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Sample records for advanced health biotechnologies

  1. Advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand: redefining policy directions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thailand faces a significant burden in terms of treating and managing degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, incidences of rare diseases are rising. Many of these—such as diabetes, cancer, and inherited inborn metabolic diseases—have no definite treatments or cure. Meanwhile, advanced health biotechnology has been found, in principle, to be an effective solution for these health problems. Methods Qualitative approaches were employed to analyse the current situation and examine existing public policies related to advanced health biotechnologies in Thailand. The results of this analysis were then used to formulate policy recommendations. Results Our research revealed that the system in Thailand in relation to advanced health biotechnologies is fragmented, with multiple unaddressed gaps, underfunding of research and development (R&D), and a lack of incentives for the private sector. In addition, there are no clear definitions of advanced health biotechnologies, and coverage pathways are absent. Meanwhile, false advertising and misinformation are prevalent, with no responsible bodies to actively and effectively provide appropriate information and education (I&E). The establishment of a specialised institution to fill the gaps in this area is warranted. Conclusion The development and implementation of a comprehensive national strategic plan related to advanced health biotechnologies, greater investment in R&D and I&E for all stakeholders, collaboration among agencies, harmonisation of reimbursement across public health schemes, and provision of targeted I&E are specifically recommended. PMID:23281771

  2. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  3. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  4. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  5. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  6. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    PubMed

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  7. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli.

  8. Biotechnological advances in goat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Amoah, E A; Gelaye, S

    1997-02-01

    Goat selection and reproduction have resulted from using conventional methods of natural mating and artificial insemination. Genetic improvements resulting from these are usually slow. Innovative developments in biotechnology rapidly propagate superior genes, offering hope for modeling and designing animals to fit market and environmental requirements. Use of Tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, and glycerol extender has enabled goat sperm to be stored successfully for several years before being used in cervical or laparoscopic insemination. Laparoscopic recovery of goat embryos to reduce adhesions from repeat surgeries has great potential in improving embryo production for direct transfer or for future transfer after cryopreservation. Goat kids have been produced, as a result of experiments to refine techniques of in vitro maturation and fertilization of recovered oocytes, with successful culture and transfer of embryos. In vitro fertilization technology is also essential for cloning goat embryos and for gene transfer. Transgenic goats have already been produced due to new genes being expressed from biologically active molecules altering the phenotype of the transferred goat. The introduced gene is capable of transmission between generations. The goat's diversified commercial value and convenient size make it a benefactor to new technology for rapid genetic improvement as a supplement to conventional selection methods. PMID:9051483

  9. A US Perspective on Selected Biotechnological Advancements in Fish Health Part II: Genetic stock improvement, biosecurity tools and alternative protein sources in fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkable biotechnological advancements have been made in the aquaculture industry in the past five years. Advancements, in areas such as fish vaccines, improved genetic stock, biosecurity tools and alternative protein sources in fish diets, are necessary to meet the rapid growth of the aquacultur...

  10. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  11. Advanced biotechnology: metabolically engineered cells for the bio-based production of chemicals and fuels, materials, and health-care products.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in particular, have become established as important industrial workhorses in biotechnology. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in their advance into tailor-made producers, driven by the upcoming demand for sustainable processes and renewable raw materials. Here, the diversity and complexity of nature is simultaneously a challenge and a benefit. Harnessing biodiversity in the right manner through synergistic progress in systems metabolic engineering and chemical synthesis promises a future innovative bio-economy.

  12. Advanced NMR technology for bioscience and biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, P.C.; Hernandez, G.; Trewhella, J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Boumenthal, D.K.; Kennedy, M.A.; Moore, G.J.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). NMR plays critical roles in bioscience and biotechnology in both imaging and structure determination. NMR is limited, however, by the inherent low sensitivity of the NMR experiment and the demands for spectral resolution required to study biomolecules. The authors addressed both of these issues by working on the development of NMR force microscopy for molecular imaging, and high field NMR with isotope labeling to overcome limitations in the size of biomolecules that can be studied using NMR. A novel rf coil design for NMR force microscopy was developed that increases the limits of sensitivity in magnetic resonance detection for imaging, and the authors demonstrated sub-surface spatial imaging capabilities. The authors also made advances in the miniaturization of two critical NMR force microscope components. They completed high field NMR and isotope labeling studies of a muscle protein complex which is responsible for regulating muscle contraction and is too large for study using conventional NMR approaches.

  13. [Health risks in the biotechnological industry].

    PubMed

    Colombi, A; Maroni, M; Foà, V

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnology has been defined as the application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries. In considering health aspects of biotechnological development it must be underlined that the use of microorganisms in traditional industries, such as the production of food, bread, beer and dairy products, has not added significantly to the more usual industrial hazards. The risk factors encountered in the biotechnology industry can be defined as general, i.e., common to other industrial activities, and specific, i.e., depending on the presence of microorganisms and/or their metabolic products. The specific health risks vary according to the type of process, but can be grouped into three main categories: immunological diseases, toxic effects; pathological effects of microorganisms. Allergic immunological diseases such as bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis are by far the most frequent and well known diseases occurring among workers employed on biotechnological production. Toxic effects were observed among workers employed on the production of antibiotics and hormones or single cell proteins, where absorption of endotoxins has been described. Infectious diseases may arise from uncontrolled dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms through aerosols, dusts, aqueous and semisolid sludge effluents from biotechnological plants. The greatest risks occur in the production of antiviral vaccines, in research laboratories and in waste-water treatment plants. Risk of pathogenic effects has also been speculated from exposure to engineered microorganisms in laboratory and environmental or agricultural applications. Safety precautions consisting of protective measures, and effective barriers of containment (both physical and biological) have to be advised according to the hazardous characteristics of the organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W; Tearney, Guillermo J; Tunnell, James W; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-02-01

    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII.

  15. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W; Tearney, Guillermo J; Tunnell, James W; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-02-01

    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII. PMID:24575348

  16. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Tunnell, James W.; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The guest editors introduce a Biomedical Optics Express feature issue that includes contributions from participants at the 2013 conference on Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XIII. PMID:24575348

  17. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  18. The evolution of biotechnology and its impact on health care.

    PubMed

    Evens, Ronald; Kaitin, Kenneth

    2015-02-01

    For more than three decades the field of biotechnology has had an extraordinary impact on science, health care, law, the regulatory environment, and business. During this time more than 260 novel biotechnology products were approved for over 230 indications. Global sales of these products exceeded $175 billion in 2013 and have helped sustain a vibrant life sciences sector that includes more than 4,600 biotech companies worldwide. In this article we examine the evolution of biotechnology during the past three decades and the profound impact that it has had on health care through four interrelated and interdependent tracks: innovations in science, government activity, business development, and patient care. The future impact of biotechnology is promising, as long as the public and private sectors continue to foster policies and provide funds that lead to scientific breakthroughs; governments continue to offer incentives for private-sector biotech innovation; industry develops business models for cost-effective research and development; and all stakeholders establish policies to ensure that the therapeutic advances that mitigate or cure medical conditions that currently have inadequate or no available therapies are accessible to the public at a reasonable cost.

  19. The evolution of biotechnology and its impact on health care.

    PubMed

    Evens, Ronald; Kaitin, Kenneth

    2015-02-01

    For more than three decades the field of biotechnology has had an extraordinary impact on science, health care, law, the regulatory environment, and business. During this time more than 260 novel biotechnology products were approved for over 230 indications. Global sales of these products exceeded $175 billion in 2013 and have helped sustain a vibrant life sciences sector that includes more than 4,600 biotech companies worldwide. In this article we examine the evolution of biotechnology during the past three decades and the profound impact that it has had on health care through four interrelated and interdependent tracks: innovations in science, government activity, business development, and patient care. The future impact of biotechnology is promising, as long as the public and private sectors continue to foster policies and provide funds that lead to scientific breakthroughs; governments continue to offer incentives for private-sector biotech innovation; industry develops business models for cost-effective research and development; and all stakeholders establish policies to ensure that the therapeutic advances that mitigate or cure medical conditions that currently have inadequate or no available therapies are accessible to the public at a reasonable cost. PMID:25646100

  20. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  1. Recent patents in plant biotechnology: impact on global health.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural biotechnology offers a robust series of tools by which to address global concerns such as food security, crop protection, and fuel/energy requirements. A number of advances made recently in plant molecular biology also have resulted in applications which largely focus on improving global human health. This review describes some of the recent innovations in plant biotechnology that have come to the forefront over the past year. Included are novel techniques by which plants can be improved as platforms for biopharmaceutical protein production, a growing field also referred to as 'molecular pharming'. The metabolic engineering of plants to produce compounds which have additional nutritional benefits is also outlined. The review concludes with a discussion of the future impact that these innovations may have both on global health and on the development of our future intellectual property landscape.

  2. Recent patents in plant biotechnology: impact on global health.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural biotechnology offers a robust series of tools by which to address global concerns such as food security, crop protection, and fuel/energy requirements. A number of advances made recently in plant molecular biology also have resulted in applications which largely focus on improving global human health. This review describes some of the recent innovations in plant biotechnology that have come to the forefront over the past year. Included are novel techniques by which plants can be improved as platforms for biopharmaceutical protein production, a growing field also referred to as 'molecular pharming'. The metabolic engineering of plants to produce compounds which have additional nutritional benefits is also outlined. The review concludes with a discussion of the future impact that these innovations may have both on global health and on the development of our future intellectual property landscape. PMID:22642820

  3. Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which have considerable potential to supply food ingredients towards development of new functional foods. With the goal of increasing the availability and chemical diversity of functional marine ingredients, much research has been developed using biotechnological tools to discover and produce new compounds. This review summarizes the advances in biotechnological tools for production of functional ingredients, including enzymes, for the food industry. Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, bioprocessing) and those involving genetic research designated as molecular biotechnology are discussed highlighting how they can be used in the controlled manipulation and utilization of marine organisms as sources of food ingredients, as well as discussing the most relevant shortcomings towards applications in new functional foods. PMID:22484300

  4. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  5. Advances in biotechnology and genomics of switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial warm season grass indigenous to the North American tallgrass prairie. A number of its natural and agronomic traits, including adaptation to a wide geographical distribution, low nutrient requirements and production costs, high water use efficiency, high biomass potential, ease of harvesting, and potential for carbon storage, make it an attractive dedicated biomass crop for biofuel production. We believe that genetic improvements using biotechnology will be important to realize the potential of the biomass and biofuel-related uses of switchgrass. Tissue culture techniques aimed at rapid propagation of switchgrass and genetic transformation protocols have been developed. Rapid progress in genome sequencing and bioinformatics has provided efficient strategies to identify, tag, clone and manipulate many economically-important genes, including those related to higher biomass, saccharification efficiency, and lignin biosynthesis. Application of the best genetic tools should render improved switchgrass that will be more economically and environmentally sustainable as a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock. PMID:23663491

  6. Sex, gender, and health biotechnology: points to consider

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive technologies have been extensively debated in the literature. As well, feminist economists, environmentalists, and agriculturalists have generated substantial debate and literature on gender. However, the implications for women of health biotechnologies have received relatively less attention. Surprisingly, while gender based frameworks have been proposed in the context of public health policy, practice, health research, and epidemiological research, we could identify no systematic framework for gender analysis of health biotechnology in the developing world. Discussion We propose sex and gender considerations at five critical stages of health biotechnology research and development: priority setting; technology design; clinical trials; commercialization, and health services delivery. Summary Applying a systematic sex and gender framework to five key process stages of health biotechnology research and development could be a first step towards unlocking the opportunities of this promising science for women in the developing world. PMID:19622163

  7. Moral questions, legal answers, and biotechnological advances.

    PubMed

    Godlovitch, G

    1998-03-01

    Moral failing is usually construed as a personal flaw, but there is another construction: where morals fail people, where our moral precepts are silent. The author of this article argues that this happens nowadays where technological advances, such as genetic engineering in medicine, raise moral questions but get legal answers. By responding to the legal issues involved, the moral questions are pre-empted. This results in answers drawn from legal categories, often with commercial perspectives, but misses the larger moral dilemma.

  8. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  9. Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Health-Related Biotechnology Applications amongst Australian Year 10 High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Emile; Dawson, Vaille

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has a large and rapidly increasing impact on society. New advances in genetics, stem cells and other areas hold great potential for human health but also presenting socioscientific issues that commonly divide public opinion. While knowledge is necessary to develop informed opinions about biotechnology, they may also be…

  10. Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  11. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:27452170

  12. Recent advances in biotechnological production of 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important aromatic alcohol with a rose-like fragrance. It has been widely applied in the cosmetic, perfume, and food industries and is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. An alternative method for the production of natural flavors and fragrances is the microbial transformation process, which is attracting increasing attention because it is an environmentally friendly process and the products are considered "natural". The production of 2-PE from L-phenylalanine by biotransformation is possible through the Ehrlich pathway and considerable progress has been made in the development of this process. The present report reviews recent advances in biotechnological production of 2-PE, with emphasis on the strategies used to increase production and the applications of in situ product removal techniques. Future research should focus on product scale-up and product recovery processes for the industrialization of microbial processes.

  13. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179

  14. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  15. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, M Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma Lorelie U; Palacpac, Merle B; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  16. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, M Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma Lorelie U; Palacpac, Merle B; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  17. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, M. Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma. Lorelie U.; Palacpac, Merle B.; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  18. Health care innovation: progress report and focus on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Read, J L; Lee, K B

    1994-01-01

    Funding for biomedical research has shifted from government to the private sector. One reason is rapid expansion in the number and strength of U.S. biotechnology companies, which collectively spend more than $6 billion a year on biomedical research. Most of these companies are not yet profitable and therefore depend on flows of capital from private investors, Wall Street, and large pharmaceutical company collaborations. Investment in the new drugs, devices, and vaccines in this pipeline is sensitive to signals emanating from the debate on health care reform, suggesting that new federal policy will have a major impact on steering the type of innovation to emerge in the future.

  19. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    PubMed

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. PMID:27165254

  20. Where Experts Meet to Exchange Knowledge: Biotechnet's Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    Science and progress thrive on an open mind and a transnational exchange of ideas and experience. That's why, in 2005, two scientists with a vision launched the biotechnet Summer School on Advanced Biotechnology. This year, too, the Summer School - now held at ZHAW in Waedenswil - is attracting researchers from all over the globe, and is also celebrating its 10(th) anniversary.

  1. A framework for the animal health risk analysis of biotechnology-derived animals: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Moreau, P I; Jordan, L T

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the framework used by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to assess the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals and their products. In Canada the risks to animal health associated with biotechnology-derived animals are one consideration among several other regulatory concerns (e.g. human health, the environment). The risk analysis process begins with hazard identification, includes a risk assessment for each hazard, and concludes with risk management and risk communication.

  2. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  3. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution. PMID:25804815

  4. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  5. Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.

  6. Current status and biotechnological advances in genetic engineering of ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Nalousi, Ayoub Molaahmad; Nazari, Farzad; Chandler, Stephen F

    2016-11-01

    Cut flower markets are developing in many countries as the international demand for cut flowers is rapidly growing. Developing new varieties with modified characteristics is an important aim in floriculture. Production of transgenic ornamental plants can shorten the time required in the conventional breeding of a cultivar. Biotechnology tools in combination with conventional breeding methods have been used by cut flower breeders to change flower color, plant architecture, post-harvest traits, and disease resistance. In this review, we describe advances in genetic engineering that have led to the development of new cut flower varieties.

  7. Current status and biotechnological advances in genetic engineering of ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; Nalousi, Ayoub Molaahmad; Nazari, Farzad; Chandler, Stephen F

    2016-11-01

    Cut flower markets are developing in many countries as the international demand for cut flowers is rapidly growing. Developing new varieties with modified characteristics is an important aim in floriculture. Production of transgenic ornamental plants can shorten the time required in the conventional breeding of a cultivar. Biotechnology tools in combination with conventional breeding methods have been used by cut flower breeders to change flower color, plant architecture, post-harvest traits, and disease resistance. In this review, we describe advances in genetic engineering that have led to the development of new cut flower varieties. PMID:27396521

  8. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    PubMed

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor.

  9. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    PubMed

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. PMID:22617902

  10. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  11. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  12. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  13. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  14. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement. PMID:26971329

  15. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  16. Policy to support marine biotechnology-based solutions to global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Rachael J; Guy, Ken; Philp, Jim C

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in science and technology are igniting new interest in marine biotechnology. Governments are recognizing the potential of marine biotechnology to provide solutions to grand global challenges of population health, food, and energy security and sustainable industry. This paper examines some of the challenges to and policy options for the development of marine biotechnology.

  17. Policy to support marine biotechnology-based solutions to global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Rachael J; Guy, Ken; Philp, Jim C

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in science and technology are igniting new interest in marine biotechnology. Governments are recognizing the potential of marine biotechnology to provide solutions to grand global challenges of population health, food, and energy security and sustainable industry. This paper examines some of the challenges to and policy options for the development of marine biotechnology. PMID:23394961

  18. Are white-rot fungi a real biotechnological option for the improvement of environmental health?

    PubMed

    Tortella, G; Durán, N; Rubilar, O; Parada, M; Diez, M C

    2015-06-01

    The use of white-rot fungi as a biotechnological tool for cleaning the environment of recalcitrant pollutants has been under evaluation for several years. However, it is still not possible to find sufficiently detailed investigations of this subject to conclude that these fungi can decontaminate the environment. In the present review, we have summarized and discussed evidence about the potential of white-rot fungi to degrade such pollutants as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes or antibiotics as an example of the complex structures that these microorganisms can attack. This review also discusses field experiment results and limitations of white-rot fungi trials from contaminated sites. Moreover, the use of catabolic potential of white-rot fungi in biopurification systems (biobeds) is also discussed. The current status and future perspectives of white-rot fungi, as a viable biotechnological alternative for improvement of environmental health are noted.

  19. Spermatogonial stem cells: Current biotechnological advances in reproduction and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Pedro Manuel

    2015-05-26

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the germ stem cells of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis. Through the process of spermatogenesis, they produce sperm while concomitantly keeping their cellular pool constant through self-renewal. SSC biology offers important applications for animal reproduction and overcoming human disease through regenerative therapies. To this end, several techniques involving SSCs have been developed and will be covered in this article. SSCs convey genetic information to the next generation, a property that can be exploited for gene targeting. Additionally, SSCs can be induced to become embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent cells in vitro. Updates on SSC transplantation techniques with related applications, such as fertility restoration and preservation of endangered species, are also covered on this article. SSC suspensions can be transplanted to the testis of an animal and this has given the basis for SSC functional assays. This procedure has proven technically demanding in large animals and men. In parallel, testis tissue xenografting, another transplantation technique, was developed and resulted in sperm production in testis explants grafted into ectopical locations in foreign species. Since SSC culture holds a pivotal role in SSC biotechnologies, current advances are overviewed. Finally, spermatogenesis in vitro, already demonstrated in mice, offers great promises to cope with reproductive issues in the farm animal industry and human clinical applications. PMID:26029339

  20. Advances in the biotechnology of hydrogen production with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Torzillo, Giuseppe; Scoma, Alberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Giannelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production is being evaluated for use as a fuel, since it is a promising substitute for carbonaceous fuels owing to its high conversion efficiency and high specific energy content. The basic advantages of biological hydrogen production over other "green" energy sources are that it does not compete for agricultural land use, and it does not pollute, as water is the only by-product of the combustion. These characteristics make hydrogen a suitable fuel for the future. Among several biotechnological approaches, photobiological hydrogen production carried out by green microalgae has been intensively investigated in recent years. A select group of photosynthetic organisms has evolved the ability to harness light energy to drive hydrogen gas production from water. Of these, the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is considered one of the most promising eukaryotic H2 producers. In this model microorganism, light energy, H2O and H2 are linked by two excellent catalysts, the photosystem 2 (PSII) and the [FeFe]-hydrogenase, in a pathway usually referred to as direct biophotolysis. This review summarizes the main advances made over the past decade as an outcome of the discovery of the sulfur-deprivation process. Both the scientific and technical barriers that need to be overcome before H2 photoproduction can be scaled up to an industrial level are examined. Actual and theoretical limits of the efficiency of the process are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on algal biohydrogen production outdoors, and guidelines for an optimal photobioreactor design are suggested. PMID:24754449

  1. Recent advances in biochemistry and biotechnological synthesis of avermectins and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Avermectins (AVMs), produced by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (or ATCC 31267, NRRL 8165, NCBIM 12804), are 16-member macrocylic lactones that play very important functions as bactericidal and antiparasitic agents against nematodes and anthropods, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Since its discovery in 1975, use of AVM has been widely spreading around the globe. To date, the whole genome sequence of S. avermitilis K139 has been acquired, in which the AVM biosynthetic gene cluster was the most highly investigated to mine the genes responsible for functional as well as regulatory roles. Therefore, significant progress has been achieved for understanding and manipulating the biosynthesis, improved production, regulation mechanism, side effects, as well as the resistance of AVMs and their derivatives. These findings will facilitate further strain improvement and biosynthesis of novel derivatives bearing stable and improved biological activities, as well as overcoming the resistance mechanism to open up a bright period for these compounds. In this review, we have summarized and analyzed the update in advanced progress in biochemistry and biotechnological approaches used for the production of AVMs and their derivatives.

  2. Advances in the biotechnology of hydrogen production with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Torzillo, Giuseppe; Scoma, Alberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Giannelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production is being evaluated for use as a fuel, since it is a promising substitute for carbonaceous fuels owing to its high conversion efficiency and high specific energy content. The basic advantages of biological hydrogen production over other "green" energy sources are that it does not compete for agricultural land use, and it does not pollute, as water is the only by-product of the combustion. These characteristics make hydrogen a suitable fuel for the future. Among several biotechnological approaches, photobiological hydrogen production carried out by green microalgae has been intensively investigated in recent years. A select group of photosynthetic organisms has evolved the ability to harness light energy to drive hydrogen gas production from water. Of these, the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is considered one of the most promising eukaryotic H2 producers. In this model microorganism, light energy, H2O and H2 are linked by two excellent catalysts, the photosystem 2 (PSII) and the [FeFe]-hydrogenase, in a pathway usually referred to as direct biophotolysis. This review summarizes the main advances made over the past decade as an outcome of the discovery of the sulfur-deprivation process. Both the scientific and technical barriers that need to be overcome before H2 photoproduction can be scaled up to an industrial level are examined. Actual and theoretical limits of the efficiency of the process are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on algal biohydrogen production outdoors, and guidelines for an optimal photobioreactor design are suggested.

  3. Spermatogonial stem cells: Current biotechnological advances in reproduction and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Pedro Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the germ stem cells of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis. Through the process of spermatogenesis, they produce sperm while concomitantly keeping their cellular pool constant through self-renewal. SSC biology offers important applications for animal reproduction and overcoming human disease through regenerative therapies. To this end, several techniques involving SSCs have been developed and will be covered in this article. SSCs convey genetic information to the next generation, a property that can be exploited for gene targeting. Additionally, SSCs can be induced to become embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent cells in vitro. Updates on SSC transplantation techniques with related applications, such as fertility restoration and preservation of endangered species, are also covered on this article. SSC suspensions can be transplanted to the testis of an animal and this has given the basis for SSC functional assays. This procedure has proven technically demanding in large animals and men. In parallel, testis tissue xenografting, another transplantation technique, was developed and resulted in sperm production in testis explants grafted into ectopical locations in foreign species. Since SSC culture holds a pivotal role in SSC biotechnologies, current advances are overviewed. Finally, spermatogenesis in vitro, already demonstrated in mice, offers great promises to cope with reproductive issues in the farm animal industry and human clinical applications. PMID:26029339

  4. Spermatogonial stem cells: Current biotechnological advances in reproduction and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Pedro Manuel

    2015-05-26

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the germ stem cells of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis. Through the process of spermatogenesis, they produce sperm while concomitantly keeping their cellular pool constant through self-renewal. SSC biology offers important applications for animal reproduction and overcoming human disease through regenerative therapies. To this end, several techniques involving SSCs have been developed and will be covered in this article. SSCs convey genetic information to the next generation, a property that can be exploited for gene targeting. Additionally, SSCs can be induced to become embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent cells in vitro. Updates on SSC transplantation techniques with related applications, such as fertility restoration and preservation of endangered species, are also covered on this article. SSC suspensions can be transplanted to the testis of an animal and this has given the basis for SSC functional assays. This procedure has proven technically demanding in large animals and men. In parallel, testis tissue xenografting, another transplantation technique, was developed and resulted in sperm production in testis explants grafted into ectopical locations in foreign species. Since SSC culture holds a pivotal role in SSC biotechnologies, current advances are overviewed. Finally, spermatogenesis in vitro, already demonstrated in mice, offers great promises to cope with reproductive issues in the farm animal industry and human clinical applications.

  5. Recent advances in biochemistry and biotechnological synthesis of avermectins and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Avermectins (AVMs), produced by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (or ATCC 31267, NRRL 8165, NCBIM 12804), are 16-member macrocylic lactones that play very important functions as bactericidal and antiparasitic agents against nematodes and anthropods, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Since its discovery in 1975, use of AVM has been widely spreading around the globe. To date, the whole genome sequence of S. avermitilis K139 has been acquired, in which the AVM biosynthetic gene cluster was the most highly investigated to mine the genes responsible for functional as well as regulatory roles. Therefore, significant progress has been achieved for understanding and manipulating the biosynthesis, improved production, regulation mechanism, side effects, as well as the resistance of AVMs and their derivatives. These findings will facilitate further strain improvement and biosynthesis of novel derivatives bearing stable and improved biological activities, as well as overcoming the resistance mechanism to open up a bright period for these compounds. In this review, we have summarized and analyzed the update in advanced progress in biochemistry and biotechnological approaches used for the production of AVMs and their derivatives. PMID:25104027

  6. Biotechnology: Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airozo, Diana; Warmbrodt, Robert D.

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized the fields of agriculture and the health sciences; however, there are concerns with this technology. This document is designed to help foster dialogue with emphasis on education and the development of a public understanding of the principals involved in…

  7. Health-related biotechnology in Africa: managing the legislative and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Andanda, A P

    2007-01-01

    The challenges that most African countries face in an attempt to join the ongoing quest for the development and transfer of the products derived from health biotechnology are threefold: High research costs, inadequate regulatory capacity and unfavourable intellectual property arrangements. It is argued in this paper that these challenges are representative of the legislative and regulatory issues that require proper management in order to enable African countries to focus on the key research areas that are related to the burden of diseases that are prevalent in the region and to harness the products of such research for the benefit of the region. This paper discusses the challenges involved in managing the legislative and regulatory issues in health biotechnology and proposes specific ideas on the way forward for Africa. The methodology used is a review of the manner in which three African countries, Cameroon, Kenya and Nigeria, have encountered and dealt with such regulatory challenges. The review is carried out from policy and legal analysis perspectives.

  8. Biological Risks and Laboratory-Acquired Infections: A Reality That Cannot be Ignored in Health Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk – not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We hav processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture gas shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal ...

  11. [Biotechnology of yogurt and kefir production, study of their effect on human health].

    PubMed

    Chagarovskiĭ, V P; Zholkevskaia, I G

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnological parameters of bioyogurt and biokefir production have been studied. The impact of the temperature on biological activity of lactic acid bacteria strains have been studied in the consortia of direct vat set (DVS). The phase of milk fermentation and increase of acid production comes within 6 hours at the temperature of 40 degrees C and pH in the limits of 4.7-5.1 for thermophilic strains and 30 degrees C and pH 5.4-5.7 for mezophilic strains. The concentration of alive cells counts 5 x 10(10) CFU per 1 ml of the product. The probiotic properties of bioyogurt and biokefir have been proved by clinical trials. Positive effect on the health of elder people has been shown. Bioproducts have been related by clinicists to the group of functional products.

  12. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

  13. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come.

  14. Biotechnological advances in amaranths species and their future outlook in crop improvement--a review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R M

    2013-12-01

    The grain amaranths were important food crops for the ancient middle and South American civilization. The germplasm of amaranths also has not been well characterized from the point of view of its exploitation for improvement of amaranths in general, a grain amaranth in particular. Among all under exploited crops grain amaranth is the most suitable candidate to begin with. As it is one of the most important under exploited crops being used as subsidiary or supplementary food. This work will report a study concerning the patent related to the biotechnological applications of Amaranths. It has been summarized in results that RAPD is a powerful approach to understand both inter-as-well as intra species relationships in the genus amaranths. One result indicates the presence of at least two repetitive families, such that at least one family of sequences is present in both cot1 as well as total nuclear DNA. The grain amaranth cultivation plays an important role in changing the economy of rural life. It is a source of dietary protein in strictly vegetarian people. In amaranths, somatic hybridization can be combined to the tertiary gene pools. Some of amaranth triploids are reported to be good in (Sharma SK, Dawson IK and Waugh R 1995) foliage and nutritional quality. They have broader leaves and good growth. Amaranth is grown under variety of soils and environmental conditions such as alkalinity, salinity, drought, frost etc. One of the ways to improve quality of grain amaranths to isolate variants of lysine genes products of which are enriched in essential amino acids. The high lysine content gene named as 'amargene' has been isolated and the patents have been used as biotechnological approach to introduce the gene in the tuber crop improvement The scope of biotechnology for the genetic improvement of grain amaranth crop has been described. PMID:23521706

  15. Nutritional enhancement of rice for human health: the contribution of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Navreet K; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe where daily caloric intake is confined mainly to staple cereals. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world's population, is low in bioavailable micronutrients required for the daily diet. Improvements of the plant-based diets are therefore critical and of high economic value in order to achieve a healthy nutrition of a large segment of the human population. Rice grain biofortification has emerged as a strategic priority for alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition. Nutritional enhancement of crops through conventional breeding is often limited by the low genetic variability for required dietary micronutrient levels. In this case, biotechnology strategies offer effective and efficient perspectives. In this review, we discuss genetic engineering approaches that have been successful in the nutritional enhancement of rice endosperm. These advancements will make substantial contributions to crop improvement and human nutrition. Their practical application, however, also demands visionary changes in regulatory policies and a broader consumer acceptance. PMID:22343216

  16. Nutritional enhancement of rice for human health: the contribution of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Navreet K; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe where daily caloric intake is confined mainly to staple cereals. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world's population, is low in bioavailable micronutrients required for the daily diet. Improvements of the plant-based diets are therefore critical and of high economic value in order to achieve a healthy nutrition of a large segment of the human population. Rice grain biofortification has emerged as a strategic priority for alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition. Nutritional enhancement of crops through conventional breeding is often limited by the low genetic variability for required dietary micronutrient levels. In this case, biotechnology strategies offer effective and efficient perspectives. In this review, we discuss genetic engineering approaches that have been successful in the nutritional enhancement of rice endosperm. These advancements will make substantial contributions to crop improvement and human nutrition. Their practical application, however, also demands visionary changes in regulatory policies and a broader consumer acceptance.

  17. Recent advances on applications and biotechnological production of D-psicose.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wanmeng; Zhang, Wenli; Feng, Yinghui; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Leon

    2012-06-01

    D-Psicose is a hexoketose monosaccharide sweetener, which is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose and is rarely found in nature. It has 70 % relative sweetness but 0.3 % energy of sucrose, and is suggested as an ideal sucrose substitute for food products. It shows important physiological functions, such as blood glucose suppressive effect, reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, and neuroprotective effect. It also improves the gelling behavior and produces good flavor during food process. This article presents a review of recent studies on the properties, physiological functions, and food application of D-psicose. In addition, the biochemical properties of D-tagatose 3-epimerase family enzymes and the D-psicose-producing enzyme are compared, and the biotechnological production of D-psicose from D-fructose is reviewed.

  18. Biosynthesis, structural architecture and biotechnological potential of bacterial tannase: a molecular advancement.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arijit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Banerjee, Amrita; Paul, Tanmay; Pati, Bikash Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Tannin-rich materials are abundantly generated as wastes from several agroindustrial activities. Therefore, tannase is an interesting hydrolase, for bioconversion of tannin-rich materials into value added products by catalyzing the hydrolysis of ester and depside bonds and unlocked a new prospect in different industrial sectors like food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, etc. Microorganisms, particularly bacteria are one of the major sources of tannase. In the last decade, cloning and heterologous expression of novel tannase genes and structural study has gained momentum. In this article, we have emphasized critically on bacterial tannase that have gained worldwide research interest for their diverse properties. The present paper delineate the developments that have taken place in understanding the role of tannase action, microbial sources, various cultivation aspects, downstream processing, salient biochemical properties, structure and active sites, immobilization, efforts in cloning and overexpression and with special emphasis on recent molecular and biotechnological achievements. PMID:24613317

  19. SSME Advanced Health Management: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plowden, John

    2000-01-01

    This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.

  20. Advances in yeast systematics and phylogeny and their use as predictors of biotechnologically important metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Mateo, Raquel Quintilla; Kolecka, Anna; Theelen, Bart; Robert, Vincent; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-09-01

    Detection, identification and classification of yeasts have undergone a major transformation in the last decade and a half following application of gene sequence analyses and genome comparisons. Development of a database (barcode) of easily determined DNA sequences from domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene and from ITS now permits many laboratories to identify species quickly and accurately, thus replacing the laborious and often inaccurate phenotypic tests previously used. Phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences is leading to a major revision of yeast systematics that will result in redefinition of nearly all genera. This new understanding of species relationships has prompted a change of rules for naming and classifying yeasts and other fungi, and these new rules are presented in the recently implemented International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). The use of molecular methods for species identification and the impact of Code changes on classification will be discussed, as will use of phylogeny for prediction of biotechnological applications.

  1. Advances in yeast systematics and phylogeny and their use as predictors of biotechnologically important metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Mateo, Raquel Quintilla; Kolecka, Anna; Theelen, Bart; Robert, Vincent; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-09-01

    Detection, identification and classification of yeasts have undergone a major transformation in the last decade and a half following application of gene sequence analyses and genome comparisons. Development of a database (barcode) of easily determined DNA sequences from domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene and from ITS now permits many laboratories to identify species quickly and accurately, thus replacing the laborious and often inaccurate phenotypic tests previously used. Phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences is leading to a major revision of yeast systematics that will result in redefinition of nearly all genera. This new understanding of species relationships has prompted a change of rules for naming and classifying yeasts and other fungi, and these new rules are presented in the recently implemented International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). The use of molecular methods for species identification and the impact of Code changes on classification will be discussed, as will use of phylogeny for prediction of biotechnological applications. PMID:26136514

  2. Health from Space to Ground- A Centre to Foster Italy Impressive Achievements in Space Medicine and Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Mario; Ambesi-Impimbato, Francesco Saverio

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes the project for a new strategic asset currently emerging within the Italian scientific community in the field of Space Medicine and Biotechnology: an Italian Centre for Health from Space to Ground, dedicated to transferring biomedical methodologies from Space to Earth applications (for rehabilitation, prevention, degenerative diseases treatment), to co-operate with existing similar centers to gather and disseminate data, resources and facilities. This need originates by the convergence between a very active science community, (fostered by the Italian space Agency and the recently founded the Italian Society for Space Biomedicine and Biotechnology - ISSBB) and ALTEC SpA, a public/private company incorporated in Turin by Thales Alenia Space Italy, ASI, a local consortium among local authorities and Finmeccanica, which is very active in supporting Science in Space.

  3. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  4. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  5. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  6. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  7. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  8. The Importance of Mentoring Programs to Women's Career Advancement in Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daun Robin

    2005-01-01

    Mentoring programs provide benefits to mentors, proteges, and organizations, but not all organizations have such programs in place. In those that do, women's exclusion from informal networks limits their visibility and, in turn, their chances of acquiring a mentor. This poses a barrier to women's career advancement, as does the absence of female…

  9. Deep ocean environmental biotechnology

    PubMed

    Deming

    1998-06-01

    Major recent advances in deep-sea biotechnology have come in the form of continuing discoveries of novel microorganisms, unexpected genetic diversity, and new natural products of potential relevance to human health or environmental bioremediation. Continuing explorations of submarine hydrothermal vent environments have yielded new hyperthermophiles (maximal growth at 90 degreesC or greater) and more evidence that elevated hydrostatic pressure stabilizes cells and enzymes at high temperature. Vent samples have also yielded new mesophiles (optimal growth near 30 degreesC) that produce heparin-like exopolysaccharides or express extraordinary tolerance (removal by precipitation) of heavy metals. From the cold deep sea have come new findings of unexpected microbial diversity and the promise of industrially useful enzymes or secondary metabolites. New classes of predictive models are emerging to guide future exploration of microbial diversity in the deep ocean.

  10. A holistic approach to managing palm oil mill effluent (POME): biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2009-01-01

    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products.

  11. [First South american network of biomedical research. Education and biotechnology for health].

    PubMed

    Perone, Marcelo J; Velázquez, Graciela; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Chamorro, Gustavo; Coluchi, Norma; Pirmez, Claude; Savino, Wilson; Barbeito, Luis; Arzt, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    It is in our interest, in this brief manuscript, to report the creation of the first program of regional integration of a network of research institutes in Biomedicine belonging to members of the MERCOSUR countries. We discuss some of the foundations that gave sustenance to its creation and its objectives in the medium and long term. In addition, we consider the potential of the results of this program in the fields of applied medical research, education and biotechnology.

  12. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  13. Advancing health equity to improve health: the time is now.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B; Huston, P

    2016-02-01

    Health inequities, or avoidable inequalities in health between groups of people, are increasingly recognized and tackled to improve public health. Canada's interest in health inequities goes back over 40 years, with the landmark 1974 Lalonde report, and continues with the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, which affirmed a global political commitment to implementing a social determinants of health approach to reducing health inequities. Research in this area includes documenting and tracking health inequalities, exploring their multidimensional causes, and developing and evaluating ways to address them. Inequalities can be observed in who is vulnerable to infectious and chronic diseases, the impact of health promotion and disease prevention efforts, how disease progresses, and the outcomes of treatment. Many programs, policies and projects with potential impacts on health equity and determinants of health have been implemented across Canada. Recent theoretical and methodological advances in the areas of implementation science and population health intervention research have strengthened our capacity to develop effective interventions. With the launch of a new health equity series this month, the journals Canada Communicable Disease Report and Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada will continue to reflect and foster analysis of social determinants of health and focus on intervention studies that advance health equity.

  14. Advancing health equity to improve health: the time is now

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, B.; Huston, P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health inequities, or avoidable inequalities in health between groups of people, are increasingly recognized and tackled to improve public health. Canada’s interest in health inequities goes back over 40 years, with the landmark 1974 Lalonde report, and continues with the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, which affirmed a global political commitment to implementing a social determinants of health approach to reducing health inequities. Research in this area includes documenting and tracking health inequalities, exploring their multidimensional causes, and developing and evaluating ways to address them. Inequalities can be observed in who is vulnerable to infectious and chronic diseases, the impact of health promotion and disease prevention efforts, how disease progresses, and the outcomes of treatment. Many programs, policies and projects with potential impacts on health equity and determinants of health have been implemented across Canada. Recent theoretical and methodological advances in the areas of implementation science and population health intervention research have strengthened our capacity to develop effective interventions. With the launch of a new health equity series this month, the journals Canada Communicable Disease Report and Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada will continue to reflect and foster analysis of social determinants of health and focus on intervention studies that advance health equity. PMID:26878490

  15. Cyborgs, biotechnologies, and informatics in health care - new paradigms in nursing sciences.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana Paula Teixeira de Almeida Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Nursing Sciences are at a moment of paradigmatic transition. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the new epistemological paradigms of nursing science from a critical approach. In this paper, we identified and analysed some new research lines and trends which anticipate the reorganization of nursing sciences and the paradigms emerging from nursing care: biotechnology-centred knowledge; the interface between nursing knowledge and new information technologies; body care centred knowledge; the human body as a cyborg body; and the rediscovery of an aesthetic knowledge in nursing care.

  16. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals. PMID:25276514

  17. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  18. Do governance, equity characteristics, and venture capital nvolvement affect long-term wealth creation in U.S. health care and biotechnology IPOs?

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Duncan, W Jack; Ginter, Peter M; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    Agency theory remains the dominant means of examining governance issues and ownership characteristics related to large organizations. Research in these areas within large organizations has increased our understanding, yet little is known about the influence that these mechanisms and characteristics have had on IPO firm performance. This study tests an agency perspective that venture capital involvement, governance and equity characteristics affect health care and biotechnology IPO firm performance. Our results indicate that there is no correlation between these factors and health care and biotechnology IPO wealth creation. For these entrepreneurs, our findings suggest a contingent approach for the use of these mechanisms.

  19. ADVANCES IN PLANT HEALTH MANAGEMENT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Cook, R. James

    2000-01-01

    Plant health management is the science and practice of understanding and overcoming the succession of biotic and abiotic factors that limit plants from achieving their full genetic potential as crops, ornamentals, timber trees, or other uses. Although practiced as long as agriculture itself, as a science-based concept, plant heath management is even younger than integrated pest management (IPM), and includes and builds upon but is not a replacement for IPM. Probably the greatest collection of success stories for plant health management is the number of diseases managed by cleaning up the planting material. The record for root health management is more mixed, with the loss or phase-out of soil fumigants, and practices such as crop rotation and clean tillage being replaced with more intensive cropping and less or no tillage. Perhaps the greatest scientific and technical advances for plant health management have come from the work aimed at management of the pathogens, pests, and other hazards that arrive by air. Flor's work on flax rust, which produced the gene-for-gene model, is possibly the most significant contribution of plant pathology to the life sciences in the twentieth century. Research aimed at the management of foliar pathogens is also the basis for modern theory on epidemiology, population biology, aerobiology, and disease prediction and decision-support systems. Even IPM arose mainly in response to the need to protect crops from pests that arrive by air. If the definition of biological control includes the plant induced or genetically modified to defend itself, as it should, then biological control has been the most significant approach to plant health management during the twentieth century and promises through modern biotechnology to be even more significant in the twenty-first century. Rather than "reducing losses," the advances are discussed here within the simple framework of achieving the attainable yield by increasing the actual and/or affordable

  20. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  1. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  2. Health related biotechnology transfer in Africa: a critique from a capabilities approach.

    PubMed

    Botbol-Baum, M

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issues related to the ethical justification for technology transfer in Africa. Two well held but conflicting points of views are examined and an alternative line of thought that seeks to resolve and reconcile the differences between the two view points is proposed. The necessity for developing countries to adapt to new technologies in order to escape the cycle of underdevelopment and economic subservience, and the more culturalist approach, that considers biotechnology to be a form of neocolonialism that local cultures must resist in order to preserve their community values. The conditions of a participative model based on the thoughts of Amartya Sen and Nancy Frazer are analyzed, and conclusions that could associate practical social justice and a negotiated model of development are drawn, bearing in mind the fact that this proposition, without being a mere utopia, remains a horizon of action for global bioethics and models of justice.

  3. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  4. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology. PMID:25058832

  5. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  6. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  7. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  8. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. PMID:12499024

  9. Limited health literacy in advanced kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dominic M; Bradley, John A; Bradley, Clare; Draper, Heather; Johnson, Rachel; Metcalfe, Wendy; Oniscu, Gabriel; Robb, Matthew; Tomson, Charles; Watson, Chris; Ravanan, Rommel; Roderick, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Limited health literacy may reduce the ability of patients with advanced kidney disease to understand their disease and treatment and take part in shared decision making. In dialysis and transplant patients, limited health literacy has been associated with low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and mortality. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associations of limited health literacy using data from the United Kingdom-wide Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM) program. Incident dialysis, incident transplant, and transplant wait-listed patients ages 18 to 75 were recruited from 2011 to 2013 and data were collected from patient questionnaires and case notes. A score >2 in the Single-Item Literacy Screener was used to define limited health literacy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient factors associated with limited health literacy. We studied 6842 patients, 2621 were incident dialysis, 1959 were wait-listed, and 2262 were incident transplant. Limited health literacy prevalence was 20%, 15%, and 12% in each group, respectively. Limited health literacy was independently associated with low socioeconomic status, poor English fluency, and comorbidity. However, transplant wait-listing, preemptive transplantation, and live-donor transplantation were associated with increasing health literacy. PMID:27521115

  10. Limited health literacy in advanced kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dominic M; Bradley, John A; Bradley, Clare; Draper, Heather; Johnson, Rachel; Metcalfe, Wendy; Oniscu, Gabriel; Robb, Matthew; Tomson, Charles; Watson, Chris; Ravanan, Rommel; Roderick, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Limited health literacy may reduce the ability of patients with advanced kidney disease to understand their disease and treatment and take part in shared decision making. In dialysis and transplant patients, limited health literacy has been associated with low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and mortality. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associations of limited health literacy using data from the United Kingdom-wide Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM) program. Incident dialysis, incident transplant, and transplant wait-listed patients ages 18 to 75 were recruited from 2011 to 2013 and data were collected from patient questionnaires and case notes. A score >2 in the Single-Item Literacy Screener was used to define limited health literacy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient factors associated with limited health literacy. We studied 6842 patients, 2621 were incident dialysis, 1959 were wait-listed, and 2262 were incident transplant. Limited health literacy prevalence was 20%, 15%, and 12% in each group, respectively. Limited health literacy was independently associated with low socioeconomic status, poor English fluency, and comorbidity. However, transplant wait-listing, preemptive transplantation, and live-donor transplantation were associated with increasing health literacy.

  11. BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with EPA's mission to minimize risks to human health and to safeguard ecological integrity, the EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) is committed to assessing and mitigating any risk posed by biotechnology-derived crops. Consequently, ...

  12. [Equity, public health and genomics: the legal, social and biotechnology challenge in México].

    PubMed

    Oliva-Sánchez, Pablo Francisco; Jafif-Cojab, Marcos; Akkad-Schaffer, Isaac; Waliszewski-Zamorano, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Mexico has entered an era where health research is enriched by the study of genetic variants that determinate how the different human populations are differentially susceptible to diseases. The objective is to design new strategies in health care and services based on medical genomics. However, to ensure universal access to these products, we should rethink the legal aspects that facilitate the design of health policies, based on the principle of equity. Intrinsic factors of the Mexican health system as inequity, poverty and low investment in health research, are challenges that add to the development of appropriate distribution strategies for the use of new genomic products for health. This article discusses these challenges and establish the basis to design policies and appropriate use of these new genomic-based health care services.

  13. Engineering Foundation Conference: Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine, and surgery, Kona Surf Resort and Conference Center, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, August 1-6, 1999. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yodh, Arjun; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Benaron, David

    2001-09-01

    The intent of the conference was to gather a group of cross-disciplinary investigators from universities, medical schools, national laboratories, industry, and government in order to highlight future applications and technology of the optical sciences in biotechnology, medicine, and surgery. The session chairs brought new participants and speakers to the conference who were not regular attendees of the OSA and SPIE conferences. Attendees included a good number of graduate and post-doctoral students who tended to join the more senior members in organized and spontaneous afternoon activities. A critique of the conference is given which discusses things that worked well and things that could have been better, focusing on costs, funding, and speaker cancellations. Sessions were held on the following topics: Photodynamic therapy: fundamental and clinical studies; Frontiers in spectroscopy; Photon migration; Advances in tissue microscopy, dyes and reporters; Advances in cell microscopy: spectroscopy and micromanipulation; Laser-tissue interactions: therapeutic interventions; and Optics for biotechnology. Along with the program and participant lists, nearly 50 poster presentations are included.

  14. Opportunities for innovation: Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    The basic purpose of this project is to help small businesses get on the fast track in biotechnology research and development leading to the spin off of viable commercial businesses, probably with the help of larger companies having the resources for commercialization that are lacking in a small enterprise. Such resources could include financing, and positions in marketing, manufacturing, regulatory affairs, and raw material supply, to name a few. In general, biotechnology can be expected to have a major impact on fundamental human needs engendered in the market segments of: health care, agriculture, forestry, food ingredients, industrial chemicals, plastics, energy, mining, pollution control, and bioelectronics.

  15. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods.

  16. Space and biotechnology: An industry profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard S.; Norton, David J.; Tom, Baldwin H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Center for Space and Advanced Technology (CSAT) for NASA-JSC are presented. The objectives were to determine the interests and attitudes of the U.S. biotechnology industry toward space biotechnology and to prepare a concise review of the current activities of the biotechnology industry. In order to accomplish these objectives, two primary actions were taken. First, a questionnaire was designed, reviewed, and distributed to U.S. biotechnology companies. Second, reviews of the various biotechnology fields were prepared in several aspects of the industry. For each review, leading figures in the field were asked to prepare a brief review pointing out key trends and current industry technical problems. The result is a readable narrative of the biotechnology industry which will provide space scientists and engineers valuable clues as to where the space environment can be explored to advance the U.S. biotechnology industry.

  17. Biotechnology: Economic and Behavioral Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhan, William F.; Beardsley, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews factors related to effects of biotechnology on the discipline of pharmacy administration including needs assessment, diffusion of technology, cost benefit analysis, marketing, cost containment, patient education and compliance, ethics, and health professions training. (DB)

  18. Biotechnology Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.; Spenciner, Loraine

    There have been few initiatives addressing the improvement of science education for students with disabilities. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Biotechnology Works is a summer institute in immunology and genetics for students with disabilities, high school science teachers, and high school counselors. During the 1998 summer session,…

  19. Translational genetics: advancing fronts for craniofacial health.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, R N; Dunnwald, M; Dunnvald, M; Frazier-Bowers, S; Polverini, P J; Wright, J T; de Rouen, T; Vieira, A R

    2013-12-01

    Scientific opportunities have never been better than today! The completion of the Human Genome project has sparked hope and optimism that cures for debilitating conditions can be achieved and tailored to individuals and communities. The availability of reference genome sequences and genetic variations as well as more precise correlations between genotype and phenotype have facilitated the progress made in finding solutions to clinical problems. While certain craniofacial and oral diseases previously deemed too difficult to tackle have benefited from basic science and technological advances over the past decade, there remains a critical need to translate the fruits of several decades' worth of basic and clinical research into tangible therapies that can benefit patients. The fifth Annual Fall Focused Symposium, "Translational Genetics - Advancing Fronts for Craniofacial Health", was created by the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) to foster its mission to advance interdisciplinary research that is directed toward improving oral health. The symposium showcased progress made in identifying molecular targets that are potential therapeutics for common and rare dental diseases and craniofacial disorders. Speakers focused on translational and clinical applications of their research and, where applicable, on strategies for new technologies and therapeutics. The critical needs to transfer new knowledge to the classroom and for further investment in the field were also emphasized. The symposium underscored the importance of basic research, chairside clinical observations, and population-based studies in driving the new translational connections needed for the development of cures for the most common and devastating diseases involving the craniofacial complex. PMID:24097854

  20. Advancing the role of nonprofit health care.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Marcia

    2002-01-01

    This article comes out of a series of discussions among a diverse group of chief executive officers (CEOs) and other leaders of nonprofit hospitals, long-term care facilities, health maintenance organizations, and other insurance providers, including several nonprofit Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) plans. The group was convened as part of Howard Berman's Walter J. McNerney Fellowship project. (Berman is CEO of Excellus, Inc., a nonprofit Blue Cross Blue Shield affiliate that insures the health of more than 2.15 million people in upstate New York. He was awarded the McNerney Fellowship in April 2001 by the Health Research and Educational Trust, an American Hospital Association affiliate. The Fellowship goes annually to at least one fellow to highlight or pursue work that will provide new insights into how different sectors of the health care system can better work together for improved outcomes.) The group has met several times over the past year around a shared concern: the current challenges to nonprofit health care organizations and the future role for nonprofits in the re-visioning and creation of an American health care system that is characterized by universal access, patient-centered quality, and national affordability. Members have supported the public relations campaign of the "Alliance for Advancing Nonprofit Health Care," an effort initiated by the Caucus, an independent group of nonprofit BCBS plans. The group continues to explore the need for a broad-based coalition of providers, insurers, and other organizations to effectively protect and enhance the role of nonprofit health care.

  1. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  2. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  3. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  4. Recent advances in the biotechnological production of microbial poly(ɛ-L-lysine) and understanding of its biosynthetic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Delei; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Poly(ɛ-L-lysine) (ɛ-PL) is an unusual biopolymer composed of L-lysine connected between α-carboxyl and ɛ-amino groups. It has been used as a preservative in food and cosmetics industries, drug carrier in medicines, and gene carrier in gene therapy. Modern biotechnology has significantly improved the synthetic efficiency of this novel homopoly(amino acid) on an industrial scale and has expanded its industrial applications. In the latest years, studies have focused on the biotechnological production and understanding the biosynthetic mechanism of microbial ɛ-PL. Herein, this review focuses on the current trends and future perspectives of microbial ɛ-PL. Information on the screening of ɛ-PL-producing strains, fermentative production of ɛ-PL, breeding of high-ɛ-PL-producing strains, genomic data of ɛ-PL-producing strains, biosynthetic mechanism of microbial ɛ-PL, and the control of molecular weight of microbial ɛ-PL is included. This review will contribute to the development of this novel homopoly(amino acid) and serve as a basis of studies on other biopolymers. PMID:27333910

  5. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  6. Design and Implementation of an Interdepartmental Biotechnology Program across Engineering Technology Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clase, Kari

    2008-01-01

    The health industry is an important and growing economic engine. Advances are being made in pharmaceutical and biotechnology discoveries and their applications (including manufacturing), as well as in health care services. As a result, there is an increasing sophistication of the products and services available and being developed, with an…

  7. A Biotechnological Approach for the Development of New Antifungal Compounds to Protect the Environment and the Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Restivo, Francesco Maria; Carcelli, Mauro; Feretti, Donatella; Pelosi, Giorgio; Rogolino, Dominga; Degola, Francesca; Galati, Serena; Bisceglie, Franco; Buschini, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Background. In the Po Valley aflatoxins play a relevant role: the local food economy is heavily based on cereal cultivations for animal feed and human nutrition. Aims of this project are the identification of new compounds that inhibit Aspergillus proliferation, the development of new inhibitors of aflatoxins production, and the set-up a practical screening procedure to identify the most effective and safe compounds. Design and Methods. New compounds will be synthetized with natural origin molecules as ligands and endogenous metal ions to increase their bioavailability for the fungi as metal complexes. A biotechnological high-throughput screening will be set up to identify efficiently the most powerful substances. The newly synthesized compounds with effective antifungal activities, will be evaluated with battery of tests with different end-points to assess the toxic potential risk for environmental and human health. Expected impact of the study for public health. The fundamental step in the project will be the synthesis of new compounds and the study of their capability to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis. A new, simple, inexpensive and high-throughput method to screen the anti-fungine and anti-mycotoxin activity of the new synthesised compounds will be applied. The evaluation of possible risks for humans due to toxic and genotoxic activities of the molecules will be made with a new approach using different types of cells (bacteria, plants and human cells). Significance for public health Aflatoxins contamination constitutes a health emergency because aflatoxins and mycotoxins, besides being toxic, are among the most carcinogenic substances known. Even if Aspergillus are dominant in tropical regions, recently are becoming a serious problem also in Europe and in Italy, especially in area as the Po Valley in which this problem play a particularly important role, because the local food economy is heavily based not only on cereal cultivations aimed at animal feed but

  8. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.

  9. A survey of advancements in nucleic acid-based logic gates and computing for applications in biotechnology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun; Tan, Weihong

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gate and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications.

  10. A Survey of Advancements in Nucleic Acid-based Logic Gates and Computing for Applications in Biotechnology and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gating and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications. PMID:25597946

  11. Identified and unidentified challenges for reproductive biotechnologies regarding infectious diseases in animal and public health.

    PubMed

    Thibier, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the known and theoretical risks for in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos as well as for nuclear transferred or transgenic embryos in terms of animal diseases or diseases of public health consequence. For in vivo derived embryos, a considerable number of experiments and scientific investigations have resulted in recommended guidelines and procedures that ensure a high level of safety. The effectiveness of these measures has been validated by field experience with the safe transfer of several million embryos over the past three decades. In vitro produced embryos have several characteristics that differentiate them from the former, in particular a structure of the zona pellucida that results in a more frequent possible association of pathogens with the embryo. However, the guidelines prescribed by the IETS, the international standard setting body (OIE) and existing national regulatory frameworks are in place to minimize the risk of disease transmission. No specific public health risks have been identified to date with respect to in vivo or in vitro derived embryos. In regard to nuclear transferred and transgenic embryos, theoretical risks have been identified in relation to the potential effects on some intrinsic viruses such as endogenous retroviruses but very little targeted experimental work has been carried out on infectious diseases that could have adverse consequences on animal or human health. Although there has been no report of such adverse consequences associated with the limited number of animals produced to date by such reproductive technologies, a precautionary approach is warranted given the potential negative impacts and it would be prudent to restrict at this stage, the international movement of such "manipulated" embryos.

  12. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  13. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  14. New technologies in medicine: biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajtchuk, R

    1999-11-01

    In February 1997, researchers created Dolly, a lamb cloned from the DNA of an adult sheep. This was supposed to be impossible (or at least generations away), but suddenly it was here--a clone of a higher mammal. Whatever Dolly's ultimate significance, she conclusively demonstrated the growing power of biotechnology. Many have come to the conclusion that advances in biotechnology will fundamentally transform medicine during the coming decade. Society is in the midst of a technical revolution that will have the same relevance as the development of the printing press, the internal combustion engine, and the microprocessor. Computers have become the key tools in the accelerating progress that is occurring in the field of biotechnology. At the same time, genetic, evolutionary, and other biologic processes are providing new models for the development of computer hardware and software. Today represents the early stages of what has been called the "bionic convergence": the convergence of the biologic revolution with the information revolution, the joining of biology with electronics. Virtually everything that is important to health care practitioners and patients--diagnostic techniques, means of understanding disease causes, methods of treatment, approaches to prevention, health care facility design, medical education, and legal and ethical issues--will be changed by the revolutions currently underway in the fields of biotechnology and genetic medicine. The following monograph includes several forecasts about a range of possible opportunities that may have enormous effects on health care during the next century. These forecasts address the potential impacts of biotechnology on disease detection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nanotechnology, and other areas of medical significance. Every area of beneficiary care will be affected as the changes implied by these forecasts begin to develop. Beneficiary care will continue to see the emergence of a "forecast, prevent, and

  15. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  16. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  17. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:16910351

  18. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:19364084

  19. Environmental biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers an up-to-date overview of the major activities in the field and appraises the principles involved in applying biotechnological techniques to environmental problems. coverage includes pollution of agricultural land, techniques of treating effluents, environmental problems caused by solid waste disposal in landfill sites, and the potential for biogas generation at such sites. It also examines the potential uses and dangers of future technologies in environmental management, such as manipulating aromatic-degrading microorganisms, use of recalcitrant xenobiotics, biological pest control, and controlling biological nitrogen fixation.

  20. Biotechnology for the 21st century, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report outlines the Federal role in biotechnology research and describes the foundation for a coordinated national initiative that will, over the coming years, maximize the effectiveness of the Federal investment in biotechnology research. Specifically, this report: (1) Defines the baseline of programmatic activity and Federal funding in biotechnology research, (2) Highlights ongoing agency programs and new initiatives, (3) Outlines national strategic objectives for biotechnology research, (4) Presents the first interagency Federal biotechnology research budget, and (5) Suggests directions for future efforts. Biotechnology Research Areas include: Agriculture, Energy, Environment, Health, Manufacturing/Bioprocessing, General Foundations, Genome Projects, Marine Biotechnology, Structural Biology, Social Impact Research, and Infrastructure.

  1. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  2. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world. PMID:21415899

  3. A special report on India's biotech scenario: advancement in biopharmaceutical and health care sectors.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2010-01-01

    India's biotechnology industry has been growing towards new heights in conjunction with the recent economic outburst. The country has the potential to revolutionize biopharmaceutical and healthcare sectors. In this review, we have highlighted the achievements of India's biotechnology industry, especially biopharmaceutical and healthcare sectors that include therapeutics, diagnostics, stem cell research, human healthcare related bioinformatics and animal health care. We have also described regulatory mechanisms involved in India's health care biotech including manpower development.

  4. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  5. Human rights in the biotechnology era 1

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2002-01-01

    Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

  6. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  7. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  8. 75 FR 69091 - Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities.... Agenda: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and the... George, Program Assistant, Office of Science Policy, Office of Biotechnology Activities,...

  9. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  10. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies.

  11. The permanent relation between biology, power and war: the dual use of the biotechnological development.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maria Eneida

    2015-07-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, the biological advance had a closer and closer relation with the strategies of power in search of high technology. From 1970, the manipulation of genetically recombined pathogenic agents was a high technological breakthrough that radically over passed traditional biology and reinforced the war relations of science. The biotechnological revolution started along with new perspectives for the political and military field of science. From this point of the biotechnological development a new paradigm for war, as well as for the sciences of life, was then created and new challenges for International Health in the twenty first century came into scene. Through a historical account related to power, this paper is meant to present the mechanism of articulation existent between science and power and to contribute for understanding how the military field is naturally inserted in the biotechnological development which, in its essence, produces biotechnologies for civil and military uses. PMID:26132264

  12. Advancing health literacy measurement: a pathway to better health and health system performance.

    PubMed

    Pleasant, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The concept of health literacy initially emerged and continues to gain strength as an approach to improving health status and the performance of health systems. Numerous studies clearly link low levels of education, literacy, and health literacy with poor health, poor health care utilization, increased barriers to care, and early death. However, theoretical understandings and methods of measuring the complex social construct of health literacy have experienced a continual evolution that remains incomplete. As a result, the seemingly most-cited definition of health literacy proposed in the now-decade-old Institute of Medicine report on health literacy is long overdue for updating. Such an effort should engage a broad and diverse set of health literacy researchers, practitioners, and members of the public in creating a definition that can earn broad consensus through validation testing in a rigorous scientific approach. That effort also could produce the basis for a new universally applicable measure of health literacy. Funders, health systems, and policymakers should reconsider their timid approach to health literacy. Although the field and corresponding evidence base are not perfect, health literacy-especially when combined with a focus on prevention and integrative health-is one of the most promising approaches to advancing public health. PMID:25491583

  13. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science..., Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the... of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  14. 75 FR 10293 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science.... Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science.... Patterson, Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. BILLING CODE...

  15. Biotechnology Gains Brighten Resource Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1979-01-01

    This report details recent advances in fermentation biotechnology as presented by speakers at the 27th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Congress. Discussion centered around the use of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi as future sources of essential materials as food, fuel, and medicine. (BT)

  16. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  17. Advancing Health Literacy Measurement: A Pathway to Better Health and Health System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pleasant, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The concept of health literacy initially emerged and continues to gain strength as an approach to improving health status and the performance of health systems. Numerous studies clearly link low levels of education, literacy, and health literacy with poor health, poor health care utilization, increased barriers to care, and early death. However, theoretical understandings and methods of measuring the complex social construct of health literacy have experienced a continual evolution that remains incomplete. As a result, the seemingly most-cited definition of health literacy proposed in the now-decade-old Institute of Medicine report on health literacy is long overdue for updating. Such an effort should engage a broad and diverse set of health literacy researchers, practitioners, and members of the public in creating a definition that can earn broad consensus through validation testing in a rigorous scientific approach. That effort also could produce the basis for a new universally applicable measure of health literacy. Funders, health systems, and policymakers should reconsider their timid approach to health literacy. Although the field and corresponding evidence base are not perfect, health literacy—especially when combined with a focus on prevention and integrative health—is one of the most promising approaches to advancing public health. PMID:25491583

  18. Advanced practice nursing in performing arts health care.

    PubMed

    Weslin, Anna T; Silva-Smith, Amy

    2010-06-01

    Performing arts medicine is a growing health care profession specializing in the needs of performing artists. As part of the performing arts venue, the dancer, a combination of athlete and artist, presents with unique health care needs requiring a more collaborative and holistic health care program. Currently there are relatively few advanced practice nurses (APNs) who specialize in performing arts health care. APNs, with focus on collaborative and holistic health care, are ideally suited to join other health care professionals in developing and implementing comprehensive health care programs for the performing artist. This article focuses on the dancer as the client in an APN practice that specializes in performing arts health care.

  19. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  20. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  1. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  2. [Advances and challenges in health economics].

    PubMed

    Pena, P H; Arredondo, A; Ortiz, C; Rosenthal, G

    1995-08-01

    Health economics is a specialized field of economic science that applies the economic perspective to the fields of health, the medical-industrial complex and health services. A brief review of the evolution of this speciality by subject, as well as the level achieved assessed in terms of generation, diffusion, reproduction and application of its specialized knowledge, is presented.

  3. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  4. Implementation of Advanced Health Care Technology into Existing Competency-Based Health Care Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemovage, Shirley

    A project was undertaken to develop new curriculum materials that could be incorporated into an existing health assistant program to cover recent advances in health care technology. Area physicians' offices were toured and meetings were held with administrators of local hospitals in order to discover what kinds of advances in health care…

  5. A typology of advance statements in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham; Zinkler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Advance statements documenting mental health service consumers' preferences for treatment during a future mental health crisis or period of incapacity have gained currency in recent years in the United States and some European countries. Several kinds of advance statements have emerged -- some as legal instruments, others as treatment planning methods -- but no formal comparison has been made among them. This article reviews the literature in English and German to develop a comparative typology of advance statements: joint crisis plans, crisis cards, treatment plans, wellness recovery action plans, and psychiatric advance directives (with and without formal facilitation). The features that distinguish them are the extent to which they are legally binding, whether health care providers are involved in their production, and whether an independent facilitator assists in their production. The differing nature of advance statements is related to the diverse models of care upon which they are based and the legislative and service contexts in which they have been developed. However, there is recent convergence between the United Kingdom and the United States with respect to research interventions that facilitate the production of advance statements, as evidence emerges for the effectiveness of facilitated psychiatric advance directives and joint crisis plans. Different types of advance statements can coexist and in some cases may interact in complementary ways. However, the relationship of advance statements to involuntary treatment is more problematic, as is their effective implementation in many mental health service settings. PMID:18182541

  6. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  7. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity. PMID:26213711

  8. [Nurses' knowledge about the health care proxy and advance directives].

    PubMed

    Georget, Jean-Philippe; Cecire-Denoyer, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    The Basse-Normandie palliative care nurses' group carried out a survey regarding nurses' knowledge of the health care proxy and advance directives. The study revealed a lack of connection between these two arrangements, poor knowledge about advance directives but an understanding of the role of the health care proxy. How, therefore, can patients be effectively informed? How should they be supported in this process of determining themselves the conditions of their end of life? PMID:26146326

  9. Center for the Advancement of Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disparities in Mental Health Care December 3, 2014 Depression and Dementia in Older Adults Increase Risk of Preventable Hospitalizations November 20, 2014 More HBNS Articles » BE A PREPARED PATIENT® Resources to help people find good health care and make the most ...

  10. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  11. Bioethics and the Right to Health: Advancing a Complementary Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Forman, Lisa; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    This special section in Health and Human Rights Journal explores the relationship between bioethics and the right to health. Although bioethics scholars may argue for a right to health, particularly in the domains of universal health coverage and global health governance, and human rights scholars may advance ethical norms in their work, there has been little scholarly attention to the intersections, synergies, and contrasts between these two areas of study. At first glance, this is surprising given that bioethics and human rights share conceptual and normative terrain in articulating guidance for action on health-related issues and international policy and practice is explicitly interrelating human rights and ethics. PMID:26204574

  12. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population. PMID:11401233

  13. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population.

  14. The use of consumption data to assess exposure to biotechnology-derived foods and the feasibility of identifying effects on human health through post-market monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hlywka, J J; Reid, J E; Munro, I C

    2003-10-01

    The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived through biotechnology provides a scientific basis for concluding reasonable certainty of no harm and ensuring safety. At a minimum, the outcome of such an assessment provides sufficient information to estimate the likelihood of adverse effects on consumers, generally precluding the need for post-market monitoring. Post-market monitoring (PMM) may be appropriate under certain conditions where a better estimate of dietary exposure and/or nutritional consequence of a biotechnology-derived food is required, when a potential safety issue, such as allergenicity, cannot be adequately addressed through pre-market studies, or to corroborate dietary intakes of a nutritionally improved food with beneficial effects on human health. Monitoring programs must be hypothesis-driven, and are dependent upon the availability of accurate consumption data. Exposure assessment methods include both deterministic and probabilistic estimates of intakes using food supply data, individual dietary surveys, household surveys, or total diet studies. In the development of a monitoring approach, resource allocation should be dependent upon both the desired level of conservatism and the endpoint of interest. However, the cost of monitoring varies substantially, and the potential to determine causation may be limited.

  15. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit. PMID:25341102

  16. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  17. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  18. Biotech 101: an educational outreach program in genetics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    East, Kelly M; Hott, Adam M; Callanan, Nancy P; Lamb, Neil E

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in research and biotechnology are making genetics and genomics increasingly relevant to the lives and health of the general public. For the public to make informed healthcare and public policy decisions relating to genetic information, there is a need for increased genetic literacy. Biotech 101 is a free, short-course for the local community introducing participants to topics in genetics, genomics, and biotechnology, created at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Biotech 101 in increasing the genetic literacy of program participants through pre-and-post surveys. Genetic literacy was measured through increases in self-perceived knowledge for each content area covered through the course and the self-reported impact the course had on various aspects of participants' lives. Three hundred ninety-two individuals attended Biotech 101 during the first three course offerings. Participants reported a significant increase in self-perceived knowledge for each content area (p < 0.01). Participants also reported the program had high levels of impact on their lives and decision-making, a high likelihood for continued self-learning, and overwhelming satisfaction with course content and logistics. Biotech 101 is an effective mechanism for impacting participants' lives and genetic literacy and serves as a model for other similar programs, adding to the currently limited evidence base regarding public educational strategies in genetics and biotechnology.

  19. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  20. Colleges and Institutes: Advanced Skills for the Health Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the recommendations made by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Health based from its examination on the health and human resources issues in Canada. Colleges are the advanced skills educators of choice. Aligned with the needs of employers, and operating on the…

  1. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Future of Nursing" explores how nurses' roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America's increasingly complex health system. At more than 3 million in number, nurses make up the single…

  2. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology. PMID:19831210

  3. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  4. Upgrading the Association for the Advancement of Health Education's Health Resources Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education (AAHE) and Academic Programs for Health Science, George Mason University (Virginia), have collaborated in upgrading AAHE's Health Resources Information System. The process involved updating the health resources information on file. This information, which represents addresses and telephone…

  5. Legal Innovations to Advance a Culture of Health.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Weidenaar, Kim; Baker-White, Andy; Barraza, Leila; Bauerly, Brittney Crock; Corbett, Alicia; Davis, Corey; Frey, Leslie T; Griest, Megan M; Healy, Colleen; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Tilburg, William

    2015-01-01

    As conceptualized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and its partners, a culture of health centers on a society in which health flourishes across all populations and sectors. Law, among other tools, is critical to advancing a culture of health across multiple arenas. In this manuscript, Network for Public Health Law colleagues illustrate how legal innovations at all levels of government contribute to societal health. Examples include modern laws that promote healthy and safe low-income housing, telemedicine reimbursement, paid sick and safe time, healthy food and beverages, reduced smoking rates, child vaccinations, universal pre-k, adolescents' healthy sleep, overdose prevention, and medical-legal partnerships. PMID:26711426

  6. Advanced Health Assessment in Nurse Practitioner Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Frances J.; Kopac, Catharine

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 140 nursing schools indicated that most taught health assessment to nurse practitioners as a separate course; public institutions were more involved in computer-assisted instruction. Faculty cited scarce resources and limited time to develop new teaching strategies. Most agreed that graduate courses should focus on differential…

  7. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  8. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  9. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing. PMID:24404581

  10. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  11. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  12. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  13. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-03-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  14. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  15. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  16. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  17. Biotechnology for the extractive metals industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is an alternative process for the extraction of metals, the beneficiation of ores, and the recovery of metals from aqueous systems. Currently, microbial-based processes are used for leaching copper and uranium, enhancing the recovery of gold from refractory ores, and treating industrial wastewater to recover metal values. Future developments, emanating from fundamental and applied research and advances through genetic engineering, are expected to increase the use and efficiency of these biotechnological processes.

  18. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  19. The Evolution of Health Care Advance Planning Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Context: The legal tools of health care advance planning have substantially changed since their emergence in the mid-1970s. Thirty years of policy development, primarily at the state legislative level addressing surrogate decision making and advance directives, have resulted in a disjointed policy landscape, yet with important points of convergence evolving over time. An understanding of the evolution of advance care planning policy has important implications for policy at both the state and federal levels. Methods: This article is a longitudinal statutory and literature review of health care advance planning from its origins to the present. Findings: While considerable variability across the states still remains, changes in law and policy over time suggest a gradual paradigm shift from what is described as a “legal transactional approach” to a “communications approach,” the most recent extension of which is the emergence of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST. The communications approach helps translate patients’ goals into visible and portable medical orders. Conclusions: States are likely to continue gradually moving away from a legal transactional mode of advance planning toward a communications model, albeit with challenges to authentic and reliable communication that accurately translates patients’ wishes into the care they receive. In the meantime, the states and their health care institutions will continue to serve as the primary laboratory for advance care planning policy and practice. PMID:20579283

  20. New bioproduction systems: from molecular circuits to novel reactor concepts in cell-free biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    : The last decades witnessed a strong growth in several areas of biotechnology, especially in fields related to health, as well as in industrial biotechnology. Advances in molecular engineering now enable biotechnologists to design more efficient pathways in order to convert a larger spectrum of renewable resources into industrially used biofuels and chemicals as well as into new pharmaceuticals and therapeutic proteins. In addition material sciences advanced significantly making it more and more possible to integrate biology and engineering. One of the key questions currently is how to develop new ways of engineering biological systems to cope with the complexity and limitations given by the cell. The options to integrate biology with classical engineering advanced cell free technologies in the recent years significantly. Cell free protein production using cellular extracts is now a well-established universal technology for production of proteins derived from many organisms even at the milligram scale. Among other applications it has the potential to supply the demand for a multitude of enzymes and enzyme variants facilitating in vitro metabolic engineering. This review will briefly address the recent achievements and limitations of cell free conversions. Especially, the requirements for reactor systems in cell free biotechnology, a currently underdeveloped field, are reviewed and some perspectives are given on how material sciences and biotechnology might be able to advance these new developments in the future.

  1. Yeast Toxicogenomics: Genome-Wide Responses to Chemical Stresses with Impact in Environmental Health, Pharmacology, and Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra C.; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho; Cabrito, Tânia R.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The emerging transdisciplinary field of Toxicogenomics aims to study the cell response to a given toxicant at the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome levels. This approach is expected to provide earlier and more sensitive biomarkers of toxicological responses and help in the delineation of regulatory risk assessment. The use of model organisms to gather such genomic information, through the exploitation of Omics and Bioinformatics approaches and tools, together with more focused molecular and cellular biology studies are rapidly increasing our understanding and providing an integrative view on how cells interact with their environment. The use of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the field of Toxicogenomics is discussed in this review. Despite the limitations intrinsic to the use of such a simple single cell experimental model, S. cerevisiae appears to be very useful as a first screening tool, limiting the use of animal models. Moreover, it is also one of the most interesting systems to obtain a truly global understanding of the toxicological response and resistance mechanisms, being in the frontline of systems biology research and developments. The impact of the knowledge gathered in the yeast model, through the use of Toxicogenomics approaches, is highlighted here by its use in prediction of toxicological outcomes of exposure to pesticides and pharmaceutical drugs, but also by its impact in biotechnology, namely in the development of more robust crops and in the improvement of yeast strains as cell factories. PMID:22529852

  2. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    PubMed

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  3. Molecular tools for chemical biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Galanie, Stephanie; Siddiqui, Michael S.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological production of high value chemical products increasingly involves engineering in vivo multi-enzyme pathways and host metabolism. Recent approaches to these engineering objectives have made use of molecular tools to advance de novo pathway identification, tunable enzyme expression, and rapid pathway construction. Molecular tools also enable optimization of single enzymes and entire genomes through diversity generation and screening, whole cell analytics, and synthetic metabolic control networks. In this review, we focus on advanced molecular tools and their applications to engineered pathways in host organisms, highlighting the degree to which each tool is generalizable. PMID:23528237

  4. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  5. Environmentally compatible applications of biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.J.; Egan, M.

    1994-09-01

    Using living organisms to minimize harmful human impact on the environment is relatively recent thrust of biotechnology. Biotechnology developments are being employed as green technologies in a variety of applications that fall into the category of environmental biotechnology. The following aspects of biotechnology are discussed in this article: biosensors; bioremediation; bioleaching; natural plastics; clean fuels; pesticides; regulation of biotechnology products and processes. 58 refs.

  6. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. PMID:27062304

  7. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage.

  8. Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Fihn, Stephan D; Francis, Joseph; Clancy, Carolyn; Nielson, Christopher; Nelson, Karin; Rumsfeld, John; Cullen, Theresa; Bates, Jack; Graham, Gail L

    2014-07-01

    Health care has lagged behind other industries in its use of advanced analytics. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has three decades of experience collecting data about the veterans it serves nationwide through locally developed information systems that use a common electronic health record. In 2006 the VHA began to build its Corporate Data Warehouse, a repository for patient-level data aggregated from across the VHA's national health system. This article provides a high-level overview of the VHA's evolution toward "big data," defined as the rapid evolution of applying advanced tools and approaches to large, complex, and rapidly changing data sets. It illustrates how advanced analysis is already supporting the VHA's activities, which range from routine clinical care of individual patients--for example, monitoring medication administration and predicting risk of adverse outcomes--to evaluating a systemwide initiative to bring the principles of the patient-centered medical home to all veterans. The article also shares some of the challenges, concerns, insights, and responses that have emerged along the way, such as the need to smoothly integrate new functions into clinical workflow. While the VHA is unique in many ways, its experience may offer important insights for other health care systems nationwide as they venture into the realm of big data. PMID:25006147

  9. Insights from advanced analytics at the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Fihn, Stephan D; Francis, Joseph; Clancy, Carolyn; Nielson, Christopher; Nelson, Karin; Rumsfeld, John; Cullen, Theresa; Bates, Jack; Graham, Gail L

    2014-07-01

    Health care has lagged behind other industries in its use of advanced analytics. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has three decades of experience collecting data about the veterans it serves nationwide through locally developed information systems that use a common electronic health record. In 2006 the VHA began to build its Corporate Data Warehouse, a repository for patient-level data aggregated from across the VHA's national health system. This article provides a high-level overview of the VHA's evolution toward "big data," defined as the rapid evolution of applying advanced tools and approaches to large, complex, and rapidly changing data sets. It illustrates how advanced analysis is already supporting the VHA's activities, which range from routine clinical care of individual patients--for example, monitoring medication administration and predicting risk of adverse outcomes--to evaluating a systemwide initiative to bring the principles of the patient-centered medical home to all veterans. The article also shares some of the challenges, concerns, insights, and responses that have emerged along the way, such as the need to smoothly integrate new functions into clinical workflow. While the VHA is unique in many ways, its experience may offer important insights for other health care systems nationwide as they venture into the realm of big data.

  10. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  11. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  12. Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkelman, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

  13. [Advances and challenges of the Unified Health System planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabíola Sulpino

    2009-10-01

    Since the Unified Health System creation, managers have been expending efforts to discuss the planning and, made attempts to institutionalize it, considering that it's a basic management component. However, despite advances obtained, there are aspects that are priorities and that constitute challenges for the institutionalization of the planning at the Unified Health System. In this direction, this study describes the planning evolution in the system, by legal and technician material analysis of published documents by Ministry of Health. From the planning conception in these publications, it leads a reflection on the used approach, considering the established management instruments, and its entailing to the more currently accepted theory and methodology of health planning. Aspects that need to be observed are pointed for the effectiveness to ascendant planning at the Unified Health System.

  14. Emergency Department Mental Health Triage and Consultancy Service: an advanced practice role for mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Stuart; Wynaden, Dianne; Finn, Michael; McGowan, Sunita; Chapman, Rose; Gray, Shirilee

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a four-month preparatory training program for mental health nurses to provide an Emergency Mental Health Triage and Consultancy Service in the emergency department. The emergency department is an important gateway for patients presenting with psychiatric/psychosocial problems and mental health professionals need to provide prompt and effective care to this group of patients. Prior to the implementation of the service, it was acknowledged that occupational stress and burnout could affect the turnover of mental health nurses in the department. Therefore, a training program was employed to prepare a number of experienced mental health nurses to work at an advanced practitioner level. The four-month training program developed at Fremantle Hospital in Western Australia provided support, guidance and clinical supervision. In the first 12 months of the service, five mental health nurses completed the program, thus creating a pool of nurses who were able to provide the service. The results demonstrated that providing mental health nurses with a structured program was instrumental in facilitating their movement to an advanced practitioner level. The nurses were able to apply advanced knowledge and skills to assess and manage clients with complex mental health /psychosocial problems. Furthermore, on leaving the emergency department these nurses were able to utilise the advanced skills in other areas of mental health nursing practice.

  15. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  16. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  17. Biotechnology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Biological Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes a Royal Society report on the educational implications of the growth of biotechnology (application of biological organisms, systems, or processes to manufacturing and service industries). Eighteen recommendations are made including the inclusion of biotechnological content into science curricula. (Author/JN)

  18. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  19. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  20. Scientific advances provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.

    2004-01-01

    The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.

  1. The Brazilian health system: history, advances, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson; Travassos, Claudia; Almeida, Celia; Bahia, Ligia; Macinko, James

    2011-05-21

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with widespread regional and social inequalities. In this report, we examine the historical development and components of the Brazilian health system, focusing on the reform process during the past 40 years, including the creation of the Unified Health System. A defining characteristic of the contemporary health sector reform in Brazil is that it was driven by civil society rather than by governments, political parties, or international organisations. The advent of the Unified Health System increased access to health care for a substantial proportion of the Brazilian population, at a time when the system was becoming increasingly privatised. Much is still to be done if universal health care is to be achieved. Over the past 20 years, there have been other advances, including investments in human resources, science and technology, and primary care, and a substantial decentralisation process, widespread social participation, and growing public awareness of a right to health care. If the Brazilian health system is to overcome the challenges with which it is presently faced, strengthened political support is needed so that financing can be restructured and the roles of both the public and private sector can be redefined.

  2. Mental Capacity and Mental Health Acts part 1: advance decisions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The Department of Health is undertaking a review of the Mental Health Act 1983 code of practice and as part of that review has opened a consultation on what changes should be made. One key area for change is a chapter that provides clearer information about the interface between the Mental Health Act 1983 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Both the House of Commons Health Select Committee and the House of Lords Mental Capacity Act Committee have argued that poor understanding of the interface has led to flawed decision making by doctors and nurses. In the first of a short series of articles, Richard Griffith considers the interface between these two important statutes, beginning with advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRT).

  3. Ecological dynamics and biotechnological implications of thraustochytrids from marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Liu, Ying; Li, Lisa; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-07-01

    Thraustochytrids, a group of osmoheterotrophic marine protists, have recently gained increased attention owing to their spectacular biotechnological potentials. They possess enormous capability of producing omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and several other bioactive metabolites, known to have nutritional implications in human health. They have emerged lately as an efficient economic alternative compared with other fish and algal oil sources by virtue of their simpler PUFA profiles and cost-effective culture conditions. This review is an attempt to summarize the ecological significance of thraustochytrids with an emphasis on their cultured and uncultured diversity from various marine habitats accounted during the last few decades. Moreover, improved technologies such as media optimization in conjugation with metabolic engineering, adopted for biotechnological advancement of ω-3 products of thraustochytrids are highlighted with particular concern on the respective fatty acid biosynthetic pathways. One of the future prospects focuses on utilization of thraustochytrids for biodiesel production owing to their tremendous potentiality of yielding low carbon monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs). However, there is utmost need of in-depth diversity assessments from various oceanic ecosystems in order to gain insight on potential thraustochytrids for ameliorated employment toward biotechnological applications.

  4. New Directions in Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  5. Too New for Textbooks: The Biotechnology Discoveries & Applications Guidebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Madelene; Lamb, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Biotechnology Discoveries and Applications" guidebook aims to provide teachers with an overview of the recent advances in genetics and biotechnology, allowing them to share these findings with their students. The annual guidebook introduces a wealth of modern genomic discoveries and provides teachers with tools to integrate exciting…

  6. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  7. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products. PMID:20020687

  8. Space Shuttle Main Engine: Advanced Health Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Chirs

    1999-01-01

    The main gola of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Advanced Health Management system is to improve flight safety. To this end the new SSME has robust new components to improve the operating margen and operability. The features of the current SSME health monitoring system, include automated checkouts, closed loop redundant control system, catastropic failure mitigation, fail operational/ fail-safe algorithms, and post flight data and inspection trend analysis. The features of the advanced health monitoring system include: a real time vibration monitor system, a linear engine model, and an optical plume anomaly detection system. Since vibration is a fundamental measure of SSME turbopump health, it stands to reason that monitoring the vibration, will give some idea of the health of the turbopumps. However, how is it possible to avoid shutdown, when it is not necessary. A sensor algorithm has been developed which has been exposed to over 400 test cases in order to evaluate the logic. The optical plume anomaly detection (OPAD) has been developed to be a sensitive monitor of engine wear, erosion, and breakage.

  9. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  10. Advancing Research to Action in Global Child Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Anna E; Collins, Pamela Y

    2015-10-01

    Most mental and substance use disorders begin during childhood and adolescence and are the leading cause of disability in this population. Prenatal and postnatal genetic, familial, social, and environmental exposures interact to influence risk for mental disorders and trajectories of cognitive development. Efforts to advance prevention and implement early interventions to reduce the burden of mental disorders require a global research workforce, intersectoral cooperation, attention to environmental contexts, and the development and testing of evidence-based interventions. The authors describe challenges and resources for building mental health research capacity that stands to influence children's mental health outcomes around the globe.

  11. Keeping Up with Advancements in Health Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2016-04-01

    We all face an onslaught of information on a daily basis in our personal and professional lives. We view it as a significant part of our professional responsibility to help our colleagues stay abreast of the latest advancements related to health information technology (HIT). This month we explore some of the key resources that we find helpful for keeping up-to-date with emerging and disruptive technology.

  12. Bioethics and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is at the intersection of science and ethics. Technological developments are shaped by an ethical vision, which in turn is shaped by available technology. Much in biotechnology can be celebrated for how it benefits humanity. But technology can have a darker side. Biotechnology can produce unanticipated consequences that cause harm or dehumanise people. The ethical implications of proposed developments must be carefully examined. The ethical assessment of new technologies, including biotechnology, requires a different approach to ethics. Changes are necessary because new technology can have a more profound impact on the world; because of limitations with a rights-based approach to ethics; because of the importance and difficulty of predicting consequences; and because biotechnology now manipulates humans themselves. The ethical questions raised by biotechnology are of a very different nature. Given the potential to profoundly change the future course of humanity, such questions require careful consideration. Rather than focussing on rights and freedoms, wisdom is needed to articulate our responsibilities towards nature and others, including future generations. The power and potential of biotechnology demands caution to ensure ethical progress. PMID:19003197

  13. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  14. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  15. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    PubMed

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization. PMID:24448474

  16. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    PubMed

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  17. Advancing health policy in nursing education through service learning.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S S; Milone-Nuzzo, P

    2001-03-01

    Knowledge of health policy is an increasingly important aspect of nursing practice and education, especially as nurses strive to improve the rapidly changing health care delivery system. At the same time, many educators, researchers, foundations, and government officials are touting the benefits of service learning. In particular, service learning offers ways to enhance partnerships between academia and community agencies and to extend learning beyond the traditional classroom. We present a model for educating nurses as advanced practice nurses in health policy that links service learning with a framework for the political development of nurses. Under the rubric of service learning, the curriculum is based on the overlap among health policy, the role of the nurse as consultant, and community-based care. After discussing the importance of health policy for graduate nursing education and reviewing the essentials of service learning, we describe a three-semester graduate sequence in health policy service learning. The focus is on the clinical and classroom components of both individual and group practica and their relationship to stages of nursing's political development. The article concludes with evaluation considerations and the implications of our work for nursing theory, research, practice, and education.

  18. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    PubMed

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  19. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  20. PBT-1 Prana Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Richard

    2005-01-01

    PBT-1 (clioquinol), is undergoing phase II clinical trials by Prana Biotechnology Ltd for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. By October 2004, the company had planned phase III trials for the first half of 2005. PMID:15675609

  1. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  2. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. M.; Fritzsche, J.; Tkatsch, H.; Waag, F.; Karch, K.; Henze, K.; Delbeck, S.; Budde, J.

    2013-11-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences.

  3. 77 FR 66624 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities,...

  4. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  5. 75 FR 58410 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, (301)...

  6. 76 FR 28793 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science... Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland...

  7. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  8. Health Monitoring to Support Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) are based on advanced reactor concepts, some of which were promoted by the Generation IV International Forum, and are being considered for diverse missions including desalination of water, production of hydrogen, etc. While the existing fleet of commercial nuclear reactors provides baseload electricity, it is conceivable that aSMRs could be implemented for both baseload and load following applications. The effect of diverse operating missions and unit modularity on plant operations and maintenance (O&M) is not fully understood and limiting these costs will be essential to successful deployment of aSMRs. Integrated health monitoring concepts are proposed to support the safe and affordable operation of aSMRs over their lifetime by enabling management of significant in-vessel and in-containment active and passive components.

  9. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658

  10. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  11. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  12. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  13. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  14. 42 CFR 495.338 - Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Medicaid Program § 495.338 Health information technology implementation advance planning document... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health information technology implementation advance planning document requirements (HIT IAPD). 495.338 Section 495.338 Public Health CENTERS...

  15. Biotechnology: the view from the FDA.

    PubMed

    Young, F E

    1986-01-01

    What is biotechnology? This is not a naive question. The Office of Technology Assessment has found differing definitions of biotechnology emanating from eight foreign countries and three international organizations. FDA's working definition of biotechnology is the application of biological systems and organisms to technical and industrial processes. This definition is necessarily broad. It takes in both the "old" and "new" science: the age-old techniques for making beer or yogurt as well as the most advanced uses of recombinant DNA technology. It takes in many applications, from production of enzymes for laundry detergents, to selective breeding of plants and animals, to genetic engineering of bacteria to clean up oil spills. As with any new technology, ethical issues are raised. But in the case of genetic engineering and cloning, many of the primordial fears of man concerning the power of science are awakened.

  16. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  17. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology.

  18. 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), and NASA Headquarters on November 22, 2013 (list of participants is in Section IX of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Alterations in Host-Microorganism Interactions (Host Microbe Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Health Effects of Exposure to Dust and Volatiles during Exploration of Celestial Bodies (Dust Risk). Overall, the SRP was impressed with the strong research plans presented by the scientists and staff associated with the SHFH Element. The SRP also thought that the updated research plans were thorough, well organized, and presented in a comprehensive manner. The SRP agrees with the changes made to the Host Microbe Risk and Food Risk portfolios and thinks that the targets for Gap closure are appropriate.

  19. NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, P G

    1988-01-01

    The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR research focused on eliminating dental caries. NIDR scientists confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the use of fluoride in tooth decay prevention, leading to one of the nation's most successful public health efforts, community water fluoridation. During the past 40 years, NIDR scientists have provided research advances and fostered technologies which changed the philosophy and practice of dentistry and brought dental sciences into the mainstream of biomedical research. Dental researchers contribute to studies of such diseases and problems as AIDS, cancer, arthritis, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, herpes, craniofacial anomalies, pain, and bone and joint disorders. NIDR's 40th anniversary in 1988 recognizes its continuing commitment to oral disease prevention and health research, and to achieving the goal of people maintaining their natural dentition for a lifetime.

  20. NIDR--40 years of research advances in dental health.

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, P G

    1988-01-01

    The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR research focused on eliminating dental caries. NIDR scientists confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the use of fluoride in tooth decay prevention, leading to one of the nation's most successful public health efforts, community water fluoridation. During the past 40 years, NIDR scientists have provided research advances and fostered technologies which changed the philosophy and practice of dentistry and brought dental sciences into the mainstream of biomedical research. Dental researchers contribute to studies of such diseases and problems as AIDS, cancer, arthritis, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, herpes, craniofacial anomalies, pain, and bone and joint disorders. NIDR's 40th anniversary in 1988 recognizes its continuing commitment to oral disease prevention and health research, and to achieving the goal of people maintaining their natural dentition for a lifetime. Images p495-a p495-b p496-a p496-b p497-a p497-b p498-a PMID:3140276

  1. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  2. 75 FR 25282 - Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Notice of a Safety Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities.... Chezelle George, Administrative Assistant, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of the Director... a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA) and NIH Recombinant...

  3. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology. PMID:22222837

  4. Biotechnology regulation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, December 11, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Eight witnesses from the Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, and the Executive Office testified at a hearing examining the costs and benefits of biotechnology advances as background for developing a sound regulatory scheme that will realize the potential of the technology while protecting public health and the environment. The hearing focused on the adequacy of existing laws and the level of scientific knowledge used as a basis for regulation. The purpose was to coordinate the regulatory environment to make it consistent while keeping the biotechnology industry competitive. Additional material submitted for the record by the witnesses and others follows the testimony.

  5. Development of biotechnology control systems.

    PubMed

    Romeu, F J

    1995-03-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have generated great interest in biotechnology systems. Modern fermentation processes have a more scientific basis and can be optimized more quickly by utilizing instrumentation and control technology that permits increasing yield and product quality. The automation technology, to a large extent, can determine the degree of success of growing microorganisms. The automation system in modern biotechnology facilities includes a number of leading technologies such as sensors, indicators, data acquisition, distributed control, programmable control, communications, data base management, on-line data analysis techniques and application software. Modern computer systems have made fermentation processes easier and more accurate by performing tasks such as on-line analysis, statistical process control and supervisory control, while microprocessor-based distributed process controllers perform direct digital control, batch and sequencing control. This paper addresses technical issues related to the development of instrumentation and control systems that integrate these technologies through methodologies that permit the timely generation of the documentation and drawings that specify the control system for procurement, installation, commissioning, validation and operation.

  6. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  7. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  8. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  9. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  10. Opportunities for Biotechnology and Policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  11. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  12. The Advanced Credential for Health Education Specialists: A Seven-Year Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Lysoby, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The only advanced credential exam for health educators, The Master Certified Health Education Specialist (MCHES), involved a seven-year process. The process began in December 2004, with the information from the Competency Update Project (CUP) report that health educators practice at entry- and advanced-levels of practice. In October 2011, the date…

  13. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  14. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  15. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  16. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  17. Biotechnology in weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  18. Biotechnology and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofsy, Leon

    1986-01-01

    Biotechnology is changing the values of the university's bioscience community. Priorities are distorted by entrepreneurial incentives and government pressures that increase the scientist's dependence on industry and the military. The university is seen as inattentive to the social, ethical, and educational challenges. (Author/MLW)

  19. Biotechnology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program quide presents the biotechnology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of…

  20. 78 FR 14793 - Advancing Interoperability and Health Information Exchange

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... of the National Coordinator (ONC) for Health IT (HIT) Certification Program are increasing standards..., laboratories, nursing homes, home health agencies, hospices, rural health clinics, ambulatory surgical centers... Interoperability and Health Information Exchange AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  1. The Ohio Science Workbook: Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Spencer E., Comp.

    Because of the daily impact of biotechnology, it is important that students have some knowledge and experience with biotechnology in order to enable them to deal with the issues that arise as a result of its implementation. The purpose of this workbook is to assist in the efforts to expose students to the concepts of biotechnology through hands-on…

  2. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because today's students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South…

  3. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  4. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  5. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  6. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA...) AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, PHS, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION:...

  7. Biotechnology products and European consumers.

    PubMed

    Moses, V

    1999-12-30

    More than 100 interviews conducted during 1997 with European food manufacturers and retailers, trade associations, government departments, consumer groups, environmental organizations and some individual academic scientists revealed how differences in the perceived attitudes of consumers gave rise to varying approaches by suppliers to the possible introduction of transgenic foods. European consumers generally are not against the pharmaceutical products of biotechnology but are much less willing to accept food and food ingredients, especially when derived from genetically modified plants. Objections are mainly based on fears for the health and safety of the consumer, worries about the possibility of deleterious effects on the environment, and a range of moral and ethical concerns often deriving from a distaste, however expressed, at the concept of interfering with nature. Consumer understanding of the science underlying biotechnology is patchy; in no country does more than a small proportion of the population claim a good grasp. Partly no doubt as a consequence of these attitudes, the introduction of genetically modified foods into Europe has occurred slowly and, during the period of this study, perhaps only in the Netherlands and the UK.

  8. 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 14 - 15, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (MicroHost Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). During the meeting, the SRP also met with the vehicle engineers to discuss possible food storage options. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Oubre and Dr. Douglas for their detailed presentations, as well the frank, refreshing, and comprehensive engineering presentation. This gave much needed perspective to the food storage issues and reassured the committee about NASA's approach to the problem. In terms of critiques, the SRP remains unconvinced about the rationale for probiotic use other than for specific applications supported by the literature. It is not clear what gap or problem is being addressed by the use of probiotics, and the rationale for their use needs to be clearly rooted in the available literature. The SRP thinks that if low-Earth orbit is associated with immune system impairment, then there may additional risks linked with the use of probiotics. It is not clear to the SRP how NASA will determine if probiotics are having their intended beneficial effect. A similar concern is raised as to what gaps or problems are being addressed by "functional foods". Mixed infections, rather than single species infections, which can augment severity of disease, also represent a significant concern. Overall, the SRP considers this to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data.

  9. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science... concerning this meeting, contact Ms. Laurie Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology...: January 11, 2010. Kelly R. Fennington, Special Assistant to the Director, Office of...

  10. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  11. Advanced Health Management Algorithms for Crew Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Jones, Judit

    2005-01-01

    Achieving the goals of the President's Vision for Exploration will require new and innovative ways to achieve reliability increases of key systems and sub-systems. The most prominent approach used in current systems is to maintain hardware redundancy. This imposes constraints to the system and utilizes weight that could be used for payload for extended lunar, Martian, or other deep space missions. A technique to improve reliability while reducing the system weight and constraints is through the use of an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This system contains diagnostic algorithms and decision logic to mitigate or minimize the impact of system anomalies on propulsion system performance throughout the powered flight regime. The purposes of the AHMS are to increase the probability of successfully placing the vehicle into the intended orbit (Earth, Lunar, or Martian escape trajectory), increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort after it has developed anomalous performance during launch or ascent phases of the mission, and to minimize or mitigate anomalies during the cruise portion of the mission. This is accomplished by improving the knowledge of the state of the propulsion system operation at any given turbomachinery vibration protection logic and an overall system analysis algorithm that utilizes an underlying physical model and a wide array of engine system operational parameters to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. These algorithms are generic enough to be utilized on any propulsion system yet can be easily tailored to each application by changing input data and engine specific parameters. The key to the advancement of such a system is the verification of the algorithms. These algorithms will be validated through the use of a database of nominal and anomalous performance from a large propulsion system where data exists for catastrophic and noncatastrophic propulsion sytem failures.

  12. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jameel, S

    2011-01-01

    Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  13. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  14. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  15. Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Isabell; Schewe, Hendrik; Gassel, Sören; Jin, Chao; Buckingham, John; Hümbelin, Markus; Sandmann, Gerhard; Schrader, Jens

    2011-02-01

    The oxygenated β-carotene derivative astaxanthin exhibits outstanding colouring, antioxidative and health-promoting properties and is mainly found in the marine environment. To satisfy the growing demand for this ketocarotenoid in the feed, food and cosmetics industries, there are strong efforts to develop economically viable bioprocesses alternative to the current chemical synthesis. However, up to now, natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Phaffia rhodozyma or Paracoccus carotinifaciens has not been cost competitive with chemically synthesized astaxanthin, thus only serving niche applications. This review illuminates recent advances made in elucidating astaxanthin biosynthesis in P. rhodozyma. It intensely focuses on strategies to increase astaxanthin titers in the heterobasidiomycetous yeast by genetic engineering of the astaxanthin pathway, random mutagenesis and optimization of fermentation processes. This review emphasizes the potential of P. rhodozyma for the biotechnological production of astaxanthin in comparison to other natural sources such as the microalga H. pluvialis, other fungi and transgenic plants and to chemical synthesis. PMID:21046372

  16. Microfluidics in biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Richard; Ivanov, Dimitri

    2004-01-01

    Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns) at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarray assay hybridisation times. The linking of microfluidics to protein analysis techologies, e.g. mass spectrometry, enables picomole amounts of peptide to be analysed within a controlled micro-environment. The flexibility of microfluidics will facilitate its exploitation in assay development across multiple biotechnological disciplines. PMID:15056390

  17. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  18. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  19. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  20. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  1. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26070432

  2. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  3. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  4. The Many Health Literacies: Advancing Research or Fragmentation?

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Champlin, Sara; Su, Zhaohui; Guadagno, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Health literacy is the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, understand, and communicate about health-related information needed to make informed health decisions and is an important factor in patient health outcomes and resulting health care costs. Because of its importance across many areas of health, specific attention has been given to studying and measuring health literacy in recent years; however, the field lacks consensus on how health literacy should be defined and measured. As a result, numerous definitions and measures of health literacy exist. This fragmentation and inconsistency creates a barrier to conceptualizing, measuring, and understanding health literacy across health domains and fields. A directed literature search reveals a substantial body of work on health literacy; however, findings from studies often emphasize health literacy within specific health domains, populations, contexts, and languages, which makes the comparison of findings across studies difficult. While there is recognition that the measurement of health literacy should be improved, it is important to take into consideration what can be gained from a general health literacy focus and how this could be applied across domains. PMID:26372026

  5. Integrating ecology into biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Katherine D; Martin, Hector Garcia; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-06-01

    New high-throughput culture-independent molecular tools are allowing the scientific community to characterize and understand the microbial communities underpinning environmental biotechnology processes in unprecedented ways. By creatively leveraging these new data sources, microbial ecology has the potential to transition from a purely descriptive to a predictive framework, in which ecological principles are integrated and exploited to engineer systems that are biologically optimized for the desired goal. But to achieve this goal, ecology, engineering and microbiology curricula need to be changed from the very root to better promote interdisciplinarity.

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  7. The ADVANCE network: accelerating data value across a national community health center network

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740

  8. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.; Hamilton, K.

    1997-01-01

    Studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have led to the development of a technically and economically feasible, as well as environmentally acceptable, biochemical process for detoxification of geothermal residues. For this process, selected microorganisms that live in extreme environments have served as models for the new biotechnology. Assuming a 2,500-kg/h sludge production rate, the new technology is capable of a better than 80% removal rate of toxic metals, usually in less than a 25-hour period. The process itself depends on a number of flexible parameters, allowing this technology to be tailored to specific needs of different geothermal producing regimes, such as those found in the Salton Sea and the Geysers area of California. Thus geothermal residual sludges and brines can be processed to remove only a few metals, such as arsenic and mercury, or many metals, ranging from valuable metals such as chromium, gold, and silver to radionuclides, such as radium. In some cases, combined metal removal and metal recovery processes may be cost efficient and therefore advantageous. The emerging biotechnology for the treatment of geothermal energy production wastes is versatile and offers a number of application options, which are discussed in the paper.

  9. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  10. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  11. The relationship of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding biotechnology in college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohan, Donna Elizabeth

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized such fields as agriculture and the health sciences. However, along with the benefits of biotechnology are concerns. For biotechnology's potential to be realized, it must be accepted on public and governmental levels. Although many studies focus on adult consumer attitudes, it will be the students of today who will be the consumers and leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, this study focused on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of college students regarding biotechnology. More than 3,000 undergraduate students were surveyed from a variety of undergraduate courses at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas during the 1997-1998 academic year. Information sought included students' knowledge regarding recent applications of biotechnology, demographic information, and their agreement or disagreement with statements regarding different aspects and applications of biotechnology. This study found that despite a low awareness or knowledge of biotechnology, students were accepting of specific applications or products of biotechnology. Those applications or products viewed as beneficial without involving animals had the highest acceptance levels. A majority of the students identified mass media as their major source of biotechnology while also indicating a high level of distrust of the media. Students also indicated that biotechnology information is needed and that such information is appropriate for high school students. Relationships between knowledge and attitudes were also investigated. A greater knowledge level correlated with a more favorable view of biotechnology. In addition, relationships between demographic variables such as gender and race were investigated. Individuals who identified themselves as scientists were found more accepting of biotechnology while females in general were found less accepting. Females majoring in education were found to be the least

  12. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better) Social Science

    PubMed Central

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. PMID:27239873

  13. Advancing the Practice of Health Coaching: Differentiation From Wellness Coaching.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Melinda H

    2016-09-01

    The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), the National Society of Health Coaches, whose membership is primarily nurses, discusses the issue and states its position here. PMID:27174131

  14. Advancing the Practice of Health Coaching: Differentiation From Wellness Coaching.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Melinda H

    2016-09-01

    The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), the National Society of Health Coaches, whose membership is primarily nurses, discusses the issue and states its position here.

  15. Biotechnology: from university to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the birth of the biotechnology industry in the US. It is argued that biotechnology may have important implications for the future of American capitalism. The study is contextualized theoretically through the use of the idea of the capitalism experiences waves of innovations at certain historical periods. Finally, the idea of a new regime of accumulation based on information technologies is explored and biotechnology's potential position in the information society is explored. The first section of the study examines the role of the university in biotechnology. The various objectives of administrators and professors are explored as is the role of corporate gift giving in transforming the university into an institution more useful for capitalist accumulation. The second section examines the corporate role in biotechnology: both from the viewpoint of the small venture capital-financed biotechnology firms and the large multinational oil, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies that have made a number of important investments in biotechnology. The last chapter describes the unique effects that biotechnology will have upon the US agricultural sector.

  16. A Sourcebook of Biotechnology Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Alison M., Ed.; Matheson, Robert H., III, Ed.

    This book contains 22 lessons using hands-on activities designed to present some aspect of biotechnology in a usable form that teachers can adapt for their classrooms. The introductory section serves as a resource that introduces the teacher and student to the history of biotechnology. The activities are divided into five units that group lessons…

  17. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  18. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  19. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  20. Advancing the public health role of midwives and maternity support workers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Midwives are crucial to enhancing public health and wellbeing. Caring for families throughout the childbearing continuum offers midwives the perfect opportunity to address many public health agendas. All aspects of midwifery care can influence health outcomes and, as such, it is essential that all midwives embrace their public health role. In this article you will be encouraged to advance your public health role by exploring key midwifery directives regarding public health agendas; examining the outcomes of recent surveys and work conducted by the Royal College of Midwives (RCM), in the United Kingdom (UK); and reviewing ways to develop our public health role from a range of perspectives within maternity services.

  1. Professional and educational initiatives, supports, and opportunities for advanced training in public health.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hoai-An; Patterson, Brooke Y

    2010-09-10

    The United States is facing a public health workforce shortage and pharmacists have the opportunity and obligation to address this challenge in health care. There have been initiatives and supports from within and beyond the profession for the pharmacist's role in public health. This article identifies existing professional and educational initiatives for the pharmacist's expanded role in public health, as well as postgraduate and other advanced educational opportunities in public health. Recommendations also are provided on how to further engage pharmacists in public health activities to alleviate the public health workforce challenge. PMID:21088727

  2. Advancing the public health role of midwives and maternity support workers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Midwives are crucial to enhancing public health and wellbeing. Caring for families throughout the childbearing continuum offers midwives the perfect opportunity to address many public health agendas. All aspects of midwifery care can influence health outcomes and, as such, it is essential that all midwives embrace their public health role. In this article you will be encouraged to advance your public health role by exploring key midwifery directives regarding public health agendas; examining the outcomes of recent surveys and work conducted by the Royal College of Midwives (RCM), in the United Kingdom (UK); and reviewing ways to develop our public health role from a range of perspectives within maternity services. PMID:27451484

  3. Biotechnological potential and conservatory of extremophiles from climatically wide ranged developing countries: Lesson from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Technological advances, in developing countries, without considering environmental health issues have generated microsites uninhabitable to organisms including usual bacteria. While extremophilic microorganisms thrive in such locations. It is the high time to isolate and conserve the extremophilic biodiversity from such man made habitats before the environmental awareness treats them to the level of "destructionâ. For biotechnology processes to be geared by employing extremophilic microorganisms, locations characterized with high/low temperature for most part of the year, hypersaline brine and abneutral pH environments may render the respective microbes to do their allotted/required jobs with minimal of extraneous investments. Besides, many known and expected potentials of extremophilic bacteria for biotechnological applications, major attraction lies in operating bioprocesses under non-aseptic conditions for making them economically feasible. This review after giving a thumbnail picture of extremophilies' known features is centered on the triad of biodiversity richness, environmental availabilities/managements of locations suitable for respective biotechnological bioprocesses and their non-aseptic designing for a developing country like Pakistan.

  4. Biology and biotechnology of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Caon, Ilaria; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) polymer is a critical component of extracellular matrix with a remarkable structure: is a linear and unbranched polymer without sulphate or phosphate groups. It is ubiquitous in mammals showing several biological functions, ranging from cell proliferation and migration to angiogenesis and inflammation. For its critical biological functions the amount of HA in tissues is carefully controlled by different mechanisms including covalent modification of the synthetic enzymes and epigenetic control of their gene expression. The concentration of HA is also critical in several pathologies including cancer, diabetes and inflammation. Beside these biological roles, the structural properties of HA allow it to take advantage of its capacity to form gels even at concentration of 1 % producing scaffolds with very promising applications in regenerative medicine as biocompatible material for advanced therapeutic uses. In this review we highlight the biological aspects of HA addressing the mechanisms controlling the HA content in tissues as well as its role in important human pathologies. In the second part of the review we highlight the different use of HA polymers in the modern biotechnology.

  5. Digital and Analog Gene Circuits for Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells. PMID:24677719

  6. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  7. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells.

  8. Biotechnological Applications of Transglutaminases

    PubMed Central

    Rachel, Natalie M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2013-01-01

    In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates. This specific function has long been exploited in the food and textile industries as a protein cross-linking agent to alter the texture of meat, wool, and leather. In recent years, biotechnological applications of transglutaminases have come to light in areas ranging from material sciences to medicine. There has also been a substantial effort to further investigate the fundamentals of transglutaminases, as many of their characteristics that remain poorly understood. Those studies also work towards the goal of developing transglutaminases as more efficient catalysts. Progress in this area includes structural information and novel chemical and biological assays. Here, we review recent achievements in this area in order to illustrate the versatility of transglutaminases. PMID:24970194

  9. Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures.

  10. Biotechnology in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In this review I am summarizing the past and current progress in the field of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and reproductive cloning in mammals. Several human gene products can be pharmaceutically explored in transgenic farm animals and employed for medical applications. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is utilizing modern molecular cloning techniques to detect genetic and chromosomal aberrations in early embryos originating from patients with inborn errors at risk for hereditary diseases or age-related risk for abnormal karyotype. Stem cell engineering from early human embryos is creating new and promising but also controversial applications for therapeutic and regenerative medicine. Potential risk factors for reproductive cloning are presented and discussed in the context of possible developmental malformations, frequently observed after embryo culture and cloning in farm animals. Future extension of biotechnology to human reproductive cloning is currently under worldwide dispute.

  11. Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures. PMID:24816618

  12. [Social perception of biotechnology: a new tool for decision making].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, E

    1999-01-01

    The increase in critical opinions of scientific and technological development in advanced societies has led to the development of studies examining the links between science, technology and society. Among these studies are those on public perception, a particularly topical issue being the perception of biotechnology. There has been considerable European activity in this area of reflection and research, as evidenced by the wide range of initiatives at European Union and member state level. Some special instruments, such as the consensus conferences which began in Scandinavian countries, are now being applied in various EU countries. In Spain several public bodies and foundations are involved in a growing number of activities in this field. Biotechnology has become a particularly interesting research area for promoting new conditions for analysis of the social and economic repercussions of advances in science and technology. The study of the social perception of biotechnology is a crucial instrument for policy design and management and hence a methodological review is warranted.

  13. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  14. Institutional Advancement and Public Engagement in the STEM and Health Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Victor A.; Kuhl, Michelle Wittcoff

    2007-01-01

    In today's resource-scarce environment, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and health science disciplines must partner with institutional advancement offices to support two key components of research universities--research and graduate education. Framing the partnership in terms of societal needs helps advancement officers to…

  15. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  16. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - an executive course in genomics policy.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Rab, Mohammed Abdur; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2005-01-21

    BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th-23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. METHODS: The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals.* Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership;* Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity;* Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to:- formulate national biotechnology strategies- raise biotechnology awareness- encourage teaching and

  17. Ready or not: planning for health declines in couples with advanced multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hannah; Habermann, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    This study explored how couples living with advanced multiple sclerosis approach planning for health changes together. A qualitative descriptive approach was used, with multiple in-depth interviews. Ten couples were interviewed, consisting of 10 participants with advanced multiple sclerosis and their 10 respective spouses. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed for themes related to dyad decision making. Particular focus was paid to how or if couples planned for worsening health, including advance care planning. Characteristics of couples who had made plans for worsening health included a desire to make decisions ahead of time, work in a healthcare field, and a life-threatening health event for the care-giving partner. Characteristics of couples who had not discussed plans for worsening health included diminished quality of communication between partners and hoping for a cure. Findings suggest that providers may need to assess quality of communication between partners, because strained communication may negatively affect the process of informed healthcare decision making. PMID:23291870

  18. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  19. Advancing the Digital Health Discourse for Nurse Leaders.

    PubMed

    Remus, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Limited informatics competency uptake is a recognized nursing leadership challenge impacting digital practice settings. The health system's inability to reap the promised benefits of EHRs is a manifestation of inadequate development of informatics competencies by chief nurse executives (CNEs) and other clinicians. Through the application of Transformational Leadership Theory (TL), this discussion paper explains how informatics competencies enable CNEs to become transformational nursing leaders in digital health allowing them to meet their accountabilities to lead integrated, high-quality care delivery through evidence based practices (EBPs). It is proposed that successful CNE eHealth sponsors will be those armed with informatics competencies who can drive health organizations' investment in technology and innovation. Finally, some considerations are suggested in how nurse informaticists globally play a critical role in preparing our existing and future CNEs to fulfill their transformational leader roles in the digital age. PMID:27332233

  20. Understanding wicked problems: a key to advancing environmental health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Marshall W; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H; Baldwin, Grant T

    2004-08-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have conflicting interpretations of the problem and the science behind it, as well as different values, goals, and life experiences. Accordingly, policy makers, public health professionals, and other stakeholders who grapple with these problems cannot expect to effectively resolve them by relying solely on expert-driven approaches to problem solving. Rather, they need to acknowledge that wicked environmental health problems are most likely to yield to (1) the application of effective community health promotion skills, (2) a sustained commitment to sound toxicological and epidemiological science, (3) the application of systems thinking, and (4) transparent communication among all stakeholders.

  1. Globalization and Health: developing the journal to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Labonté, Ronald; Larkan, Fiona; Vallières, Frédérique; Bergin, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Founded in 2005, Globalization and Health was the first open access global health journal. The journal has since expanded the field, and its influence, with the number of downloaded papers rising 17-fold, to over 4 million. Its ground-breaking papers, leading authors -including a Nobel Prize winner- and an impact factor of 2.25 place it among the top global health journals in the world. To mark the ten years since the journal's founding, we, members of the current editorial board, undertook a review of the journal's progress over the last decade. Through the application of an inductive thematic analysis, we systematically identified themes of research published in the journal from 2005 to 2014. We identify key areas the journal has promoted and consider these in the context of an existing framework, identify current gaps in global health research and highlight areas we, as a journal, would like to see strengthened. PMID:26961760

  2. Globalization and Health: developing the journal to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Martin, Greg; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Labonté, Ronald; Larkan, Fiona; Vallières, Frédérique; Bergin, Niamh

    2016-03-09

    Founded in 2005, Globalization and Health was the first open access global health journal. The journal has since expanded the field, and its influence, with the number of downloaded papers rising 17-fold, to over 4 million. Its ground-breaking papers, leading authors -including a Nobel Prize winner- and an impact factor of 2.25 place it among the top global health journals in the world. To mark the ten years since the journal's founding, we, members of the current editorial board, undertook a review of the journal's progress over the last decade. Through the application of an inductive thematic analysis, we systematically identified themes of research published in the journal from 2005 to 2014. We identify key areas the journal has promoted and consider these in the context of an existing framework, identify current gaps in global health research and highlight areas we, as a journal, would like to see strengthened.

  3. A semantic-based kernel for advanced health information systems.

    PubMed

    Kanoui, H; Joubert, M; Maury, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and development of an infrastructure allowing one to share and exchange multimedia data in the context of a health network. A single technology exploiting a semantic model of the hospital universe provides users with information and data of diverse origins, generated by the various actors or departments of the health organization. Functions provided include act management and patient record management governed by domain semantics. The functionality has been validated through laboratory experiments against the requirements of protocol directed care and health networks. The functionality is integrated into a clinician workstation exploited in the Internet/Intranet environment thanks to a commercial browser. These results have been obtained with the support of several projects in the frame of the Health-Care Telematics Applications Programme of the European Community and of the Eurêka Programme.

  4. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    PubMed

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  5. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  6. Improving shift workers' health and tolerance to shiftwork: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1996-02-01

    Recent developments in research in relation to health and tolerance to shiftwork offer useful guidance for improving conditions of shiftwork. These developments were discussed by the papers of this special issue, presented at the Mini-symposium on improving shift workers' health and tolerance to shiftwork in the 24th International Congress on Occupational Health in Nice, France, in 1993. While there is evidence that shiftwork is regarded as a risk factor with respect to the health of shift workers, many shift workers are engaged in shift systems for years while coping with associated burdens in their working life. In order to improve shift workers' health and tolerance, recent research points to the importance of multifaceted measures addressing both the effects of disruptions in circadian rhythms, and the actual interferences with daily routines at work and in family and social life. Increasing attention is paid to changed working hours and shift systems, including more flexible shiftwork systems, as well as to supporting effective coping activities and occupational health services. As shown by the new ILO Convention on night work, a consensus is being built internationally that multifaceted actions are necessary for improving shiftworking conditions and that such actions should be based on participatory planning and implementation.

  7. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  8. [Current estate of biotechnology in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marta; López, Rebeca; Jiménez, Luis

    2004-09-01

    A study was carried out on the construction of indicators in biotechnology in Costa Rica as part of the project "SYMBIOSIS, Cooperative Program for the Construction of Indicators in Biotechnology adapted to Latin American and Caribbean countries, to motivate the application and transference of industrial technologies". The study focused on two units: researchers and research projects developed in Costa Rica, between 1998 and 2002. For researchers, information was collected about indicators related to sex, age, teaching activities, number of projects, academic degree, area of speciality and number of publications. For research projects we obtained information about: speciality, sector of application, duration of projects and number of researchers per project. Very interesting results include the high participation of the women in this area of investigation (54%); the low participation of young researchers (13% younger than 30), and a high proportion of the investigators that are responsible for 4 or more projects (42%). With relation to the specialities of the projects, the majority are in the category Bio-Agro (39%) whereas in Acuaculture only 1% was found. The sectors of application with the most number of projects are: Agriculture and Livestock (37%) and Human Health (35%). The main strengthts and limitatations for the development of biotechnology in Costa Rica are discussed.

  9. The emerging international regulatory framework for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Komen, John

    2012-01-01

    Debate about the potential risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to the environment or human health spurred attention to biosafety. Biosafety is associated with the safe use of GMOs and, more generally, with the introduction of non-indigenous species into natural or managed ecosystems. Biosafety regulation--the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology--has been extensively discussed at various national and international forums. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks and, at the international level, a legally binding international biosafety protocol--the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The Protocol is one among various international instruments and treaties that regulate specific aspects relevant to agricultural biotechnology. The present article presents the main international instruments relevant to biosafety regulation, and their key provisions. While international agreements and standards provide important guidance, they leave significant room for interpretation, and flexibility for countries implementing them. Implementation of biosafety at the national level has proven to be a major challenge, particularly in developing countries, and consequently the actual functioning of the international regulatory framework for biotechnology is still in a state of flux.

  10. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  11. Advances in berry research: the sixth biennial berry health benefits symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies to advance the potential health benefits of berries continue to increase as was evident at the sixth biennial meeting of the Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS). The two and a half-day symposium was held on October 13-15, 2015, in Madison, Wisconsin, United States. The 2015 BHBS feature...

  12. Health Care Professionals' Death Attitudes, Experiences, and Advance Directive Communication Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The study surveyed 135 health care professionals (74 nurses, 32 physicians, and 29 social workers) to examine their personal death attitudes and experiences in relation to their reported advance directive communication practice behavior. Negative correlations were found between collaborating with other health care professionals regarding the…

  13. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  14. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  15. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  16. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  17. Preserving the Art and Science of Psychotherapy for Advance Practice Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Caughill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric Mental Health (PMH) Nurses are challenged to maintain the viability of their roles in today's healthcare climate as advances in research and complexity of mental healthcare needs of society continue to unfold. Today's mental health practice environment includes disciplines with marketable credentials. Roles for PMH nurses in recent decades are less clearly defined than for other disciplines, much of this related to changes in educational and practice settings. This article reviews literature on the topic of psychotherapy and a call for a renewed emphasis on this mode of treatment for psychiatric mental health advance practice nurses.

  18. Advancing Public Health Obesity Policy Through State Attorneys General

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  19. Educating advanced practice nurses in using social media in rural health care.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Carolyn M; Renaud, Michelle; Shepherd, Laurel; Bordelon, Michele; Haney, Tina; Gregory, Donna; Ayers, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Health care in the United States is facing a crisis in providing access to quality care for those in underserved and rural regions. Advanced practice nurses are at the forefront of addressing such issues, through modalities such as health care technology. Many nursing education programs are seeking strategies for better educating students on technology utilization. Health care technology includes electronic health records, telemedicine, and clinical decision support systems. However, little focus has been placed on the role of social media in health care. This paper describes an educational workshop using standardized patients and hands-on experiences to introduce advanced practice nurses in a Doctor of Nursing Practice program to the role of social media in addressing issues inherent in the delivery of rural health care. The students explore innovative approaches for utilizing social media for patient and caregiver support as well as identify online resources that assist providers in a rural setting. PMID:22718665

  20. [Advanced nursing practice: a must for the quality of care and mental health services].

    PubMed

    Ricard, Nicole; Page, Claire; Laflamme, France

    2014-01-01

    New professional legislation and reorganization of mental health services have had a significant influence on mental health nursing practice. Many nurses have demonstrated clinical leadership and have been able to adapt their services to the needs of the population specially in the primary health care setting. However, many believe that the role of nurses is not sufficiently known and optimally utilized in mental health services. In this article we take a critical look at the mental health nursing practice in Quebec and at the essential requirements for its development. This review aims to: 1) describe current trends in the changing roles and the modernization of mental health nursing practice in Quebec, 2) provide an overview of the development of advanced nursing practice and its impact on the quality of mental health services; 3) clarify the concept of advanced nursing practice and position its development in Quebec and 4) propose various strategies for optimizing the role of nurses and their complementarity with other professionals providing mental health services. This review presents innovative practices developed by nurses in the context of the restructuring of mental health services. For example, new nursing roles have been developed to improve the collaboration with general practitioners groups in primary care settings and facilitate the evaluation and monitoring of patient presenting medical and psychological problems. Another interesting innovation was set up by nurses in developing a new service to allow timely access to integrated care for patients with substance abuse and mental health problems. The various testimonies reported in this article illustrate the potential contribution of these nursing innovations in improving the mental health services in Quebec. Also, in few countries, the reform of mental health services has been a good time to recognize this potential. Thus, some countries have repositioned the role of mental health nurses and

  1. [Advanced nursing practice: a must for the quality of care and mental health services].

    PubMed

    Ricard, Nicole; Page, Claire; Laflamme, France

    2014-01-01

    New professional legislation and reorganization of mental health services have had a significant influence on mental health nursing practice. Many nurses have demonstrated clinical leadership and have been able to adapt their services to the needs of the population specially in the primary health care setting. However, many believe that the role of nurses is not sufficiently known and optimally utilized in mental health services. In this article we take a critical look at the mental health nursing practice in Quebec and at the essential requirements for its development. This review aims to: 1) describe current trends in the changing roles and the modernization of mental health nursing practice in Quebec, 2) provide an overview of the development of advanced nursing practice and its impact on the quality of mental health services; 3) clarify the concept of advanced nursing practice and position its development in Quebec and 4) propose various strategies for optimizing the role of nurses and their complementarity with other professionals providing mental health services. This review presents innovative practices developed by nurses in the context of the restructuring of mental health services. For example, new nursing roles have been developed to improve the collaboration with general practitioners groups in primary care settings and facilitate the evaluation and monitoring of patient presenting medical and psychological problems. Another interesting innovation was set up by nurses in developing a new service to allow timely access to integrated care for patients with substance abuse and mental health problems. The various testimonies reported in this article illustrate the potential contribution of these nursing innovations in improving the mental health services in Quebec. Also, in few countries, the reform of mental health services has been a good time to recognize this potential. Thus, some countries have repositioned the role of mental health nurses and

  2. Biotechnology of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Schwechheimer, Susanne Katharina; Park, Enoch Y; Revuelta, José Luis; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) production has shifted from chemical synthesis to exclusive biotechnological synthesis in less than 15 years. The underlying extraordinary achievement in metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering is reviewed in this article with regard to the two most important industrial producers Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii. The respective biosynthetic routes and modifications are discussed, and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis. As the terminal biosynthesis of riboflavin starts from the two precursors, ribulose 5-phosphate and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both strains have been optimized for an improved flux through the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the purine biosynthetic pathway. Specific targets for improvement of A. gossypii were the increase of the glycine pool and the increase of carbon flow through the glyoxylic shunt. In B. subtilis, research interest, amongst others, has focused on gluconeogenesis and overexpression of the rib operon. In addition, insight into large-scale production of vitamin B2 is given, as well as future prospects and possible developments. PMID:26758294

  3. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-09

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  6. Listenability as a tool for advancing health literacy.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald L

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy research and practice has focused mainly on the readability of written documents. Yet oral communication plays at least as important a role in the interpersonal ecology in which people make real decisions about their health. Moreover, the single-minded quest for short sentences and simple vocabulary inherent in the readability paradigm can subvert the effort to engage in patient- or consumer-centered communication. Listenability is the quality of discourse that eases the cognitive burden that aural processing imposes. Listenability is a function of oral-based language plus "considerate" rhetorical structures. The Listenability Style Guide presented in this article offers evidence-based recommendations for producing listenable discourse. A study testing the applicability of the Listenability Style Guide to postsurgical discharge instructions was conducted. College students either heard or read discharge instructions composed in either high or moderate listenability. Comprehension was higher for this population in reading than in listening. Across modalities, the high listenability version was easiest to comprehend. Incorporating listenability concerns in research and practice is consistent with emerging, broad conceptions of health literacy and with the dictates of the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy. PMID:23030569

  7. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  8. Essential Features of Responsible Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sarah; Wickson, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge. PMID:27144921

  9. Essential Features of Responsible Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sarah; Gillund, Frøydis; van Hove, Lilian; Wickson, Fern

    2016-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge. PMID:27144921

  10. 78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Register on July 13, 2012 (77 FR 41366-41367, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0024), APHIS announced the availability... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... developed by the Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as event SYN-05307-1, which has been...

  11. 75 FR 20560 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... the Federal Register on January 13, 2010 (75 FR 1749-1751, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0072), APHIS... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated... developed by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as transformation event MIR162, which has...

  12. The Impact of Biotechnology on the Practice of Pharmacy in the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The biotechnology revolution is making contributions to the improvement of health care. Some of the biotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the marketplace include human hormones, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, vaccines, immunomodulators, growth factors, and monoclonal antibodies. Many new diagnostics will appear and be used by patients in their own…

  13. Advances in neurosurgery: The Fujita Health University experience

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    In a world with rapidly changing technologies in the field of neurosurgery, Japan leads the world in many subspecialities like vascular neurosurgery. Apart from this, neuro-oncology and spinal surgeries are also among the premium quality operations performed in the region. I would like to share my experience of spending 3 months at the Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan, and the rich expertise and technologies encountered during the period, which made me understand Neurosurgery in a better way. PMID:22059102

  14. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed.

  15. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed. PMID:26443211

  16. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  17. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.

  18. Advancing the right to health through global organizations: The potential role of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent

    2013-06-14

    Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes.

  19. [Social and health impact of advanced chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Górriz Teruel, J L; Otero González, A

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of CKD in Spain is 11%, with a high rate of associated vascular risk factors and a progressive increase in the number of patients requiring kidney replacement therapy, estimated at 5-8% annually. This has made CKD one of the leading health, social and economic problems for the health care systems of all developed countries. Kidney replacement therapy, although adequate, is not optimal for solving this clinical problem. The key aspects of the problem are: The increase in the number of patients with CKD due to: Early vascular injury as a result of the inflammatory process associated with CKD. Aging of the population, although CKD may be more dependent on comorbidities than age "per se", and prevalence may therefore not have the expected increase. The epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. CKD is the major vascular risk factor both in the general and hypertensive population or patients with established vascular injury. The estimated cost of care of stage 1-4 CKD per year can be 1.6-2.4 times more than kidney replacement therapy. The approach to this serious social and health problem is based on: Early detection and diagnosis of CKD by estimation of glomerular filtration rate and assessment of associated risk factors. Establishment of treatment goals for control of cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus,) and albuminuria to reduce the rate of progression of kidney disease. Joint approach to problem by primary care physicians and other specialists caring for patients at high cardiovascular risk. Establishment of criteria for referral to nephrology departments.

  20. Interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics: advancing health for older adults.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Siegel, Elena O; McCormick, Wayne C; Fulmer, Terry; Harootyan, Linda K; Dorr, David A

    2011-01-01

    The call for interdisciplinary research, education, and practice is heightened by the recognition of the potential it holds in generating creative solutions to complex problems in health care and to improving quality and effectiveness of care. With the aging of the population and the complex issues in caring for older adults, interdisciplinary collaboration is particularly salient to the field of geriatrics. However, despite interest in this approach for several decades, adoption has been slow and dissemination is not widespread. This article provides examples of recent initiatives and presents driving and restraining forces involved in adoption of interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:21757083

  1. Advanced Energy Storage Life and Health Prognostics (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop methodologies that will accurately estimate state-of-health (SOH) and remaining useful life (RUL) of electrochemical energy storage devices using both offline and online (i.e., in-situ) techniques through: (1) Developing a statistically robust battery life estimator tool based on both testing and simulation, (2) Developing rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques that enable onboard power assessment, and (3) Developing an energy storage monitoring system that incorporates both passive and active measurements for onboard systems.

  2. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology. PMID:20178865

  3. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology.

  4. The evolving role of health educators in advancing patient safety: forging partnerships and leading change.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Annette

    2007-04-01

    At least 1.5 million preventable injuries because of adverse drug events occur in the United States each year, according to an Institute of Medicine report. IOM and other organizations at the forefront of health care improvement emphasize that stronger partnerships between patients, their families, and health care providers are necessary to make health care safer. Health educators possess a skill set and an ethical framework that effectively equip them to advance patient and family-centered care and contribute in other significant ways to a safer health care system. Health educators in clinical settings are playing varied and significant roles in advancing patient safety. They are removing barriers to clear communication and forging partnerships between patients, their families, and staff. Health educators are leading patient safety culture change within their institutions and contributing to the shift from provider-centric to patient-centric systems. To expand their impact in improving patient safety, health educators in clinical settings are participating in public awareness campaigns. In seeking to enhance patient safety, health educators face a number of challenges. To successfully manage those, health educators must expand their knowledge, broaden connections, and engage patients and families in meaningful ways.

  5. The Promise of Mixed-Methods for Advancing Latino Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the “translation” of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions. PMID:23996325

  6. Clinical holistic health: advanced tools for holistic medicine.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, May Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-24

    According to holistic medical theory, the patient will heal when old painful moments, the traumatic events of life that are often called "gestalts", are integrated in the present "now". The advanced holistic physician's expanded toolbox has many different tools to induce this healing, some that are more dangerous and potentially traumatic than others. The more intense the therapeutic technique, the more emotional energy will be released and contained in the session, but the higher also is the risk for the therapist to lose control of the session and lose the patient to his or her own dark side. To avoid harming the patient must be the highest priority in holistic existential therapy, making sufficient education and training an issue of highest importance. The concept of "stepping up" the therapy by using more and more "dramatic" methods to get access to repressed emotions and events has led us to a "therapeutic staircase" with ten steps: (1) establishing the relationship; (2) establishing intimacy, trust, and confidentiality; (3) giving support and holding; (4) taking the patient into the process of physical, emotional, and mental healing; (5) social healing of being in the family; (6) spiritual healing--returning to the abstract wholeness of the soul; (7) healing the informational layer of the body; (8) healing the three fundamental dimensions of existence: love, power, and sexuality in a direct way using, among other techniques, "controlled violence" and "acupressure through the vagina"; (9) mind-expanding and consciousness-transformative techniques like psychotropic drugs; and (10) techniques transgressing the patient's borders and, therefore, often traumatizing (for instance, the use of force against the will of the patient). We believe that the systematic use of the staircase will greatly improve the power and efficiency of holistic medicine for the patient and we invite a broad cooperation in scientifically testing the efficiency of the advanced holistic

  7. Biotechnology regulation: is policy transfer an appropriate answer?

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Gómez, Olga Carolina; Létourneau, Lyne

    2010-01-01

    In the world of biotechnology regulation, one often encounters the suggestion that the legislation of other countries should be consulted. Known as "policy transfer" in the field of public policy analysis, the purpose of such a recommendation is for policymakers to use the experiences of other States as a basis for developing appropriate regulatory frameworks in a timely manner. This paper examines whether policy transfer is relevant as an instrument for biotechnology regulation, and if it is, to what extent. Our analysis uses the example of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), and unfolds according to the following argumentative steps. We will begin by discussing policy transfer as a recognized feature of policymaking in the literature pertaining to public policy analysis. We will then introduce a distinction between the technical dimension of policymaking and its political component. We will refer to "morality policy" as an illustration of policymaking directed toward its political component. We will show that, in the case of morality policy, States have moved away from a policy transfer approach. We will then establish that ART qualifies as morality policy, suggesting that policy transfer is most likely not the optimal policymaking tool for dealing with biotechnology regulation. Moving beyond the issue of ART in order to expand our reasoning to biotechnology regulation as a whole, we will conclude that, although the experiences of other States may be useful, policy transfer does not suffice in terms of informing policymaking in the case of biotechnology advances.

  8. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry.

  9. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie TDT; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. Significance Statement Chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers potential as a host for the production of high value compounds for industrial biotechnology. Synthetic biology provides a mechanism to generate generic, well characterised tools for application in the rational genetic manipulation of organisms: if synthetic biology principles were adopted for manipulation of C. reinhardtii, development of this microalga as an industrial biotechnology platform would be expedited. PMID:25641561

  10. Advancing LGBT Health at an Academic Medical Center: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Calder, Daniel; Flesch, Judd D; Hirsh, Rebecca L; Higginbotham, Eve; Tkacs, Nancy; Crawford, Beverley; Fishman, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Academic health centers are strategically positioned to impact the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations by advancing science, educating future generations of providers, and delivering integrated care that addresses the unique health needs of the LGBT community. This report describes the early experiences of the Penn Medicine Program for LGBT Health, highlighting the favorable environment that led to its creation, the mission and structure of the Program, strategic planning process used to set priorities and establish collaborations, and the reception and early successes of the Program.

  11. Pediatric advance care planning from the perspective of health care professionals: A qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Jox, Ralf J; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Führer, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric advance care planning differs from the adult setting in several aspects, including patients’ diagnoses, minor age, and questionable capacity to consent. So far, research has largely neglected the professionals’ perspective. Aim: We aimed to investigate the attitudes and needs of health care professionals with regard to pediatric advance care planning. Design: This is a qualitative interview study with experts in pediatric end-of-life care. A qualitative content analysis was performed. Setting/participants: We conducted 17 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals caring for severely ill children/adolescents, from different professions, care settings, and institutions. Results: Perceived problems with pediatric advance care planning relate to professionals’ discomfort and uncertainty regarding end-of-life decisions and advance directives. Conflicts may arise between physicians and non-medical care providers because both avoid taking responsibility for treatment limitations according to a minor’s advance directive. Nevertheless, pediatric advance care planning is perceived as helpful by providing an action plan for everyone and ensuring that patient/parent wishes are respected. Important requirements for pediatric advance care planning were identified as follows: repeated discussions and shared decision-making with the family, a qualified facilitator who ensures continuity throughout the whole process, multi-professional conferences, as well as professional education on advance care planning. Conclusion: Despite a perceived need for pediatric advance care planning, several barriers to its implementation were identified. The results remain to be verified in a larger cohort of health care professionals. Future research should focus on developing and testing strategies for overcoming the existing barriers. PMID:25389347

  12. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  13. Remote Structural Health Monitoring and Advanced Prognostics of Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Brown; Bernard Laskowski

    2012-05-29

    The prospect of substantial investment in wind energy generation represents a significant capital investment strategy. In order to maximize the life-cycle of wind turbines, associated rotors, gears, and structural towers, a capability to detect and predict (prognostics) the onset of mechanical faults at a sufficiently early stage for maintenance actions to be planned would significantly reduce both maintenance and operational costs. Advancement towards this effort has been made through the development of anomaly detection, fault detection and fault diagnosis routines to identify selected fault modes of a wind turbine based on available sensor data preceding an unscheduled emergency shutdown. The anomaly detection approach employs spectral techniques to find an approximation of the data using a combination of attributes that capture the bulk of variability in the data. Fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) is performed using a neural network-based classifier trained from baseline and fault data recorded during known failure conditions. The approach has been evaluated for known baseline conditions and three selected failure modes: pitch rate failure, low oil pressure failure and a gearbox gear-tooth failure. Experimental results demonstrate the approach can distinguish between these failure modes and normal baseline behavior within a specified statistical accuracy.

  14. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  15. Moving the Dial to Advance Population Health Equity in New York City Asian American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C.; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S.

    2015-01-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  16. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity.

  17. Recent advances in understanding cardiac contractility in health and disease.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ken T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a synopsis of some of the emerging ideas and experimental findings in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology that were published in 2015. To provide context for the non-specialist, a brief summary of cardiac contraction and calcium (Ca) regulation in the heart in health and disease is provided. Thereafter, some recently published articles are introduced that indicate the current thinking on (1) the Ca regulatory pathways modulated by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, (2) the potential influences of nitrosylation by nitric oxide or S-nitrosated proteins, (3) newly observed effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on contraction and Ca regulation following myocardial infarction and a possible link with changes in mitochondrial Ca, and (4) the effects of some of these signaling pathways on late Na current and pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations as well as the effects of transverse tubule disturbances.

  18. Recent advances in understanding cardiac contractility in health and disease.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ken T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a synopsis of some of the emerging ideas and experimental findings in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology that were published in 2015. To provide context for the non-specialist, a brief summary of cardiac contraction and calcium (Ca) regulation in the heart in health and disease is provided. Thereafter, some recently published articles are introduced that indicate the current thinking on (1) the Ca regulatory pathways modulated by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, (2) the potential influences of nitrosylation by nitric oxide or S-nitrosated proteins, (3) newly observed effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on contraction and Ca regulation following myocardial infarction and a possible link with changes in mitochondrial Ca, and (4) the effects of some of these signaling pathways on late Na current and pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations as well as the effects of transverse tubule disturbances. PMID:27508064

  19. Recent advances in understanding cardiac contractility in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Ken T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a synopsis of some of the emerging ideas and experimental findings in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology that were published in 2015. To provide context for the non-specialist, a brief summary of cardiac contraction and calcium (Ca) regulation in the heart in health and disease is provided. Thereafter, some recently published articles are introduced that indicate the current thinking on (1) the Ca regulatory pathways modulated by Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, (2) the potential influences of nitrosylation by nitric oxide or S-nitrosated proteins, (3) newly observed effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on contraction and Ca regulation following myocardial infarction and a possible link with changes in mitochondrial Ca, and (4) the effects of some of these signaling pathways on late Na current and pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations as well as the effects of transverse tubule disturbances. PMID:27508064

  20. As health care technology advances: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Funk, Marjorie

    2011-07-01

    Technology permeates every dimension of critical care. Bedside technology is integral to the assessment and monitoring of patients and to the provision of treatment. It also helps with access to vital information and can enhance communication. Although it offers extraordinary benefits to patients and clinicians, technology may also create problems. Our research addresses the wise use of technology in the care of critically ill patients. It examines the appropriate and safe use of technology, its equitable distribution, and the human-machine interface. Given that some devices are more effective and safe than others, it is important to assess the appropriateness of a specific technology in a specific situation. Just because a particular device is available, is it necessary to use it in every possible situation? Do we use it just because it is there? Do we employ "heroic" measures sometimes when it would be kinder not to? Studies on the safe use of technology in patient care lead to a consideration of the risk-benefit ratio. Our research on gender and racial differences in the use of cardiac procedures in patients with acute myocardial infarction focused on the equitable distribution of technology. The results of this line of research, along with those of numerous other studies, suggest possible racism in our health care practices. The human-machine interface, or how clinicians and patients interact with health care technology, is a crucial focus of research. Technology is at the heart of critical care. It allows clinicians to perform miracles, but is also a seductive and self-perpetuating force that needs careful monitoring by those who use it.

  1. Advance directives for mental health care: innovation in law, policy, and practice.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Heather; Kemp, Kathleen; Bonnie, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Virginia appears to be the first state to commit itself to statewide implementation of psychiatric advance directives, and its experience may be highly instructive for other states. The project began with consensus building among stakeholders (2007-2009), followed by revisions to Virginia's Health Care Decisions Act (2009-2010) and designation of five of the state's 40 Community Services Boards as demonstration sites for facilitation efforts. Early implementation efforts quickly showed that psychiatric advance directives are not self-executing innovations. This column describes the early policy and practice innovations, lessons learned from initial implementation efforts, and three approaches to facilitating completion of advance directives by consumers.

  2. Religious advance directives: the convergence of law, religion, medicine, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Because of the deep interpersonal significance of decisions made at the end of life, it is not surprising that religion has played an important role in patient and family decision making. Specific religious concerns about death and dying have led to religious advance directives. Advance directives offer a case study of models of interaction between religious communities and secular institutions. This paper examines why such directives have been created and how they may affect health care decisions. An analysis of their strengths and weaknesses concludes that specific religious instructions are unnecessary in written directives and may undermine both the religious and health care goals of patients. PMID:8498633

  3. Accelerating the Global Workforce Demand for Nurse Informaticians: Advanced Health Informatics Certification (AHIC).

    PubMed

    Gadd, Cynthia; Delaney, Connie W; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Greenwood, Karen; Williamson, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in professional recognition of nursing informatics vary by country but examples exist of training programs moving from curriculum-based education to competency based frameworks to produce highly skilled nursing informaticians. This panel will discuss a significant credentialing project in the United States that should further enhance professional recognition of highly skilled nurses matriculating from NI programs as well as nurses functioning in positions where informatics-induced transformation is occurring. The panel will discuss the professionalization of health informatics by describing core content, training requirements, education needs, and administrative framework applicable for the creation of an Advanced Health Informatics Certification (AHIC). PMID:27332309

  4. Missed Policy Opportunities to Advance Health Equity by Recording Demographic Data in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Daniel E.; Holden, Kisha B.; Mack, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    The science of eliminating health disparities is complex and dependent on demographic data. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) encourages the adoption of electronic health records and requires basic demographic data collection; however, current data generated are insufficient to address known health disparities in vulnerable populations, including individuals from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, with disabilities, and with diverse sexual identities. We conducted an administrative history of HITECH and identified gaps between the policy objective and required measure. We identified 20 opportunities for change and 5 changes, 2 of which required the collection of less data. Until health care demographic data collection requirements are consistent with public health requirements, the national goal of eliminating health disparities cannot be realized. PMID:25905840

  5. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  6. Advanced practice role characteristics of the community/public health nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Julie Fisher; Baldwin, Karen Brandt

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the advanced practice role of nurses with master's degrees in community/public health nursing using their experiences and perspectives. The purposive sample consisted of 10 nurses who had master's degrees in community/public health nursing and were working in a variety of community health settings. Data were collected using audiotaped interviews and 1-day observations of study participants in their workplaces. An editing analysis technique was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that role characteristics included advocacy and policy setting at the organizational, community, and state levels; a leadership style centered on empowerment; a broad sphere of influence; and high-level skills in large-scale program planning, project management, and building partnerships. Results provide important descriptive data about significant aspects of the advanced practice role of nurses with master's degrees in community/public health nursing.

  7. Cryptosporidium Taxonomy: Recent Advances and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Fayer, Ronald; Ryan, Una; Upton, Steve J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baïleyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources. PMID:14726456

  8. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases.

  9. Regulatory considerations for biotechnology-derived animals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Adlakha-Hutcheon, G; Evans, B R

    2005-04-01

    Regulatory initiatives relating to biotechnology-derived livestock have focused on animal health, environmental impact, and the general concept of the safety of the food and by-products derived from such animals. Existing regulatory frameworks have been stretched to accommodate these emerging concerns. Public concerns and the expectations of society mean that the regulatory infrastructure is subject to a high level of scrutiny and that regulations are expected to maintain a clear level of confidence, transparency and effectiveness. A sound regulatory regime should be 'neutral', neither 'facilitating' nor 'restricting' the approval of products or by-products derived from biotechnology-derived animals.

  10. Developing New Systems of Data to Advance a Culture of Health

    PubMed Central

    Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The system dynamics that are driving changes in health and health care in the United States are not well captured by standard data-collection activities. We need data systems that can inform policy and program development and can reflect the increasing recognition that all aspects of people’s lives—their work, families, and communities and not just formal health and health care services—support active and healthy living. Culture of Health Action Areas: Within the Culture of Health (COH) framework, four action areas are further upstream in the sequence of change and point to additional need for more nuanced approaches to data collection: building a shared value of health; fostering collaborations to improve well-being; creating health in more equitable community environments; and transforming health and health care systems. These action areas define the COH framework that we hope will spur research and strategies across sectors to improve health. Conclusion: The action framework for advancing a COH will guide the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s (RWJF) grant making and strategic collaborations. It is hoped that the framework will also catalyze changes in how researchers and organizations collect health-related data at all levels. PMID:25995991

  11. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  12. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  13. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  14. Advancing organizational health literacy in health care organizations serving high-needs populations: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Zellin, Stacie; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri

    2012-01-01

    Health care organizations, well positioned to address health literacy, are beginning to shift their systems and policies to support health literacy efforts. Organizations can identify barriers, emphasize and leverage their strengths, and initiate activities that promote health literacy-related practices. The current project employed an open-ended approach to conduct a needs assessment of rural federally qualified health center clinics. Using customized assessment tools, the collaborators were then able to determine priorities for changing organizational structures and policies in order to support continued health literacy efforts. Six domains of organizational health literacy were measured with three methods: environmental assessments, patient interviews, and key informant interviews with staff and providers. Subsequent strategic planning was conducted by collaborators from the academic and clinic teams and resulted in a focused, context-appropriate action plan. The needs assessment revealed several gaps in organizational health literacy practices, such as low awareness of health literacy within the organization and variation in perceived values of protocols, interstaff communication, and patient communication. Facilitators included high employee morale and patient satisfaction. The resulting targeted action plan considered the organization's culture as revealed in the interviews, informing a collaborative process well suited to improving organizational structures and systems to support health literacy best practices. The customized needs assessment contributed to an ongoing collaborative process to implement organizational changes that aided in addressing health literacy needs.

  15. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach.

  16. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context. PMID:21745504

  17. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to

  18. Advances in Public Health Accreditation Readiness and Quality Improvement: Evaluation Findings From the National Public Health Improvement Initiative

    PubMed Central

    McLees, Anita W.; Thomas, Craig W.; Nawaz, Saira; Young, Andrea C.; Rider, Nikki; Davis, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Continuous quality improvement is a central tenet of the Public Health Accreditation Board’s (PHAB) national voluntary public health accreditation program. Similarly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the National Public Health Improvement Initiative (NPHII) in 2010 with the goal of advancing accreditation readiness, performance management, and quality improvement (QI). Objective Evaluate the extent to which NPHII awardees have achieved program goals. Design NPHII awardees responded to an annual assessment and program monitoring data requests. Analysis included simple descriptive statistics. Setting Seventy-four state, tribal, local, and territorial public health agencies receiving NPHII funds. Participants NPHII performance improvement managers or principal investigators. Main Outcome Measure(s) Development of accreditation prerequisites, completion of an organizational self-assessment against the PHAB Standards and Measures, Version 1.0, establishment of a performance management system, and implementation of QI initiatives to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Results Of the 73 responding NPHII awardees, 42.5% had a current health assessment, 26% had a current health improvement plan, and 48% had a current strategic plan in place at the end of the second program year. Approximately 26% of awardees had completed an organizational PHAB self-assessment, 72% had established at least 1 of the 4 components of a performance management system, and 90% had conducted QI activities focused on increasing efficiencies and/or effectiveness. Conclusions NPHII appears to be supporting awardees’ initial achievement of program outcomes. As NPHII enters its third year, there will be additional opportunities to advance the work of NPHII, compile and disseminate results, and inform a vision of high-quality public health necessary to improve the health of the population. PMID:24322683

  19. Forging Strategic Partnerships to Advance Mental Health Science and Practice for Vulnerable Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; McWayne, Christy; Bulotsky, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework for advancing mental health science and practice for vulnerable children that is in accord with the Surgeon General's priorities for change. Three elements distinguish the framework presented. It is: (a) population-focused, (b) child-centered, and (c) partnership-based. Empirical…

  20. Expanding School-District/University Partnerships to Advance Health Promoting Schools Implementation and Efficacy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Chang, Fong-Ching; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Shih, Shu-Fang; Chang, Tzu-Chau; Chou, Hsin-Pei

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwan government expanded its support of school-district/university partnership programs that promote the implementation of the evidenced-based Health Promoting Schools (HPS) program. This study examined whether expanding the support for this initiative was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived…

  1. 78 FR 54255 - HRSA's Bureau of Health Professions Advanced Education Nursing Traineeship Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Education Nursing Traineeship Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS... Education Nursing Traineeship (AENT) program. Effective fiscal year (FY) 2014, AENT support for part-time... practitioners and nurse midwives. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joan Wasserman, DrPH, RN, Advanced...

  2. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    PubMed Central

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  3. M-health medical video communication systems: an overview of design approaches and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Panayides, A S; Pattichis, M S; Constantinides, A G; Pattichis, C S

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the new, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, combined with wide deployment of 4G wireless networks, will provide significant support toward the adoption of mobile-health (m-health) medical video communication systems in standard clinical practice. For the first time since the emergence of m-health systems and services, medical video communication systems can be deployed that can rival the standards of in-hospital examinations. In this paper, we provide a thorough overview of today's advancements in the field, discuss existing approaches, and highlight the future trends and objectives.

  4. Exploration and Description of Faith-Based Health Resources: Findings Inform Advancing Holistic Health Care.

    PubMed

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod

    2015-01-01

    It is important to use all holistic resource opportunities in communities, such as integrative healing centers, and mind-body-spirit approaches to health. These holistic approaches may be realized through nontraditional avenues, such as faith-based resources. This article reports on an exploratory study that describes faith-based resources supporting holistic health in a southeastern region of the United States. A working definition for "faith-based health resources" was "ecumenical and interfaith community-based, open-access health resources that include in mission for service a reference to faith." Excluded from the definition were institutional services from hospitals, focused social services from area agencies, and federally funded services.

  5. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in "World J Microbiol Biotechnol" 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in "Int J Sci Educ" 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in "Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia" (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in "Am Biol Teach" 64(2):93-99, 2002). A…

  6. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  7. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  8. Getting from the bench to the patient: biotechnology strategies.

    PubMed

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Lewis, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Despite significant advances in understanding of molecular pathobiology, the adoption of this knowledge and its application to drug development is sporadic. Consequently, the drug development process has remained intrinsically laborious and inefficient. Translational research seeks to improve this process by integrating scientific advances into well-defined clinical challenges and opportunities. The focus of this article is on cancer therapeutics, specifically, 2 biotechnology organizations' advances in oncology: (1) optimizing the safety and efficacy of a novel DNA cross-linking small molecule, palifosfamide, and (2) bringing synthetic biology into clinical practice using a controllable gene therapy strategy with intratumorally injected interleukin-12 DNA, a potent cytokine.

  9. Understanding of the Application of Advanced-Practice Health Educator Subcompetencies by Certified Health Education Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen; Paravattil, Blossom; Perko, Mike; Edmonds, Ellen; Lysoby, Linda; McClellan, C. Suzette

    2013-01-01

    In May 2009, the Board of Commissioners of the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. (NCHEC) established policies to award the Master Certified Health Education Specialist certification. As with any new licensure, registration, or certification in a profession, policy makers need to consider how to provide quality assurance…

  10. Advancing Mental Health Research: Washington University's Center for Mental Health Services Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.; McMillen, Curtis; Haywood, Sally; Dore, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research centers have become a key component of the research infrastructure in schools of social work, including the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University. In 1993, that school's Center for Mental Health Services Research (CMHSR) received funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) as a Social Work…

  11. Recent advances to address European Union Health Security from cross border chemical health threats.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Davidson, R; Orford, R; Wyke, S; Griffiths, M; Amlôt, R; Chilcott, R

    2014-11-01

    The European Union (EU) Decision (1082/2013/EU) on serious cross border threats to health was adopted by the European Parliament in November 2013, in recognition of the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to coordinate the public health response to cross border threats, whether from biological, chemical, environmental events or events which have an unknown origin. Although mechanisms have been in place for years for reporting cross border health threats from communicable diseases, this has not been the case for incidents involving chemicals and/or environmental events. A variety of collaborative EU projects have been funded over the past 10 years through the Health Programme to address gaps in knowledge on health security and to improve resilience and response to major incidents involving chemicals. This paper looks at the EU Health Programme that underpins recent research activities to address gaps in resilience, planning, responding to and recovering from a cross border chemical incident. It also looks at how the outputs from the research programme will contribute to improving public health management of transnational incidents that have the potential to overwhelm national capabilities, putting this into context with the new requirements as the Decision on serious cross border threats to health as well as highlighting areas for future development.

  12. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking

    PubMed Central

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking. PMID:25038624

  13. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2014-10-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

  14. Biotechnological production of gluconic acid: future implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om V; Kumar, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) is a multifunctional carbonic acid regarded as a bulk chemical in the food, feed, beverage, textile, pharmaceutical, and construction industries. The favored production process is submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger utilizing glucose as a major carbohydrate source, which accompanied product yield of 98%. However, use of GA and its derivatives is currently restricted because of high prices: about US$ 1.20-8.50/kg. Advancements in biotechnology such as screening of microorganisms, immobilization techniques, and modifications in fermentation process for continuous fermentation, including genetic engineering programmes, could lead to cost-effective production of GA. Among alternative carbohydrate sources, sugarcane molasses, grape must show highest GA yield of 95.8%, and banana must may assist reducing the overall cost of GA production. These methodologies would open new markets and increase applications of GA.

  15. Engineered Transcriptional Systems for Cyanobacterial Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Camsund, Daniel; Lindblad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can function as solar-driven biofactories thanks to their ability to perform photosynthesis and the ease with which they are genetically modified. In this review, we discuss transcriptional parts and promoters available for engineering cyanobacteria. First, we go through special cyanobacterial characteristics that may impact engineering, including the unusual cyanobacterial RNA polymerase, sigma factors and promoter types, mRNA stability, circadian rhythm, and gene dosage effects. Then, we continue with discussing component characteristics that are desirable for synthetic biology approaches, including decoupling, modularity, and orthogonality. We then summarize and discuss the latest promoters for use in cyanobacteria regarding characteristics such as regulation, strength, and dynamic range and suggest potential uses. Finally, we provide an outlook and suggest future developments that would advance the field and accelerate the use of cyanobacteria for renewable biotechnology. PMID:25325057

  16. Electroporation-based applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Tadej; Frey, Wolfgang; Sack, Martin; Haberl Meglič, Saša; Peterka, Matjaž; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2015-08-01

    Electroporation is already an established technique in several areas of medicine, but many of its biotechnological applications have only started to emerge; we review here some of the most promising. We outline electroporation as a phenomenon and then proceed to applications, first outlining the best established - the use of reversible electroporation for heritable genetic modification of microorganisms (electrotransformation), and then explore recent advances in applying electroporation for inactivation of microorganisms, extraction of biomolecules, and fast drying of biomass. Although these applications often aim to upscale to the industrial and/or clinical level, we also outline some important chip-scale applications of electroporation. We conclude our review with a discussion of the main challenges and future perspectives.

  17. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-10-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered.

  18. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-10-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered. PMID:23271143

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGIES AND BIOMATERIALS IN SPINE SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Vadala', G; Russo, F; Ambrosio, L; Di Martino, A; Papalia, R; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, spine disorders have become a major health concern and the number of spinal surgical procedures has been rising significantly. Several biotechnologies and biomaterials are often used in spine surgery to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. In the degenerative spine, when conservative treatment is ineffective the most recommended surgical procedure is decompression followed by spinal fusion. Success rates of spine fusion extensively rely on bone grafts peculiar properties. Autograft has been considered the gold standard to achieve a solid fusion but current research is focused on the development of new biomaterials. Osteoporosis is the main cause of vertebral compression fractures that are significantly associated with pain and disability, especially in the aging population. Vertebral augmentation is a minimally invasive approach in which cement is injected into the vertebral body to stabilize the fracture. New cements are being developed in the clinical scenario with reabsorbable properties and biomechanical features more similar to the native bone. The development of disc regeneration strategies such as nucleus pulposus restoration and annulus fibrosus repair may represent a minimally invasive procedure towards regeneration rather than fusion. Therefore, biomaterials and tissue engineering are fields of growing interest among both surgeons and manufacturing companies, with a major involvement in spine surgery. This review discusses current and novel biotechnologies and biomaterial used in spine surgery employing fusion, augmentation and regeneration.

  20. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  1. Search and Discovery Strategies for Biotechnology: the Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Alan T.; Ward, Alan C.; Goodfellow, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Profound changes are occurring in the strategies that biotechnology-based industries are deploying in the search for exploitable biology and to discover new products and develop new or improved processes. The advances that have been made in the past decade in areas such as combinatorial chemistry, combinatorial biosynthesis, metabolic pathway engineering, gene shuffling, and directed evolution of proteins have caused some companies to consider withdrawing from natural product screening. In this review we examine the paradigm shift from traditional biology to bioinformatics that is revolutionizing exploitable biology. We conclude that the reinvigorated means of detecting novel organisms, novel chemical structures, and novel biocatalytic activities will ensure that natural products will continue to be a primary resource for biotechnology. The paradigm shift has been driven by a convergence of complementary technologies, exemplified by DNA sequencing and amplification, genome sequencing and annotation, proteome analysis, and phenotypic inventorying, resulting in the establishment of huge databases that can be mined in order to generate useful knowledge such as the identity and characterization of organisms and the identity of biotechnology targets. Concurrently there have been major advances in understanding the extent of microbial diversity, how uncultured organisms might be grown, and how expression of the metabolic potential of microorganisms can be maximized. The integration of information from complementary databases presents a significant challenge. Such integration should facilitate answers to complex questions involving sequence, biochemical, physiological, taxonomic, and ecological information of the sort posed in exploitable biology. The paradigm shift which we discuss is not absolute in the sense that it will replace established microbiology; rather, it reinforces our view that innovative microbiology is essential for releasing the potential of microbial

  2. Applying Public Health Frameworks to Advance the Promotion of Mental Health Among Asian American Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Sharma, Kirsten Cullen; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Asian American (ASA) children experience high rates of mental health problems. Although there is a pressing need to utilize population approaches, emerging frameworks from the fields of public and population health have not been applied to ASA children. This paper addresses this gap by first discussing applications of the National Prevention Strategy (NPS), a population strategy developed from the Social Determinants of Health perspective, to guide ASA prevention work. Next, we provide a practical example to illustrate how the NPS can be applied to prevention program design (using ParentCorps as an example) and dissemination and implementation processes to broadly address ASA children's mental health needs. Finally, we present preliminary data on the feasibility of applying this population strategy to ASA families and a framework for researchers who are considering disseminating and implementing evidence-based programs to ASA or ethnic minority pediatric populations. PMID:25505500

  3. [Advances and challenges to the Brazilian policy of health technology management].

    PubMed

    Silva, Hudson P; Petramale, Clarice A; Elias, Flavia T S

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health has institutionalized two articulated processes in the field of health technology management: (i) the production, systematization and dissemination of health technology assessment, and (ii) the adoption of a flow for the incorporation, exclusion or alteration of new technologies by the Brazilian National Health System. Several advances have been made, such as standardization of methods; production and promotion of studies; institutional development and international cooperation in the area of health technology assessment; definition of the necessary requirements for the presentation of proposals; definition of deadlines; and expansion of the segments that compose the committee that is responsible for the analysis and recommendation. However, some difficulties remain: health technology assessment activities concentrated in the Ministry; low sustainability of the activities of production and dissemination of the assessments; low penetration of health technology assessment in health care institutions; activities of assessment/incorporation with low participation of users; non-transparent decision-making processes; and low integration of the health policy with the scientific and technological policy.

  4. Advances and challenges in oral health after a decade of the “Smiling Brazil” Program

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Charleni Inês; Scherer, Magda Duarte dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health work changes in primary health care after Brazil’s National Oral Health Policy Guidelines were released. METHODS A literature review was conducted on Medline, LILACS, Embase, SciELO, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, and The Cochrane Library databases, from 2000 to 2013, on elements to analyze work changes. The descriptors used included: primary health care, family health care, work, health care policy, oral health care services, dentistry, oral health, and Brazil. Thirty-two studies were selected and analyzed, with a predominance of qualitative studies from the Northeast region with workers, especially dentists, focusing on completeness and quality of care. RESULTS Observed advances focused on educational and permanent education actions; on welcoming, bonding, and accountability. The main challenges were related to completeness; extension and improvement of care; integrated teamwork; working conditions; planning, monitoring, and evaluation of actions; stimulating people’s participation and social control; and intersectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Despite the new regulatory environment, there are very few changes in oral health work. Professionals tend to reproduce the dominant biomedical model. Continuing efforts will be required in work management, training, and permanent education fields. Among the possibilities are the increased engagement of managers and professionals in a process to understand work dynamics and training in the perspective of building significant changes for local realities. PMID:26815162

  5. Developing public policy to advance the use of big data in health care.

    PubMed

    Heitmueller, Axel; Henderson, Sarah; Warburton, Will; Elmagarmid, Ahmed; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The vast amount of health data generated and stored around the world each day offers significant opportunities for advances such as the real-time tracking of diseases, predicting disease outbreaks, and developing health care that is truly personalized. However, capturing, analyzing, and sharing health data is difficult, expensive, and controversial. This article explores four central questions that policy makers should consider when developing public policy for the use of "big data" in health care. We discuss what aspects of big data are most relevant for health care and present a taxonomy of data types and levels of access. We suggest that successful policies require clear objectives and provide examples, discuss barriers to achieving policy objectives based on a recent policy experiment in the United Kingdom, and propose levers that policy makers should consider using to advance data sharing. We argue that the case for data sharing can be won only by providing real-life examples of the ways in which it can improve health care.

  6. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology.

  7. [Advances in respiratory health 2010: the perspective from the Smoking and Health Section].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The Smoking and Health Section of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery has been highly active in research throughout 2010. Many of the research studies performed have led to interesting publications. The present article analyzes the main clinical and basic research articles published by the distinct members of the Society's Smoking and Health Section. The various disciplines included under the heading of smoking are reviewed: diagnosis and treatment, epidemiology, genetics, bibliometry and tobacco-related diseases.

  8. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care. PMID:26717505

  9. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care.

  10. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.

  11. Making the case for a model mental health advance directive statute.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Acute episodes of mental illness temporarily destroy the capacity required to give informed consent and often prevent people from realizing they are sick, causing them to refuse intervention. Once a person refuses treatment, the only way to obtain care is as an involuntary patient. Even in the midst of acute episodes, many people do not meet commitment criteria because they are not likely to injure themselves or others and are still able to care for their basic needs. Left untreated, the episode will likely spiral out of control. By the time the person finally meets strict commitment criteria, devastation has already occurred. This Article argues that an individual should have the right to enter a Ulysses arrangement, a special type of mental health advance directive that authorizes a doctor to administer treatment during a future episode even if the episode causes the individual to refuse care. The Uniform Law Commissioners enacted the Uniform Health-Care Decisions Act as a model statute to address all types of advance health care planning, including planning for mental illness. However, the Act focuses on end-of-life care and fails to address many issues faced by people with mental illness. For example, the Act does not empower people to enter Ulysses arrangements and eliminates writing and witnessing requirements that protect against fraud and coercion. This Article recommends that the Uniform Law Commissioners adopt a model mental health advance directive statute that empowers people to enter Ulysses arrangements and provides safeguards against abuse. Appendix A sets forth model provisions.

  12. Recent development of polymer nanofibers for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2005-10-01

    Research in polymer nanofibers has undergone significant progress in the last one decade. One of the main driving forces for this progress is the increasing use of these polymer nanofibers for biomedical and biotechnological applications. This article presents a review on the latest research advancement made in the use of polymer nanofibers for applications such as tissue engineering, controlled drug release, wound dressings, medical implants, nanocomposites for dental restoration, molecular separation, biosensors, and preservation of bioactive agents.

  13. 76 FR 3918 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science..., Bethesda, Maryland 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant NIH Office of...

  14. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology.

  15. Biotechnological production of colorants.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lex

    2014-01-01

    The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

  16. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 2: Meeting the information needs of biotechnologists.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, D; Grefsheim, S; Simon, M; Lansing, P S

    1991-01-01

    The second part of the biotechnology awareness study focused on health sciences libraries and how well they are meeting the needs of biotechnologists working in the study's nine medical centers. A survey was conducted over a three-month period to assess the demand for biotechnology-related reference services at nine libraries and the sources the librarians used to answer the questions. Data on monographic and current serial holdings were also collected. At the end of the survey period, librarians were asked for their perceptions about biotechnology research at their institutions and in their geographic areas. Their responses were compared to the responses the scientists at the nine schools gave to the same or similar questions. Results showed few biotechnology-related reference questions were asked of the librarians. The recorded questions dealt with a range of biotechnology subjects. MEDLINE was used to answer 77% of the questions received during the survey period. More detailed notes in MeSH and a guide to online searching for biotechnology topics were suggested by the librarians as ways to improve reference service to this group of researchers. Journal collections were generally strong, with libraries owning from 50% to 87% of the titles on a core list of biotechnology journals compiled for this study. All libraries subscribed to the five titles most often cited by the scientists surveyed. Generally, librarians were unaware of the biotechnology-related research being done on their campuses or in their geographic areas. PMID:1998819

  17. New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J Grant

    2012-02-01

    Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future.

  18. Therapeutic opportunities involving cellular oncogenes: novel approaches fostered by biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Huber, B E

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnological processes are having a major impact on many industrial sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. The contributions of recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies to modern therapeutics include production of natural and unnatural peptides, subunit vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid hybridization probes for in vitro and in vivo diagnostics and biological imaging, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies as tissue-specific delivery systems or as agents to confer passive immunity, production of therapeutic targets for rational drug design, and the use of cloned enzymes as stereospecific catalysts in large-scale production of small medicinal molecules. Biotechnological advances have led to the identification of a discrete set of genes, oncogenes, which may be essential contributing factors for a great variety and number of human cancers. In addition, biotechnological innovations are fostering the exploitation of oncogenes as novel therapeutic targets for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Because oncogenes are activated in transformation by either qualitative or quantitative mechanisms, however, different biotechnology-based therapeutic approaches are required for each class.

  19. Biotechnology and Pasta-Making: Lactic Acid Bacteria as a New Driver of Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; De Vita, Pasquale; Fiocco, Daniela; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Cereals-derived foods represent a key constituent in the diet of many populations. In particular, pasta is consumed in large quantities throughout the world in reason of its nutritive importance, containing significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, proteins, B-vitamins, and iron. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages with high relevance for human and animal health. A wide literature testifies the multifaceted importance of LAB biotechnological applications in cereal-based products. Several studies focused on LAB isolation and characterization in durum wheat environment, in some cases with preliminary experimental applications of LAB in pasta-making. In this paper, using sourdough as a model, we focus on the relevant state-of-art to introduce a LAB-based biotechnological step in industrial pasta-making, a potential world driver of innovation that might represent a cutting-edge advancement in pasta production. PMID:22457660

  20. How to be Cautious but Open to Learning: Time to Update Biotechnology and GMO Legislation.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2016-08-01

    Precautionary measures to protect human health and the environment should be science based. This implies that they should be directed at a potential danger for which there is credible scientific evidence (although that evidence need not be conclusive). Furthermore, protective measures should be updated as relevant science advances. This means that decisionmakers should be prepared to strengthen the precautionary measures if the danger turns out to be greater than initially suspected, and to reduce or lift them, should the danger prove to be smaller. Most current legislation on agricultural biotechnology has not been scientifically updated. Therefore, it reflects outdated criteria for identifying products that can cause problems. Modern knowledge in genetics, plant biology, and ecology has provided us with much better criteria that risk analysts can use to identify the potentially problematic breeding projects at which precautionary measures should be directed. Legislation on agricultural biotechnology should be scientifically updated. Furthermore, legislators should learn from this example that regulations based on the current state of science need to have inbuilt mechanisms for revisions and adjustments in response to future developments in science. PMID:27305655

  1. How to be Cautious but Open to Learning: Time to Update Biotechnology and GMO Legislation.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2016-08-01

    Precautionary measures to protect human health and the environment should be science based. This implies that they should be directed at a potential danger for which there is credible scientific evidence (although that evidence need not be conclusive). Furthermore, protective measures should be updated as relevant science advances. This means that decisionmakers should be prepared to strengthen the precautionary measures if the danger turns out to be greater than initially suspected, and to reduce or lift them, should the danger prove to be smaller. Most current legislation on agricultural biotechnology has not been scientifically updated. Therefore, it reflects outdated criteria for identifying products that can cause problems. Modern knowledge in genetics, plant biology, and ecology has provided us with much better criteria that risk analysts can use to identify the potentially problematic breeding projects at which precautionary measures should be directed. Legislation on agricultural biotechnology should be scientifically updated. Furthermore, legislators should learn from this example that regulations based on the current state of science need to have inbuilt mechanisms for revisions and adjustments in response to future developments in science.

  2. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  3. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  4. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families. PMID:25397338

  5. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    PubMed Central

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  6. Work Productivity and Health of Informal Caregivers of Persons With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Barbara J.; Douglas, Sara L.; Lipson, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe health promotion behaviors and work productivity loss in informal caregivers of individuals with advanced stage cancer. Using a cross-sectional, correlational design, 70 caregivers completed measures of health behaviors, mood, social support, and burden. Absenteeism and presenteeism were evaluated in employed caregivers (n = 40). Caregivers reported low levels of physical activity. The mean percentage of work productivity loss due to caregiving was 22.9%. Greater work productivity loss was associated with greater number of caregiving hours, higher cancer stage, married status, and greater anxiety, depression, and burden related to financial problems, disrupted schedule, and health. Nurses should assess caregivers and provide health promotion interventions, which may ultimately reduce the economic impact of caregiving. PMID:21953274

  7. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  8. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  9. The Illinois Women’s Health Registry: advancing women’s health research and education in Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    Bristol-Gould, Sarah; Desjardins, Michelle; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2010-01-01

    To achieve the goal of personalized medicine, we must first improve our understanding of the differences in health and illness between men and women. The purpose of the Illinois Women’s Health Registry (USA) is to provide a research and education tool that advances scientific knowledge of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease. Specifically, the Registry is a confidential 30-min health and lifestyle survey for female residents of Illinois over the age of 18 years. The survey includes questions regarding health, environment, health-related behaviors, symptoms and illnesses or conditions that a participant may have now or has had in the past. By enrolling in the Registry, women throughout the state are provided with information and access to clinical research studies that they may be eligible for, based on their self-reported health information. The Registry not only serves as a platform for recruitment into pivotal research studies, but also represents the beginning of a state-wide database that enables researchers to examine the collective de-identified health information provided by women living in Illinois. Ultimately, a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of these data will help to clarify the issues that women themselves identify as their main health concerns. In response to these concerns, specific research studies can be designed and launched, allowing us to eventually deliver tailored treatment and prevention options to women. Finally, by creating a reliable state-focused research tool, developed by staff that are trained in women’s health research, we can compare health issues across the state and apply strategies for improvement where it is needed most. This article will provide examples of sex differences in disease, the lack of federal enforcement for inclusion of women in studies, researcher-perceived burdens and sex-based reasons as to why recruitment of women is considered to be more challenging. In addition, this article

  10. Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is not only a strategic element in high-tech electronics and an essential trace element in living organisms, but also a potential toxin with low threshold concentrations. Environmental biotechnological applications using bacterial biomineralization have the potential not only to remove selenium from contaminated waters, but also to sequester it in a reusable form. Selenium biomineralization has been observed in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms isolated from pristine and contaminated environments, yet it is one of the most poorly understood biogeochemical processes. Microbial respiration of selenium is unique because the microbial cells are presented with both soluble (SeO(4)(2-) and SeO(3)(2-)) and insoluble (Se(0)) forms of selenium as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we highlight selenium biomineralization and the potential biotechnological uses for it in bioremediation and wastewater treatment. PMID:25908504

  11. Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is not only a strategic element in high-tech electronics and an essential trace element in living organisms, but also a potential toxin with low threshold concentrations. Environmental biotechnological applications using bacterial biomineralization have the potential not only to remove selenium from contaminated waters, but also to sequester it in a reusable form. Selenium biomineralization has been observed in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms isolated from pristine and contaminated environments, yet it is one of the most poorly understood biogeochemical processes. Microbial respiration of selenium is unique because the microbial cells are presented with both soluble (SeO(4)(2-) and SeO(3)(2-)) and insoluble (Se(0)) forms of selenium as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we highlight selenium biomineralization and the potential biotechnological uses for it in bioremediation and wastewater treatment.

  12. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  13. Scholarship, publication, and career advancement in health professions education: AMEE Guide No. 43.

    PubMed

    McGaghie, William C

    2009-07-01

    Scholarship and publication are key contributors to career advancement in health professions education worldwide. Scholarship is expressed in many ways including original research; integration and synthesis of ideas and data, often across disciplines; application of skill and knowledge to problems that have consequences for health professionals, students, and patients; and teaching in many forms. Professional publication also has diverse outlets ranging from empirical articles in peer reviewed journals, textbook chapters, videos, simulation technologies, and many other means of expression. Scholarship and publication are evaluated and judged using criteria that are consensual, public, and transparent. This three-part AMEE Guide presents advice about how to prepare and publish health professions education research reports and other forms of scholarship in professional journals and other outlets. Part One addresses scholarship-its varieties, assessment, and attributes of productive scholars and scholarly teams. Part Two maps the road to publication, beginning with what's important and reportable and moving to manuscript planning and writing, gauging manuscript quality, manuscript submission and review, and writing in English. Part Three offers 21 practical suggestions about how to advance a successful and satisfying career in the academic health professions. Concluding remarks encourage health professions educators to pursue scholarship with vision and reflection.

  14. STARPAHC - Operational findings. [Space Technology Applied to Rural Papago Advanced Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belasco, N.; Pool, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Delivery of quality health care to passengers of extended-mission spacecraft and to remote populations on earth (a major national problem) requires extending the knowledge and skills of the physician many kilometers distant from his physical location. The STARPAHC telemedicine system accomplishes this by using physician's assistants complemented with space technology in communications, data handling, and systems engineering. It is presently in operation and undergoing a 2-year evaluation on the Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona. Results have established its feasibility as a solution for remote area health care on earth, while providing information useful to the planners of advanced manned spacecraft missions.

  15. Professional advancement of women in health care management: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Madsen, M K; Blide, L A

    1992-11-01

    Ragins and Sundstrom suggest three major conclusions based on power and gender differences within organizations. The first is that power develops or detracts as individuals progress along their career track. HIM professionals who accept the challenges that changing roles bring can also develop a new sensitivity to the value of power as a tool. They can use their negotiating skills to avoid being placed in work roles that result in a decrease in power. The second difference between men and women within organizations is that obstacles often impede women's career paths more than men's. Perceptions by women and men of a woman as homemaker and mother create serious conflicts when jobs are demanding and time intensive. Lastly, Ragins and Sundstrom suggest that career progression is influenced by both intrinsic factors (personal and professional) and extrinsic factors (organizational and interpersonal). The interaction between these factors is often driven by gender differences allowing men to progress and succeed, whereas women remain beneath the glass ceiling. HIM professionals, like other women health professionals, are graduating from advanced programs in health care and business administration at a greater rate than ever before in the history of this country. Not all these graduates will be able to acquire top-level administrative positions in the traditional health care institutions (e.g., hospitals). Therefore, if they wish to advance, they may have to move to nontraditional work settings. This is especially true for HIM professionals. The expanding computerized environment in traditional and nontraditional health care settings presents great potential for the development of new roles and responsibilities that have not been identified as male roles. HIM professionals and women in other health care professions who aspire to advance to upper administrative positions in traditional and nontraditional settings must be willing to take the risks inherent in assuming

  16. Administrative costs for advance payment of health coverage tax credits: an initial analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Stan

    2007-03-01

    Health Coverage Tax Credits (HCTCs), created under the Trade Act of 2002, pay 65 percent of health insurance premiums for certain workers displaced by international trade and early retirees. These credits can be paid directly to insurers when monthly premiums are due, in advance of annual tax return filing. While HCTC administrative costs have fallen significantly since program start-ups, they still comprise approximately 34 percent of total spending. Changes to the HCTC program could lower administrative costs, but the size of the resulting savings is unknown. These findings have important implications for any future tax credit plan intended to cover the uninsured.

  17. Professional advancement of women in health care management: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Madsen, M K; Blide, L A

    1992-11-01

    Ragins and Sundstrom suggest three major conclusions based on power and gender differences within organizations. The first is that power develops or detracts as individuals progress along their career track. HIM professionals who accept the challenges that changing roles bring can also develop a new sensitivity to the value of power as a tool. They can use their negotiating skills to avoid being placed in work roles that result in a decrease in power. The second difference between men and women within organizations is that obstacles often impede women's career paths more than men's. Perceptions by women and men of a woman as homemaker and mother create serious conflicts when jobs are demanding and time intensive. Lastly, Ragins and Sundstrom suggest that career progression is influenced by both intrinsic factors (personal and professional) and extrinsic factors (organizational and interpersonal). The interaction between these factors is often driven by gender differences allowing men to progress and succeed, whereas women remain beneath the glass ceiling. HIM professionals, like other women health professionals, are graduating from advanced programs in health care and business administration at a greater rate than ever before in the history of this country. Not all these graduates will be able to acquire top-level administrative positions in the traditional health care institutions (e.g., hospitals). Therefore, if they wish to advance, they may have to move to nontraditional work settings. This is especially true for HIM professionals. The expanding computerized environment in traditional and nontraditional health care settings presents great potential for the development of new roles and responsibilities that have not been identified as male roles. HIM professionals and women in other health care professions who aspire to advance to upper administrative positions in traditional and nontraditional settings must be willing to take the risks inherent in assuming

  18. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  19. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals.

  20. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  1. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  2. Open Innovation at NASA: A New Business Model for Advancing Human Health and Performance Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Keeton, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new business model for advancing NASA human health and performance innovations and demonstrates how open innovation shaped its development. A 45 percent research and technology development budget reduction drove formulation of a strategic plan grounded in collaboration. We describe the strategy execution, including adoption and results of open innovation initiatives, the challenges of cultural change, and the development of virtual centers and a knowledge management tool to educate and engage the workforce and promote cultural change.

  3. Advanced air distribution: improving health and comfort while reducing energy use.

    PubMed

    Melikov, A K

    2016-02-01

    Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high-quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing the risk of airborne cross-infection while reducing energy use. This study justifies the need for improving the present air distribution design in occupied spaces, and in general the need for a paradigm shift from the design of collective environments to the design of individually controlled environments. The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air distribution, and individually controlled macro-environment in general, for achieving shared values, that is, improved health, comfort, and performance, energy saving, reduction of healthcare costs and improved well-being is demonstrated. Performance criteria are defined and further research in the field is outlined.

  4. Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Rita R

    2002-11-01

    Genetic engineering has produced pharmaceuticals, disease-resistant plants, cloned animals and research and industrial products. While the comparably mature field of medical biotechnology now reveals its true potential, marine biotechnology is still in the realm of the future. As we explore the earth for new sources of natural chemicals, we now search the waters. Myriad organisms, most unknown to us, live there. Many produce compounds that can be commercialized, or the organisms themselves may be commercialized, through genetic engineering methods. For decades, scientists studied the ocean depths searching for unique molecules and organisms. But not until the early 1980s was there a synthesis uniting marine natural products, ecology, aquaculture and bioremediation research under the heading of marine biotechnology. As harvesting enough products from marine sources to produce sufficient amounts, even for study, is nearly impossible, we need to use genomics techniques to identify biologically active compounds. As we damage our oceanic ecosystems through pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing methods, opportunities to learn more about marine organisms and their commercial potential may be limited. Although governments and intergovernmental agencies are committed to funding and expanding oceanic research, more funding is needed to discover and study the ocean's vast, unplumbed resources.

  5. How institutional change and individual researchers helped advance clinical guidelines in American health care.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit

    2013-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are important tools for managing health care quality. Research on the origins of guidelines primarily focuses on the institutional causes of their emergence and growth. Individual medical researchers, however, have played important roles. This paper develops knowledge of the role of individual medical researchers in advancing guidelines, and of how researchers' efforts were enabled or constrained by broader institutional changes. Drawing on an analytical case study focused on the role of Kerr White, John Wennberg, and Robert Brook, it shows that guidelines were a product of the interplay between institutional change in the medical field and actions by individual researchers, acting as institutional entrepreneurs. Increased government involvement in the health care field triggered the involvement of a range of new actors in health care. These new organizations created a context that allowed individual researchers to advance guidelines by creating job opportunities, providing research funding, and creating opportunities for researchers to engage with the policy process. Individual researchers availed of this context to both advance their ideas, and to draw new actors into the field. PMID:23631774

  6. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom.I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare--one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while healthcare policy endorses this model

  7. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom. I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare – one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while healthcare policy endorses this

  8. The Impact on Future Guidance Programs of Current Developments in Computer Science, Telecommunications, and Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lynda K.; Hardy, Philippe L.

    The purpose of this chapter is to envision how the era of technological revolution will affect the guidance, counseling, and student support programs of the future. Advances in computer science, telecommunications, and biotechnology are discussed. These advances have the potential to affect dramatically the services of guidance programs of the…

  9. The NIEHS Environmental Health Sciences Data Resource Portal: Placing Advanced Technologies in Service to Vulnerable Communities

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Keith; Tukey, Robert; Sarabia, Hiram; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Suk, William A.; Lin, Abel; Ellisman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Two devastating hurricanes ripped across the Gulf Coast of the United States during 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina were especially severe: The human and environmental health impacts on New Orleans, Louisiana, and other Gulf Coast communities will be felt for decades to come. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that Katrina’s destruction disrupted the lives of roughly 650,000 Americans. Over 1,300 people died. The projected economic costs for recovery and reconstruction are likely to exceed $125 billion. Objectives The NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) Portal aims to provide decision makers with the data, information, and the tools they need to a) monitor human and environmental health impacts of disasters; b) assess and reduce human exposures to contaminants; and c) develop science-based remediation, rebuilding, and repopulation strategies. Methods The NIEHS Portal combines advances in geographic information systems (GIS), data mining/integration, and visualization technologies through new forms of grid-based (distributed, web-accessible) cyberinfrastructure. Results The scale and complexity of the problems presented by Hurricane Katrina made it evident that no stakeholder alone could tackle them and that there is a need for greater collaboration. The NIEHS Portal provides a collaboration-enabling, information-laden base necessary to respond to environmental health concerns in the Gulf Coast region while advancing integrative multidisciplinary research. Conclusions The NIEHS Portal is poised to serve as a national resource to track environmental hazards following natural and man-made disasters, focus medical and environmental response and recovery resources in areas of greatest need, and function as a test bed for technologies that will help advance environmental health sciences research into the modern scientific and computing era. PMID:17450225

  10. Research ethics in global mental health: advancing culturally responsive mental health research.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice.

  11. The application of biotechnology to nutrition: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Maureen

    2002-06-01

    Crop biotechnology is being used in two major ways to enhance human nutrition: to improve global food security by making more food available, especially locally grown and familiar foods in the developing world, and by enhancing the nutritional composition of foods that would interest both the developed and developing worlds. Since the first commercialized products of biotechnology are major commodity crops grown primarily in the US, Canada and Argentina (soybeans, corn, canola and cotton), there is concern about whether and when crop biotechnology will help the developing world. There are, however, several on-going projects in Africa, SE Asia and Latin America where crop biotechnology is being used to enhance locally grown crops. The expectation is that genetically improved crops, e.g., those able to resist local pests, will allow even small-scale farmers to grow more crops using fewer inputs and in an environmentally sustainable manner. Furthermore, there are numerous on-going projects to enhance the nutritional or health value of foods via transgene technology. A few of these projects are described in this article.

  12. Workshop proceedings: challenges and opportunities in evaluating protein allergenicity across biotechnology industries.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Nicola J; Ghantous, Hanan N; Ladics, Gregory S; House, Robert V; Gendel, Steven M; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Protein Allergenicity across Biotechnology Industries" was held at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in San Francisco, California. The workshop was sponsored by the Biotechnology Specialty Section of SOT and was designed to present the science-based approaches used in biotechnology industries to evaluate and regulate protein allergenicity. A panel of experts from industry and government highlighted the allergenicity testing requirements and research in the agricultural, pharmaceutical/biopharma, and vaccine biotechnology industries and addressed challenges and opportunities for advancing the science of protein allergenicity. The main learning from the workshop was that immunoglobulin E-mediated allergenicity of biotechnology-derived products is difficult to assess without human data. The approaches currently being used to evaluate potential for allergenicity across biotechnology industries are very different and range from bioinformatics, in vitro serology, in vivo animal testing, in vitro and in vivo functional assays, and "biosimilar" assessments (ie, biotherapeutic equivalents to innovator products). The challenge remains with regard to the different or lack of regulatory requirements for allergenicity testing across industries, but the novel approaches being used with bioinformatics and biosimilars may lead to opportunities in the future to collaborate across biotechnology industries.

  13. Management of acute respiratory infections by community health volunteers: experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC).

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Abdullahel

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514

  14. Recent advances (2010-2015) in studies of cerium oxide nanoparticles' health effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Peng; Yu, Hua; Bian, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles, widespread applied in our life, have attracted much concern for their human health effects. However, most of the works addressing cerium oxide nanoparticles toxicity have only used in vitro models or in vivo intratracheal instillation methods. The toxicity studies have varied results and not all are conclusive. The information about risk assessments derived from epidemiology studies is severely lacking. The knowledge of occupational safety and health (OSH) for exposed workers is very little. Thus this review focuses on recent advances in studies of toxicokinetics, antioxidant activity and toxicity. Additionally, aim to extend previous health effects assessments of cerium oxide nanoparticles, we summarize the epidemiology studies of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles used as automotive diesel fuel additive, aerosol particulate matter in air pollution, other industrial ultrafine and nanoparticles (e.g., fumes particles generated in welding and flame cutting processes). PMID:27088851

  15. Advance directives in home health and hospice agencies: United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Helaine E; Hickman, Susan E; Foster, Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    This report provides nationally representative data on policies, storage, and implementation of advance directives (ADs) in home health and hospice (HHH) agencies in the United States using the National Home and Hospice Care Survey. Federally mandated ADs policies were followed in >93% of all agencies. Nearly all agencies stored ADs in a file at the agency, but only half stored them at the patient's residence. Nearly all agencies informed staff about the AD, but only 77% and 72% of home health agencies informed the attending physician and next-of-kin, respectively. Home health and hospice agencies are nearly universally compliant with ADs policies that are required in order to receive Medicare and Medicaid payments, but have much lower rates of adoption of ADs policies beyond federally mandated minimums. PMID:21398271

  16. Globalization and advances in information and communication technologies: the impact on nursing and health.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Patricia A; Coenen, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and information and communication technology (ICT) continue to change us and the world we live in. Nursing stands at an opportunity intersection where challenging global health issues, an international workforce shortage, and massive growth of ICT combine to create a very unique space for nursing leadership and nursing intervention. Learning from prior successes in the field can assist nurse leaders in planning and advancing strategies for global health using ICT. Attention to lessons learned will assist in combating the technological apartheid that is already present in many areas of the globe and will highlight opportunities for innovative applications in health. ICT has opened new channels of communication, creating the beginnings of a global information society that will facilitate access to isolated areas where health needs are extreme and where nursing can contribute significantly to the achievement of "Health for All." The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationships between globalization, health, and ICT, and to illuminate opportunities for nursing in this flattening and increasingly interconnected world. PMID:18922277

  17. Advancing Genomic Research and Reducing Health Disparities: What Can Nurse Scholars Do?

    PubMed Central

    Jaja, Cheedy; Gibson, Robert; Quarles, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Advances in genomic research are improving our understanding of human diseases and evoking promise of an era of genomic medicine. It is unclear whether genomic medicine may exacerbate or attenuate extant racial group health disparities. We delineate how nurse scholars could engage in the configuration of an equitable genomic medicine paradigm. Organizing Construct We identify as legitimate subjects for nursing scholarship the scientific relevance, ethical, and public policy implications for employing racial categories in genomic research in the context of reducing extant health disparities. Findings Since genomic research is largely population specific, current classification of genomic data will center on racial and ethnic groups. Nurse scholars should be involved in clarifying how putative racial group differences should be elucidated in light of the current orthodoxy that genomic solutions may alleviate racial health disparities. Conclusions Nurse scholars are capable of employing their expertise in concept analysis to elucidate how race is used as a variable in scientific research, and to use knowledge brokering to delineate how race variables that imply human ancestry could be utilized in genomic research pragmatically in the context of health disparities. Clinical Relevance In an era of genomic medicine, nurse scholars should recognize and understand the challenges and complexities of genomics and race and their relevance to health care and health disparities. PMID:23452096

  18. Making the case for a model mental health advance directive statute.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Acute episodes of mental illness temporarily destroy the capacity required to give informed consent and often prevent people from realizing they are sick, causing them to refuse intervention. Once a person refuses treatment, the only way to obtain care is as an involuntary patient. Even in the midst of acute episodes, many people do not meet commitment criteria because they are not likely to injure themselves or others and are still able to care for their basic needs. Left untreated, the episode will likely spiral out of control. By the time the person finally meets strict commitment criteria, devastation has already occurred. This Article argues that an individual should have the right to enter a Ulysses arrangement, a special type of mental health advance directive that authorizes a doctor to administer treatment during a future episode even if the episode causes the individual to refuse care. The Uniform Law Commissioners enacted the Uniform Health-Care Decisions Act as a model statute to address all types of advance health care planning, including planning for mental illness. However, the Act focuses on end-of-life care and fails to address many issues faced by people with mental illness. For example, the Act does not empower people to enter Ulysses arrangements and eliminates writing and witnessing requirements that protect against fraud and coercion. This Article recommends that the Uniform Law Commissioners adopt a model mental health advance directive statute that empowers people to enter Ulysses arrangements and provides safeguards against abuse. Appendix A sets forth model provisions. PMID:25051651

  19. Health Insurance Status and the Care of Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Goldfeld, Keith S.; Grabowski, David C.; Caudry, Daryl J.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Nursing home residents with advanced dementia commonly experience burdensome and costly hospitalizations that may not extend survival or improve the quality of life. Fragmentation in health care has contributed to poor coordination of care for acutely ill nursing home residents. Objective To compare patterns of care and quality outcomes for nursing home residents with advanced dementia covered by managed care to those covered by traditional fee-for-service Medicare. Design The Choices, Attitudes, and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life (CASCADE) study was a prospective cohort study that followed 323 nursing home residents over eighteen months to better understand the course of advanced dementia at or near the end of life. CASCADE and Medicare data were linked to determine the health insurance status of study participants. Setting Twenty-two nursing homes in the Boston area. Participants Nursing home residents with advanced dementia and their health care proxies. Exposure The health insurance status of the resident, either managed care or traditional fee-for-service. Main Outcomes The outcomes included survival, symptoms related to comfort, treatment of pain and dyspnea, presence of pressure ulcers, presence of a DNH order, treatment for pneumonia, hospital transfer (hospitalization or emergency room visit) for an acute illness, hospice referral, primary care visits, and family satisfaction with care. Results Residents enrolled in managed care (n=133) were more likely to have do-not-hospitalize orders compared to those in traditional Medicare fee-for service (n=158) (64% vs. 51%, p-value < 0.05), were less likely to be transferred to the hospital for acute illness (4% vs. 16%, p-value < 0.05), had more primary care visits per 90 days (4.8±2.6 vs. 4.2±5.0, p-value < 0.05), and had more nurse practitioner visits (3.0±2.1 vs. 0.8±2.6, p-value < 0.05). Survival, comfort, and other treatment outcomes did not differ across groups

  20. Advanced practice nursing for enduring health needs management: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Liisa; Mikkonen, Irma; Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda D; Richardson, Jim; Savage, Eileen; Schorn, Mavis

    2012-07-01

    Advanced practice nursing expertise has been acknowledged worldwide as one response to the challenges arising from changes in society and health care. The roots of advanced practice nursing education are at the University of Colorado where the first known programme started in 1965. In many countries advanced practice nurses (APNs) have taken responsibility for routine patient care formerly carried out by physicians in order to reduce their workload. However, more and more, APNs have taken responsibility for new service areas and quality programmes not previously provided. Chronic disease management is one of these new service areas because long-term diseases are increasingly challenging service systems globally. This article is based on an international APN partnership. The aim of the article is to describe how the partnership will design a 15 ECTS credit course on Enduring Health Need Management as a cross-cultural collaborative endeavour. The adaptation of an inquiry based learning framework will be described drawing on four main principles of the theory: authentic learning communities; student encouragement in analysing gradually more complicated problems; networking in knowledge creation and; student engagement and activity. The cross-cultural online course aims to increase APNs' intercultural competence as well as their global and international work orientation. PMID:21839552