²) who delivered at the Perinatal Maternity and Neonatal Center of Yokohama City University. These women were stratified by weekly weight gain during the second/third trimesters to investigate associations of gestational weight gain with spontaneous preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA). Spontaneous preterm birth and SGA incidences were compared with those of women meeting Institute of Medicine (IO M) guidelines to determine optimal weight gain in Japanese women. Preterm birth and SGA incidences were significantly higher in pre-pregnancy underweight than in pre-pregnancy normal weight women (4.6% vs 2.4% [P=0.005] and 13.9% vs 9.7% [P = 0.003], respectively). For pre-pregnancy normal weight women, preterm birth incidence was significantly higher in those with weight gain of less than 0.2 kg/week than in those IOM guidelines. For pre-pregnancy underweight women, preterm birth and SGA incidences were significantly higher in those with weight gain of less than 0.3 kg/week than in those meeting IOM guidelines. Preterm birth and SGA incidences did not differ significantly between pre-pregnancy normal weight women with weight gain of 0.2 kg/week or more and pre-pregnancy underweight women with weight gain of 0.3 kg/week or more, as compared to women meeting IOM guidelines. These results suggest that IOM guidelines for gestational weight gain may lack external validity in Japanese women. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  13. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-08-01

    Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10-9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10-15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10-7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal height resulting in ~0.4 more gestational

  14. Association between gestational age and induction-to-abortion interval in mid-trimester pregnancy termination using misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Vitner, Dana; Deutsch, Michael; Paz, Yuri; Khatib, Nizar; Baltiter, Tania; Rosenberg, Shiran; Lowenstein, Lior

    2011-06-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, outcome, and pain intensity of the vaginal administration of misoprostol for the induction of abortion between 13 and 24 gestational weeks. A retrospective study was conducted at our tertiary medical center from January 2006 to December 2009 on 122 consecutive women who underwent termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the mid-trimester. They were given 400 mcg of vaginal misoprostol every 6h, up to four doses. The induction-to-abortion interval and the level of pain experienced during the process were assessed. Success was defined by the fetus being expelled within 48 h. Vaginal misoprostol was effective in 84% (98/122) of patients. The median duration of the induction-to-abortion interval was 16 (5-48)h. The induction-to-abortion interval was correlated with gestational age, while inversely correlated with parity. A correlation was also found between gestational age and pain intensity at 12h from induction. Misoprostol is safe and effective in mid-trimester abortion induction. The induction-to-abortion interval is shorter and abortion less painful with lower gestational age. Higher parity is also associated with shorter induction to abortion interval. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Increased risk of asthma in overweight children born large for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Pinto, L A; Guerra, S; Anto, J M; Postma, D; Koppelman, G H; de Jongste, J C; Gehring, U; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H

    2017-08-01

    Being born large for gestational age (LGA) is a marker of increased growth velocity in fetal life and a risk factor for childhood overweight. Both being born LGA and childhood overweight may influence the development of asthma, although the role of overweight in the association between LGA and childhood asthma is unclear. Importantly, recent studies have suggested that the association between overweight and asthma may be related to non-allergic pathways. If this also applies to the association between LGA and asthma, the association between being born LGA and asthma may be different for atopic and non-atopic children. We investigated the association of being LGA with the prevalence of asthma at age 8 in atopic and non-atopic children and the role of overweight in this association. Complete data on asthma, anthropometry and atopy at age of 8 years, and potential confounders were available for 1608 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort. Odds ratios for the association between LGA and asthma in atopic and non-atopic children were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Overweight was assessed as a potential modifier of the association between LGA and asthma. Being born LGA was not significantly associated with asthma at age of 8 in atopic and non-atopic children. However, overweight at age of 8 years modified the association between asthma at age of 8 and LGA. In non-atopic children, children who were born LGA and were overweight at age of 8 years had a significantly increased odds of asthma compared to non-LGA, non-overweight children (adj OR 7.04; 95% CI 2.2-24). We observed that non-atopic children born LGA, who were overweight by 8 years have an increased risk of asthma. If confirmed, these findings suggest that non-atopic children born LGA may be identified early in life as a high-risk group for asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Placenta previa and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age newborn.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, Sari; Kancherla, Vijaya; Kramer, Michael R; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate whether there is an association between placenta previa and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn and to quantify the contribution of individual risk factors for SGA that are associated with placenta previa stratified by maternal parity. A cross-sectional study using the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2000-2010. All singleton births (N=596,562) were included; major congenital anomalies were excluded. An association between SGA (less than 2 standard deviations below the mean) and placenta previa was modeled by parity-specific unadjusted and adjusted statistical models. Placenta previa complicated 625 of 249,476 singleton births among nulliparous women (2.50/1,000) and 915 of 347,086 singleton births among multiparous women (2.64/1,000). Among nulliparous women, the most common risk factor for placenta previa was in vitro fertilization; placenta previa was not associated with an increased prevalence of SGA controlling for maternal age, smoking, in vitro fertilization, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-1.17). Among multiparous women, placenta previa was associated with a twofold increased risk of SGA controlling for maternal age, parity, prior preterm birth, prior caesarean delivery, prior SGA newborn, prior preeclampsia, smoking, in vitro fertilization, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.50-2.89). Furthermore, only one-fourth of the association between SGA and placenta previa could be explained by controlling for risk factors clustering with placenta previa among multiparous women. Placenta previa is associated with impaired fetal growth in multiparous but not nulliparous women. II.

  17. Placenta Previa and the Risk of Delivering a Small-for-Gestational-Age Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Kramer, Michael R.; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is an association between placenta previa and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn and to quantify the contribution of individual risk factors for SGA that are associated with placenta previa, stratified by maternal parity. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2000–2010. All singleton births (N=596,562) were included; major congenital anomalies were excluded. An association between SGA (< 2 standard deviations below the mean) and placenta previa was modeled by parity-specific unadjusted and adjusted statistical models. Results Placenta previa complicated 625 of 249,476 singleton births among nulliparous women (2.50/1,000) and (915 of 347,086 singleton births among multiparous women (2.64/1,000). Among nulliparous women, the most common risk factor for placenta previa was in vitro fertilization (IVF); placenta previa was not associated with an increased prevalence of SGA, controlling for maternal age, smoking, IVF, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (aOR=0.81; 95% CI=0.57–1.17). Among multiparous women, placenta previa was associated with a two-fold increased risk of SGA, controlling for maternal age, parity, prior preterm birth, prior caesarean delivery, prior SGA newborn, prior preeclampsia, smoking, IVF, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (aOR=2.08; 95% CI=1.50–2.89). Further, only one fourth of the association between SGA and placenta previa could be explained by controlling for risk factors clustering with placenta previa among multiparous women. Conclusions Placenta previa is associated with impaired fetal growth in multiparous but not nulliparous women. PMID:25004348

  18. Living in violence: Neighborhood domestic violence and small for gestational age births.

    PubMed

    Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Theall, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods. Tests for spatial autocorrelation reveled area-level clustering and overlap of SGA and domestic violent rates. Pregnant women living in high domestic violence areas were more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared to women in low-domestic violence areas (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.08), net of the effects of individual-level factors and propensity scores. Neighborhood-level attributes including rates of domestic violence may increase women's risk for SGA birth, highlighting a policy-relevant and potentially amenable exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  20. Polymorphisms in Inflammatory Genes are Associated with Term Small for Gestational Age and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Quaker E.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Wu, Michael C.; Moran, Thomas M.; Luo, Jingchun; Stuebe, Alison M.; Avery, Christy L.; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with preeclampsia (PE) and poor fetal growth; however, genetic epidemiologic studies have been limited by reduced gene coverage and the exclusion of African American mothers. Method of study Cases and controls (N = 1646) from a pregnancy cohort were genotyped for 503 tagSNPs in 40 genes related to inflammation. Gene-set analyses were stratified by race and were followed by a single SNP analysis within significant gene sets. Results Gene-level associations were found for IL6 and KLRD1 for term small for gestational age (SGA) among African Americans. LTA/TNF and TBX21 were associated with PE among European Americans. The strongest association was for PE among European Americans for an upstream regulator of TNF with RR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1–2.7). Conclusion Although previous studies have suggested null associations, increased tagging and stratification by genetic ancestry suggests important associations between IL6 and term SGA for African Americans, and a TNF regulator and PE among European Americans (N = 149). PMID:24702779

  1. Polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with term small for gestational age and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Quaker E; Engel, Stephanie M; Wu, Michael C; Moran, Thomas M; Luo, Jingchun; Stuebe, Alison M; Avery, Christy L; Olshan, Andrew F

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with preeclampsia (PE) and poor fetal growth; however, genetic epidemiologic studies have been limited by reduced gene coverage and the exclusion of African American mothers. Cases and controls (N = 1646) from a pregnancy cohort were genotyped for 503 tagSNPs in 40 genes related to inflammation. Gene-set analyses were stratified by race and were followed by a single SNP analysis within significant gene sets. Gene-level associations were found for IL6 and KLRD1 for term small for gestational age (SGA) among African Americans. LTA/TNF and TBX21 were associated with PE among European Americans. The strongest association was for PE among European Americans for an upstream regulator of TNF with RR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.7). Although previous studies have suggested null associations, increased tagging and stratification by genetic ancestry suggests important associations between IL6 and term SGA for African Americans, and a TNF regulator and PE among European Americans (N = 149). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of gestational age and time of day in baseline and heart rate variation of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangfei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Lin; Li, Shufang; Wang, Yan; Hao, Dongmei; Yang, Yimin; Li, Xuwen; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Mingzhou

    2016-04-29

    Fetal electrocardiography (FECG) places electrodes on the maternal abdomen to convert the fetal electrocardiosignals into fetal heart rate (FHR), improving the accuracy and comfort of pregnant woman. At the same time, FECG simplifies the procedure of long term monitoring in the perinatal period. Investigating the influence of gestational age and time of day on FHR features to distinguish between non-stress test (NST) normal fetuses and NST suspicious fetuses. A novel method of FHR baseline estimation was presented; then baseline value and fetal heart rate variation (FHRV) were analyzed in the time domain using FHR signals recorded from 52 fetuses. Baseline values in 1:00, 2:00, 4:00, 5:00 and heart rate variation (HRV) distribution showed a significant difference (p< 0.05) between NST normal fetuses and NST suspicious fetuses. The results suggest that NST normal and suspicious fetuses had same outcome and different FHR features. Accurately distinguishing normal fetuses and suspicious fetuses is important for lowering the false positive rate and reducing unnecessary clinical intervention.

  3. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Maeve E; Mendola, Pauline; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor's or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur.

  4. Thresholds for small for gestational age among newborns of East Asian and South Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Jiang, Depeng; Sgro, Michael; Shah, Rajiv; Singh, Gita; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2009-04-01

    To determine the risk that newborn infants of East Asian and South Asian ancestry may be misclassified as small for gestational age (SGA). We performed a single-centre, cross-sectional study of a cohort of liveborn infants born to women who had been born in Canada (n = 2362), East Asia (n = 1565) and South Asia (n = 753) and generated smoothed birth weight curves for males and females. We determined the rate of misclassification of infants of East Asian and South Asian maternal origin as SGA, using conventional weight centile cut-offs, rather than those specific to each ethnic group. Infants of Canadian-born mothers had a mean birth weight that was 144 g and 218 g greater than newborns of mothers of East Asian and South Asian origin, respectively. Using the 3rd centile cut-off for infants of Canadian-born mothers, 7 per 1000 female and 14 per 1000 male infants of East Asian maternal origin were potentially miscategorized as SGA at birth. Among female and male infants of mothers of South Asian origin, the corresponding rates were 29 and 46 per 1000. Birth weight curves may need to be modified for newborns of East Asian and South Asian parentage to make a more accurate diagnosis of SGA.

  5. [Follow-up of the small-for-gestational-age child: clinical guidelines].

    PubMed

    López, I Díez; Muñoz, A de Arriba; Muñoz, J Bosch; Rodríguez, P Cabanas; Gómez, E Gallego; Ollero, M J Martínez-Aedo; Rodríguez, J M Rial; Dehlia, A C Rodríguez; Estrada, R Cañete; Toda, L Ibáñez

    2012-02-01

    In this document the Small for Gestational Age (SGA) Child Working Group of the Spanish Society for Paediatric Endocrinology proposes the guidelines for the management and follow-up of SGA children, highlighting the potential morbidity arising from the SGA condition and its consequences in adulthood. There is currently a wide variability in the management of the SGA child between health centres and health professionals. The diagnostic criteria for SGA according to the last international consensus guidelines are defined, which also include preterm SGA patients but excluding those patients in whom low birthweigh is associated with specific syndromes. We also outline the potential abnormalities associated with the SGA condition and recommend specific therapeutic and preventative measures. Low birth weight remains a major cause of morbidity in childhood and is associated with an increased risk of health problems later in life. Childhood is a critical window during which some of the risk factors accounting for this sequence are potentially reversible, with healthy lifestyle measures and environmental intervention. Accordingly, these guidelines should be useful not only for Primary Care Paediatricians but also for Neonatologists, Paediatric Endocrinologists, Neuropaediatricians and Pediatric Gastroenterologists, and also for the parents. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of Gestational Age at Delivery on Urologic Outcomes for the Fetus with Hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Tara; Amodeo, Rhiannon R; Patil, Avinash S; Robinson, Barrett K

    2016-01-01

    Compare short-term urologic outcomes with delivery timing in fetuses with severe hydronephrosis. An ultrasound database was queried for severe hydronephrosis. Cases were categorized into late preterm/early term (36 0/7 - 38 6/7 weeks) and full term (39 0/7 weeks or greater) groups. Baseline characteristics were compared using standard statistical methods. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed for grade and severity of hydronephrosis on first postnatal ultrasound with gestational age at delivery. Of 589 cases, 79 (33 late preterm/early term, 46 full term) met criteria. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) indicated that increased postnatal Society for Fetal Urology grade, rs= -0.26 (95% CI [-.48, -.002]), and severity of hydronephrosis, rs= -0.39 (95% CI [-.59, -.14]), both correlated with earlier delivery. Late preterm/early term delivery resulted in worse short-term postnatal renal outcomes. Unless otherwise indicated, delivery for fetal hydronephrosis should be deferred until 39 weeks.

  7. [Detection of small for gestational age fetuses during third trimester ultrasound. A monocentric observational study].

    PubMed

    Peyronnet, V; Kayem, G; Mandelbrot, L; Sibiude, J

    2016-09-01

    Fetus small for gestational age (SGA) screening rate is evaluated around 21,7 % in France. Recommendations were developed to improve the efficiency of ultrasound conducted in the third trimester (T3), because neonatal consequences can be significant. This study aims to evaluate screening of SGA during T3 ultrasound and to describe causes for failure and differences with the recommendations of CNGOF. All children born between 2011 and 2012 with a birth weight below the 3rd percentile were included in this observational, retrospective, monocentric study. We noted that the diagnosis of SGA was placed on file. Then, as recommended by the CNGOF, we calculated estimated fetal weight (EFW) with Hadlock 3 and Hadlock 4, and the corresponding percentiles, using the biometrics from the ultrasound report. We thus could evaluate a new screening rate with SGA fetus identified through this technique. A total of 142 patients were included. By calculating correctly all EFW and checking abdominal circumference percentiles, the screening rate of SGA fetuses with T3 ultrasound increased from 40 % to 50 % and the overall screening rate (clinical and ultrasound) from 54 % to 66 %. By following the recommendations we found a real improvement in fetal SGA screening rates to T3 ultrasound with a potential benefit for their care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact on obstetric outcome of third-trimester screening for small-for-gestational-age fetuses.

    PubMed

    Callec, R; Lamy, C; Perdriolle-Galet, E; Patte, C; Heude, B; Morel, O

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of screening for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses by ultrasound biometry at 30-35 weeks' gestation, and to determine the impact of screening on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. For this prospective cohort study, pregnant women were recruited from two French university maternity centers between 2003 and 2006. Performance measures of third-trimester biometry for the prediction of SGA, defined as estimated fetal weight < 10(th) centile, were analyzed. Obstetric outcomes and neonatal health status were compared, first, between SGA neonates diagnosed correctly at ultrasound examination (true positive (TP); n = 45) and SGA neonates that went undiagnosed (false negative (FN); n = 110) and, second, between non-SGA neonates identified as normal at ultrasound examination (true negative (TN); n = 1641) and non-SGA neonates diagnosed incorrectly as SGA (false positive (FP); n = 101). In the prediction of SGA, third-trimester ultrasound had a sensitivity of 29.0% (95% CI, 22.5-36.6%) and specificity of 94.2% (95% CI, 93.0-95.2%). Positive and negative predictive values were 30.8% (95% CI, 23.9-38.7%) and 93.7% (95% CI, 92.5-94.8%), respectively. One hundred and ten SGA neonates went undiagnosed at ultrasound. Compared to the TN neonates considered as of normal weight at ultrasound, planned preterm delivery (before 37 weeks) and elective Cesarean section for a fetal growth indication were 2.4 (P = 0.01) and 2.85 (P = 0.003) times more likely to occur, respectively, in the FP group of non-SGA neonates, diagnosed incorrectly as SGA during the antenatal period. There was no statistically significant difference in 5-min Apgar score < 7, cord blood pH at birth < 7.15 and need for neonatal resuscitation between the two subgroups (TN vs FP and TP vs FN). The performance of third-trimester ultrasound screening for SGA seems poor, as it misses the diagnosis of a large number of SGA neonates. The consequences

  9. Smoking ban and small-for-gestational age births in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Zubair; Daly, Sean; Clarke, Vanessa; Keogan, Sheila; Clancy, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Ireland introduced a comprehensive workplace smoke-free legislation in March, 2004. Smoking-related adverse birth outcomes have both health care and societal cost implications. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Irish smoke-free legislation on small-for-gestationa- age (SGA) births. We developed a population-based birthweight (BW) percentile curve based on a recent study to compute SGA (BW <5(th) percentile) and very SGA (vSGA - BW<3(rd) percentile) for each gestational week. Monthly births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed linking with monthly maternal smoking rates from a large referral maternity university hospital. We ran individual control and CUSUM charts, with bootstrap simulations, to pinpoint the breakpoint for the impact of ban implementation ( = April 2004). Monthly SGA rates (%) before and after April 2004 was considered pre and post ban period births, respectively. Autocorrelation was tested using Durbin Watson (DW) statistic. Mixed models using a random intercept and a fixed effect were employed using SAS (v 9.2). A total of 588,997 singleton live-births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. vSGA and SGA monthly rates declined from an average of 4.7% to 4.3% and from 6.9% to 6.6% before and after April 2004, respectively. No auto-correlation was detected (DW = ~2). Adjusted mixed models indicated a significant decline in both vSGA and SGA rates immediately after the ban [(-5.3%; 95% CI -5.43% to -5.17%, p<0.0001) and (-0.45%; 95% CI: -0.7% to -0.19%, p<0.0007)], respectively. Significant gradual effects continued post the ban periods for vSGA and SGA rates, namely, -0.6% (p<0.0001) and -0.02% (p<0.0001), respectively. A significant reduction in small-for-gestational birth rates both immediately and sustained over the post-ban period, reinforces the mounting evidence of the positive health effect of a successful comprehensive smoke-free legislation in a vulnerable population group

  10. Primary Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns by Lifestyle Counseling: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, Riitta; Kinnunen, Tarja I.; Aittasalo, Minna; Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Ojala, Katriina; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Lamberg, Satu; Vasankari, Tommi; Komulainen, Tanja; Tulokas, Sirkku

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or newborns' high birthweight can be prevented by lifestyle counseling in pregnant women at high risk of GDM. Method and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized trial, the NELLI study, in 14 municipalities in Finland, where 2,271 women were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8–12 wk gestation. Euglycemic (n = 399) women with at least one GDM risk factor (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2, glucose intolerance or newborn's macrosomia (≥4,500 g) in any earlier pregnancy, family history of diabetes, age ≥40 y) were included. The intervention included individual intensified counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits. Primary outcomes were incidence of GDM as assessed by OGTT (maternal outcome) and newborns' birthweight adjusted for gestational age (neonatal outcome). Secondary outcomes were maternal weight gain and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy. Adherence to the intervention was evaluated on the basis of changes in physical activity (weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET) minutes) and diet (intake of total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharose, and fiber). Multilevel analyses took into account cluster, maternity clinic, and nurse level influences in addition to age, education, parity, and prepregnancy BMI. 15.8% (34/216) of women in the intervention group and 12.4% (22/179) in the usual care group developed GDM (absolute effect size 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–2.62, p = 0.36). Neonatal birthweight was lower in the intervention than in the usual care group (absolute effect size −133 g, 95% CI −231 to −35, p = 0.008) as was proportion of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns (26/216, 12.1% versus 34/179, 19.7%, p = 0.042). Women in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber (adjusted coefficient 1.83, 95% CI 0.30–3.25, p = 0

  11. Effects of mares' age and day of gestation on efficacy of transvaginal ultrasound-guided twin reduction.

    PubMed

    Rau, Janina; Tiedemann, Daniela; Sielhorst, Jutta; Tönissen, Anna; Burger, Dominik; Martinsson, Gunilla; Rohn, Karl; Oldenhof, Harriette; Sieme, Harald

    2018-06-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration (TUA) is a procedure which can be used for the reduction of twins post-fixation in the mare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the age of mares and the day of gestation on the outcome of TUA treatment. In 88 mares, diagnosed pregnant with twins, TUA of the yolk sac or allantoic fluid was performed between day 30 and 62 of gestation. Mares were aged 3-22 years. Ultrasonographic examination for a viable singleton pregnancy was performed by referring veterinarians 5-7 days and 4 weeks after TUA. Based on reported findings, effects of age and day of gestation on pregnancy rates were evaluated. Four weeks after TUA, 67% of the cases resulted in a viable singleton pregnancy. Five to 7 days after TUA treatment, the success rate was 74%. The gestational period did not affect the outcome, irrespective of the age of the mare. In contrast, success rates decreased with increasing age of the mares (84% ≤ 7 years vs. 67% 8-14 years vs. 57% ≥ 15 years). In mares aged 8-14 years, a decrease in singleton pregnancies was observed, if TUA was performed after day 35 of gestation. Success rates were slightly higher, if twin vesicles were localized within separate uterine horns (73%) as compared to the same horn (66%). Differences in singleton pregnancy rates were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). TUA was found to be an effective procedure for reduction of twin pregnancies performed at days 30-62 of gestation. Success rates for singleton pregnancies were high for young mares ≤ 7 years old (84%) and middle aged mares treated before day 36 of pregnancy (74%). Duration of pregnancy at the time of TUA did not have a major impact on the outcome. Nevertheless, the procedure should optimally be performed around days 32-35 of pregnancy to allow for the possibility of natural reduction before treatment and rebreeding in case of a total pregnancy loss after TUA. Schattauer GmbH.

  12. Smoking overrules many other risk factors for small for gestational age birth in less educated mothers.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2013-07-01

    Although there is convincing evidence for the association between small for gestational age (SGA) and socioeconomic status (SES), it is not known to what extent explanatory factors contribute to this association. To examine to what extent risk factors could explain educational inequalities in SGA. In this study fully completed data were available for 3793 pregnant women of Dutch origin from a population-based cohort (ABCD study). Path-analysis was conducted to examine the role of explanatory factors in the relation of maternal education to SGA. Low-educated pregnant women had a higher risk of SGA offspring compared to the high-educated women (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.35-2.89). In path-analysis, maternal cigarette smoking and maternal height explained this association. Maternal age, hypertension, chronic disease, late entry into antenatal care, neighborhood income, underweight, environmental cigarette smoking, drug abuse, alcohol use, caffeine intake, fish intake, folic acid intake, anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not play a role in the association between maternal education and SGA birth. Among a large array of potential factors, the elevated risk of SGA birth among low-educated women appeared largely attributable to maternal smoking and to a lesser extent to maternal height. To reduce educational inequalities more effort is required to include low-educated women especially in prenatal intervention programs such as smoking cessation programs instead of effort into reducing other SGA-risk factors, though these factors might still be relevant at the individual level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Goniometric Assessment of Muscle Tone of Preterm Infants and Impact of Gestational Age on Its Maturation in Indian Setting.

    PubMed

    Farmania, Rajni; Sitaraman, S; Das, Rashmi Ranjan

    2017-08-01

    The normative data on muscle tone of preterm infants by goniometric assessment in Indian setting are scarce. The aim of this study it to provide a normative objective data of muscle tone of preterm infants by gestation using goniometer. This was a prospective, observational study including preterm infants admitted in a tertiary care hospital from North India. The objective dimension of muscle tone assessment of 204 healthy preterm infants was done; 61 infants completed follow-up till 40 weeks' postconceptional age (PCA) and were compared to term infants. SPSS (version 16.0) was used. The intergroup comparison was done through ANOVA, and the localization of differences between the groups was determined through multiple comparisons by post hoc test. Mean gestational age was 34.3 ± 1.7 weeks. Angles were as follows: adductor = 100.1 ± 8.7, popliteal = 118.9 ± 8.6, dorsiflexion = 39.0 ± 9.0, heel to ear = 121.90 ± 7.90, wrist flexion = 46.0 ± 10.2, and arm recoil = 122.2° ± 16.6°. The evolution of muscle tone as indicated by heel-to-ear angle shows progressive maturation from 32 weeks' gestation while adductor angle, popliteal angle, and arm recoil mature predominantly after 36 weeks' gestation. Comparison of preterm infants to term at 40 weeks' PCA demonstrated significantly less tone in all except posture and heel to ear. Goniometric assessment provides a objective normative data of muscle tone for preterm infants. Maturation of heel to ear and posture evolves from 32 weeks onwards and are the earliest neurologic marker to mature in preterm infants independent of the gestational age at birth.

  15. Comparison of two measures of gestational age among low income births. The potential impact on health studies, New York, 2005.

    PubMed

    Lazariu, Victoria; Davis, Christopher F; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems considered changing the definition of gestational age from the current definition based on mother's last normal menstrual period (LMP) to the clinical/obstetric estimate determined by the physician (CE).They determined additional information was needed. This study provides additional insight into the comparability of the LMP and CE measures currently used on vital records among births at risk for poor outcomes. The data consisted of all New York State (NYS) (excluding New York City) singleton births in 2005 among mothers enrolled in the NYS Women Infants and Children (WIC) program during pregnancy. Prenatal WIC records were matched to NYS' Statewide Perinatal Data System. The analysis investigates differences between LMP and CE recorded gestations. Relative risks between risk factors and preterm birth were compared for LMP and CE. Exact agreement between gestation measures exists in 49.6% of births. Overall, 6.4% of records indicate discordance in full term/preterm classifications; CE is full term and LMP preterm in 4.9%, with the converse true for 1.5%. Associations between risk factor and preterm birth differed in magnitude based on gestational age measurement. Infants born to mothers with high risk indicators were more likely to have a CE of preterm and LMP full term. Changing the measure of gestational age to CE universally likely would result in overestimation of the importance of some risk factors for preterm birth. Potential overestimation of clinical outcomes associated with preterm birth may occur and should be studied.

  16. Advantageous developmental outcomes of advancing paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, M; Rijsdijk, F; Rai, D; Modabbernia, A; Reichenberg, A

    2017-01-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been associated with negative outcomes in offspring, raising concerns about increasing age at fatherhood. Evidence from evolutionary and psychological research, however, suggests possible link between APA and a phenotypic advantage. We defined such advantage as educational success, which is positively associated with future socioeconomic status. We hypothesised that high IQ, strong focus on the subject of interest and little concern about ‘fitting in’ will be associated with such success. Although these traits are continuously distributed in the population, they cluster together in so-called ‘geeks’. We used these measures to compute a ‘geek index’ (GI), and showed it to be strongly predictive of future academic attainment, beyond the independent contribution of the individual traits. GI was associated with paternal age in male offspring only, and mediated the positive effects of APA on education outcomes, in a similar sexually dimorphic manner. The association between paternal age and GI was partly mediated by genetic factors not correlated with age at fatherhood, suggesting contribution of de novo factors to the ‘geeky’ phenotype. Our study sheds new light on the multifaceted nature of the APA effects and explores the intricate links between APA, autism and talent. PMID:28632201

  17. Performance of a postnatal metabolic gestational age algorithm: a retrospective validation study among ethnic subgroups in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hawken, Steven; Ducharme, Robin; Murphy, Malia S Q; Atkinson, Katherine M; Potter, Beth K; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Kumanan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Biological modelling of routinely collected newborn screening data has emerged as a novel method for deriving postnatal gestational age estimates. Validation of published models has previously been limited to cohorts largely consisting of infants of white Caucasian ethnicity. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of a published gestational age estimation algorithm among recent immigrants to Canada, where maternal landed immigrant status was used as a surrogate measure of infant ethnicity. Design We conducted a retrospective validation study in infants born in Ontario between April 2009 and September 2011. Setting Provincial data from Ontario, Canada were obtained from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Participants The dataset included 230 034 infants born to non-landed immigrants and 70 098 infants born to immigrant mothers. The five most common countries of maternal origin were India (n=10 038), China (n=7468), Pakistan (n=5824), The Philippines (n=5441) and Vietnam (n=1408). Maternal country of origin was obtained from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Landed Immigrant Database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Performance of a postnatal gestational age algorithm was evaluated across non-immigrant and immigrant populations. Results Root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.05 weeks was observed for infants born to non-immigrant mothers, whereas RMSE ranged from 0.98 to 1.15 weeks among infants born to immigrant mothers. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing term versus preterm infants (≥37 vs <37 weeks gestational age or >34 vs ≤34 weeks gestational age) was 0.958 and 0.986, respectively, in the non-immigrant subgroup and ranged from 0.927 to 0.964 and 0.966 to 0.99 in the immigrant subgroups. Conclusions Algorithms for postnatal determination of gestational age may be further refined by development and validation of region or ethnicity-specific models. However, our

  18. Performance of a postnatal metabolic gestational age algorithm: a retrospective validation study among ethnic subgroups in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Steven; Ducharme, Robin; Murphy, Malia S Q; Atkinson, Katherine M; Potter, Beth K; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Kumanan

    2017-09-03

    Biological modelling of routinely collected newborn screening data has emerged as a novel method for deriving postnatal gestational age estimates. Validation of published models has previously been limited to cohorts largely consisting of infants of white Caucasian ethnicity. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of a published gestational age estimation algorithm among recent immigrants to Canada, where maternal landed immigrant status was used as a surrogate measure of infant ethnicity. We conducted a retrospective validation study in infants born in Ontario between April 2009 and September 2011. Provincial data from Ontario, Canada were obtained from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. The dataset included 230 034 infants born to non-landed immigrants and 70 098 infants born to immigrant mothers. The five most common countries of maternal origin were India (n=10 038), China (n=7468), Pakistan (n=5824), The Philippines (n=5441) and Vietnam (n=1408). Maternal country of origin was obtained from Citizenship and Immigration Canada's Landed Immigrant Database. Performance of a postnatal gestational age algorithm was evaluated across non-immigrant and immigrant populations. Root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.05 weeks was observed for infants born to non-immigrant mothers, whereas RMSE ranged from 0.98 to 1.15 weeks among infants born to immigrant mothers. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing term versus preterm infants (≥37 vs <37 weeks gestational age or >34 vs ≤34 weeks gestational age) was 0.958 and 0.986, respectively, in the non-immigrant subgroup and ranged from 0.927 to 0.964 and 0.966 to 0.99 in the immigrant subgroups. Algorithms for postnatal determination of gestational age may be further refined by development and validation of region or ethnicity-specific models. However, our results provide reassurance that an algorithm developed from Ontario-born infant cohorts performs well

  19. Preterm or not--an evaluation of estimates of gestational age in a cohort of women from Rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Karl, Stephan; Li Wai Suen, Connie S N; Unger, Holger W; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Mola, Glen; White, Lisa; Wangnapi, Regina A; Rogerson, Stephen J; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of accurate gestational age is required for comprehensive pregnancy care and is an essential component of research evaluating causes of preterm birth. In industrialised countries gestational age is determined with the help of fetal biometry in early pregnancy. Lack of ultrasound and late presentation to antenatal clinic limits this practice in low-resource settings. Instead, clinical estimators of gestational age are used, but their accuracy remains a matter of debate. In a cohort of 688 singleton pregnancies from rural Papua New Guinea, delivery gestational age was calculated from Ballard score, last menstrual period, symphysis-pubis fundal height at first visit and quickening as well as mid- and late pregnancy fetal biometry. Published models using sequential fundal height measurements and corrected last menstrual period to estimate gestational age were also tested. Novel linear models that combined clinical measurements for gestational age estimation were developed. Predictions were compared with the reference early pregnancy ultrasound (<25 gestational weeks) using correlation, regression and Bland-Altman analyses and ranked for their capability to predict preterm birth using the harmonic mean of recall and precision (F-measure). Average bias between reference ultrasound and clinical methods ranged from 0-11 days (95% confidence levels: 14-42 days). Preterm birth was best predicted by mid-pregnancy ultrasound (F-measure: 0.72), and neuromuscular Ballard score provided the least reliable preterm birth prediction (F-measure: 0.17). The best clinical methods to predict gestational age and preterm birth were last menstrual period and fundal height (F-measures 0.35). A linear model combining both measures improved prediction of preterm birth (F-measure: 0.58). Estimation of gestational age without ultrasound is prone to significant error. In the absence of ultrasound facilities, last menstrual period and fundal height are among the more reliable clinical

  20. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  1. GFR estimated from cystatin C versus creatinine in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maria C P; Nishida, Sônia K; Sesso, Ricardo

    2008-06-01

    Low birth weight caused by intrauterine growth restriction may be a risk factor for renal impairment in the adult life. A cross-sectional study. 71 children aged 8 to 13 years living in the community of São Paulo, Brazil, were included in the study. Gestational age was within the normal range. Birth weight (range, 2,052 to 3,560 g) divided into quartiles: 2,500 g or less; 2,501 to 2,740 g; 2,741 to 3,000 g; and greater than 3,000 g. Birth weight ascertained by birth records in 43 and by recall in 28 participants. Cystatin C, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by equations using cystatin C (eGFR(cys)) or creatinine (eGFR(cr)). Overall, mean serum creatinine level was 0.8 +/- 0.01 (SE) mg/dL (range, 0.7 to 1.1 mg/dL); mean plasma cystatin C level was 0.9 +/- 0.02 mg/L (range, 0.5 to 1.6 mg/L), and eGFR(cr) and eGFR(cys) were 102.4 +/- 2.16 (range, 66 to 140) and 91.8 +/- 2.46 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range, 49 to 139 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), respectively. No differences were found for serum creatinine or eGFR(cr) values among the birth-weight quartiles. There was a significant linear trend of increasing cystatin C levels (decreasing eGFR(cys)) in the lower birth-weight quartile groups (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure correlated with plasma cystatin C level (r = 0.31; P = 0.008) and eGFR(cys) (r = -0.26; P = 0.028). Covariance analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index for age compared with standards of the National Center for Health Statistics and expressed as a z score, and systolic blood pressure showed that cystatin C values remained greater in the lowest than highest birth-weight quartile (1.01 +/- 0.05 versus 0.83 +/- 0.05 mg/L; P = 0.02). Ascertainment of birth weight by recall in some participants. Lack of measurement of microalbuminuria, absence of direct GFR measurement, and small sample size. Lower birth weight is associated with higher levels of cystatin C but not creatinine in 8-13 yr. old children born

  2. The relationship between gestational age and compliance in human umbilical vein and its possible application in vascular grafting.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenchun; Huang, Tiezhu; Zeng, Yanjun; Yao, Zhongjun

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a theoretical basis, using biomechanical properties, for the clinical application of human umbilical vein (HUV) as material for vascular grafting. This was a nonrandomized, non-controlled in vitro study. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Medical Biomechanics, Yunyang Medical College. HUVs of 50 normal fetuses were collected on spontaneous miscarriage or labor with the pregnant women's permission by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taihe Hospital, Shiyan, Hubei Province. Gestational aged ranged 24-42 weeks, and parturients were 20-30 years old. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationship of HUV was measured on the biomechanical experiment stand for soft tissues, and then compliance was calculated. The P-V relationship of HUV corresponded to a parabolic curve. The compliance of HUV increased gradually with gestational age [24-27 weeks (2.22+/-0.34) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 28-32 weeks (3.65+/-0.46) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 33-36 weeks (4.22+/-0.55) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 37 weeks (7.63+/-0.48) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 38 weeks (8.32+/-0.76) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm)]. However, after 39 weeks of gestation, compliance decreased gradually with gestational age [39 weeks 7.61+/-0.46) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 40 weeks (7.53+/-0.72) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 41 weeks (4.13+/-0.35) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm), 42 weeks (2.25+/-0.62) x 10(-4) mL/(kPa * cm)]. The compliance of HUVs collected at 37-40 weeks of gestational age was similar. When the HUVs older than 42 weeks or under 28 weeks were compared, there was significant difference in their compliance (F=65.84-86.52, p<0.01). The results of the present study suggest that HUVs collected at 37-40 weeks of gestational age have good compliance, i.e., a good P-V relationship, and therefore may be a suitable material for vascular grafting. HUV is one of several graft materials that may be used when autogenous saphenous vein is absent or inadequate. HUV is very biocompatible and

  3. Accuracy of gestational age estimation from last menstrual period among women seeking abortion in South Africa, with a view to task sharing: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Moodley, Jennifer; Myer, Landon

    2017-08-22

    The requirement for ultrasound to establish gestational age among women seeking abortion can be a barrier to access. Last menstrual period dating without clinical examination should be a reasonable alternative among selected women, and if reliable, can be task-shared with non-clinicians. This study determines the accuracy of gestational age estimation using last menstrual period (LMP) assessed by community health care workers (CHWs), and explores providers' and CHWs' perspectives on task sharing this activity. The study purpose is to expand access to early medical abortion services. We conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study at four urban non-governmental reproductive health clinics in South Africa. CHWs interviewed women seeking abortion, recorded their LMP and gestational age from a pregnancy wheel if within 63 days. Thereafter, providers performed a standard examination including ultrasound to determine gestational age. Lastly, investigators calculated gestational age for all LMP dates recorded by CHWs. We compared mean gestational age from LMP dates to mean gestational age by ultrasound using t-tests and calculated proportions for those incorrectly assessed as eligible for medical abortion from LMP. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with six providers and seven CHWs. Mean gestational age was 5 days (by pregnancy wheel) and 9 days (by LMP calculation) less than ultrasound gestational age. Twelve percent of women were eligible for medical abortion by LMP calculation but ineligible by ultrasound. Uncertainty of LMP date was associated with incorrect assessment of gestational age eligibility for medical abortion (p = 0.015). For women certain their LMP date was within 56 days, 3% had ultrasound gestational ages >70 days. In general, providers and CHWs were in favour of task sharing screening and referral for abortion, but were doubtful that women reported accurate LMP dates. Different perspectives emerged on how to implement task sharing

  4. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, J. J.; Lee, M. K.; Saha, S.; Boscardin, W. J.; Apfel, A.; Currier, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P <0.0001). There were small (1–5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P <0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  5. Menstrual versus clinical estimate of gestational age dating in the United States: temporal trends and variability in indices of perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Cande V

    2007-09-01

    Accurate estimation of gestational age early in pregnancy is paramount for obstetric care decisions and for determining fetal growth and other conditions that may necessitate timing the iatrogenic intervention or delivery. We sought to examine temporal changes in the distributions of two measures of gestational age, namely, those based on menstrual dating and a clinical estimate. We further sought to evaluate relative comparisons and variability in indices of perinatal outcomes. We utilised the Natality data files in the US, 1990-2002 comprising women that delivered a singleton livebirth between 22 and 44 weeks gestation (n = 42 689 603). Changes were shown in the distributions of gestational age based on menstrual vs. clinical estimate between 1990 and 2002, as well as changes in the proportions of preterm (<37, <32 and <28 weeks) and post-term (>or=42 weeks) birth, and small- (SGA; <10th percentile) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA; birthweight >90th percentile) births. While the absolute rates of preterm birth <37 weeks, SGA and LGA births were lower based on the clinical estimate of gestational age relative to that based on menstrual dating, the increases in preterm birth rate between 1990 and 2002 were fairly similar between the two measures of gestational dating. However, the decline in post-term births was larger, based on the clinical estimate (-73.8%), than on the menstrual estimate (-36.6%) between 1990 and 2002. While the clinical estimate of gestational age appears to provide a reasonably good approximation to the menstrual estimate, disregarding the clinical estimate of gestational age may ignore the advantages of gestational age assessment in modern obstetrics.

  6. Gestational age modulates neural correlates of intentional, but not automatic number magnitude processing in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Huber, Stefan; Willmes, Klaus; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kaufmann, Liane

    2018-04-01

    Premature birth is a significant risk factor for learning disabilities in general and mathematics learning difficulties in particular. However, the exact reasons for this relation are still unknown. While typical numerical development is associated with a frontal-to-parietal shift of brain activation with increasing age, influences of gestational age have hardly been considered so far. Therefore, we investigated the influence of gestational age on the neural correlates of number processing in 6- and 7-year-old children born prematurely (n=16). Only the numerical distance effect - as a measure of intentional number magnitude processing - elicited the fronto-parietal activation pattern typically observed for numerical cognition. On the other hand, the size congruity effect - as a measure of automatic number magnitude processing - was associated with activation of brain areas typically attributed to cognitive control. Most importantly, however, we observed that gestational age reliably predicted the frontal-to-parietal shift of activation observed for the numerical distance effect. Our findings seem to indicate that human numerical development may start even before birth and prematurity might hamper neural facilitation of the brain circuitry subserving numerical cognition. In turn, this might contribute to the high risk of premature children to develop mathematical learning difficulties. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential effect of assisted reproductive technology and small-for-gestational age on fetal cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Alcaraz, B; Crispi, F; Cruz-Lemini, M; Bijnens, B; García-Otero, L; Sitges, M; Balasch, J; Gratacós, E

    2017-07-01

    Fetuses conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) and those that are small-for-gestational age (SGA) show cardiovascular remodeling in utero; however, these two conditions are often associated. We aimed to evaluate the differential effect of ART and SGA on fetal cardiac remodeling. This was a prospective cohort study of term singleton pregnancies seen at our department between April 2011 and September 2013. The cohort was divided according to fetal growth and mode of conception into the following four groups: 102 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses conceived spontaneously (controls), 72 AGA fetuses conceived by ART (ART-AGA), 31 SGA fetuses conceived by ART (ART-SGA) and 28 SGA fetuses conceived naturally (Spont-SGA). SGA was defined as birth weight < 10 th centile. Fetal echocardiography was performed at 28-32 weeks to assess cardiac dimensions, geometry and function. ART fetuses had dilated atria (mean left atrium-to-heart area ratio: controls, 15 ± 2.7%; ART-AGA, 18 ± 4.1%; Spont-SGA, 14 ± 3.7%) and more globular ventricles (left ventricular sphericity index: controls, 1.77 ± 0.2; ART-AGA, 1.68 ± 0.2; Spont-SGA, 1.72 ± 0.2), with normally sized hearts. In contrast, SGA fetuses had enlarged hearts (cardiothoracic ratio: controls, 24 ± 3%; ART-AGA, 24 ± 4%; Spont-SGA, 29 ± 6%), preserved atrial size, more globular and concentric hypertrophic ventricles (left ventricle relative wall thickness: controls, 0.48 ± 0.17; ART-AGA, 0.54 ± 0.13; Spont-SGA, 0.63 ± 0.23). Both ART and SGA fetuses had decreased longitudinal motion (tricuspid annular ring displacement: controls, 6.5 ± 0.8 mm; ART-AGA, 5.5 ± 0.7 mm; Spont-SGA, 5.9 ± 0.6 mm) and impaired relaxation (left isovolumetric relaxation time: controls, 47.0 ± 7.3 ms; ART-AGA, 50.0 ± 7.9 ms; Spont-SGA, 49.5 ± 9.3 ms). ART-SGA fetuses presented a combination of features from both ART and SGA groups. SGA and

  8. [Growth hormone treatment in small for gestational age children in Spain].

    PubMed

    Rial Rodríguez, José Manuel; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Bosch Muñoz, Jordi; Cabanas Rodríguez, Paloma; Cañete Estrada, Ramón; Díez López, Ignacio; Hawkins Solís, María Magdalena; Martínez-Aedo Ollero, María José; Rodríguez Dehli, Ana Cristina; Ibáñez Toda, Lourdes

    2017-05-01

    Since its approval by the European Medicines Agency, a great number of patients born small for gestational date have received recombinant growth hormone treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to analyse its outcome in the setting of ordinary clinical practice. Information was gathered from the registers of the assessment boards that authorise all growth hormone treatments prescribed in public hospitals in six autonomic communities (regions). Valid data from 974 patients was obtained. All of them complied with criteria established by the European Medicines Agency. Patients in the sample were smaller in length than weight at birth, with their median target height being below 1 standard deviation (SD), and 23% of them had been delivered prematurely. Treatment was started at 7.2±2.8 years (mean±SD). The mean patient height at start was -3.1±0.8 SD. They gained 0.7±0.2 SD in the first year, and 1.2±0.8 SD after two years. Final height was attained by 8% of the sample, reaching -1.4±0.7 SD. These results are similar to other Spanish and international published studies, and are representative of the current practice in Spain. Despite treatment being started at a late age, adequate growth is observed in the short term and in the final height. Up to a 24% of patients show a poor response in the first year. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Validity of Newborn Clinical Assessment to Determine Gestational Age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne Cc; Mullany, Luke C; Ladhani, Karima; Uddin, Jamal; Mitra, Dipak; Ahmed, Parvez; Christian, Parul; Labrique, Alain; DasGupta, Sushil K; Lokken, R Peter; Quaiyum, Mohammed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-07-01

    Gestational age (GA) is frequently unknown or inaccurate in pregnancies in low-income countries. Early identification of preterm infants may help link them to potentially life-saving interventions. We conducted a validation study in a community-based birth cohort in rural Bangladesh. GA was determined by pregnancy ultrasound (<20 weeks). Community health workers conducted home visits (<72 hours) to assess physical/neuromuscular signs and measure anthropometrics. The distribution, agreement, and diagnostic accuracy of different clinical methods of GA assessment were determined compared with early ultrasound dating. In the live-born cohort (n = 1066), the mean ultrasound GA was 39.1 weeks (SD 2.0) and prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) was 11.4%. Among assessed newborns (n = 710), the mean ultrasound GA was 39.3 weeks (SD 1.6) (8.3% preterm) and by Ballard scoring the mean GA was 38.9 weeks (SD 1.7) (12.9% preterm). The average bias of the Ballard was -0.4 weeks; however, 95% limits of agreement were wide (-4.7 to 4.0 weeks) and the accuracy for identifying preterm infants was low (sensitivity 16%, specificity 87%). Simplified methods for GA assessment had poor diagnostic accuracy for identifying preterm births (community health worker prematurity scorecard [sensitivity/specificity: 70%/27%]; Capurro [5%/96%]; Eregie [75%/58%]; Bhagwat [18%/87%], foot length <75 mm [64%/35%]; birth weight <2500 g [54%/82%]). Neonatal anthropometrics had poor to fair performance for classifying preterm infants (areas under the receiver operating curve 0.52-0.80). Newborn clinical assessment of GA is challenging at the community level in low-resource settings. Anthropometrics are also inaccurate surrogate markers for GA in settings with high rates of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. The CHOP postnatal weight gain, birth weight, and gestational age retinopathy of prematurity risk model.

    PubMed

    Binenbaum, Gil; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Quinn, Graham E; Huang, Jiayan; Dreiseitl, Stephan; Antigua, Jules; Foroughi, Negar; Abbasi, Soraya

    2012-12-01

    To develop a birth weight (BW), gestational age (GA), and postnatal-weight gain retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prediction model in a cohort of infants meeting current screening guidelines. Multivariate logistic regression was applied retrospectively to data from infants born with BW less than 1501 g or GA of 30 weeks or less at a single Philadelphia hospital between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. In the model, BW, GA, and daily weight gain rate were used repeatedly each week to predict risk of Early Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity type 1 or 2 ROP. If risk was above a cut-point level, examinations would be indicated. Of 524 infants, 20 (4%) had type 1 ROP and received laser treatment; 28 (5%) had type 2 ROP. The model (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia [CHOP]) accurately predicted all infants with type 1 ROP; missed 1 infant with type 2 ROP, who did not require laser treatment; and would have reduced the number of infants requiring examinations by 49%. Raising the cut point to miss one type 1 ROP case would have reduced the need for examinations by 79%. Using daily weight measurements to calculate weight gain rate resulted in slightly higher examination reduction than weekly measurements. The BW-GA-weight gain CHOP ROP model demonstrated accurate ROP risk assessment and a large reduction in the number of ROP examinations compared with current screening guidelines. As a simple logistic equation, it can be calculated by hand or represented as a nomogram for easy clinical use. However, larger studies are needed to achieve a highly precise estimate of sensitivity prior to clinical application.

  11. Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Maly, Jan; Burianova, Iva; Vitkova, Veronika; Ticha, Eva; Navratilova, Martina; Cermakova, Eva

    2018-01-20

    To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation. Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. 24-Hour milk collection was not done. Analysis was performed using the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser (MIRIS AB, Uppsala, Sweden). A set of 1917 human milk samples donated by 225 mothers after preterm labour was analysed. Group A (24-30 GA) contains 969 milk samples; group B (31-35 GA) contains 948 milk samples. No difference in milk composition between the groups was identified. Median of true protein content decreased from 1.6 g/dL in group A and 1.5 g/dL in group B in the first week of life, to 1.1 g/dL in both groups at the end of week 3, and then remained stable up to week 9. Content of carbohydrates and fat was stable during the whole observation, with interindividual differences. Human milk does not differ as a function of degree of prematurity. Protein content of preterm human milk is low and decreases during the first 3 weeks of lactation. Recommended daily protein intake cannot be achieved with routine fortification in majority of milk samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Validity of Newborn Clinical Assessment to Determine Gestational Age in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Luke C.; Ladhani, Karima; Uddin, Jamal; Mitra, Dipak; Ahmed, Parvez; Christian, Parul; Labrique, Alain; DasGupta, Sushil K.; Lokken, R. Peter; Quaiyum, Mohammed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gestational age (GA) is frequently unknown or inaccurate in pregnancies in low-income countries. Early identification of preterm infants may help link them to potentially life-saving interventions. METHODS: We conducted a validation study in a community-based birth cohort in rural Bangladesh. GA was determined by pregnancy ultrasound (<20 weeks). Community health workers conducted home visits (<72 hours) to assess physical/neuromuscular signs and measure anthropometrics. The distribution, agreement, and diagnostic accuracy of different clinical methods of GA assessment were determined compared with early ultrasound dating. RESULTS: In the live-born cohort (n = 1066), the mean ultrasound GA was 39.1 weeks (SD 2.0) and prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) was 11.4%. Among assessed newborns (n = 710), the mean ultrasound GA was 39.3 weeks (SD 1.6) (8.3% preterm) and by Ballard scoring the mean GA was 38.9 weeks (SD 1.7) (12.9% preterm). The average bias of the Ballard was –0.4 weeks; however, 95% limits of agreement were wide (–4.7 to 4.0 weeks) and the accuracy for identifying preterm infants was low (sensitivity 16%, specificity 87%). Simplified methods for GA assessment had poor diagnostic accuracy for identifying preterm births (community health worker prematurity scorecard [sensitivity/specificity: 70%/27%]; Capurro [5%/96%]; Eregie [75%/58%]; Bhagwat [18%/87%], foot length <75 mm [64%/35%]; birth weight <2500 g [54%/82%]). Neonatal anthropometrics had poor to fair performance for classifying preterm infants (areas under the receiver operating curve 0.52–0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Newborn clinical assessment of GA is challenging at the community level in low-resource settings. Anthropometrics are also inaccurate surrogate markers for GA in settings with high rates of fetal growth restriction. PMID:27313070

  13. Ovarian morphology and function during growth hormone therapy of short girls born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Sundberg, Karin; Birkebæk, Niels; Christiansen, Peter; Ellermann, Annie; Holm, Kirsten; Jeppesen, Eva Mosfeldt; Kremke, Britta; Marcinski, Pawel; Pedersen, Carsten; Saurbrey, Nina; Thisted, Ebbe; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on ovarian and uterine morphology and function in short, prepubertal small-for-gestational-age (SGA) girls. A multinational, randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of GH therapy in short, prepubertal children born SGA. Not applicable. A subgroup of 18 Danish girls born SGA included in North European SGA Study (NESGAS). One year of GH treatment (67 μg/kg/day) followed by 2 years of randomized GH treatment (67 μg/kg/day, 35 μg/kg/day, or IGF-I titrated). Data on anthropometrics, reproductive hormones, and ultrasonographic examination of the internal genitalia were collected during 36 months of GH treatment. Uterine and ovarian volume increased significantly during 3 years of treatment (64% and 110%, respectively) but remained low within normal reference ranges. Ovarian follicles became visible in 58% after 1 year compared with 28% before GH therapy. Anti-Müllerian hormone increased significantly during the 3 years of GH therapy but remained within the normal range. Precocious puberty was observed in one girl; another girl developed multicystic ovaries. GH treatment was associated with statistically significant growth of the internal genitalia, but remained within the normal range. As altered pubertal development and ovarian morphology were found in 2 of 18 girls, monitoring of puberty and ovarian function during GH therapy in SGA girls is prudent. Altogether, the findings are reassuring. However, long-term effects of GH treatment on adult reproductive function remain unknown. EudraCT 2005-001507-19. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Helicobacter pylori colonization and pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, spontaneous prematurity, and small for gestational age birth.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Holster, I Lisanne; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriëtte A; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Blaser, Martin J; Steegers, Eric A P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), small for gestational age (SGA), and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) each may be complications of impaired placental function in pregnancy. Although their exact pathogenesis is still unknown, certain infectious agents seem to play a role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization has been associated with increased risk for PE. Our aim was to assess the association between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. We measured IgG anti-H. pylori and CagA antibodies in serum of pregnant women (median 20.5 weeks, range 16.5-29.4) who participated in a population-based prospective cohort study. Delivery and medical records were assessed. Information on demographics, education, and maternal risk factors was collected by questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess associations between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. In total, 6348 pregnant women were assessed. H. pylori positivity was found in 2915 (46%) women, of whom 1023 (35%) also were CagA-positive. Pregnancy was complicated by PE, SGA, or PTB in 927 (15%) women. H. pylori colonization was associated with PE (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.03-2.25). Differentiation according to CagA status revealed the same risk. H. pylori was positively related with SGA, mainly explained by CagA-positive strains (aOR 1.34; 1.04-1.71). No association was observed between H. pylori and PTB. Our data suggest that H. pylori colonization may be a risk factor for PE and SGA. If these associations are confirmed by future studies and shown to be causal, H. pylori eradication may reduce related perinatal morbidity and mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gestational age at birth and academic performance: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abel, Kathryn; Heuvelman, Hein; Wicks, Susanne; Rai, Dheeraj; Emsley, Richard; Gardner, Renee; Dalman, Christina

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies suggest pre-term birth is associated with cognitive deficit. However, less is known about cognitive outcomes following post-term birth, or the influence of weight variations within term or post-term populations. We examined associations between gestational age (GA) and school performance, by weight-for-GA, focusing on extremely pre- and post-term births. Record linkage study of Swedish children born 1973-94 ( n =  2 008 102) with a nested sibling comparison ( n =  439 629). We used restricted cubic regression splines to examine associations between GA and the grade achieved on leaving secondary education, comparing siblings to allow stronger causal inference with regard to associations between GA and school performance. Grade averages of both pre- and post-term children were below those of full-term counterparts and lower for those born small-for-GA. The adjusted grades of extremely pre-term children (at 24 completed weeks), while improving in later study periods, were lower by 0.43 standard deviations (95% confidence interval 0.38-0.49), corresponding with a 21-point reduction (19 to 24) on a 240-point scale. Reductions for extremely post-term children (at 45 completed weeks) were lesser [-0.15 standard deviation (-0.17 to -0.13) or -8 points (-9 to -7)]. Among matched siblings, we observed weaker residual effects of pre-term and post-term GA on school performance. There may be independent effects of fetal maturation and fetal growth on school performance. Associations among matched siblings, although attenuated, remained consistent with causal effects of pre- and post-term birth on school performance. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  16. Maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) in small for gestational age pregnancy at 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Poon, Leona C Y; Zaragoza, Edgar; Akolekar, Ranjit; Anagnostopoulos, Evangelos; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis of pregnancies delivering small for gestational age (SGA) neonates by examining biochemical and Doppler indices of placental development during the first trimester of pregnancy. The concentration of placental growth factor (PlGF) at 11(+0)-13(+6) weeks was measured in 296 cases, which delivered SGA neonates, and 609 controls. The newborn was considered to be SGA if the birth weight was less than the fifth percentile after correction for gestation at delivery and sex, maternal racial origin, weight, height and parity. The distributions of uterine artery pulsatility index (PI), PlGF and PAPP-A, expressed in multiples of the median (MoM), in the control and SGA groups were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine if significant contribution is provided by maternal factors, PlGF, PAPP-A and uterine artery PI in predicting SGA. The median PlGF (0.900 MoM) and PAPP-A (0.778 MoM) were lower and uterine artery PI was higher (1.087 MoM) in the SGA group than in the controls (PlGF: 0.991 MoM; PAPP-A: 1.070 MoM; uterine artery PI: 1.030 MoM). In the SGA group there was a significant association between PlGF and PAPP-A (r = 0.368, p < 0.0001) and uterine artery PI (r = 0.191, p = 0.001). Significant contributions for the prediction of SGA were provided by maternal factors, PlGF and PAPP-A and with combined screening the detection rate was 27% at a false-positive rate of 5%. Birth weight is predetermined by placental development during the first trimester of pregnancy. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Insulin resistance in young adults born small for gestational age (SGA).

    PubMed

    Putzker, Stephanie; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, Susanne; Kugler, Karl; Schwarz, Hans P; Bonfig, Walter

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to assess glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young adults born small for gestational age (SGA) as well as to measure the body composition and adipocytokines of these subjects. A total of 108 out of 342 SGA-born participants were invited for reexamination from the former Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS), in which 7505 risk-newborns of the years 1985 to 1986 were prospectively followed. Of these, 76 (34 female/42 male) participants at the age of 19.7±0.5 years were enrolled. Clinical examination and oral glucose tolerance testing (oGTT) was performed with assessment of insulin resistance indices, HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), adipocytokines, and body composition by bioimpedance analysis (BIA). A total of 25 out of 76 (32.9%) patients had abnormal fasting and/or glucose-stimulated insulin levels. Glucose values measured during oGTT showed no abnormalities, except one participant who had impaired glucose tolerance. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was 1.92±4.2, and insulin sensitivity index by Matsuda (ISI(Matsuda)) showed mean values of 7.85±4.49. HOMA-IR>2.5 was found in 8 patients (10.5%), and 20 patients (26.3%) had an ISI(Matsuda)<5, both interpreted as insulin resistant. No alterations of adipocytokines were found. Fat mass (FM) measured by BIA was within the normal range for both genders and correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.465, p<0.001) and leptin (r=0.668, p>0.001), but not with adiponectin. Insulin resistance correlated with change in weight-for-height Z-score during the first 3 months of age, indicating that weight gain during that early phase might be a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance in children born SGA. A high percentage of insulin-resistant subjects were reconfirmed in a large German cohort of young adults born SGA. Therefore, regular screening for disturbances in glucose metabolism is recommended in these subjects.

  18. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Renes, Judith S; de Ridder, Maria A J; Breukhoven, Petra E; Lem, Annemieke J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP) has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr), 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP). The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD) lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17). Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46). Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  19. Self-assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion using m-Health to calculate gestational age in Cape Town, South Africa: a feasibility pilot study.

    PubMed

    Momberg, Mariette; Harries, Jane; Constant, Deborah

    2016-04-16

    Although abortion is legally available in South Africa, barriers to access exist. Early medical abortion is available to women with a gestational age up to 63 days and timely access is essential. This study aimed to determine women's acceptability and ability to self-assess eligibility for early medical abortion using an online gestational age calculator. Women's acceptability, views and preferences of using mobile technology for gestational age (GA) determination were explored. No previous studies to ascertain the accuracy of online self-administered calculators in a non-clinical setting have been conducted. A convenience sample of abortion seekers were recruited from two health care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa in 2014. Seventy-eight women were enrolled and tasked with completing an online self-assessment by entering the first day of their last menstrual period (LMP) onto a website which calculated their GA. A short survey explored the feasibility and acceptability of employing m-Health technology in abortion services. Self-calculated GA was compared with ultrasound gestational age obtained from clinical records. Participant mean age was 28 (SD 6.8), 41% (32/78) had completed high school and 73% (57/78) reported owning a smart/feature phone. Internet searches for abortion information prior to clinic visit were undertaken by 19/78 (24%) women. Most participants found the online GA calculator easy to use (91%; 71/78); thought the calculation was accurate (86%; 67/78) and that it would be helpful when considering an abortion (94%; 73/78). Eighty-three percent (65/78) reported regular periods and recalled their LMP (71%; 55/78). On average women overestimated GA by 0.5 days (SD 14.5) and first sought an abortion 10 days (SD 14.3) after pregnancy confirmation. Timely access to information is an essential component of effective abortion services. Advances in the availability of mobile technology represent an opportunity to provide accurate and safe abortion

  20. Insulin resistance and its association with catch-up growth in Chinese children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Wu, Baiyan; Lin, Niyang; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    To assess insulin resistance and β-cell function from birth to age 4 years and to examine their associations with catch-up growth (CUG) in Chinese small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. Weight and height were measured yearly from birth to age 4 years, and transformed into age- and gender-adjusted SD scores. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured, and fasting insulin resistance and β-cell function were estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The mean HOMA-IR of the SGA group was significantly lower than that of the appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) group at ages 2 and 3 years old, and the mean HOMA% of the SGA group was significantly lower than that of the AGA group at age 4 years old. At 4 years of age, HOMA for insulin resistance was positively correlated with the height gain and SD of height gain between 0 and 5 months, and HOMA% was positively correlated with the weight gain and SD of weight gain between 6 and 12 months in SGA children. SGA children with CUG show a greater propensity to develop insulin resistance than AGA children between ages 2 and 4 years old. HOMA parameters are related to CUG in the first year of life. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Gonadotropin levels in urine during early postnatal period in small for gestational age preterm male infants with fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Nagai, S; Kawai, M; Myowa-Yamakoshi, M; Morimoto, T; Matsukura, T; Heike, T

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate gonadotropin concentrations in small for gestational age (SGA) male infants with the reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during the first few months of life that is important for genital development. We prospectively examined 15 SGA and 15 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm male infants between 2013 and 2014 at Kyoto University Hospital. Gonadotropin concentrations (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were measured in serial urine samples from the postnatal days 7 to 168 and compared between SGA and AGA infants using the Mann-Whitney test. A longitudinal analysis showed that SGA infants had higher LH and lower FSH concentrations (P=0.004 and P=0.006, respectively) than AGA infants. Male infants who are SGA at birth because of fetal growth restriction have gonadotropin secretion abnormalities in the first few months of life.

  2. Gestational Age Patterns of Fetal and Neonatal Mortality in Europe: Results from the Euro-Peristat Project

    PubMed Central

    Mohangoo, Ashna D.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Chalmers, Jim; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Bolumar, Francisco; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background The first European Perinatal Health Report showed wide variability between European countries in fetal (2.6–9.1‰) and neonatal (1.6–5.7‰) mortality rates in 2004. We investigated gestational age patterns of fetal and neonatal mortality to improve our understanding of the differences between countries with low and high mortality. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 29 countries/regions participating in the Euro-Peristat project were analyzed. Most European countries had no limits for the registration of live births, but substantial variations in limits for registration of stillbirths before 28 weeks of gestation existed. Country rankings changed markedly after excluding deaths most likely to be affected by registration differences (22–23 weeks for neonatal mortality and 22–27 weeks for fetal mortality). Countries with high fetal mortality ≥28 weeks had on average higher proportions of fetal deaths at and near term (≥37 weeks), while proportions of fetal deaths at earlier gestational ages (28–31 and 32–36 weeks) were higher in low fetal mortality countries. Countries with high neonatal mortality rates ≥24 weeks, all new member states of the European Union, had high gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rates for all gestational-age subgroups; they also had high fetal mortality, as well as high early and late neonatal mortality. In contrast, other countries with similar levels of neonatal mortality had varying levels of fetal mortality, and among these countries early and late neonatal mortality were negatively correlated. Conclusions For valid European comparisons, all countries should register births and deaths from at least 22 weeks of gestation and should be able to distinguish late terminations of pregnancy from stillbirths. After excluding deaths most likely to be influenced by existing registration differences, important variations in both levels and patterns of fetal and neonatal mortality rates were found. These

  3. Ghrelin and obestatin plasma levels and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms in small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shulian; Zhai, Guanpeng; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Jianguo; Chen, Chao

    2014-12-01

    To investigate plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels, and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms, in sequentially enrolled small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Neonates were sequentially enrolled into this study and were then subdivided into different groups, according to different study aims and availability of study materials. Consequently, plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured in term SGA, term appropriate for gestational age (AGA), term large for gestational age (LGA), preterm SGA and preterm AGA neonates. Levels of both peptides were also measured in AGA infants of different gestational ages, and in term AGA neonates at different days following birth. Three ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, and Gln90Leu, were measured in neonates. The study involved a total cohort of 581 neonates. Out of 150 neonates (30 term AGA, 30 term SGA, 30 term LGA, 30 preterm AGA, and 30 preterm SGA), plasma obestatin levels were significantly higher in term SGA versus term LGA neonates (0.21 ± 0.02 ng/ml versus 0.17 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Out of a wider cohort, there were no significant differences in genotypes and allele frequencies of Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, and Gln90Leu SNPs between term SGA and AGA neonates, or between preterm SGA and AGA neonates. Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide polymorphisms were not found to be associated with SGA status in neonates; however, ghrelin and obestatin levels may be involved in growth and development. Further studies are required to understand the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and prenatal development. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Maternal Black Race and Persistent Wheezing Illness in Former Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Wai, Katherine C; Hibbs, Anna M; Steurer, Martina A; Black, Dennis M; Asselin, Jeanette M; Eichenwald, Eric C; Ballard, Philip L; Ballard, Roberta A; Keller, Roberta L

    2018-04-04

    To evaluate the relationship between maternal self-reported race/ethnicity and persistent wheezing illness in former high-risk, extremely low gestational age newborns, and to quantify the contribution of socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors on this relationship. We assessed persistent wheezing illness determined at 18-24 months corrected (for prematurity) age in survivors of a randomized trial. Parents/caregivers were surveyed for wheeze and inhaled asthma medication use quarterly to 12 months, and at 18 and 24 months. We used multivariable analysis to evaluate the relationship of maternal race to persistent wheezing illness, and identified mediators for this relationship via formal mediation analysis. Of 420 infants (25.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation and 714 ± 166 g at birth, 57% male, 34% maternal black race), 189 (45%) had persistent wheezing illness. After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, and sex, infants of black mothers had increased odds of persistent wheeze compared with infants of nonblack mothers (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.9, 4.5). Only bronchopulmonary dysplasia, breast milk diet, and public insurance status were identified as mediators. In this model, the direct effect of race accounted for 69% of the relationship between maternal race and persistent wheeze, whereas breast milk diet, public insurance status, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia accounted for 8%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Among former high-risk extremely low gestational age newborns, infants of black mothers have increased odds of developing persistent wheeze. A substantial proportion of this effect is directly accounted for by race, which may reflect unmeasured environmental influences, and acquired and innate biological differences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01022580. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the Risk of Autism in Younger Siblings of Affected Children Moderated by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, or Gestational Age?

    PubMed

    Xie, Fagen; Peltier, Morgan; Getahun, Darios

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the recurrence risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in younger siblings of affected children and determine how it is modified by race/ethnicity and sex. Medical records of children born in a large health maintenance organization (Kaiser Permanent Southern California) hospitals from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, and who remained in our system until 2 to 11 years of age were used to assess the risk of recurrence of ASD in younger siblings. Children born at <28 or >42 weeks gestation, multiple births, or those who were not active members for ≥3 months were excluded. ASD diagnosis was ascertained from DSM-IV codes, and the magnitude of the association was estimated using adjusted relative risks (aRRs). Among eligible younger siblings, 592 (1.11%) had the diagnosis of ASD. The ASD rates were 11.30% and 0.92% for younger siblings of older affected and unaffected siblings, respectively (aRR: 14.27; 95% confidence interval, 11.41-17.83). This association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Race/ethnicity- and gestational age-specific analyses revealed a positive association of similar magnitude across groups. Risk remained higher in younger boys than girls regardless of the sex of affected older siblings. The findings of this study suggest that the risk of ASD in younger siblings is higher if the older sibling has ASD. The risk of ASD in younger siblings of older affected siblings was comparable across gestational age at birth and child's race/ethnicity groups. However, risk remains higher for boys. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influence of race/ethnicity, sex, and gestational age at birth in identifying children at higher risk of ASD.

  6. New Korean reference for birth weight by gestational age and sex: data from the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Sub; Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Song, Bong Sub; Shim, Kye Shik; Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-09-01

    To construct new Korean reference curves for birth weight by sex and gestational age using contemporary Korean birth weight data and to compare them with the Lubchenco and the 2010 United States (US) intrauterine growth curves. Data of 2,336,727 newborns by the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012) were used. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma method using subsample of singleton. The new Korean reference curves were compared with the Lubchenco and the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles birth weight by gestational age were made using 2,249,804 (male, 1,159,070) singleton newborns with gestational age 23-43 weeks. Separate birth weight curves were constructed for male and female. The Korean reference curves are similar to the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. However, the cutoff values for small for gestational age (<10th percentile) of the new Korean curves differed from those of the Lubchenco curves for each gestational age. The Lubchenco curves underestimated the percentage of infants who were born small for gestational age. The new Korean reference curves for birth weight show a different pattern from the Lubchenco curves, which were made from white neonates more than 60 years ago. Further research on short-term and long-term health outcomes of small for gestational age babies based on the new Korean reference data is needed.

  7. An International Comparison of Death Classification at 22 to 25 Weeks' Gestational Age.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lucy K; Morisaki, Naho; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Gissler, Mika; Deb-Rinker, Paromita; Rouleau, Jocelyn; Hakansson, Stellan; Kramer, Michael R; Kramer, Michael S

    2018-06-13

    To explore international differences in the classification of births at extremely low gestation and the subsequent impact on the calculation of survival rates. We used national data on births at 22 to 25 weeks' gestation from the United States (2014; n = 11 144), Canada (2009-2014; n = 5668), the United Kingdom (2014-2015; n = 2992), Norway (2010-2014; n = 409), Finland (2010-2015; n = 348), Sweden (2011-2014; n = 489), and Japan (2014-2015; n = 2288) to compare neonatal survival rates using different denominators: all births, births alive at the onset of labor, live births, live births surviving to 1 hour, and live births surviving to 24 hours. For births at 22 weeks' gestation, neonatal survival rates for which we used live births as the denominator varied from 3.7% to 56.7% among the 7 countries. This variation decreased when the denominator was changed to include stillbirths (ie, all births [1.8%-22.3%] and fetuses alive at the onset of labor [3.7%-38.2%]) or exclude early deaths and limited to births surviving at least 12 hours (50.0%-77.8%). Similar trends were seen for infants born at 23 weeks' gestation. Variation diminished considerably at 24 and 25 weeks' gestation. International variation in neonatal survival rates at 22 to 23 weeks' gestation diminished considerably when including stillbirths in the denominator, revealing the variation arises in part from differences in the proportion of births reported as live births, which itself is closely connected to the provision of active care. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Developmental Correlates of Head Circumference at Birth and Two Years in a Cohort of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Westra, Sjirk; Miller, Cindy; Rosman, N. Paul; Leviton, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the developmental correlates of microcephaly evident at birth and at 2 years in a cohort born at extremely low gestational age. Methods We assessed development and motor function at 2 years of 958 children born before the 28th week of gestation, comparing those who had microcephaly at birth or 2 years with children with normal head circumference while considering the contribution of neonatal cranial ultrasound lesions. Results A total of 11% of infants in our sample had microcephaly at 2 years. Microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, predicts severe motor and cognitive impairments at 2 years. A total of 71% of children with congenital microcephaly had a normal head circumference at 2 years and had neurodevelopmental outcomes comparable with those with normal head circumference at birth and 2 years. Among children with microcephaly at 2 years, more than half had a Mental Developmental Index <70, and nearly a third had cerebral palsy. The risks were increased if the child also had cerebral white matter damage on a cranial ultrasound scan obtained 2 years previously. Conclusion Among extremely low gestational age newborns, microcephaly at 2 years, but not at birth, is associated with motor and cognitive impairment at age 2. PMID:19555967

  9. Maternal sleep and small for gestational age infants in the Japan Environment and Children's Study: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morokuma, Seiichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Kato, Kiyoko; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Shibata, Eiji; Tsuji, Mayumi; Senju, Ayako; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kusuhara, Koichi

    2017-08-11

    Small for gestational age infants have an increased risk of immediate complications, short-term morbidity and mortality, and long-term neurologic and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Previous research has shown that reduced sleep duration is a risk factor for SGA birth. However, only a few studies have evaluated maternal sleep as a risk factor for SGA birth. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount and quality of mothers' sleep and infants' birth weight. This cohort study (n = 8631) used data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, an ongoing cohort study that began in January 2011. Data on sleep status (sleep duration and one indicator of sleep quality) and potential confounding factors were recorded. A log-binomial regression model was used to estimate the risk of small for gestational age birth, and the results were expressed as risk ratios and their respective 95% confidence interval. No significant results were observed for sleep duration or tiredness upon waking. Neither the amount nor the quality of mothers' sleep was associated with the risk of small for gestational age birth.

  10. Obesity and diabetes genes are associated with being born small for gestational age: Results from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA) and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important. PMID:20712903

  11. Trajectories of general movements from birth to term-equivalent age in infants born <30 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Joy E; Brown, Nisha C; Eeles, Abbey L; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J

    2015-12-01

    General movements (GMs) is an assessment with good predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, there is limited information describing the early GMs of very preterm infants, particularly prior to term. To describe the early GMs trajectory of very preterm infants (born <30weeks' gestation) from birth to term-equivalent age, and to assess the influence of known perinatal risk factors on GMs. Prospective cohort study. 149 very preterm infants born <30weeks' gestation. GMs were recorded weekly from birth until 32weeks' postmenstrual age, and then fortnightly until 38weeks' postmenstrual age. GMs were also assessed at term-equivalent age. Detailed perinatal data were collected. Of 669 GMs assessed, 551 were preterm and 118 were at term-equivalent age. Prior to term, 15% (n=82) of GMs were normal and 85% (n=469) were abnormal, with the proportion of abnormal GMs decreasing with increasing postmenstrual age (p for trend <0.001). By term-equivalent 30% (n=35) of GMs were normal. On univariable analysis, lower gestational age (p<0.001), postnatal infection (p<0.001) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (p=0.001) were associated with abnormal GMs. Postnatal infection was the only independent perinatal association with abnormal GMs on multivariable analysis. All four infants with grade III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) had persistently abnormal GMs. GMs were predominantly abnormal in very preterm infants, with a higher proportion of normal GMs at term-equivalent age than prior to term. Abnormal GMs were associated with postnatal infection and IVH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of growth hormone treatment efficacy in short Japanese children born small for gestational age: Five-year treatment outcome and impact on puberty

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nishinaga, Hiromi; Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Some children born small for gestational age (SGA) have short stature and are at an increased risk of developing psychosocial or behavioral problems. Here we evaluated the efficacy of GH and its effects on the timing of pubertal onset in a 3-yr extension of our previous 2-yr (total 5 yr) multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial of 65 short Japanese children born SGA. Patients received low or high doses of GH (0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg/day, respectively). Age at onset of puberty was not statistically different for male and female patients receiving high- or low-dose GH. After the onset of puberty, no difference in height gain was observed between the two GH dose groups. At the onset of puberty, height standard deviation scores for chronological age of boys and girls improved significantly in both dose groups with evidence of a dose-response effect. Mean bone age/chronological age ratios in the low- and high-dose groups were significantly increased compared with baseline, being significantly greater in the high-dose group at 5 yr after treatment initiation. Delayed bone age at baseline was close to chronological age following GH treatment. GH treatment, especially high-dose GH, induced advanced bone age in short children born SGA. PMID:28458458

  13. Oxytocin induces prostaglandin F2 alpha release in pregnant cows: influence of gestational age and oxytocin receptor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, A R; Rollyson, M K; Meyer, M; Fields, M J; Minix, J M; Randel, R D

    1996-03-01

    Brahman cows with known breeding dates received i.v. injections of either 10 or 100 IU oxytocin (OT) on Days 50, 150, 250, or 280 of gestation (n = 6 for each stage). Concentrations of the prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha metabolite, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin (PGFM), and OT were measured in samples of peripheral plasma collected at 15-min intervals for 1 h before and 1 h after treatment and then at 30-min intervals for 3 h. Plasma progesterone was measured daily for 14 days after OT injections on Days 50 and 250 of gestation. The increase in plasma OT after injection was dose-dependent (p = 0.001) but not affected by stage of gestation. Plasma PGFM increased after OT in a dose- and stage-dependent manner (p = 0.0001). At Day 280, the increase in plasma PGFM after 100 IU OT was sevenfold greater than at Day 50. Plasma progesterone declined significantly during the 7th to 12th days postinjection and returned to normal pregnancy values by the 14th day (4.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) except in two cows treated on Day 50 of gestation that later aborted. In these, plasma progesterone was significantly lower, 2.6 +/- 0.1 ng/ml. In a second experiment, the concentration of OT receptors was determined in endometrium collected from purebred Angus or Hereford cows slaughtered on Days 50, 150, 250, and 280 of gestation (n = 3 or 4 at each stage). Endometrial concentrations of OT receptor changed as a function of gestational age, increasing sixfold from Day 50 to Day 280, which was parallel to the increase by OT of plasma PGFM. Thus, endometrial OT receptors are functionally coupled to PGF2 alpha release during pregnancy, and their concentration determines the magnitude of OT-induced PGF2 alpha release during gestation. Consequently, endogenous OT is a factor in the regulation of PGF2 alpha release from the bovine uterus during pregnancy and parturition.

  14. Risk of ultrasound-detected neonatal brain abnormalities in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses born between 28 and 34 weeks' gestation: relationship with gestational age at birth and fetal Doppler parameters.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, R; Tenorio, V; Padilla, N; Crispi, F; Figueras, F; Gratacos, E

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the value of gestational age at birth and fetal Doppler parameters in predicting the risk of neonatal cranial abnormalities in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses born between 28 and 34 weeks' gestation. Fetal Doppler parameters including umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), aortic isthmus, ductus venosus and myocardial performance index were evaluated in a cohort of 90 IUGR fetuses with abnormal UA Doppler delivered between 28 and 34 weeks' gestation and in 90 control fetuses matched for gestational age. The value of gestational age at birth and fetal Doppler parameters in predicting the risk of ultrasound-detected cranial abnormalities (CUA), including intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and basal ganglia lesions, was analyzed. Overall, IUGR fetuses showed a significantly higher incidence of CUA than did control fetuses (40.0% vs 12.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). Within the IUGR group, all predictive variables were associated individually with the risk of CUA, but fetal Doppler parameters rather than gestational age at birth were identified as the best predictor. MCA Doppler distinguished two groups with different degrees of risk of CUA (48.5% vs 13.6%, respectively; P < 0.01). In the subgroup with MCA vasodilation, presence of aortic isthmus retrograde net blood flow, compared to antegrade flow, allowed identification of a subgroup of cases with the highest risk of CUA (66.7% vs 38.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Evaluation of fetal Doppler parameters, rather than gestational age at birth, allows identification of IUGR preterm fetuses at risk of neonatal brain abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sonographic correlation of foetal neck circumference and area with gestational age among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abonyi, Obinna Everistus; Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Onwuzu, Sobechukwu W I

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a reference range nomogram of foetal neck circumference (FNC) and foetal neck area (FNA) in a Nigerian population using polynomial regression models. This cross-sectional study involved 723 pregnant women between 14 and 40 weeks of gestation. Axial measurements of the FNC and FNA were obtained in three measurements and the mean taken as the final value and the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for each foetal gestational age (FGA) were calculated. FNC and FNA correlated strongly with FGA, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, head circumference, and femoral length. Cubic models fitted the FNC vs FGA, and FNA vs. FGA values, and the mathematical relationships are given as: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Nomograms of FNC and FNA are thus generated. Impact statement The foetal neck circumference (FNC) and foetal neck area (FNA) can serve as predictors of foetal gestational age (FGA) since they correlate strongly and positively with FGA and known biometric parameters. The measurements obtained vary with the population studied. This study provides a nomogram of the FNA and FNC for an African population. The values correlate with that of the Caucasian population up to 32 weeks FGA. Interestingly, FNA and FNC measurements demonstrate high correlation but poor agreement in measurements between sonographers. Even though FNA and FNC could be used as predictors of foetal gestational age, the measurements vary significantly between sonographers. This is attributable to the difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory axial view of foetal neck, which is dependent on foetal presentation.

  16. Being Small for Gestational Age: Does it Matter for the Neurodevelopment of Premature Infants? A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bickle Graz, Myriam; Tolsa, Jean-François; Fischer Fumeaux, Céline Julie

    2015-01-01

    Whether being small for gestational age (SGA) increases the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants remains controversial. to study the impact of SGA (birthweight < percentile 10) on cognition, behavior, neurodevelopmental impairment and use of therapy at 5 years old. This population-based prospective cohort included infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Cognition was evaluated with the K-ABC, and behavior with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Primary outcomes were cognitive and behavioral scores, as well as neurodevelopmental impairment (cognitive score < 2SD, hearing loss, blindness, or cerebral palsy). The need of therapy, an indirect indicator of neurodevelopmental impairment, was a secondary outcome. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of SGA with neurodevelopment. 342/515 (76%) premature infants were assessed. SGA was significantly associated with hyperactivity scores of the SDQ (coefficient 0.81, p < 0.04), but not with cognitive scores, neurodevelopmental impairment or the need of therapy. Gestational age, socio-economic status, and major brain lesions were associated with cognitive outcome in the univariate and multivariate model, whereas asphyxia, sepsis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were associated in the univariate model only. Severe impairment was associated with fetal tobacco exposition, asphyxia, gestational age and major brain lesions. Different neonatal factors were associated with the use of single or multiple therapies: children with one therapy were more likely to have suffered birth asphyxia or necrotizing enterocolitis, whereas the need for several therapies was predicted by major brain lesions. In this large cohort of premature infants, assessed at 5 years old with a complete panel of tests, SGA was associated with hyperactive behavior, but not with cognition, neurodevelopmental impairment or use of therapy. Birthweight <10th percentile alone does not

  17. Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of infants with a birth weight > 97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. Methods This historical cohort study (n = 3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from ≥ 37 weeks to ≤ 38 weeks+ 6 days (n = 199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n = 2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. Results The mean birth weight was 4012 g ± 421 g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. Conclusions A

  18. Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?

    PubMed

    Vendittelli, Françoise; Rivière, Olivier; Neveu, Brigitte; Lémery, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The number of infants with a birth weight > 97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. This historical cohort study (n = 3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from ≥ 37 weeks to ≤ 38 weeks+ 6 days (n = 199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n = 2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. The mean birth weight was 4012 g ± 421 g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. A policy of induction of labor for women

  19. Estimating Gestational Age With Sonography: Regression-Derived Formula Versus the Fetal Biometric Average.

    PubMed

    Cawyer, Chase R; Anderson, Sarah B; Szychowski, Jeff M; Neely, Cherry; Owen, John

    2018-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of a new regression-derived formula developed from the National Fetal Growth Studies data to the common alternative method that uses the average of the gestational ages (GAs) calculated for each fetal biometric measurement (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length). This retrospective cross-sectional study identified nonanomalous singleton pregnancies that had a crown-rump length plus at least 1 additional sonographic examination with complete fetal biometric measurements. With the use of the crown-rump length to establish the referent estimated date of delivery, each method's (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development regression versus Hadlock average [Radiology 1984; 152:497-501]), error at every examination was computed. Error, defined as the difference between the crown-rump length-derived GA and each method's predicted GA (weeks), was compared in 3 GA intervals: 1 (14 weeks-20 weeks 6 days), 2 (21 weeks-28 weeks 6 days), and 3 (≥29 weeks). In addition, the proportion of each method's examinations that had errors outside prespecified (±) day ranges was computed by using odds ratios. A total of 16,904 sonograms were identified. The overall and prespecified GA range subset mean errors were significantly smaller for the regression compared to the average (P < .01), and the regression had significantly lower odds of observing examinations outside the specified range of error in GA intervals 2 (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.31) and 3 (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.32) than the average method. In a contemporary unselected population of women dated by a crown-rump length-derived GA, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development regression formula produced fewer estimates outside a prespecified margin of error than the commonly used Hadlock average; the differences were most pronounced for GA estimates at 29 weeks and later.

  20. Development and validation of a simplified algorithm for neonatal gestational age assessment - protocol for the Alliance for Maternal Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baqui, Abdullah; Ahmed, Parvez; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Begum, Nazma; Rahman, Mahmoodur; Islam, Nasreen; Quaiyum, Mohammad; Kirkwood, Betty; Edmond, Karen; Shannon, Caitlin; Newton, Samuel; Hurt, Lisa; Jehan, Fyezah; Nisar, Imran; Hussain, Atiya; Nadeem, Naila; Ilyas, Muhammad; Zaidi, Anita; Sazawal, Sunil; Deb, Saikat; Dutta, Arup; Dhingra, Usha; Ali, Said Moh'd; Hamer, Davidson H; Semrau, Katherine Ea; Straszak-Suri, Marina; Grogan, Caroline; Bemba, Godfrey; Lee, Anne Cc; Wylie, Blair J; Manu, Alexander; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Bahl, Rajiv

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) gestational age study is to develop and validate a programmatically feasible and simple approach to accurately assess gestational age of babies after they are born. The study will provide accurate, population-based rates of preterm birth in different settings and quantify the risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity by gestational age and birth weight in five South Asian and sub-Saharan African sites. This study used on-going population-based cohort studies to recruit pregnant women early in pregnancy (<20 weeks) for a dating ultrasound scan. Implementation is harmonised across sites in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Bangladesh and Pakistan with uniform protocols and standard operating procedures. Women whose pregnancies are confirmed to be between 8 to 19 completed weeks of gestation are enrolled into the study. These women are followed up to collect socio-demographic and morbidity data during the pregnancy. When they deliver, trained research assistants visit women within 72 hours to assess the baby for gestational maturity. They assess for neuromuscular and physical characteristics selected from the Ballard and Dubowitz maturation assessment scales. They also measure newborn anthropometry and assess feeding maturity of the babies. Computer machine learning techniques will be used to identify the most parsimonious group of signs that correctly predict gestational age compared to the early ultrasound date (the gold standard). This gestational age will be used to categorize babies into term, late preterm and early preterm groups. Further, the ultrasound-based gestational age will be used to calculate population-based rates of preterm birth. The AMANHI gestational age study will make substantial contribution to improve identification of preterm babies by frontline health workers in low- and middle- income countries using simple evaluations. The study will provide accurate preterm birth

  1. Increased frequency of gestational and delivery-related complications in women of 35 years of age and above.

    PubMed

    Bereczky, L-K; Kiss, Sz-L; Szabó, B

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated gestational and delivery-related characteristics focusing on women aged 35 and above (≥ 35 years). Data were collected on maternal (n = 8,407) and newborn records during a 4-year admission period (2008-11) at the County Emergency Hospital, Tîrgu-Mureş, Romania. The prevalence of preterm deliveries increased in all age groups, from 19.5% to 27.8% (p = 0.006) in mothers ≥ 35 years. Twinning rate showed a highly significant increase, being 2.6% in 2008 and 9.5% in 2011 (p = 0.005), while caesarean delivery incidence increased from 46.3% to 51.0% in women aged ≥ 35. Our study revealed a highly significant decrease of mean gestational age and mean fetal weight, as well as a higher incidence of comorbidities and pregnancy-related complications in those aged ≥ 35 years. We assume that comorbidities, maternal and fetal indications to perform caesarean section (CS), in the more mature age group, were a main determinant of the elective or iatrogenic preterm deliveries, which might have contributed to further complications; moreover, previous CSs were likely a promoting factor for further CSs.

  2. Extended-interval Dosing of Gentamicin in Premature Neonates Born at <32 Weeks' Gestation and >7 Days of age.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Arun; Alshaikh, Belal; Dersch-Mills, Deonne; Dobry, Jenna; Akierman, Albert R; Yusuf, Kamran

    2017-06-01

    Extended-interval dosing (EID) regimens of gentamicin have been validated for treating confirmed or suspected early- and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants in the first week of life. Despite the marked changes in volume of distribution and renal clearance in preterm infants after the first few days of life, few studies have validated EID regimens of gentamicin in this population. The objective of the study was to evaluate an EID regimen of gentamicin in infants born at <32 weeks' gestational age and aged >7 days. This observational study of an EID regimen was conducted in 39 infants. Dosing interval was based on the serum drug concentration at 22 hours after the administration of the first dose of 5 mg/kg. Gentamicin peak (5-12 µg/mL) and trough (<2 µg/mL) levels were compared to those in a historical control group of 39 infants who received traditional-interval dosing (TID) of 2.5 mg/kg of gentamicin with dosing intervals of 8, 12, or 24 hours. There were no differences in birthweight, gestational age at birth, postmenstrual age, weight at the start of gentamicin administration, postnatal age, small for gestational age status, antenatal corticosteroid use, or postnatal indomethacin exposure between the 2 groups. In the EID group, dosing intervals were 24 hours in 30 infants, 36 hours in 6 infants, and 48 hours in 3 infants. Compared with the TID group (n = 39), the EID group had a significantly higher peak level (median, 9.0 vs 4.7 µg/mL) and a significantly lower trough level (median, 0.7 vs 1.1 µg/mL) (both, P < 0.001). On regression analysis, the postmenstrual age was correlated significantly with trough levels in the EID group. There was no adverse effect on renal function in either group. On follow-up, 1 infant in the EID group and 2 infants in the TID group had evidence of sensorineural hearing loss. In infants born at <32 weeks' gestation and >7 days of age, an EID gentamicin regimen, with a dosing interval based on a single concentration measurement

  3. Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Minior, V K; Divon, M Y

    1997-11-01

    The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile) who were delivered between October 1988 and June 1995 were reviewed for antepartum testing, delivery conditions, and neonatal outcome. We studied fetuses who had an umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio within 3 days of delivery and a complete blood cell count on the first day of life. Multiple gestations, anomalous fetuses, and infants of diabetic mothers were excluded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi 2 analysis, analysis of variance, and simple and stepwise regression. Fifty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. Those with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (n = 19) had significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts than did those with end-diastolic velocity present (n = 33) (nucleated red blood cells/100 nucleated cells +/- SD: 135.5 +/- 138 vs 17.4 +/- 23.7, p < 0.0001). These infants exhibited significantly longer time intervals for clearance of nucleated red blood cells from their circulation (p < 0.0001). They also had lower birth weights (p < 0.05), lower initial platelet count (p = 0.0006), lower arterial cord blood pH (p < 0.05), higher cord blood base deficit (p < 0.05), and an increased likelihood of cesarean section for "fetal distress" (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (p < 0.0001) and low birth weight (p < 0.0001) contributed to the elevation of the nucleated red blood cell count, whereas gestational age at delivery was not a significant contributor. We observed significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts and lower platelet counts in small-for-gestational-age

  4. Large for Gestational Age Births Among South Indian Women: Temporal Trend and Risk Factors from 1996 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Yadav, Bijesh; Silambarasan, Veerasamy; Vijayaselvi, Reeta; Jose, Ruby

    2016-10-01

    Mean birth weight is a good health indicator for any population. In the recent past, there have been many reports in the West indicating that there has been an increase in the proportion of large for gestational age (LGA) babies. The objective is to describe the change in the incidence of LGA babies from 1996 to 2010 in South India and the maternal risk factors. A rotational sampling scheme was used, i.e., the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quarters and a month was from each quarter was selected rotationally. All deliveries for that month were considered. Only deliveries that occurred between 28 and 42 weeks of pregnancy were considered. The association between risk variables was studied using multivariable logistic regression. There were 35,718 deliveries that occurred during these 15-year-study period in the gestational age 28-42 weeks were registered through the outpatient clinics. The incidence of LGA was 9.4 % that has mostly remained at the same level. The incidence of LGA in mothers with gestational diabetes was 6.7, 3 and 17.6 % in overweight, obese and gestational l diabetes mothers. Overweight, obesity in pregnant women and cesarean section were significant risk factors. Unlike in Western countries, where the incidence of LGA babies has spiraled upward, has remained nearly at the same level over one and a half decades, in South India. The risk factors for giving birth to LGA babies in South India were similar to other studies.

  5. Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely low gestational age newborns

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Brown, Yolanda F.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Belfort, Mandy B.; McCormick, Marie C.; Leviton, Alan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goals of this study were to describe nutritional practices in the first month of life for a large cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns and to determine the impact of these nutritional practices on growth velocity over the same period. METHODS The sample included 1187 infants born at 23 weeks to 27 weeks of gestation, at 14 institutions, between 2002 and 2004. Inclusion criteria included survival until day 28 and weight information for both day 7 and day 28. Growth velocity, expressed as grams per kilogram per day (g/kg/day), was calculated for the interval between days 7 and 28. Nutritional practices during the first week and on days 14, 21, and 28 were compared to current nutritional guidelines in the literature. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the contribution of limited nutrition to limited growth velocity. RESULTS Protein and fat delivery approximated current nutritional recommendations while carbohydrate and total caloric delivery did not. Despite this, growth velocity of our study infants exceeded the current guideline of 15 g/kg/day. Nevertheless, we found extrauterine growth restriction (i.e., weight for gestational age below the 10th centile) in 75% of infants at 28 days, as compared to only 18% at birth. A growth velocity of 20-30 g/kg/day was associated with infants' maintaining or exceeding their birth weight Z-score, with rates in the upper range for the gestationally youngest infants. Early (day 7) nutritional practices were positively associated with growth velocity measured between days 7 and 28. CONCLUSION The early provision of nutrients is an important determinant of postnatal growth. Extrauterine growth restriction remains high in extremely premature infants even when they achieve a growth velocity rate within current guidelines. PMID:19651583

  6. Volumetric brain differences in children with periventricular T2-signal hyperintensities: a grouping by gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, A; Barnes, P D; Robertson, R L; Back, S A; Sleeper, L A; Sayre, J W; Kinney, H C; Volpe, J J

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare both the volumes of the lateral ventricles and the cerebral white matter with gestational age at birth of children with periventricular white matter (PVWM) T2-signal hyperintensities on MR images. The spectrum of neuromotor abnormalities associated with these hyperintensities was also determined. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 70 patients who were between the ages of 1 and 5 years and whose images showed PVWM T2-signal hyperintensities. The patients were divided into premature (n = 35 children) and term (n = 35) groups depending on their gestational age at birth. Volumetric analysis was performed on four standardized axial sections using T2-weighted images. Volumes of interest were digitized on the basis of gray-scale densities of signal intensities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter and lateral ventricles. Age-adjusted comparisons of volumetric measurements between the premature and term groups were performed using analysis of covariance. The volume of the cerebral white matter was smaller in the premature group (54 +/- 2 cm(3)) than in the term group (79 +/- 3 cm(3), p < 0.0001). The volume of the lateral ventricles was greater among the patients in the premature group (30 +/- 2 cm(3)) than among those in the term group (13 +/- 1 cm(3), p < 0.0001). Fifty percent of all the premature children had spastic diplegia or quadriplegia. Thirty-two percent of all the term children had hypotonia. There were patients in both groups whose PVWM T2-signal hyperintensities did not correlate with any neuromotor abnormalities but were associated with seizures or developmental delays. The differences in volumetric measurements of cerebral white matter and lateral ventricles in children with PVWM T2-signal hyperintensities are related to their gestational age at birth. Several neurologic motor abnormalities are found in children with such hyperintensities.

  7. The ocular pathology of Norrie disease in a fetus of 11 weeks' gestational age.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M A; Curtis, D; Blank, C E; Hughes, H N; McCartney, A C

    1992-01-01

    The ocular pathology of Norrie disease was studied for the first time in a fetus of 11 weeks' gestation, following prenatal diagnosis using genetic markers for Norrie disease and elective abortion. The eyes were histologically normal, with no evidence of primary neuroectodermal maldevelopment of the retina, previously postulated to be the cause of the ocular changes. We believe that the retinal and other manifestations of Norrie disease are the result of a primary abnormality of vascular proliferation, probably in relation to persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous after approximately 14 weeks' gestation. We postulate that the ocular and otological effects of Norrie disease may be due to a genetically mediated abnormality of secretion of, or sensitivity to, angiogenic growth factors at endodermal-neuroectodermal interfaces during fetal and postnatal development.

  8. Small-for-gestational age and large-for-gestational age thresholds to predict infants at risk of adverse delivery and neonatal outcomes: are current charts adequate? An observational study from the Born in Bradford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Johnson, W; Farrar, D; Tuffnell, D; Wright, J; Cameron, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Construct an ethnic-specific chart and compare the prediction of adverse outcomes using this chart with the clinically recommended UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts using cut-offs for small-for-gestational age (SGA: birth weight <10th centile) and large-for-gestational age (LGA: birth weight >90th centile). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Born in Bradford (BiB) study, UK. Participants 3980 White British and 4448 Pakistani infants with complete data for gestational age, birth weight, ethnicity, maternal height, weight and parity. Main outcome measures Prevalence of SGA and LGA, using the three charts and indicators of diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)) of these chart-specific cut-offs to predict delivery and neonatal outcomes and a composite outcome. Results In White British and Pakistani infants, the prevalence of SGA and LGA differed depending on the chart used. Increased risk of SGA was observed when using the UK-WHO and customised charts as opposed to the ethnic-specific chart, while the opposite was apparent when classifying LGA infants. However, the predictive utility of all three charts to identify adverse clinical outcomes was poor, with only the prediction of shoulder dystocia achieving an AUROC>0.62 on all three charts. Conclusions Despite being recommended in national clinical guidelines, the UK-WHO and customised birth weight charts perform poorly at identifying infants at risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Being small or large may increase the risk of an adverse outcome; however, size alone is not sensitive or specific enough with current detection to be useful. However, a significant amount of missing data for some of the outcomes may have limited the power needed to determine true associations. PMID:25783424

  9. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-09-01

    To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

  10. For Debate: Growth Hormone Treatment of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age should be Started at or before the First Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi; Laron-Kenet, Tamar; Klinger, Gil

    2016-12-01

    Children born small for gestational age without early catch-up of somatic growth and head circumference subsequently remain short and suffer from various degrees of neurocognitive and psychological impairment. Based upon the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I on early brain growth and maturation, we propose that GH treatment of these infants be instituted prior to their 2nd birthday. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  11. Maintaining financial independence in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Barber, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to personalize Nobel Prize-winning financial literature, this article seeks to show how individuals can take responsibility for their own finances. For instance, before Markowitz's work, pension funds shied away from risky investments. Then, Markowitz proved that the safest portfolios are those that are diversified over many asset classes, including risky investments. More recently, Kahneman's psychological experiments proved that during uncertainty, people tend to generalize from a small number of representatives to the larger group. He warns us to collect data before drawing conclusions. Using such insights, this article shows how persons in advanced age can develop Investment Policy Statements (IPS) that tailor their financial resources to serve their life goals. This is accomplished safely and successfully by following some guidelines, based on lessons from the financial literature. These guidelines are as follows: (a) update IPS annually, (b) diversify annually by rebalancing, (c) match new liabilities to specific assets, (d) be aware of common errors, such as loss aversion, and (e) measure success by whether one's goals have been met.

  12. Gestational age and chronic 'body-mind' health problems in childhood: dose-response association and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the developmental course of all health issues associated with preterm birth is important from an individual, clinical and public health point-of-view. Both the number of preterm births and proportion of survivors have increased steadily in recent years. The UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 18,818) was used to examine the association of gestational age with maternal ratings of general health and behavior problems at ages 5 and 11 years using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses. The association between mothers' ratings of general health and behavior problems was relatively weak at each time point. Children rated as being in poor general health remained constant over time (4.0 % at age 5, 3.8 % at age 11), but children rated as having behavioral problems increased by almost 100 % (5.6 % at 5; 10.5 % at 11). A gradient of increasing risk with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (general health problems and/or behavior problems) at age 5, amplified at age 11 and was strongest for those with chronic problems (poor health at both age 5 and age 11). This association was found to be compounded by child sex, maternal characteristics at birth (education, employment, marital status) and duration of breast feeding. Integrated support to at-risk families initiated during, or soon after pregnancy, may prevent chronic problems and might potentially reduce long term health costs for both the individual and health services.

  13. Serum YKL-40 and uterine artery Doppler -- a prospective cohort study, with focus on preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age.

    PubMed

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Johansen, Julia; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Skibsted, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    To test if serum YKL-40 is increased in women developing preeclampsia or small-for-gestational age fetuses. We also assessed the association between uterine artery pulsatility index, notching and serum YKL-40 levels. Prospective cohort study. A primary referral unit for obstetric ultrasound. A total of 1214 unselected pregnant women enrolled at nuchal translucency examination between 11(+3) and 13(+6)  weeks of gestation. All women had ultrasound and blood sample collection at the nuchal translucency scan, a 20-week malformation scan and 25-week and 32-week fetal growth examinations. Uterine artery Doppler was assessed and outcome was registered from medical records. Preeclampsia, hypertension, small-for-gestational age. Serum YKL-40 was associated with increasing maternal age (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p = 0.0002), primiparity (p = 0.0003), and hypertension (p = 0.015). Serum YKL-40 increased from 12 to 20 weeks and decreased from 20-25 and 25-32 weeks of gestation. No association was found between preeclampsia and serum YKL-40. Small-for-gestational-age at birth was significantly associated with a 5.4% increase in serum YKL-40 at 32 weeks of gestation (95% CI 1.5-9.3, p = 0.005). An association was found between uterine artery pulsatility index at 32 weeks and small-for-gestational age (p = 0.0015) but not between YKL-40 and uterine artery notching (p = 0.83). Serum YKL-40 was not associated with preeclampsia. Increasing serum YKL-40 was related to maternal age, body mass index and small-for-gestational age and may reflect an exaggerated inflammatory response. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants treated with early hydrocortisone: treatment effect according to gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivier; Trousson, Clémence; Biran, Valérie; Leroy, Emilie; Mohamed, Damir; Alberti, Corinne

    2018-01-10

    To determine whether early hydrocortisone treatment in extremely preterm infants affects neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age according to gestational age at birth. This is an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes by gestational age strata from the PREMILOC trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or low-dose hydrocortisone and randomisation was stratified by gestational age groups (24-25 and 26-27 weeks of gestation). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was assessed using a standardised neurological examination and the revised Brunet-Lézine scale at 22 months of corrected age. A total of 379 of 406 survivors were evaluated, 96/98 in the gestational age group of 24-25 weeks and 283/308 in the gestational age group of 26-27 weeks. Among surviving infants born at 24-25 weeks, significant improvement in global neurological assessment was observed in the hydrocortisone group compared with the placebo group (P=0.02) with a risk of moderate-to-severe NDI of 2% and 18%, respectively (risk difference 16 (95% CI -28% to -5%)). In contrast, no statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed in infants born at 26-27 weeks (P=0.95) with a similar risk of moderate-to-severe NDI of 9% in both groups. The incidence of cerebral palsy or other major neurological impairments were found similar between treatment groups in each gestational group. In an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes from the PREMILOC trial, early low-dose hydrocortisone was associated with a statistically significant improvement in neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants born at 24 and 25 weeks of gestation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria Dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. Determinar a frequência e os fatores de risco de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional em uma maternidade de alto risco. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e caso-controle, realizado em maternidade pública de nível terciário. Foram levantados dados de 998 recém-nascidos e de suas respectivas mães por meio de entrevista e análise de prontuários e de cartões do pré-natal. Algumas placentas foram submetidas à análise anatomopatológica. As variáveis dos recém-nascidos pequenos e não pequenos para idade gestacional e de suas respectivas mães foram comparadas estatisticamente pelo teste paramétrico t de Student, pelo teste exato de Fisher e por odds ratio. O nível de signific

  16. Development of a Gestational Age-Specific Case Definition for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Cheryl; Longford, Nick; Costeloe, Kate; Modi, Neena

    2017-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England. We split study data into model development and validation data sets and categorized GA into groups (group 1, less than 26 weeks' GA; group 2, 26 to less than 30 weeks' GA; group 3, 30 to less than 37 weeks' GA; group 4, 37 or more weeks' GA). We entered GA, birth weight z score, and clinical and abdominal radiography findings as candidate variables in a logistic regression model, performed model fitting 1000 times, averaged the predictions, and used estimates from the fitted model to develop an ordinal NEC score and cut points to develop a dichotomous case definition based on the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUCs] and positive predictive values [PPVs]. Abdominal radiography performed to investigate clinical concerns. Ordinal NEC likelihood score, dichotomous case definition, and GA-specific probability plots. Of the 3866 infants, the mean (SD) birth weight was 2049.1 (1941.7) g and mean (SD) GA was 32 (5) weeks; 2032 of 3663 (55.5%) were male. The total included 2978 infants (77.0%) without NEC and 888 (23.0%) with NEC. Infants with NEC in group 1 were less likely to present with pneumatosis (31.1% vs 47.2%; P = .01), blood in stool (11.8% vs 29.6%; P < .001), or mucus in stool (2.1% vs 5.6%; P = .048) but more likely to present with gasless abdominal radiography findings (6.3% vs 0.9%; P = .009) compared with infants with NEC in group 3. In the ordinal NEC score analysis, we allocated 3 points to pneumatosis, 2

  17. A comparison of LMP-based and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age using linked California livebirth and prenatal screening records.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; England, Lucinda J; Callaghan, William M; Pearl, Michelle; Wier, Megan L; Kharrazi, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Although early ultrasound (<20 weeks' gestation) systematically underestimates the gestational age of smaller fetuses by approximately 1-2 days, this bias is relatively small compared with the large error introduced by last menstrual period (LMP) estimates of gestation, as evidenced by the number of implausible birthweight-for-gestational age. To characterise this misclassification, we compared gestational age estimates based on LMP from California birth certificates with those based on early ultrasound from a California linked Statewide Expanded Alpha-fetoprotein Screening Program (XAFP). The final sample comprised 165 908 women. Birthweight distributions were plotted by gestational age; sensitivity and positive predictive value for preterm rates according to LMP were calculated using ultrasound as the 'gold standard'. For gestational ages 20-27 and 28-31 weeks, the LMP-based birthweight distributions were bimodal, whereas the ultrasound-based distributions were unimodal, but had long right tails. At 32-36 weeks, the LMP distribution was wider, flatter, and shifted to the right, compared with the ultrasound distribution. LMP vs. ultrasound estimates were, respectively, 8.7% vs. 7.9% preterm (<37 weeks), 81.2% vs. 91.0% term (37-41 weeks), and 10.1% vs. 1.1% post-term (>or=42 weeks). The sensitivity of the LMP-based preterm birth estimate was 64.3%, and the positive predictive value was 58.7%. Overall, 17.2% of the records had estimates with an absolute difference of >14 days. The groups most likely to have inconsistent gestational age estimates included African American and Hispanic women, younger and less-educated women, and those who entered prenatal care after the second month of pregnancy. In conclusion, we found substantial misclassification of LMP-based gestational age. The 2003 revised US Standard Certificate of Live Birth includes a new gestational age item, the obstetric estimate. It will be important to assess whether this estimate addresses the problems

  18. Early life predictors of brain development at term-equivalent age in infants born across the gestational age spectrum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Deanne K; Kelly, Claire E; Chen, Jian; Beare, Richard; Alexander, Bonnie; Seal, Marc L; Lee, Katherine; Matthews, Lillian G; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y

    2018-04-13

    It is well established that preterm infants have altered brain development compared with full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) infants, however the perinatal factors associated with brain development in preterm infants have not been fully elucidated. In particular, perinatal predictors of brain development may differ between very preterm infants (VP; <32 weeks' GA) and infants born moderate (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA) and late (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA) preterm, but this has not been studied. This study aimed to investigate the effects of early life predictors on brain volume and microstructure at term-equivalent age (TEA; 38-44 weeks), and whether these effects differ for GA groups (VP, MP, LP or FT). Structural images from 328 infants (91 VP, 63 MP, 104 LP and 70 FT) were segmented into white matter, cortical grey matter, cerebrospinal fluid, subcortical grey matter, brainstem and cerebellum. Cortical grey matter and white matter images were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) images from 361 infants (92 VP, 69 MP, 120 LP and 80 FT) were analysed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Relationships between early life predictors (birthweight standard deviation score [BWSDS], multiple birth, sex, postnatal growth and social risk) and global brain volumes were analysed using linear regressions. Relationships between early life predictors and regional brain volumes and diffusion measures were analysed using voxelwise non-parametric permutation testing. Male sex was associated with higher global volumes of all tissues and higher regional volumes throughout much of the cortical grey matter and white matter, particularly in the FT group. Male sex was also associated with lower FA and higher AD, RD and MD in the optic radiation, external and internal capsules and corona radiata, and these associations were generally similar between GA groups. Higher BWSDS was

  19. Angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers in mid-pregnancy and small-for-gestational age outcomes in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    DARLING, Anne Marie; MCDONALD, Chloe R.; CONROY, Andrea L.; HAYFORD, Kyla T.; RAJWANS, Nimerta; WANG, Molin; ABOUD, Said; URASSA, Willy S.; KAIN, Kevin C.; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between a panel of angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers measured in mid-pregnancy and small-for-gestational age (SGA) outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. STUDY DESIGN Concentrations of 18 angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in 432 pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania who participated in a trial examining the effect of multivitamins on pregnancy outcomes. Infants falling below the 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age relative to the applied growth standards were considered SGA. Multivariate binomial regression models with the log link function were used to determine the relative risk of SGA associated with increasing quartiles of each biomarker. Stepwise cubic restricted splines were used to test for non-linearity of these associations. Receiver operating curves obtained from multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the discriminatory capability of selected biomarkers. RESULTS A total of 60 participants (13.9%) gave birth to SGA infants. Compared to those in the first quartile, the risk of SGA was reduced among those in the fourth quartiles of VEGF-A (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.19-0.74), PGF (adjusted RR 0.28, 95% CI, 0.12-0.61), sFlt-1 (adjusted RR 0.48, 95% CI, 0.23-1.01), MCP-1 (adjusted RR 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25-0.92), and Leptin (adjusted RR 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22-0.96) CONCLUSION Our findings provide evidence of altered angiogenic and inflammatory mediators, at mid-pregnancy, in women who went on to deliver small for gestational age infants. PMID:24881826

  20. The Effect of Activity Restriction on Infant's Birth Weight and Gestational Age at Birth: PRAMS Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Omar, Abeer

    2018-01-01

    Activity restriction is extensively prescribed for pregnant women with major comorbidities despite the lack of evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing preterm birth or low birth weight. To determine the moderation effect of home activity restriction for more than a week on infant's birth weight and gestational age at birth for high-risk women with obstetrical and medical comorbidities. A secondary analysis of 2004-2008 New York Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System was conducted with 1426 high-risk women. High-risk group included 41% of women treated with activity restriction and 59% of those not treated with activity restriction. Women with preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) who were treated with activity restriction had a lower infant birth weight ( b = -202.85, p = ≤.001) and gestational age at birth ( b = -.91, p = ≤.001) than those without activity restriction. However, women with preterm labor and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy who were not treated with activity restriction had lower infant gestational age at birth ( b = -96, p = ≤.01) and ( b = -92, p = ≤.001), respectively, compared to those who were treated with activity restriction. Findings suggest a contrary effect of activity restriction on infants born to women with PPROM, which is a major reason for prescribing activity restriction. The current study results may trigger the need to conduct randomized control trials to determine the effect of severity of activity restriction on maternal and infant outcomes.

  1. Newborns of mothers with intellectual disability have a higher risk of perinatal death and being small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    To study mode of birth, perinatal health and death in children born to mothers with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Population-based register study. National registers; the National Patient Register linked to the Medical Birth Register. Children of first-time mothers with ID (n = 326; classified in the International Classification of Diseases 8-10) were identified and compared with 340 624 children of first-time mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnosis between 1999 and 2007. Population-based data were extracted from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Mode of birth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar score, stillbirth and perinatal death. Children born to mothers with ID were more often stillborn (1.2 vs. 0.3%) or died perinatally (1.8 vs. 0.4%) than children born to mothers without ID. They had a higher proportion of cesarean section birth (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), were small for gestational age (8.4 vs. 3.1%) and had lower Apgar scores (<7 points at five minutes; 3.7 vs 1.5%) compared with children born to mothers without ID. Logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics confirmed an increased risk of small for gestational age (odds ratio 2.25), stillbirth (odds ratio 4.53) and perinatal death (odds ratio 4.25) in children born to mothers with ID. Unborn and newborn children of mothers with ID should be considered a risk group, and their mothers may need better individual-based care and support. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Newborns of mothers with intellectual disability have a higher risk of perinatal death and being small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study mode of birth, perinatal health and death in children born to mothers with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Design. Population-based register study. Setting. National registers; the National Patient Register linked to the Medical Birth Register. Sample. Children of first-time mothers with ID (n = 326; classified in the International Classification of Diseases 8–10) were identified and compared with 340 624 children of first-time mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnosis between 1999 and 2007. Methods. Population-based data were extracted from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Main outcome measures. Mode of birth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar score, stillbirth and perinatal death. Results. Children born to mothers with ID were more often stillborn (1.2 vs. 0.3%) or died perinatally (1.8 vs. 0.4%) than children born to mothers without ID. They had a higher proportion of cesarean section birth (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), were small for gestational age (8.4 vs. 3.1%) and had lower Apgar scores (<7 points at five minutes; 3.7 vs 1.5%) compared with children born to mothers without ID. Logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics confirmed an increased risk of small for gestational age (odds ratio 2.25), stillbirth (odds ratio 4.53) and perinatal death (odds ratio 4.25) in children born to mothers with ID. Conclusions. Unborn and newborn children of mothers with ID should be considered a risk group, and their mothers may need better individual-based care and support. PMID:22924821

  3. Estimates of burden and consequences of infants born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries with INTERGROWTH-21st standard: analysis of CHERG datasets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne Cc; Kozuki, Naoko; Cousens, Simon; Stevens, Gretchen A; Blencowe, Hannah; Silveira, Mariangela F; Sania, Ayesha; Rosen, Heather E; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Adair, Linda S; Baqui, Abdullah H; Barros, Fernando C; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Manandhar, Dharma; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Roberfroid, Dominique; Saville, Naomi; Terlouw, Dianne J; Tielsch, James M; Victora, Cesar G; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Willey, Barbara A; Ezzati, Majid; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E; Katz, Joanne

    2017-08-17

    Objectives  To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21 st birth weight standard. Design  Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21 st birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated. Setting  CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries. Main outcome measures  In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%. Results  In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (≥2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was

  4. Estimates of burden and consequences of infants born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries with INTERGROWTH-21st standard: analysis of CHERG datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kozuki, Naoko; Cousens, Simon; Stevens, Gretchen A; Blencowe, Hannah; Silveira, Mariangela F; Sania, Ayesha; Rosen, Heather E; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Adair, Linda S; Baqui, Abdullah H; Barros, Fernando C; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Manandhar, Dharma; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Roberfroid, Dominique; Saville, Naomi; Terlouw, Dianne J; Tielsch, James M; Victora, Cesar G; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Willey, Barbara A; Ezzati, Majid; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E; Katz, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated. Setting CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries. Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%. Results In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (≥2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the

  5. First trimester maternal lipid levels and serum markers of small- and large-for-gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Parlakgumus, Huriye Ayse; Aytac, Pinar Caglar; Kalaycı, Hakan; Tarim, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    To investigate if first trimester lipids, sonographic parameters and serum markers are related to small- and large-for-gestational age (SGA, LGA) infants. This study was conducted at Baskent University Adana Research Center between December 2009 and July 2011 and enrolled 433 women. Blood samples were drawn to measure fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fβ-hCG and pregnancy associated protein-A (PAPP-A) at the first trimester. Crown rump length and nuchal translucency were measured as suggested by the fetal medicine foundation. LGA group was significantly taller (p = 0.016) and SGA group had significantly greater BMI (0.025). SGA fetuses were born at a significantly earlier gestational age (p = 0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that LGA group had significantly lower cholesterol (p = 0.038) and LDL levels (p = 0.041). PAPP-A was significantly lower in SGA Group compared with LGA Group (0.027). After controlling for age, parity, height, pre-pregnant BMI, weight gain during pregnancy and fasting blood sugar, none of the lipids, serum markers or sonographic parameters was related to LGA. PAPP-A was the only parameter significantly associated with SGA after multivariate analysis (p = 0.008). PAPP-A was significantly associated with SGA after controlling for confounders.

  6. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  7. Birth Weight by Gestational Age for 76,710 Twins Born in the United States as a Result of In Vitro Fertilization: 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Richard P; Pridjian, Gabriella; Xiong, Xu; Klempel, Monica C

    2017-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to establish twin-specific birth weight percentiles by gestational age using U.S. twin births resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF). Study Design  A retrospective analysis of birth weight by completed weeks of gestation for 76,710 twin IVF births reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies from 2006 to 2010. Mean and median birth weights and 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles were calculated by completed week of gestation and infant sex. Results  IVF twin birth weight accelerates until term and then declines. The deceleration in twin birth weight occurs at 39 completed weeks of gestation for larger twins, those at or above the 50th percentile in weight. For smaller twins, the growth deceleration occurs earlier, at 38 weeks of gestation. IVF female and male twin birth weights for gestational age were similar to all IVF twins, showing similar decelerations near term. Conclusion  Using U.S. IVF twin-specific growth charts, with known date of conception, twins demonstrate a deceleration in birth weight near term. Larger twins demonstrate a deceleration in birth weight by 39 completed weeks of gestation; smaller twins show a deceleration at 38 weeks. These data may assist in the clinical management of twins near term. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Birth weight by gestational age in twin pregnancies: analysis of 661 pairs.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, T T; Chen, C J; Hsu, J J

    1992-02-01

    The mortality of twin infants is four to five times higher than that of singletons, and one-half to two-thirds of all twins weigh < 2,500 g at birth. The appropriate interpretation of fetal growth throughout pregnancy is dependent upon the availability of adequate standards. We reviewed 661 pairs of live twin infants born at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 1979 to 1990. The frequency of twin births was 1.17% (1:86), and the ratio of males to females was 1.03. The frequency of preterm births (< 37 weeks) was 36.9%, the frequency of low birth weight (< 2,500 g) was 47.9% and very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) was 6.7%. A fetus grows most rapidly from the 32nd to the 35th week of gestation (200 g per week). The growth was 145 g per week from the 28th to the 32nd week and from the 35th to the 38th week of gestation. After the 38th week, the mean birth weight increased by only 35 g per week. Compared with a singleton birth, the mean birth weight of twins was about 100 g lighter during the 28th to the 32nd week, then the difference increased gradually to about 500 g at term.

  9. Antenatal risk factors associated with neonatal morbidity in large for gestational age infants: an international prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Matias C; McCowan, Lesley Me; North, Robyn A; Myers, Jenny E; Walker, James J; Baker, Philip N; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Kenny, Louise C; Poston, Lucilla; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2018-05-12

    Large for gestational age (LGA) infants are associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality, however most of them will not have adverse outcomes. Our aim was to identify antenatal clinical factors associated with neonatal morbidity in LGA infants. Nulliparous women from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study were included. We compared maternal and fetal factors between LGA infants (birthweight >90 th customized centile) with and without neonatal morbidity, defined as admission to neonatal intensive care unit or severe neonatal morbidity. Factors were selected based on a-priori hypotheses of association and included maternal demography, anthropometric measures and self-reported physical activity (15 and 20 weeks), fetal biometry (20 weeks), and clinical information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. Stratified analyses were performed by maternal obesity and physical activity. Amongst term pregnancies, prevalence of LGA infants was 9.3% (491/5,255), with 11.8% (58/491) prevalence of neonatal morbidity. Random glucose at 20 weeks (OR 1.52; 95% CI1.17 to 1.97, per 1mmol/L increase) and no regular physical activity at 20 weeks (3.93; 1.75 to 8.83) were associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity after adjustment for birthweight, gestational age at delivery and gestational diabetes. The increased risk associated with higher glucose levels was not evident in women with regular physical activity or without obesity. Regular physical activity in mid-pregnancy is associated with lower risk for neonatal morbidity in LGA infants and seems to offer protection against the increased risk associated with higher maternal glucose levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risks of preterm delivery and small for gestational age birth.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Louik, Carol; Kerr, Stephen; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2014-11-01

    Influenza vaccination is routinely recommended for pregnant women, yet information on perinatal outcomes is sparse. We investigated the associations between trivalent (seasonal) influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risks of preterm delivery (PTD, live birth <37 weeks gestation) and small for gestational age birth (SGA, <10th percentile in weight for sex-specific gestational age) during the influenza seasons 2006-07 through 2009-10. The study population included 1619 mothers of live-born, non-malformed singleton infants interviewed as part of the Slone Epidemiology Center's Birth Defects Study. Associations between influenza vaccination and PTD and SGA were assessed using Cox and logistic regression models, respectively, with propensity scores used to adjust for confounding. Women vaccinated against pandemic H1N1 were excluded from the analysis. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy showed a near null association with PTD for influenza seasons 2006-07 through 2008-09 compared with unvaccinated women [adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) ranged from 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 2.21] in 2007-08 to 1.08 [95% CI: 0.40, 2.95] in 2008-09]. For 2009-10, the risk of PTD was higher in vaccinated women (aHR, 7.81 [95% CI: 2.66, 23.0]). Influenza vaccination was not associated with appreciable risks for SGA for all seasons with sufficient numbers of exposed SGA. Though limited by study size, these findings add support to previous observations of little or no increased risk of PTD or SGA associated with seasonal influenza vaccination for three of the four influenza seasons in our study. The increased risk of PTD observed for the 2009-10 influenza season warrants further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fetal sex-specific differences in gestational age at delivery in pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Arends, Lidia R; Alsaker, Elin; Chappell, Lucy; Hansson, Stefan; Harsem, Nina K; Jälmby, Maya; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Laivuori, Hannele; Lawlor, Debbie A; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Magnus, Per; Myers, Jenny; Olsen, Jørn; Poston, Lucilla; Redman, Christopher W; Staff, Anne C; Villa, Pia; Roberts, James M; Steegers, Eric A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy disorder complicating up to 8% of pregnancies. Increasing evidence indicates a sex-specific interplay between the mother, placenta and fetus. This may lead to different adaptive mechanisms during pregnancy. Methods: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis to determine associations of fetal sex and PE, with specific focus on gestational age at delivery in PE. This was done on 219 575 independent live-born singleton pregnancies, with a gestational age at birth between 22.0 and 43.0 weeks of gestation, from 11 studies participating in a worldwide consortium of international research groups focusing on pregnancy. Results: Of the women, 9033 (4.1%) experienced PE in their pregnancy and 48.8% of the fetuses were female versus 51.2% male. No differences in the female/male distribution were observed with respect to term PE (delivered ≥ 37 weeks). Preterm PE (delivered < 37 weeks) was slightly more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus than in pregnancies with a male fetus [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.21]. Very preterm PE (delivered < 34 weeks) was even more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17–1.59). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphic differences in the occurrence of PE exist, with preterm PE being more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus and with no differences with respect to term PE. PMID:27605586

  12. Physical exertion at work and the risk of preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age birth.

    PubMed

    Pompeii, Lisa A; Savitz, David A; Evenson, Kelly R; Rogers, Bonnie; McMahon, Michael

    2005-12-01

    To assess whether exposure to standing, lifting, night work, or long work hours during 3 periods of pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of preterm or small-for-gestational-age birth. The Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition study is a prospective cohort with a nested case-control component that was conducted through clinic and hospital settings in Central North Carolina. A total of 1,908 women pregnant with a singleton gestation were recruited during prenatal visits from January 1995 through April 2000 and provided information during telephone and face-to-face interviews about physical exertion for the 2 longest-held jobs during pregnancy. No significant elevations in preterm delivery were observed among women who lifted repeatedly or stood at least 30 hours per week, with no changes in risk estimates over the course of pregnancy. A 50% elevation in the risk of preterm delivery (relative risk 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.0; first trimester) was observed among women who reported working at night (10:00 PM to 7:00 AM), whereas a 40% reduction in risk was observed among women working at least 46 hours per week (relative risk 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9; first trimester), regardless of period of exposure. No elevations in small-for-gestational-age birth were observed among women exposed to any of the 4 types of occupational exertion. Physically demanding work does not seem to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, whereas working at night during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm delivery. Studies to examine the effect of shift work on uterine activity would help to clarify the possibility of a causal effect on preterm birth.

  13. Who presents past the gestational age limit for first trimester abortion in the public sector in Mexico City?

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Schiavon, Raffaela; Sanhueza, Patricio; Rios-Polanco, Ranulfo; Garcia-Martinez, Laura; Darney, Blair G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify socio-demographic factors associated with presenting for abortion services past the gestational age (GA) limit (12 weeks), and thus not receiving services, in Mexico City’s public sector first trimester abortion program. Methods We used clinical data from four high volume sites in the Interrupción Legal de Embarazo (ILE) program, 2007–2015. We used descriptive statistics to quantify the proportion of women who did not receive an abortion due to presenting past the gestational age limit. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify associations between women’s characteristics and presenting past the GA limit and calculated predicted probabilities of late presentation for key characteristics. Results Our sample included 52,391 women, 8.10% (n = 4,246) of whom did not receive abortion services due to presenting past the GA limit. Adolescents (12–17) made up 8.69% of the total sample and 13.40% of those presenting past the GA limit (p< 0.05). In multivariable analyses, all age groups of adult women had significantly lower odds than adolescents of presenting past the limit (aOR = 0.77, aOR = 0.63, aOR = 0.58 and aOR = 0.37 for 19–24, 25–29, 30–39, and > = 40 years’ old respectively). Women living in Mexico City and with higher levels of education had lower odds of presenting past the GA limit, and there was an educational gradient across all age groups. In the multivariable predicted probability models, adolescents at every level of education have significantly higher probabilities of not receiving an abortion due to presenting past the gestational age limit compared with adults (among women with a primary education: 11.75% adolescents vs. 9.02–4.26% across adult age groups). Conclusions Our results suggest that continued efforts are needed to educate women, especially younger and less educated women, about early pregnancy recognition. In addition, all women need information about the availability of first trimester

  14. The Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Ken; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Murabayashi, Nao; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Kai, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kono, Yumi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on short- and long-term outcomes in small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. A retrospective database analysis was performed. A total of 1,931 single infants (birth weight <1,500 g) born at a gestational age between 22 weeks and 33 weeks 6 days who were determined to be SGA registered in the Neonatal Research Network Database in Japan between 2003 and 2007 were evaluated for short-term outcome and long-term outcome. ANS was administered to a total of 719 infants (37%) in the short-term outcome evaluation group and 344 infants (36%) in the long-term outcome evaluation group. There were no significant differences between the ANS group and the no-ANS group for primary short-term outcome (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.20; P-value 0.22) or primary long-term outcome (adjusted OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.40-1.17; P-value 0.17). Our results show that ANS does not affect short- or long-term outcome in SGA infants when the birth weight is less than 1500 g. This study strongly suggests that administration of ANS resulted in few benefits for preterm FGR fetuses.

  15. The Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Ken; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Murabayashi, Nao; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Kai, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kono, Yumi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on short- and long-term outcomes in small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants. Methods: A retrospective database analysis was performed. A total of 1,931 single infants (birth weight <1,500 g) born at a gestational age between 22 weeks and 33 weeks 6 days who were determined to be SGA registered in the Neonatal Research Network Database in Japan between 2003 and 2007 were evaluated for short-term outcome and long-term outcome. Results: ANS was administered to a total of 719 infants (37%) in the short-term outcome evaluation group and 344 infants (36%) in the long-term outcome evaluation group. There were no significant differences between the ANS group and the no-ANS group for primary short-term outcome (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.20; P-value 0.22) or primary long-term outcome (adjusted OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.40-1.17; P-value 0.17). Conclusions: Our results show that ANS does not affect short- or long-term outcome in SGA infants when the birth weight is less than 1500 g. This study strongly suggests that administration of ANS resulted in few benefits for preterm FGR fetuses. PMID:25897289

  16. Involvement of WNT Signaling in the Regulation of Gestational Age-Dependent Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Shono, Akemi; Yoshida, Makiko; Yamana, Keiji; Thwin, Khin Kyae Mon; Kuroda, Jumpei; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Koda, Tsubasa; Nishida, Kosuke; Ikuta, Toshihiko; Mizobuchi, Masami; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population that is isolated initially from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequently almost all tissues including umbilical cord (UC). UC-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) have attracted an increasing attention as a source for cell therapy against various degenerative diseases due to their vigorous proliferation and differentiation. Although the cell proliferation and differentiation of BM-derived MSCs is known to decline with age, the functional difference between preterm and term UC-MSCs is poorly characterized. In the present study, we isolated UC-MSCs from 23 infants delivered at 22–40 weeks of gestation and analyzed their gene expression and cell proliferation. Microarray analysis revealed that global gene expression in preterm UC-MSCs was distinct from term UC-MSCs. WNT signaling impacts on a variety of tissue stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and its pathway genes were enriched in differentially expressed genes between preterm and term UC-MSCs. Cell proliferation of preterm UC-MSCs was significantly enhanced compared to term UC-MSCs and counteracted by WNT signaling inhibitor XAV939. Furthermore, WNT2B expression in UC-MSCs showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age (GA). These results suggest that WNT signaling is involved in the regulation of GA-dependent UC-MSC proliferation. PMID:29138639

  17. Comparison of gestational age at birth based on last menstrual period and ultrasound during the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Caroline S; Messer, Lynne C; Mendola, Pauline; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H; Hartmann, Katherine E

    2008-11-01

    Reported last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age (GA) but may be unreliable. Ultrasound in the first trimester is generally considered a highly accurate method of pregnancy dating. The authors compared first trimester report of LMP and first trimester ultrasound for estimating GA at birth and examined whether disagreement between estimates varied by maternal and infant characteristics. Analyses included 1867 singleton livebirths to women enrolled in a prospective pregnancy cohort. The authors computed the difference between LMP and ultrasound GA estimates (GA difference) and examined the proportion of births within categories of GA difference stratified by maternal and infant characteristics. The proportion of births classified as preterm, term and post-term by pregnancy dating methods was also examined. LMP-based estimates were 0.8 days (standard deviation = 8.0, median = 0) longer on average than ultrasound estimates. LMP classified more births as post-term than ultrasound (4.0% vs. 0.7%). GA difference was greater among young women, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women, women of non-optimal body weight and mothers of low-birthweight infants. Results indicate first trimester report of LMP reasonably approximates gestational age obtained from first trimester ultrasound, but the degree of discrepancy between estimates varies by important maternal characteristics.

  18. Pregnancy outcome and placental pathology in small for gestational age neonates in relation to the severity of their growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Ohad; Schreiber, Letizia; Marciano, Adi; Mizrachi, Yossi; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal

    2017-12-03

    To investigate neonatal outcome and placental pathology in pregnancies complicated with small for gestational age neonates (SGA), in relation to the severity of growth restriction. The medical records and placental histology reports of all neonates with a birth-weight (BW) ≤10th percentile, born between 24-42 weeks, during 2010-2015, were reviewed. Placental lesions were classified into maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion (MVM and FVM) lesions. Results were compared between neonates with BW <5th percentile (severe SGA group), neonates with BW between 5th-10th percentile (mild SGA group) and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. Composite neonatal outcome was defined as one or more of early complications. Overall, 753 neonates were included, 238 in the severe SGA group, 266 in the mild SGA group, and 249 in the control group. The severe SGA group had higher rates of composite adverse neonatal outcome as compared with the mild SGA and control groups (37.2 versus 17.6%, versus 24.5%, respectively, p < .001). The SGA group was characterized by higher rates of placental MVM and FVM lesions, compared with controls (p < .001 for both). After controlling for confounders, using a multivariate regression analysis, the likelihood of detecting placental MVM and FVM lesions was increased as neonatal birthweight decreased. Worse neonatal outcome and more placental MVM and FVM lesions correlate with the severity of neonatal growth restriction in a "dose-dependent" manner.

  19. Extremely preterm infants who are small for gestational age have a high risk of early hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia.

    PubMed

    Boubred, F; Herlenius, E; Bartocci, M; Jonsson, B; Vanpée, M

    2015-11-01

    Electrolyte balances have not been sufficiently evaluated in extremely preterm infants after early parenteral nutrition. We investigated the risk of early hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia in extremely preterm infants born small for gestational age (SGA) who received nutrition as currently recommended. This prospective, observational cohort study included all consecutive extremely preterm infants born at 24-27 weeks who received high amino acids and lipid perfusion from birth. We evaluated the electrolyte levels of SGA infants and infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) during the first five days of life. The 12 SGA infants had lower plasma potassium levels from Day One compared to the 36 AGA infants and were more likely to have hypokalemia (58% vs 17%, p = 0.001) and hypophosphatemia (40% vs 9%, p < 0.01) during the five-day observation period. After adjusting for perinatal factors, SGA remained significantly associated with hypophosphatemia (odds ratio 1.39, confidence intervals 1.07-1.81, p = 0.01). Extremely preterm infants born SGA who were managed with currently recommended early parenteral nutrition had a high risk of early hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. Potassium and phosphorus intakes should be set at sufficient levels from birth onwards, especially in SGA infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Initial evidence that polymorphisms in neurotransmitter-regulating genes contribute to being born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Angharad R.; Thompson, John M.D.; Waldie, Karen E.; Cornforth, Christine M.; Turic, Darko; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; Lam, Wen-Jiun; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is a putative risk factor for the development of later cognitive and psychiatric health problems. While the inter-uterine environment has been shown to play an important role in predicting birth weight, little is known about the genetic factors that might be important. Here we test the hypothesis that neurotransmitter-regulating genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously shown to be associated with SGA (such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) are themselves predictive of SGA. DNA was collected from 227 SGA and 319 appropriate for gestational age children taking part in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating activity within dopamine, serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid pathways were genotyped. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors, supported nominally significant associations between SGA and single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT, HTR2A, SLC1A1 and SLC6A1. This is the first evidence that genes implicated in psychiatric disorders previously linked to SGA status themselves predict SGA. This highlights the possibility that the link between SGA and psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may in part be genetically determined – that SGA marks pre-existing genetic risk for later problems. PMID:27625810

  1. Resuscitation of neonates at 23 weeks' gestational age: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Partridge, J Colin; Robertson, Kathryn R; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Landman, Geri Ottaviano; Allen, Allison J; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Resuscitation of infants at 23 weeks' gestation remains controversial; clinical practices vary. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of resuscitation of infants born 23 0/7-23 6/7 weeks' gestation. Decision-analytic modeling comparing universal and selective resuscitation to non-resuscitation for 5176 live births at 23 weeks in a theoretic U.S. cohort. Estimates of death (77%) and disability (64-86%) were taken from the literature. Maternal and combined maternal-neonatal utilities were applied to discounted life expectancy to generate QALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated, discounting costs and QALYs. Main outcomes included number of survivors, their outcome status and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the three strategies. A cost-effectiveness threshold of $100 000/QALY was utilized. Universal resuscitation would save 1059 infants: 138 severely disabled, 413 moderately impaired and 508 without significant sequelae. Selective resuscitation would save 717 infants: 93 severely disabled, 279 moderately impaired and 343 without significant sequelae. For mothers, non-resuscitation is less expensive ($19.9 million) and more effective (127 844 mQALYs) than universal resuscitation ($1.2 billion; 126 574 mQALYs) or selective resuscitation ($845 million; 125 966 mQALYs). For neonates, both universal and selective resuscitation were cost-effective, resulting in 22 256 and 15 134 nQALYS, respectively, versus 247 nQALYs for non-resuscitation. In sensitivity analyses, universal resuscitation was cost-effective from a maternal perspective only at utilities for neonatal death <0.42. When analyzed from a maternal-neonatal perspective, universal resuscitation was cost-effective when the probability of neonatal death was <0.95. Over wide ranges of probabilities for survival and disability, universal and selective resuscitation strategies were not cost-effective from a maternal perspective. Both strategies were cost-effective from

  2. The risk of infant and fetal death by each additional week of expectant management in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy by gestational age.

    PubMed

    Puljic, Anela; Kim, Elissa; Page, Jessica; Esakoff, Tania; Shaffer, Brian; LaCoursiere, Daphne Y; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the risk of infant and fetal death by each additional week of expectant management vs immediate delivery in pregnancies complicated by cholestasis. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1,604,386 singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies of women between 34 and 40 weeks' gestation with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in the state of California during the years of 2005-2008. International Classification of Diseases, 9th version, codes and linked hospital discharge and vital statistics data were utilized. For each week of gestation, the following outcomes were assessed: the risk of stillbirth, the risk of delivery (represented by the risk of infant death at a given week of gestation), and the composite risk of expectant management for 1 additional week. Composite risk combines the risk of stillbirth at this gestational age week plus the risk of infant death if delivered at the subsequent week of gestation. Among women with ICP, the mortality risk of delivery is lower than the risk of expectant management at 36 weeks' gestation (4.7 vs 19.2 per 10,000). The risk of expectant management remains higher than delivery and continues to rise by week of gestation beyond 36 weeks. The risk of expectant management in women with ICP reaches a nadir at 35 weeks (9.1 per 10,000; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-16.9) and rises at 36 weeks (19.2 per 10,000; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-30.8). Among women with ICP, delivery at 36 weeks' gestation would reduce the perinatal mortality risk as compared with expectant management. For later diagnoses, this would also be true at gestational ages beyond 36 weeks. Timing of delivery must take into account both the reduction in stillbirth risk balanced with the morbidities associated with preterm delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  4. Ethnicity and first birth: age, smoking, delivery, gestation, weight and feeding: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Narinder; Chalmers, James W T; Fischbacher, Colin M; Steiner, Markus F C; Bhopal, Raj S

    2014-12-01

    We linked census and health service data sets to address the shortage of information comparing maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes by ethnic group in Scotland. Retrospective cohort study linking the 2001 National Census for Scotland and hospital obstetric data (2001-08), comparing maternal age, smoking status, gestational age, caesarean section rates, birthweight, preterm birth and breastfeeding rates by ethnic group. In all, 144 344 women were identified as having had a first birth between 1 May 2001 and 30 April 2008. White Scottish mothers were younger [mean age 27.3 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.3, 27.4] than other white groups and most non-white groups. They had the highest smoking rates (25.8%; CI: 25.5, 26.0) and the lowest rates of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (23.4%; CI: 23.1, 23.6), with most of the other groups being around 40%. Women from non-white minority ethnic groups in Scotland tended to have babies of lower birthweight (e.g. Pakistani mean birthweight-3105 g, white Scottish-3356 g), even after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, education, smoking and housing tenure. This effect was more noticeable for women born in the UK. White English, Irish and other white babies tended to have higher birthweights. There was little variation between groups in caesarean section rates. Pregnant women from ethnic minority populations in Scotland have more favourable health behaviour than the white Scottish, although the non-white groups tend to have lower birthweight. Further exploration of the reasons for these differences has potential to benefit women from the majority population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An anti-angiogenic state has been described in patients with preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and fetal death, and changes in the concentration of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors can precede the clinical recognition of preeclampsia and small for gestational age by several weeks. Gene deletion studies demonstrate that a selective group of endothelial growth factors are required for vascular development, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, as well as Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, both ligands for the tyrosine kinase endothelial cell receptor Tie-2. These angiogenic factors have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in a coordinated and complementary fashion. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) is the soluble form of the Tie-2 receptor which is detectable in biological fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with preeclampsia and mothers who deliver a small for gestational age neonate have changes in the plasma concentrations of sTie-2. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant women (n=40); 2) women with normal pregnancies (n=135); 3) patients with preeclampsia (n=112); and 4) patients who delivered a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate (n=53). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTie-2 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS 1) The median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 was lower in normal pregnant women than in non-pregnant women [median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6) vs. median 20.7 ng/ml (range 10.8–52.4), respectively; p=0.01)]; 2) Plasma sTie-2 concentrations in normal pregnancy changed significantly as a function of gestational age; 3) Patients with preeclampsia and those who delivered SGA neonates had a lower median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 than those with a normal pregnancy [Preeclampsia: median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4

  6. Does gestational age affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lidocaine in mother and fetus?

    PubMed

    Pedersen, H; Santos, A C; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Plosker, H; Arthur, G R; Covino, B G

    1988-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lidocaine were studied in nine chronically prepared pregnant ewes and their fetuses at a mean ( +/- SE) gestation of 119 +/- 1.0 days, and the results were compared to the data previously published for ten animals at 138 +/- 1.2 days of gestation (term 148 days). Lidocaine was infused intravenously to the mother at a constant rate of 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1 over a period of 180 min, in order to reach a steady-state maternal plasma lidocaine concentration of approximately 2 micrograms/ml. Maternal and fetal blood samples and maternal urine were collected at intervals throughout the infusion for determination of pH, blood gases, and lidocaine concentrations. Maternal and fetal heart rate, blood pressure, and intraamniotic pressure were continuously recorded. Fetal cardiac output and organ blood flow were determined before and at the end of lidocaine infusion using radionuclide-labeled microspheres. Lidocaine tissue concentrations were determined in several maternal and fetal organs excised at the end of infusion. In both groups, the steady-state plasma concentrations of lidocaine were similar; namely, 2.3 +/- 0.17 and 2.1 +/- 0.21 micrograms/ml in preterm and term ewes, respectively. There were also no significant differences in steady-state plasma drug concentrations in preterm and term fetuses (1.3 +/- 0.11 and 1.2 +/- 0.15 micrograms/ml). The mean fetal maternal concentration ratios (F/M) were the same; namely, 0.6. Maternal urinary excretion of lidocaine correlated with urine pH, being greater in the more acid urine. Tissue uptake of drug tended to be higher in the preterm than term mothers, but only significantly so in the brain and adrenals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Elshibly, Eltahir M; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2008-07-18

    In Africa low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), is the strongest determinant of infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of maternal anthropometry, education and socio-economic status on gestational age and birth weight. In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p < 0.001) with birth weight. A maternal height of <156 cm, a maternal weight of <66 kg, a maternal mid arm circumference of <27 cm and years of education of age and BMI had no statistically significant effect on determining the risk for LBW. The social class did not affect the birth weight, while the number of years of education was positively correlated with birth weight (p = 0.01). The LBW rate decreased from 9.2% for 12 years of education. Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class

  8. Does maternal psychological distress affect neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants at a gestational age of ≤32weeks.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ozlem; Eras, Zeynep; Sari, Fatma Nur; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Oguz, Serife Suna

    2017-01-01

    There is some evidence that maternal psychological status in the prenatal and postnatal periods is associated with infants' cognitive, behavioural, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of maternal depression and anxiety with neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤32weeks, examined at a corrected age of 18 to 22months. Cross-sectional study. In total, 220 preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤32weeks who were born from January 2008 to September 2011 and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were prospectively examined. Neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed at a corrected age of 18 to 22months by a developmental paediatrician using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II). The Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess maternal depression and anxiety at the same visit as the neurodevelopmental evaluation. The depression scores of mothers of infants with a Mental Development Index (MDI) score of <70 were significantly higher than those of mothers of infants with an MDI score of >70 (16.3±12.8 vs 8.8±7.0, p<0.001). The depression scores of mothers of infants with neurodevelopmental impairment were also significantly higher than those without neurodevelopmental impairment (12.8±10.5 vs 8.8±7.3, p=0.003). There was no relationship between the presence of cerebral palsy or a Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score of <70 and the mothers' depression scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal depression and the occurrence of more than two sepsis attacks were associated with an MDI score of <70, and grade III to IV intraventricular haemorrhage was associated with neurodevelopmental impairment and a PDI score of <70. Maternal depression is negatively associated with the neurodevelopment of preterm infants at a gestational age of ≤32weeks. Maternal psychological well-being should be taken into consideration

  9. Are gestational age, birth weight, and birth length indicators of favorable fetal growth conditions? A structural equation analysis of Filipino infants.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Noble, Mark D; Adair, Linda S

    2013-07-30

    The fetal origins hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models, to explore random and systematic errors in these birth outcome measures, to analyze how maternal characteristics relate to birth outcomes, and to take account of missing data. We assess whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are influenced by a single latent variable that we call favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) and if so, which variable is most closely related to FFGC. We find that a model with FFGC as a latent variable fits as well as a less parsimonious model that has birth weight, birth length, and gestational age as distinct individual variables. We also demonstrate that birth weight is more reliably measured than is gestational age. FFGCs were significantly influenced by taller maternal stature, better nutritional stores indexed by maternal arm fat and muscle area during pregnancy, higher birth order, avoidance of smoking, and maternal age 20-35 years. Effects of maternal characteristics on newborn weight, length, and gestational age were largely indirect, operating through FFGC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Gestational Age at Initiation of Antihypertensive Therapy: Secondary Analysis of CHIPS Trial Data (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study).

    PubMed

    Pels, Anouk; Mol, Ben Willem J; Singer, Joel; Lee, Terry; von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Magee, Laura A

    2018-06-01

    For hypertensive women in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study), we assessed whether the maternal benefits of tight control could be achieved, while minimizing any potentially negative effect on fetal growth, by delaying initiation of antihypertensive therapy until later in pregnancy. For the 981 women with nonsevere, chronic or gestational hypertension randomized to less-tight (target diastolic blood pressure, 100 mm Hg), or tight (target, 85 mm Hg) control, we used mixed-effects logistic regression to examine whether the effect of less-tight (versus tight) control on major outcomes was dependent on gestational age at randomization, adjusting for baseline factors as in the primary analysis and including an interaction term between gestational age at randomization and treatment allocation. Gestational age was considered categorically (quartiles) and continuously (linear or quadratic form), and the optimal functional form selected to provide the best fit to the data based on the Akaike information criterion. Randomization before (but not after) 24 weeks to less-tight (versus tight) control was associated with fewer babies with birth weight <10th centile ( P interaction =0.005), but more preterm birth ( P interaction =0.043), and no effect on perinatal death or high-level neonatal care >48 hours ( P interaction =0.354). For the mother, less-tight (versus tight) control was associated with more severe hypertension at all gestational ages but particularly so before 28 weeks ( P interaction =0.076). In women with nonsevere, chronic, or gestational hypertension, there seems to be no gestational age at which less-tight (versus tight) control is the preferred management strategy to optimize maternal or perinatal outcomes. URL: https://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN71416914. © 2018 The Authors.

  12. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  13. Motor development from 4 to 8 months corrected age in infants born at or less than 29 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Pin, Tamis W; Darrer, Tanya; Eldridge, Bev; Galea, Mary P

    2009-09-01

    Clinically, preterm infants show motor delay and atypical postures compared with their peers born at term. A longitudinal cohort study was designed to describe the motor development of very preterm infants from 4 to 18 months corrected age (CA). The study was also designed to investigate how the atypical postures observed in early infancy in the preterm infants might be related to their later motor development. Here we report the findings in early motor skills from 4 to 8 months CA. Early motor skills were assessed in 62 preterm infants (32 males, 30 females, mean gestation 26.94wks, SD 1.11) and 53 term infants (32 males, 21 females, mean gestation 39.55wks, SD 1.17) using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). The preterm infants demonstrated different motor behaviours from their term peers, with an uneven progression of motor skills in different positions from 4 to 8 months CA. At 8 months CA, 90%of the term infants were able to sit without arm support, but only 56%of the preterm infants could maintain sitting very briefly without arm support. This uneven progression may have been due to an imbalance between the active flexor and extensor strength and hence inadequate postural control in these positions. The AIMS has also been shown to be a valid assessment tool to demonstrate unique characteristics in movement quality in the preterm population.

  14. Quantitative risk estimation for large for gestational age using the area under the 100-g oral glucose tolerance test curve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sollip; Min, Won-Ki; Chun, Sail; Lee, Woochang; Chung, Hee-Jung; Lee, Pil Ryang; Kim, Ahm

    2009-01-01

    We devised a complementary quantitative method for gestational diabetes (GDM) that uses the area under the curve (AUC) of the results of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and evaluated its efficacy in predicting neonates that would be large for gestational age (LGA). The study subjects were 648 pregnant women. The AUC-OGTT (concentration x time) was calculated from the 100-g OGTT results. The incidence of LGA according to each range of the AUC-OGTT was estimated and odds ratios were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis.The incidence of LGA increased with the AUC-OGTT value and was 0% for AUC<300, 7.8% for 300-400, 14.9% for 400-500, 20.8% for 500-600, and 45.5% for > or = 600. The odds ratio of LGA increased by approximately two-fold with an increase of 100 in the AUC-OGTT. The results indicated that the AUC-OGTT can be used to quantify the risk of LGA in GDM. The AUC-OGTT could complement a diagnosis of GDM using conventional diagnostic criteria.

  15. Prediction of survival without morbidity for infants born at under 33 weeks gestational age: a user-friendly graphical tool.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prakesh S; Ye, Xiang Y; Synnes, Anne; Rouvinez-Bouali, Nicole; Yee, Wendy; Lee, Shoo K

    2012-03-01

    To develop models and a graphical tool for predicting survival to discharge without major morbidity for infants with a gestational age (GA) at birth of 22-32 weeks using infant information at birth. Retrospective cohort study. Canadian Neonatal Network data for 2003-2008 were utilised. Neonates born between 22 and 32 weeks gestation admitted to neonatal intensive care units in Canada. Survival to discharge without major morbidity defined as survival without severe neurological injury (intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or periventricular leukomalacia), severe retinopathy (stage 3 or higher), necrotising enterocolitis (stage 2 or 3) or chronic lung disease. Of the 17 148 neonates who met the eligibility criteria, 65% survived without major morbidity. Sex and GA at birth were significant predictors. Birth weight (BW) had a significant but non-linear effect on survival without major morbidity. Although maternal information characteristics such as steroid use, improved the prediction of survival without major morbidity, sex, GA at birth and BW for GA predicted survival without major morbidity almost as accurately (area under the curve: 0.84). The graphical tool based on the models showed how the GA and BW for GA interact, to enable prediction of outcomes especially for small and large for GA infants. This graphical tool provides an improved and easily interpretable method to predict survival without major morbidity for very preterm infants at the time of birth. These curves are especially useful for small and large for GA infants.

  16. Independent effects of prematurity on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in short small-for-gestational-age children.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Ruben H; de Kort, Sandra W K; van der Kaay, Danielle C M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2008-02-01

    Both small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm birth have been associated with an increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. However, it is unclear whether preterm birth has an additional effect on cardiovascular risk factors in short children born SGA. Our objective was to investigate whether prematurity has an independent influence on several cardiovascular risk factors within a population of short SGA children. A cross-sectional observational study was performed. A total of 479 short SGA children (mean age 6.8 yr), divided into preterm (<36 wk) and term (> or =36 wk) children, was included in the study. Insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, body composition, and lipid levels were studied in subgroups, and blood pressure (BP), anthropometry at birth and during childhood in the total group. Preterm SGA children were significantly lighter and shorter at birth after correction for gestational age than term SGA children (P < 0.001) but had a comparable head circumference. In preterm SGA children, we found a significantly higher systolic (P = 0.003) and diastolic BP sd score (P = 0.026), lower percent body fat sd score (P = 0.011), and higher insulin secretion (P = 0.033) and disposition index (P = 0.021), independently of the degree of SGA. Insulin sensitivity, serum lipid levels, muscle mass, and body fat distribution were comparable for preterm and term SGA children. Within a population of short SGA children, preterm birth has divergent effects on several cardiovascular risk factors. Whereas preterm SGA children had a higher systolic and diastolic BP, they also had a lower percent body fat and a higher insulin secretion and disposition index than term SGA children.

  17. Cognitive ability in adolescents born small for gestational age: Associations with fetal growth velocity, head circumference and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-12-01

    Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. A follow-up study of a former cohort included 123 participants (52 males); 47 born SGA and 76 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fetal growth velocity (FGV) was determined by serial ultrasound measurements during the third trimester. A control group matched for age and birthplace was included. The original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered, and verbal, performance and full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores were calculated. There was no difference in IQ between adolescents born SGA and AGA. FGV or IUGR during the third trimester did not influence cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated with a significantly increased height, larger HC, increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and increased full-scale IQ compared to those born SGA without catch-up growth. SGA and IUGR may not be harmful for adult cognitive ability, at least not in individuals born at near-term. However, known risk factors of impaired fetal growth may explain the link between early growth and cognitive ability in adulthood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of near-term small-for-gestational-age infants with and without signs of placental underperfusion.

    PubMed

    Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Crovetto, Francesca; Triunfo, Stefania; Savchev, Stefan; Peguero, Anna; Nadal, Alfons; Parra, Guido; Gratacos, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of near-term, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns segregated by presence or absence of histopathology reflecting placental underperfusion (PUP). A cohort of consecutive near-term (≥ 34.0 weeks) SGA newborns with normal prenatal umbilical artery Doppler studies was selected. All placentas were inspected for evidence of underperfusion and classified in accordance with established histologic criteria. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months (age-corrected) were then evaluated, applying the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) to assess cognitive, language, and motor competencies. The impact of PUP on each domain was measured via analysis of covariance, logistic and ordinal regression, with adjustment for smoking, socioeconomic status, gestational age at birth, gender, and breastfeeding. A total of 83 near-term SGA deliveries were studied, 46 (55.4%) of which showed signs of PUP. At 2 years, adjusted neurodevelopmental outcomes were significantly poorer in births involving PUP (relative to SGA infants without PUP) for all three domains of the Bayley scale: cognitive (105.5 vs 96.3, adjusted-p = 0.03), language (98.6 vs 87.8, adjusted-p<0.001), and motor (102.7 vs 94.5, adjusted-p = 0.007). Similarly, the adjusted likelihood of abnormal cognitive, language, and motor competencies in instances of underperfusion was 9.3-, 17.5-, and 1.44-fold higher, respectively, differing significantly for the former two domains. In a substantial fraction of near-term SGA babies without Doppler evidence of placental insufficiency, histologic changes compatible with PUP are still identifiable. These infants are at greater risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Small-for-gestational age and preterm birth across generations: a population-based study of Illinois births.

    PubMed

    Castrillio, Stephanie M; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J; Collins, James W

    2014-12-01

    Small for gestational age (weight for gestational age <10th percentile, SGA) and preterm birth (<37 weeks, PTB) are the major determinants of infant mortality rates and racial disparities therein. To determine the generational inheritance patterns of SGA and PTB among non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. Stratified and multivariable binominal regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of White and African-American infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. Former SGA White mothers (N = 8,993) had a twofold greater infant SGA frequency than former non-SGA White mothers (N = 101,312); 14.4 versus 6.9 %, RR = 2.1 (2.0-2.2). Former SGA African American (N = 4,861) mothers had a SGA birth frequency of 25.7 % compared to 16.1 % for former non-SGA mothers (N = 28,090); RR = 1.5 (1.5-1.6). The adjusted (controlling for maternal age, education, marital status, parity, prenatal care usage, cigarette smoking, and hypertension) RR (95 % CI) of infant SGA for former SGA (compared to non-SGA) White and African-American mothers equaled 2.0 (1.9-2.1 and 1.5 (1.5-1.6), respectively. The adjusted RR (95 % CI) of infant preterm birth for former preterm (compared to term) White and African-American mothers were 1.1 (1.0-1.2). The findings were minimally changed among mothers with a lifelong residence in impoverished or affluent neighborhoods. In both races, approximately 8 % of SGA births were attributable to maternal SGA. There is a transgenerational association of SGA but not preterm birth among non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. In both races, a similar proportion of SGA births are attributable to maternal SGA.

  20. Neonatal survival rates in 860 singleton live births at 24 and 25 weeks gestational age. A Canadian multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Effer, Sidney B; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Farine, Dan; Saigal, Saroj; Nimrod, Carl; Kelly, Edmond; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2002-07-01

    To determine the current survival rate of singleton living newborns born at gestational age of 24 and 25 weeks, using obstetric factors available to the physician before birth. Retrospective study of all live births in 13 of 17 Canadian tertiary centres. Population All singleton live births without congenital abnormalities. During the years 1991-1996, data were abstracted from clinical databases and charts of 860 live births, in 13 of the 17 tertiary centres in Canada, all with major neonatal intensive care units. Newborn survival was defined as alive at discharge from neonatal intensive care unit. Abstracted elements included gestational age, maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment, birthweight, gender, fetal presentation and mode of delivery. Average survival rates increased from 56.1% at 24 weeks (n = 406) to 68.0% at 25 weeks (n = 454). Survival rates ranged from 53.1% at day 168 to 81.6% at day 181 (r = 0.802, P < 0.05). Steroid administration improved the survival rates at 24 and 25 weeks compared with that of unexposed fetuses, respectively (58.9% vs 41.8%; OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.03-2.08 and 74.2% vs 56.8%; OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.41-3.38). Caesarean delivery for breech presentation improved survival compared with vaginal delivery, both at 24 and 25 weeks (56.1% vs 36.0%; OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.10-4.34, and 68.7% vs 55.2% OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.093-3.43). Female neonates displayed better survival rates (59.6% vs 52.1% OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.92-2.01, and 72.6% vs 63.1% OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.02-2.25) at 24 and 25 weeks, respectively. Explanatory regression model confirmed these factors as prognostic variables associated with survival. This extensive collaborative study confirms that several prognostic factors, known before birth, including gestational age in days, steroid treatment, mode of presentation and fetal sex may help obstetricians, neonatologists and parents in their decision-making process at 24 and 25 weeks of pregnancy.

  1. Development and validation of a simplified algorithm for neonatal gestational age assessment – protocol for the Alliance for Maternal Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Baqui, Abdullah; Ahmed, Parvez; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Begum, Nazma; Rahman, Mahmoodur; Islam, Nasreen; Quaiyum, Mohammad; Kirkwood, Betty; Edmond, Karen; Shannon, Caitlin; Newton, Samuel; Hurt, Lisa; Jehan, Fyezah; Nisar, Imran; Hussain, Atiya; Nadeem, Naila; Ilyas, Muhammad; Zaidi, Anita; Sazawal, Sunil; Deb, Saikat; Dutta, Arup; Dhingra, Usha; Ali, Said Moh’d; Hamer, Davidson H.; Semrau, Katherine EA; Straszak–Suri, Marina; Grogan, Caroline; Bemba, Godfrey; Lee, Anne CC; Wylie, Blair J; Manu, Alexander; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Bahl, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) gestational age study is to develop and validate a programmatically feasible and simple approach to accurately assess gestational age of babies after they are born. The study will provide accurate, population–based rates of preterm birth in different settings and quantify the risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity by gestational age and birth weight in five South Asian and sub–Saharan African sites. Methods This study used on–going population–based cohort studies to recruit pregnant women early in pregnancy (<20 weeks) for a dating ultrasound scan. Implementation is harmonised across sites in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Bangladesh and Pakistan with uniform protocols and standard operating procedures. Women whose pregnancies are confirmed to be between 8 to 19 completed weeks of gestation are enrolled into the study. These women are followed up to collect socio–demographic and morbidity data during the pregnancy. When they deliver, trained research assistants visit women within 72 hours to assess the baby for gestational maturity. They assess for neuromuscular and physical characteristics selected from the Ballard and Dubowitz maturation assessment scales. They also measure newborn anthropometry and assess feeding maturity of the babies. Computer machine learning techniques will be used to identify the most parsimonious group of signs that correctly predict gestational age compared to the early ultrasound date (the gold standard). This gestational age will be used to categorize babies into term, late preterm and early preterm groups. Further, the ultrasound–based gestational age will be used to calculate population–based rates of preterm birth. Importance of the study The AMANHI gestational age study will make substantial contribution to improve identification of preterm babies by frontline health workers in low– and middle– income countries using simple

  2. The risk of prematurity and small-for-gestational-age birth in Mexico City: the effects of working conditions and antenatal leave.

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Mireles, P; Harlow, S D; Sánchez-Carrillo, C I

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of working conditions, occupational stress, and antenatal leave on risk of small-for-gestational age and premature births in Mexico City. METHODS: Over a 3-month period, 2663 (96.2%) of 2767 women who gave birth at three major hospitals and worked at least 3 months during pregnancy were interviewed shortly after delivery. After the exclusion of multiple gestations and birth defects, 261 (10.0%) small-for-gestational-age and 288 (11.0%) preterm births were identified. RESULTS: For small-for-gestational-age births, working more than 50 hours a week (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59), standing more than 7 hours a day (OR = 1.40), and no antenatal leave (OR = 1.55) were associated with an increased risk. Women with no antenatal leave were also much more likely to give birth prematurely (OR = 3.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, arduous working conditions and lack of antenatal leave benefits were found to increase the risk of poor birth outcome in Mexican women. Enforcement of existing antenatal leave laws and provision of comparable benefits for the uninsured may reduce the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births and prematurity. PMID:8659657

  3. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  4. [Kaup index in 16 887 singleton neonates with a gestational age of 27-42 weeks in Shenzhen, China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Hui-Long; Lei, Min; Lian, Zhao-Hui; Mai, Hui-Fen

    2018-05-01

    To study the Kaup index (KI), an index used to evaluate body burliness and nutritional status, of neonates with a gestational age (GA) of 27-42 weeks at birth, and to establish the percentile curves of KI. Cross-sectional cluster sampling was performed from April 2013 to September 2015 to select 16 887 singleton neonates with a GA of 27-42 weeks in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Body weight and body length were measured to calculate KI. The percentile curves of KI were plotted in these neonates. Mean KIs and corresponding standard deviations were obtained for singleton neonates with a gestational age of 27-42 weeks (in male, female, and mixed groups), and the 3rd-97th percentile curves of KI were plotted. The singleton neonates with a GA of 27 weeks had the lowest 50th percentile value of KI, and KI gradually increased with GA. Boys had a higher 50th percentile value of KI than girls in each GA group. In all groups except the 33-week GA group, boys had a higher mean KI than girls, and there was a significant difference in the mean KI between boys and girls in the GA groups of 34 and 36-40 weeks (P<0.05). KI of neonates at birth increases with GA, suggesting that body density and body burliness increase with GA. Boys have better body burliness than girls at birth. The percentile curves of KI plotted for singleton neonates with a GA of 27-42 weeks (in male, female, and mixed groups) can provide a reference for evaluating the body burliness and nutritional status of neonates at birth in Shenzhen.

  5. Second-Trimester 3-Dimensional Placental Sonography as a Predictor of Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Quant, Hayley S; Sammel, Mary D; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the association between first-trimester 3-dimensional (3D) placental measurements and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. In this study, we sought to determine whether second-trimester measurements further contribute to the antenatal detection of SGA and preeclampsia. We prospectively collected 3D sonographic volume sets and uterine artery pulsatility indices of singleton pregnancies at 18 to 24 weeks. Placental volume, placental quotient (placental volume/gestational age), mean placental diameter and chorionic diameter, placental morphologic index (mean placental diameter/placental quotient), placental chorionic index (mean chorionic diameter/placental quotient), and placental growth (volume per week) were assessed and evaluated as predictors of SGA and preeclampsia as a composite and alone. Of 373 pregnancies, the composite outcome occurred in 67 (18.0%): 36 (9.7%) manifested SGA alone; 27 (7.2%) developed preeclampsia alone, and 4 (1.1%) developed both. The placental volume, placental quotient, mean placental diameter, mean chorionic diameter, and volume per week were significantly smaller, whereas the placental morphologic index and chorionic index were significantly larger in pregnancies with the composite outcome (P < .01). Further analyses revealed that the significant associations with placental parameters were limited to the SGA outcome. Each placental measure remained significantly associated with SGA after adjusting for confounders. The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was not associated with either outcome. Placental parameters were moderately predictive of SGA, with adjusted areas under the curve ranging from 0.72 to 0.76. Sensitivity for detection of SGA ranged from 32.5% to 45.0%, with positive predictive values ranging from 17.3% to 22.7%. Second-trimester 3D placental measurements can identify pregnancies at risk of SGA. However, there appears to be no significant improvement compared to those obtained in the first

  6. Association between Native American-owned casinos and the prevalence of large-for-gestational-age births.

    PubMed

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Dow, William H; Oddo, Vanessa M

    2017-08-01

    A small number of studies have used a natural experiment approach to examine the health impacts of increased economic resources stemming from Native American-owned casinos. We build on this work by examining whether casinos are associated with obesity-related health in utero. We examined whether casino openings or expansion (as proxy for increased economic resources) are associated with a decreased likelihood of infants being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA), an important risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity. We used repeated cross-sectional data from California birth records (1987-2011) to assess the prevalence of LGA births among Native Americans (n = 21 011). Using zip code fixed-effect regression models, we compared how prevalence of LGA births changed in association with casino openings or expansions, while controlling for secular trends through the inclusion of a comparison group of Native American newborns in zip codes that were eligible to open or expand casinos, but did not do so. In sensitivity analyses, we evaluated whether there was any change in small-for-gestational-age births (SGA). Average prevalence of LGA births over the period was 11%. Every one slot machine per capita increase was associated with a 0.13 percentage point decrease (95% confidence interval: -0.25, -0.01) in the prevalence of LGA births but was not associated with SGA prevalence. Casino expansion in California is associated with a lower prevalence of LGA births. Interpreted in combination with previous work showing that California casino expansions were associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) among schoolchildren, these results suggest that casinos are associated with improvement in a surrogate marker of excess adiposity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which casinos might be associated with obesity-related health outcomes among Native Americans. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  7. Periconceptional multivitamin use and risk of preterm or small-for-gestational-age births in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Catov, Janet M; Bodnar, Lisa M; Olsen, Jorn; Olsen, Sjurdur; Nohr, Ellen A

    2011-09-01

    The intake of periconceptional multivitamins may decrease the risk of preterm births (PTBs) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. We related the timing and frequency of periconceptional multivitamin use to SGA births and PTBs and its clinical presentations (ie, preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, and medical induction). Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 35,897) reported the number of weeks of multivitamin use during a 12-wk periconceptional period. Cox regression was used to estimate the relation between any multivitamin use and PTBs (<37 wk) or SGA births (birth weight adjusted for gestational age >2 SDs below the mean on the basis of fetal growth curves). The timing (preconception and postconception) and frequency of use were also analyzed. Regular users (4-6 wk) and partial users (1-3 wk) in each period were compared with nonusers. The association between periconceptional multivitamin use and PTBs varied according to prepregnancy overweight status (P-interaction = 0.07). Regular preconception and postconception multivitamin use in women with a prepregnancy BMI (in kg/m(2)) <25 was associated with reduced risks of a PTB (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95) and preterm labor (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.94). No similar associations were shown for overweight women. The adjusted risk of an SGA birth was reduced in multivitamin users regardless of their prepregnancy BMI (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95), with the strongest association in regular users in the postconception period. Regular periconceptional multivitamin use was associated with reduced risk of SGA births and PTBs in nonoverweight women.

  8. Current pattern of Ponderal Indices of term small-for-gestational age in a population of Nigerian babies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies. Methods Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined. Results Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively). Conclusion The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery. PMID:23875695

  9. Maternal Nutritional Deficiencies and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates at Birth of Women Who Have Undergone Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Le Guennec, D.; Accoceberry, M.; Lemery, D.; Mulliez, A.; Farigon, N.; Lahaye, C.; Miolanne-Debouit, M.; Boirie, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to compare the prevalence of maternal deficiencies in micronutrients, the obstetrical and neonatal complications after bariatric surgery according to surgical techniques, the time between surgery and conception, and BMI at the onset of pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study concerned 57 singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2016 of 48 adult women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Small-for-gestational-age neonates were identified in 36.0% of pregnancies. With supplements intake (periconceptional period: 56.8%, trimester 1 (T1): 77.8%, T2: 96.3%, and T3: 100.0%), nutritional deficiencies involved vitamins A (T1: 36.4%, T2: 21.1%, and T3: 40.0%), D (T1: 33.3%, T2: 26.3%, and T3: 8.3%), C (T1: 66.7%, T2: 41.2%, and T3: 83.3%), B1 (T1: 45.5%, T2: 15.4%, and T3: 20.0%), and B9 (T1: 14.3%, T2: 0%, and T3: 9.1%) and selenium (T1: 77.8%, T2: 22.2%, and T3: 50.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies and complications according to surgery procedures and in the prevalence of pregnancy issues according to BMI at the beginning of the pregnancy and time between surgery and pregnancy. Prevalence of micronutritional deficiencies and small-for-gestational-age neonates is high in pregnant women following bariatric surgery. Specific nutritional programmes should be recommended for these women. PMID:29082043

  10. Maternal Nutritional Deficiencies and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates at Birth of Women Who Have Undergone Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hazart, J; Le Guennec, D; Accoceberry, M; Lemery, D; Mulliez, A; Farigon, N; Lahaye, C; Miolanne-Debouit, M; Boirie, Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to compare the prevalence of maternal deficiencies in micronutrients, the obstetrical and neonatal complications after bariatric surgery according to surgical techniques, the time between surgery and conception, and BMI at the onset of pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study concerned 57 singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2016 of 48 adult women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Small-for-gestational-age neonates were identified in 36.0% of pregnancies. With supplements intake (periconceptional period: 56.8%, trimester 1 (T1): 77.8%, T2: 96.3%, and T3: 100.0%), nutritional deficiencies involved vitamins A (T1: 36.4%, T2: 21.1%, and T3: 40.0%), D (T1: 33.3%, T2: 26.3%, and T3: 8.3%), C (T1: 66.7%, T2: 41.2%, and T3: 83.3%), B1 (T1: 45.5%, T2: 15.4%, and T3: 20.0%), and B9 (T1: 14.3%, T2: 0%, and T3: 9.1%) and selenium (T1: 77.8%, T2: 22.2%, and T3: 50.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies and complications according to surgery procedures and in the prevalence of pregnancy issues according to BMI at the beginning of the pregnancy and time between surgery and pregnancy. Prevalence of micronutritional deficiencies and small-for-gestational-age neonates is high in pregnant women following bariatric surgery. Specific nutritional programmes should be recommended for these women.

  11. Early postnatal growth and neurodevelopment in children born moderately preterm or small for gestational age at term: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taine, Marion; Charles, Marie-Aline; Beltrand, Jacques; Rozé, Jean Christophe; Léger, Juliane; Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara

    2018-04-25

    Clinicians' interest in the long-term effects of early postnatal growth (EPG) is growing. There is compelling evidence linking rapid EPG with later cardiovascular risk, but its neurodevelopmental benefits still remain hypothetical in individuals born moderately preterm (MP) or small for gestational at term (SGAT). The objective was to perform a systematic review of the relationship between EPG before age 3 years and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP (32-36 weeks' gestational age) or SGAT. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, 3 independent investigators searched for articles published on this topic in the Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed from database inception to July 1, 2017. A detailed quality scale was used to evaluate articles. We selected 19 articles relying on 12 distinct study populations; 7 articles from 3 study populations were considered at moderate or high quality. The lack of standardisation of growth analysis methods prevented performing a meta-analysis. Overall, EPG was positively associated with neurodevelopmental outcome, especially Intelligence Quotient (IQ) when available. In this relationship, the first 6 months of life might be a critical period. Analysis of the few articles investigating the shape of the relationships revealed a non-linear association, with a plateau for IQ with higher weight gain, which suggests a possible ceiling effect. A positive association was generally found between EPG and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP or SGAT. Strategies for future epidemiological studies are suggested to improve the characterisation of this relationship. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  13. Challenged but not threatened: Managing health in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Janine; Miskelly, Philippa; Stewart, Oneroa; Kerse, Ngaire; Rolleston, Anna; Gott, Merryn

    2018-06-20

    In this paper we reflect on discussions with people of advanced age in Āotearoa New Zealand, and draw on theoretical frameworks of resilience and place in old age, to explore insights about the ways older people maintain quality of life and health. Twenty community-dwelling people of advanced age (85+) were recruited in 2015-16 from a large multidisciplinary longitudinal study of advanced age. These twenty participated in interviews about health in advanced age, impact of illnesses, interactions with clinicians, access to information, support for managing health, and perceptions of primary care, medications, and other forms of assistance. We use a positioning theory framework drawing on thematic and narrative analysis to understand the dynamic ways people in advanced age position themselves and the ways they age well through speech acts and storylines. People in advanced age saw themselves as challenged, rather than threatened, by adversities, and positioned themselves as able to draw on a lifetime of experience and resourcefulness and collaborations with supporters to deal with challenges. Key strategies include downplaying illness and resisting biomedical discourses of complexity, positioning embodied selves as having agency, and creative adaptation in the face of loss. People in advanced age exhibit resilience, maintaining wellbeing, autonomy and good physical and mental quality of life even while living with challenges such as functional decline and multi-morbidities. These findings have significance for supporters of older people, emphasising the need to move away from a narrow focus on problems to working together WITH people in advanced age to offer a more holistic approach that encourages and enhances adaptation and flexibility, rather than rigid and counterproductive coping patterns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Among Primiparae at Very Advanced Maternal Age: At What Price?

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Alon; Glasser, Saralee; Schiff, Eyal; Zahav, Aliza Segev; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-04-01

    In light of the potential physical and emotional costs to both woman and child, this study was conducted to assess pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in primiparae at very advanced maternal age (VAMA, aged ≥45) compared to younger primiparae. Retrospective cohort study comparing 222 VAMA primiparae and a reference group of 222 primiparae aged 30-35, delivering at Sheba Medical Center from 2008 through 2013. VAMA primiparae were more likely than younger primiparae to be single, to have chronic health conditions, and higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational-hypertension (GHTN) and preeclampsia-eclampsia. VAMA primiparae conceived mostly by oocyte donation. They were more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, to deliver preterm and by cesarean birth. Infants of VAMA primiparae were at greater risk for low birthweight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. There were no differences in outcomes between VAMA primiparae with or without preexisting chronic conditions, or between those aged 45-49 and ≥50. In multivariable analysis VAMA was an independent risk factor for GDM, GHTN and preeclamsia-eclampsia, with adjusted odds ratio of 2.38 (95 % CI 1.32, 4.29), 5.80 (95 % CI 2.66, 12.64) and 2.45 (95 % CI 1.03, 5.85); respectively. The effect of age disappeared in multiple pregnancies. Primiparity at VAMA holds a significant risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The absence of chronic medical conditions or the use of a young oocyte donor does not improve these outcomes. Multiple pregnancies hold additional risk and may diminish the effect of age. Primiparity at an earlier age should be encouraged.

  15. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    PubMed

    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth order, gestational age, and risk of delivery related perinatal death in twins: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon C S; Pell, Jill P; Dobbie, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether twins born second are at increased risk of perinatal death because of complications during labour and delivery. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Scotland, 1992 and 1997. Participants All twin births at or after 24 weeks' gestation, excluding twin pairs in which either twin died before labour or delivery or died during or after labour and delivery because of congenital abnormality, non-immune hydrops, or twin to twin transfusion syndrome. Main outcome measure Delivery related perinatal deaths (deaths during labour or the neonatal period). Results Overall, delivery related perinatal deaths were recorded for 23 first twins only and 23 second twins only of 1438 twin pairs born before 36 weeks (preterm) by means other than planned caesarean section (P>0.99). No deaths of first twins and nine deaths of second twins (P=0.004) were recorded among the 2436 twin pairs born at or after 36 weeks (term). Discordance between first and second twins differed significantly in preterm and term births (P=0.007). Seven of nine deaths of second twins at term were due to anoxia during the birth (2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 5.9) per 1000); five of these deaths were associated with mechanical problems with the second delivery following vaginal delivery of the first twin. No deaths were recorded among 454 second twins delivered at term by planned caesarean section. Conclusions Second twins born at term are at higher risk than first twins of death due to complications of delivery. Previous studies may not have shown an increased risk because of inadequate categorisation of deaths, lack of statistical power, inappropriate analyses, and pooling of data about preterm births and term births. What is already known on this topicIt is difficult to assess the wellbeing of second twins during labourDeliveries of second twins are at increased risk of mechanical problems, such as cord prolapse and malpresentation, after vaginal delivery of first twins

  17. Tailoring peripartum nursing care for women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Suplee, Patricia Dunphy; Dawley, Katy; Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2007-01-01

    Births to women of advanced maternal age have increased dramatically over the last decade in both the United States. The majority of women who deliver their first baby after age 35 are healthy and experience positive birth outcomes. According to current research, primigravidas over 35 tend to be educated consumers. Their physical and psychosocial needs differ from those of the mother in her 20s, due to advanced age and factors related to difficulty conceiving and life circumstances. This paper presents (a) an overview of the possible risks to outcomes of childbearing for women over the age of 35; (b) a discussion of how women of advanced maternal age may differ from younger women related to developmental stage, stress or anxiety or both, decision making, and support systems; and (c) an exploration of tailoring nursing care strategies during the peripartum period specifically for this age cohort.

  18. Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adré; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O’Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

    2009-01-01

    Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

  19. Pathways linking socioeconomic status to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants among primiparae: a birth cohort study in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiu; Liu, Lingfei; Gu, Huaiting; Hou, Fang; Xie, Xinyan; Li, Xin; Meng, Heng; Zhang, Jiajia; Xu, Shunqing; Song, Ranran

    2018-06-14

    Evidence about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants was insufficient among Chinese primiparae. In addition, factors that may mediate this relationship are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of and mediators between SES and SGA. Retrospective cohort study. Wuhan, Hubei, China. Participants were recruited from patients who gave birth in the maternity care hospital of Wuhan between September 2012 and October 2014. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between SES and SGA. Pathway analysis was performed to examine the contribution of maternal lifestyles and pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIH) to the relationship between SES and SGA. Total effect, direct effect and indirect effect of SES on SGA were measured. Effect sizes were evaluated by unstandardised estimates (B) and standardised estimates (ß). Among 8737 primiparae, 927 (10.61%) pregnant women had babies with SGA. High SES was inversely associated with risk of SGA (OR 0.856; 95% CI 0.737 to 0.995) after adjustment for potential confounders. Maternal obstetric characteristics, lifestyles and PIH completely mediated SES and SGA (indirect effect: B=-0.067, 95% CI -0.108 to -0.026). The indirect effect of SES was strengthened by PIH (B=-0.029), a multivitamin supplement (B=-0.021), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥18.50 (B=-0.009) and prepregnancy BMI ≥18.50 to gestational weight gain (GWG) not below the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations (B=-0.003). Women from high SES predicted lower risk of PIH, more chances to take a multivitamin supplement during early pregnancy, keeping prepregnancy BMI ≥18.50 kg/cm 2 and gaining adequate gestational weight which was not below IOM recommendations. Furthermore, lower risk of PIH, more chances to take a multivitamin supplement, prepregnancy BMI ≥18.50 kg/cm 2 and GWG not below IOM recommendations were associated with a

  20. Metabolic health of young adults who were born small for gestational age and treated with growth hormone, after cessation of growth hormone treatment: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Manouk; Smeets, Carolina C J; Kerkhof, Gerthe F; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone treatment reduces fat mass and insulin sensitivity and increases lean body mass. Data are only available for short-term longitudinal changes after cessation of growth hormone treatment in young adults born small for gestational age. We aimed to assess long-term changes over a 5-year period following cessation of growth hormone treatment. We did a longitudinal study of young adults born small for gestational age and previously treated with growth hormone. Individuals were followed up for 5 years after attainment of adult height, when growth hormone treatment was discontinued: assessments were done at cessation of growth hormone treatment and at 6 months, 2 years, and 5 years thereafter. Data 5 years after cessation of growth hormone were compared with untreated age-matched controls. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition, and did frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and the disposition index (a measure of β-cell function). This study is registered with ISRCTN, numbers ISRCTN96883876 and ISRCTN65230311. Between April, 2004, and April, 2016, we followed up 199 young adults born small for gestational age and previously treated with growth hormone, during the 5 years after cessation of growth hormone treatment. Data at 5 years for these individuals were compared with those for 51 untreated adults born small for gestational age with short stature, 92 untreated adults born small for gestational age with spontaneous catch-up growth, and 142 adults born appropriate for gestational age and unexposed to growth hormone treatment. In young adults born small for gestational age and previously treated with growth hormone, 5 years after cessation of growth hormone treatment, there were increases in fat mass (estimated marginal mean 10·73 kg [95% CI 9·95-11·50] at cessation of treatment vs 16·12 kg [14·77-17·46] at 5 years; p<0·0001), trunk fat (5·34 kg [4

  1. The contribution of maternal birth cohort to term small for gestational age in the United States 1989-2010: an age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2014-07-01

    After decades of steady increase, mean birthweight in the US declined throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, a trend not fully explained by changes in length of gestation, medical practice, demographics, or maternal behaviours. We hypothesised that secular changes in health or social factors across women's life courses may have contributed to this unexplained trend and examined maternal birth cohort as a proxy measure of life-course determinants of fetal growth in the US. We used the age, period, and cohort (APC) intrinsic estimator (IE) approach to estimate the contribution of maternal birth cohort (independent of maternal age and period of birth) to small for gestational age (SGA), overall and among term births, in the US from 1989 to 2010. We conducted analyses separately among foreign- and US-born Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (NHB), and non-Hispanic white mothers. We found evidence of a U-shaped relationship between maternal birth cohort and SGA among NHB women only. After accounting for maternal age and period of birth, risk of SGA among NHB women born in 1950 was 21.1% and decreased to 15.9% in 1970. However, NHB women born after 1970 experienced increasing risk (19.6% by the 1986 birth cohort). Our findings suggest that NHB women born after 1970 have experienced increasing risk of SGA. Declining risk of SGA across NHB maternal birth cohorts from 1950 to 1970, however, suggests the potential to reverse this trend. Results illustrate the need for research on health and social risk factors for SGA across the pre-pregnancy life course. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Motor trajectories from 4 to 18 months corrected age in infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Pin, Tamis W; Eldridge, Bev; Galea, Mary P

    2010-09-01

    Preterm infants are recognised as developing at a significantly slower rate than their full-term peers and with different movement quality. This study aimed to describe the longitudinal gross motor trajectories of these infants in the first 18 months of (corrected) age and investigate factors associated with gross motor development. A longitudinal study was conducted with convenience samples of 58 preterm infants born < or = 29 weeks of gestation and 52 control full-term infants in Australia. The infants were assessed at 4, 8, 12 and 18 months of (corrected) age using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Forty-six preterm and 48 control infants completed all four assessments. The preterm group scored significantly lower on various sub-scores at all age levels. Almost half of the preterm infants demonstrated less progression in the sit sub-scale from 4 to 8 months (corrected) age, possibly due to an imbalance between flexor and extensor strength in the trunk. At 12 and 18 months of (corrected) age, lack of rotation and fluency in their movements were evident in some preterm infants. Presence of intra-ventricular haemorrhage and chronic lung disease were associated with poor motor performance at 4 months and use of postnatal steroids was associated with poor motor performance at 4, 8 and 18 months of corrected age. The imbalance between flexor and extensor muscle strength in preterm infants had a stronger impact on motor development than usually expected. The AIMS appears to be a sensitive assessment tool to demonstrate the unique movement characteristics in this preterm cohort. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    PubMed

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  4. Efficacy of pharmacologic closure of patent ductus arteriosus in small-for-gestational-age extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Boghossian, Nansi S; Do, Barbara T; Bell, Edward F; Dagle, John M; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Stoll, Barbara J; Vohr, Betty R; Das, Abhik; Shankaran, Seetha; Sanchez, Pablo J; Wyckoff, Myra H; Bethany Ball, M

    2017-10-01

    Optimal management of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants remains controversial. Therefore, studies identifying infants who are most likely to benefit from PDA treatment are needed. We sought to examine if significant intrauterine growth restriction, defined by birth weight z-score, reduces the efficacy of PDA closure with indomethacin or ibuprofen and thereby increases the need for surgical closure of PDA after pharmacologic treatment. We studied infants 23-28weeks' gestation born 2006-2013 at NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers. We examined the responses to PDA treatment with indomethacin and/or ibuprofen and whether the PDA was subsequently closed surgically. Logistic regression generated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between the z-score groups (<-2, -2 to -0.5, and >-0.5) and PDA surgery following pharmacologic treatment. 5606 infants were diagnosed with PDA; 3587 (64.0%) received indomethacin or ibuprofen or both, and 909 (25.3%) underwent PDA surgery. Mothers of infants with PDA non-closure were less likely to have hypertension (19% vs. 28%). Infants with non-closure were more likely to be female (53% vs. 49%), have lower gestational age and birth we