Science.gov

Sample records for advanced high-temperature nuclear

  1. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  2. Parametric Evaluation of Large-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Using Different Advanced Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring

    2009-09-01

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the sweep gas loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycles producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered.

  3. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  4. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Shorey, Mark W.; Steinetz, Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 lb payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs. During the first phase of this program the existing launch vehicle control surface sealing concepts were reviewed, the aerothermal environment for a high temperature seal design was analyzed and a mock up of an arc-jet test fixture for evaluating seal concepts was fabricated.

  5. Advanced high temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W.; Hobart, H. F.; Strange, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    To fully characterize advanced high temperature heat flux sensors, calibration and testing is required at full engine temperature. This required the development of unique high temperature heat flux test facilities. These facilities were developed, are in place, and are being used for advanced heat flux sensor development.

  6. High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect

    Protsailo, Lesia

    2006-04-20

    Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

  7. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-08-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  8. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  9. High Temperature Wear of Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.

    2005-01-01

    It was initially hypothesized that advanced ceramics would exhibit favorable high te- friction and wear properties because of their high hot hardness and low achievable surface roughness welding observed in metals does not occur in ceramics. More recent tribological studies of many nitride, carbide, oxide and composite ceramics, however, have revealed that ceramics often exhibit high friction and wear in non-lubricated, high temperature sliding contacts. A summary is given to measure friction and wear factor coefficients for a variety of ceramics from self mated ceramic pin-on-disk tests at temperatures from 25 to up to 1200 C. Observed steady state friction coefficients range from about 0.5 to 1.0 or above. Wear factor coefficients are also very high and range from about to 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -2) cubic millimeters per N-m. By comparison, oil lubricated steel sliding results in friction coefficients of 0.1 or less and wear factors less than 10(exp -9) cubic millimeters per N-m.

  10. Advanced high temperature thermoelectrics for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, A.; Ewell, R.; Wood, C.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results from a spacecraft system study show that an optimum hot junction temperature is in the range of 1500 K for advanced nuclear reactor technology combined with thermoelectric conversion. Advanced silicon germanium thermoelectric conversion is feasible if hot junction temperatures can be raised roughly 100 C or if gallium phosphide can be used to improve the figure of merit, but the performance is marginal. Two new classes of refractory materials, rare earth sulfides and boron-carbon alloys, are being investigated to improve the specific weight of the generator system. Preliminary data on the sulfides have shown very high figures of merit over short temperature ranges. Both n- and p-type doping have been obtained. Pure boron-carbide may extrapolate to high figure of merit at temperatures well above 1500 K but not lower temperature; n-type conduction has been reported by others, but not yet observed in the JPL program. Inadvertant impurity doping may explain the divergence of results reported.

  11. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  12. Current Status of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Ilas, Dan; Qualls, A L; Peretz, Fred J; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cisneros, Anselmo T.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated.

  13. Current status of the advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D. E.; Iias, D.; Quails, A. L.; Peretz, F. J.; Varma, V. K.; Bradley, E. C.; Cisneros, A. T.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  15. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  16. Projects of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmanis, J.; Tomsons, E.; Zeltiņš, N.

    2013-04-01

    Part 2 of the overview gives emphasis to the projects of high-temperature NRs, whose development is an area of active engagement for the specialists from the USA, France, Japan, Russia, China, the Netherlands, and Germany. Projects of several powerful NRs of the HTGR type for commercial use had been worked out in the USA and Germany already by 1970 but not yet implemented. Augstas temperatūras ar gāzes dzesēšanu HTGR (High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor) tipa kodolreaktoru (KR) izstrādes koncepcija bija piedāvāta 1956. gadā Lielbritānijā. Apmēram tanī pašā laikā minētā tipa KR izstrādi uzsāka Vācijā un ASV. HTGR tipa KR kodoldegviela un kodoldegvielas atražošanas materiāla sīkās daļiņas ar diametru apmēram 0.5 mm pārklātas ar vairākām aizsargkārtām un atrodas grafīta neitronu palēninātājā, kas aizsargā daļiņas no neitronu palēninātāja un dzesētāja iedarbes. Augstas temperatūras KR bez hēlija gāzes siltumnesēja var izmantot šķidrus metālus (nātriju, svinu vai svina-bismuta sakausējumu) un izkausētu sāli. Pašlaik darbojās divi augstas temperatūras ar hēlija gāzi dzesēti eksperimentālie HTGR tipa KR. Viens Japānā "HTTR" no 1998. gada oktobra (sākts būvēt 1991. gada 15. martā) ar 30 MWth siltuma jaudu. Otrs Ķīnā "HTR-10" no 2000.gada decembra (sākts būvēt 1995. gada14. jūnijā) ar 10 MWth siltuma jaudu. Ķīnā Shandong provincē 2011.gada aprīlī uzsāka augstas temperatūras "HTR-PM" (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor - Pebble bed Module) tipa kodolreaktora celtniecību ar 250 MWth siltuma jaudu. Augstas temperatūras kodolreaktoru izstrādē pašlaik aktīvi iesaistīti ASV, Francijas, Japānas, Krievijas, Ķīnas, Nīderlandes un Vācijas speciālisti.

  17. Barriers to applying advanced high-temperature materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    During the past 25 years, aerospace engineers and material scientists have made significant technical progress toward developing next-generation aircraft. However, while advanced high-temperature materials continue to be developed, the outlook for their future application is uncertain and will depend on the ability of these materials to satisfy a more diverse market.

  18. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  19. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  20. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Various configurations of high temperature, heat flux sensors were studied to determine their suitability for use in experimental combustor liners of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was determined that embedded thermocouple sensors, laminated sensors, and Gardon gauge sensors, were the most viable candidates. Sensors of all three types were fabricated, calibrated, and endurance tested. All three types of sensors met the fabricability survivability, and accuracy requirements established for their application.

  1. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

    2009-06-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

  2. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Hellmann, J.R.; Chawla, K.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-10-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technology`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Secondary heat exchanger design and comparison for advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, P.; Kim, E. S.; Siahpush, A.; McKellar, M.; Patterson, M.

    2012-07-01

    Next generation nuclear reactors such as the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) are designed to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers - helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger - as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with distributed load analysis and comparison. Comparison is provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations. (authors)

  4. Fabrication of High Temperature Cermet Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Processing techniques are being developed to fabricate refractory metal and ceramic cermet materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Significant advances have been made in the area of high-temperature cermet fuel processing since RoverNERVA. Cermet materials offer several advantages such as retention of fission products and fuels, thermal shock resistance, hydrogen compatibility, high conductivity, and high strength. Recent NASA h d e d research has demonstrated the net shape fabrication of W-Re-HfC and other refractory metal and ceramic components that are similar to UN/W-Re cermet fuels. This effort is focused on basic research and characterization to identify the most promising compositions and processing techniques. A particular emphasis is being placed on low cost processes to fabricate near net shape parts of practical size. Several processing methods including Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) and conventional PM processes are being evaluated to fabricate material property samples and components. Surrogate W-Re/ZrN cermet fuel materials are being used to develop processing techniques for both coated and uncoated ceramic particles. After process optimization, depleted uranium-based cermets will be fabricated and tested to evaluate mechanical, thermal, and hot H2 erosion properties. This paper provides details on the current results of the project.

  5. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  6. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  7. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  8. High temperature dilatometry of simulated oxide nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenishev, A. V.; Baranov, V. G.; Kuzmin, R. S.; Pokrovskiy, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    High temperature dilatometry of model systems based on uranium dioxide with additives of burnable neutron absorbers both as Gd2O3 and as AlGdO3, and fission products simulators (FPS) was performed. It shown that in some cases instead of high temperature samples shrinkage there is a sharp transition to the expansion, which is associated with an increase of the samples volume due to the formation of liquid phases. The beginning of a complex composition eutectic melting starts at temperatures from 1950 to 2250 °C in the uranium dioxide samples containing significant amounts of Al, Gd, and FPS. Thus, in the analysis of oxide nuclear fuel behavior at high temperatures should be considered that the formation of liquid phases is possible at a temperature of 1000 °C lower than a melting point of pure stoichiometric uranium dioxide if its initial composition became more complex.

  9. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  10. Advanced materials for high-temperature solid electrolyte applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Weber, W.J.; Youngblood, G.E.

    1990-05-01

    Advanced materials for use as electrodes, interconnections, and electrolytes in high-temperature electrochemical applications are under investigation. The air sinterability of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} is highly dependent upon a synergistic relationship between the (La + Sr)/Cr ratio, cation volatility, and second phase formation and transformation. Electrical conductivity in the ZrO{sub 2}--Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}--CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}--Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}--TiO{sub 2} systems is highly dependent on composition and atmosphere. The electrochemical processes that occur at the solid-solid-gas interfaces in La(Sr)MnO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied using an unbonded interface cell and impedance spectroscopy. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  12. Very high temperature measurements: Application to nuclear reactor safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Clemente Jose

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100ºC to 2480ºC), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: -The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (+/-0.001ºC) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (+/-3-5ºC). -The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300ºC) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000ºC).

  13. Bottom shield for a gas cooled high temperature nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schoening, J.; Elter, C.; Kolodzey, H. J.; Schwiers, H. G.; Stracke, W.

    1984-12-25

    A gas cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor is provided with a base plate arranged under the reactor core and over the bottom of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel serving as the bottom shield. The bottom shield comprises at least two plates arranged coaxially with respect to each other, one above the other. Each plate comprises several partially interconnected parts with the lower plate being placed at an axial and vertical distance from the bottom liner of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel and also from the upper plate.

  14. High temperature, harsh environment sensors for advanced power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Credle, S.; Buric, M.; Lewis, R.; Seachman, S.

    2015-05-01

    One mission of the Crosscutting Technology Research program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory is to develop a suite of sensors and controls technologies that will ultimately increase efficiencies of existing fossil-fuel fired power plants and enable a new generation of more efficient and lower emission power generation technologies. The program seeks to accomplish this mission through soliciting, managing, and monitoring a broad range of projects both internal and external to the laboratory which span sensor material and device development, energy harvesting and wireless telemetry methodologies, and advanced controls algorithms and approaches. A particular emphasis is placed upon harsh environment sensing for compatibility with high temperature, erosive, corrosive, and highly reducing or oxidizing environments associated with large-scale centralized power generation. An overview of the full sensors and controls portfolio is presented and a selected set of current and recent research successes and on-going projects are highlighted. A more detailed emphasis will be placed on an overview of the current research thrusts and successes of the in-house sensor material and device research efforts that have been established to support the program.

  15. High-temperature turbopump assembly for space nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Overholt, D.M. )

    1993-01-20

    The development of a practical, high-performance nuclear rocket by the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program places high priority on maximizing specific impulse (ISP) and thrust-to-weight ratio. The operating parameters arising from these goals drive the propellant-pump design. The liquid hydrogen propellant is pressurized and pumped to the reactor inlet by the turbopump assembly (TPA). Rocket propulsion is effected by rapid heating of the propellant from 100 K to thousands of degrees in the particle-bed reactor (PBR). The exhausted propellant is then expanded through a high-temperature nozzle. One approach to achieve high performance is to use an uncooled carbon-carbon nozzle and duct turbine inlet. The high-temperature capability is obtained by using carbon-carbon throughout the TPA hot section. Carbon-carbon components in development include structural parts, turbine nozzles/stators, and turbine rotors. The technology spinoff is applicable to conventional liquid propulsion engines plus a wide variety of other turbomachinery applications.

  16. Characterisation of high temperature refractory ceramics for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, P. D. W.; Wiss, Th; Janssen, A.; Cremer, B.; Thiele, H.; Manara, D.; Scheindlin, M.; Murray-Farthing, M.; Lajarge, P.; Menna, M.; Bouexière, D.; Rondinella, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The ternary oxide ceramic system UO2-ZrO2-FeO is a refractory system that is of great relevance to the nuclear industry as it represents one of the main systems resulting from the interaction of the Zircaloy cladding, the UO2 fuel and the structural elements of a nuclear reactor. It is particularly the high temperature properties that require investigation; that is, when substantial overheating of the nuclear core occurs and interactions can lead to its degradation, melting and result in a severe nuclear accident. There has been much work on the UO2-ZrO2 system and also on the ternary system with FeO but there is still a need to examine 2 further aspects; firstly the effect of sub-oxidized systems, the UO2-Zr and FeO-Zr systems, and secondly the effect of Fe/Zr or Fe/U ratios on the melting point of the U-Zr-Fe oxide system. Samples of UO2-Zr and UO2-ZrO2-FeO were fabricated at ITU and then characterized by optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray diffraction to determine the ceramic's structure and verify the composition. Thereafter the samples are to be melted by laser flash heating and their liquidus and solidus temperatures determined by pyrometry. This programme is currently ongoing. The frozen samples, after testing, were then sectioned, polished and the molten zone micro-analytically examined by OM & SEM-EDS in order to determine its structure and composition and to compare with the existing phase diagrams. Examples of results from these systems will be given. Finally, a reacted Zr-FeO thermite mixture was examined, which had been used to generate high temperatures during tests of reactor melt-concrete interactions. The aim was to assess the reaction and estimate the heat generation from this novel technique. These results allow verification or improvement of the phase diagram and are of primary importance as input to models used to predict materials interactions in a severe nuclear accident.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of High Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounce, Andrew M.

    The high temperature superconductors HgBa2CuO 4+delta (Hg1201) and Bi2SrCa2Cu2O 8+delta (Bi2212) have been treated with 17O for both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensitivity and various electronic properties. Subsequently, NMR experiments were performed on Hg1201 and Bi2212 to reveal the nature of the pseudogap, in the normal state, and vortex phases, in the superconducting state. NMR has been performed on 17O in an underdoped Hg1201 crystal with a superconducting transition transition temperature of 74 K to look for circulating orbital currents proposed theoretically and inferred from neutron scattering. The measurements reveal narrow spectra which preclude static local fields in the pseudogap phase at the apical site, suggesting that the moments observed with neutrons are fluctuating or the orbital current ordering is not the correct model for the neutron scattering observation. The fine detail of the NMR frequency shifts at the apical oxygen site are consistent with a dipolar field from the Cu+2 site and diamagnetism below the superconducting transition. It has been predicted that superconducting vortices should be electrically charged and that this effect is particularly enhanced for high temperature superconductors. Here it is shown that the Abrikosov vortex lattice, characteristic of the mixed state of superconductors, will become unstable at sufficiently high magnetic field if there is charge trapped on the vortex core for highly anisotropic superconductors. NMR measurements of the magnetic fields generated by vortices in Bi2212 single crystals provide evidence for an electro-statically driven vortex lattice reconstruction with the magnitude of charge on each vortex pancake of 2x10-3e, depending on doping, in line with theoretical estimates. Competition with magnetism is at the heart of high temperature superconductivity, most intensely felt near a vortex core. To investigate vortex magnetism spatially resolved NMR has been used, finding a strongly non

  18. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  19. Assessment of Titanium Aluminide Alloys for High-Temperature Nuclear Structural Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Wei, Tao; Carr, David; Harrison, Robert; Edwards, Lyndon; Hoffelner, Wolfgang; Seo, Dongyi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    2012-12-01

    Titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys exhibit high specific strength, low density, good oxidation, corrosion, and creep resistance at elevated temperatures, making them good candidate materials for aerospace and automotive applications. TiAl alloys also show excellent radiation resistance and low neutron activation, and they can be developed to have various microstructures, allowing different combinations of properties for various extreme environments. Hence, TiAl alloys may be used in advanced nuclear systems as high-temperature structural materials. Moreover, TiAl alloys are good materials to be used for fundamental studies on microstructural effects on irradiation behavior of advanced nuclear structural materials. This article reviews the microstructure, creep, radiation, and oxidation properties of TiAl alloys in comparison with other nuclear structural materials to assess the potential of TiAl alloys as candidate structural materials for future nuclear applications.

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: STACK TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    X, Zhang; J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; J. J. Hartvigsen; G. Tao; N. Petigny

    2012-07-01

    High temperature steam electrolysis is a promising technology for efficient sustainable large-scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are able to utilize high temperature heat and electric power from advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors or renewable sources to generate carbon-free hydrogen at large scale. However, long term durability of SOECs needs to be improved significantly before commercialization of this technology. A degradation rate of 1%/khr or lower is proposed as a threshold value for commercialization of this technology. Solid oxide electrolysis stack tests have been conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate recent improvements in long-term durability of SOECs. Electrolytesupported and electrode-supported SOEC stacks were provided by Ceramatec Inc., Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI), and Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain), respectively for these tests. Long-term durability tests were generally operated for a duration of 1000 hours or more. Stack tests based on technology developed at Ceramatec and MSRI have shown significant improvement in durability in the electrolysis mode. Long-term degradation rates of 3.2%/khr and 4.6%/khr were observed for MSRI and Ceramatec stacks, respectively. One recent Ceramatec stack even showed negative degradation (performance improvement) over 1900 hours of operation. A three-cell short stack provided by St. Gobain, however, showed rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Improvements on electrode materials, interconnect coatings, and electrolyteelectrode interface microstructures contribute to better durability of SOEC stacks.

  1. Joining and Assembly of Silicon Carbide-based Advanced Ceramics and Composites for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics and fiber reinforced composites are under active consideration for use in wide variety of high temperature applications within the aeronautics, space transportation, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of ceramic and composite component require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. In addition these components have to be joined or assembled with metallic sub-components. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing o high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics (CVD and hot pressed), and C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of joints in silicon carbide ceramics and CVI and melt infiltrated SiC matrix composites will,be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of ceramics and composites well be discussed.

  2. Status of Preconceptual Design of the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T.

    2004-07-29

    A new reactor plant concept is presented that combines the benefits of ceramic-coated, high-temperature particle fuel with those of clean, high-temperature, low-pressure molten salt coolant. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) concept is a collaboration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the University of California at Berkeley. The purpose of the concept is to provide an advanced design capable of satisfying the top-level functional requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), while also providing a technology base that is sufficiently robust to allow future development paths to higher temperatures and larger outputs with highly competitive economics. This report summarizes the status of the AHTR preconceptual design. It captures the results from an intense effort over a period of 3 months to (1) screen and examine potential feasibility concerns with the concept; (2) refine the conceptual design of major systems; and (3) identify research, development, and technology requirements to fully mature the AHTR design. Several analyses were performed and are presented to quantify the AHTR performance expectations and to assist in the selection of several design parameters. The AHTR, like other NGNP reactor concepts, uses coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix. But unlike the other NGNP concepts, the AHTR uses molten salt rather than helium as the primary system coolant. The considerable previous experience with molten salts in nuclear environments is discussed, and the status of high-temperature materials is reviewed. The large thermal inertia of the system, the excellent heat transfer and fission product retention characteristics of molten salt, and the low-pressure operation of the primary system provide significant safety attributes for the AHTR. Compared with helium coolant, a molten salt cooled reactor will have significantly lower fuel temperatures (150-200-C lower) for the

  3. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a “hydrogen economy.” The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  4. Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, David R.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

  5. High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Cladding for Nuclear Applications: Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, Kevin M; Garnier, John E; Sergey Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff; George W. Griffith; Shannong M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-01-01

    Stability of cladding materials under off-normal conditions is an important issue for the safe operation of light water nuclear reactors. Metals, ceramics, and metal/ceramic composites are being investigated as substitutes for traditional zirconium-based cladding. To support down-selection of these advanced materials and designs, a test apparatus was constructed to study the onset and evolution of cladding oxidation, and deformation behavior of cladding materials, under loss-of-coolant accident scenarios. Preliminary oxidation tests were conducted in dry oxygen and in saturated steam/air environments at 1000OC. Tube samples of Zr-702, Zr-702 reinforced with 1 ply of a ß-SiC CMC overbraid, and sintered a-SiC were tested. Samples were induction heated by coupling to a molybdenum susceptor inside the tubes. The deformation behavior of He-pressurized tubes of Zr-702 and SiC CMC-reinforced Zr-702, heated to rupture, was also examined.

  6. High temperature superconductivity technology for advanced space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.; Myers, Ira T.; Connolly, Denis J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Lewis Research center of the NASA and the Argonne National Laboratory of the Department of Energy joined in a cooperative program to identify and assess high payoff space and aeronautical applications of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC). The initial emphasis of this effort was limited, and those space power related applications which were considered included microwave power transmission and magnetic energy storage. The results of these initial studies were encouraging and indicated the need of further studies. A continuing collaborative program with Argonne National Laboratory has been formulated and the Lewis Research Center is presently structuring a program to further evaluate HTSC, identify applications and define the requisite technology development programs for space power systems. This paper discusses some preliminary results of the previous evaluations in the area of space power applications of HTSC which were carried out under the joint NASA-DOE program, the future NASA-Lewis proposed program, its thrusts, and its intended outputs and give general insights on the anticipated impact of HTSC for space power applications of the future.

  7. Advanced Technology Lunar Telescopes II. High Temperature Superconductor Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, K. B.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.; Chu, C. W.; Oliversen, R. J.; Hojaji, H.; Pitts, R. E.; Chen, P. C.

    1993-12-01

    A lunar telescope to be built in the near future must be able to operate for long periods in a cold, dusty vacuum environment without on site human maintenance. The slow rotation rate of the moon requires a drive mechanism with exceedingly fine steps. Both these requirements are difficult, if not impossible, to meet with conventional motors and gear drives. The recently discovered high temperature superconductors (HTS) offer an attractive and practical solution. By using a combination of HTS and permanent magnets, hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB) can be made that are stable, small in mass, passive (i.e. no power required to maintain configuration), and essentially frictionless. Since there is no mechanical contact between the rotor and stator in a HSMB, the bearing does not wear out with use and requires no maintenance. The very low friction in a HSMB permits electronic positioning control with exceedingly fine resolution. Work is currently in progress at NASA/GSFC, U. of Houston, and elsewhere to produce a working telescope model with HSMBs. We demonstrate the operation of a HSMB to show that currently available HTS materials can already meet the requirements for lunar applications. We discuss the workings of a HSMB, cooling requirements, and the effect of long term radiation exposure on HTS.

  8. Advanced technology lunar telescopes II. High temperature superconductor bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, K.B.; Chen, Q.Y.; Chu, W.K.; Chu, C.W.; Oliversen, R.J.; Hojaji, H.; Pitts, R.E.; Chen, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    A lunar telescope to be built in the near future must be able to operate for long periods in a cold, dusty vacuum environment without on site human maintenance. The slow rotation rate of the moon requires a drive mechanism with exceedingly fine steps. Both these requirements are difficult, if not impossible, to meet with conventional motors and gear drives. The recently discovered high temperature superconductors (HTS) offer an attractive and practical solution. By using combination of HTS and permanent magnets, hybrid superconductor magnet bearing (HSMB) can be made that are stable, small in mass, passive (i.e. no power required to maintain configuration), and essentially frictionless. Since there is no mechanical contact between the rotor and stator in a HSMB, the bearing does not wear out with use and requires no maintenance. The very low friction in a HSMB permits electronic positioning control with exceedingly fine resolution. Work is currently in progress at NASA/GSFC, U. of Houston, and elsewhere to produce a working telescope model with HSMBs. The authors demonstrate the operation of a HSMB to show that currently available HTS materials can already meet the requirement for lunar applications. The authors discuss the workings of a HSMB, cooling requirements, and the effect of long term radiation exposure on HTS.

  9. Advanced High-Temperature Flexible TPS for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    Typical entry vehicle aeroshells are limited in size by the launch vehicle shroud. Inflatable aerodynamic decelerators allow larger aeroshell diameters for entry vehicles because they are not constrained to the launch vehicle shroud diameter. During launch, the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) is packed in a stowed configuration. Prior to atmospheric entry, the HIAD is deployed to produce a drag device many times larger than the launch shroud diameter. The large surface area of the inflatable aeroshell provides deceleration of high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. Even for these low ballistic coefficients there is still appreciable heating, requiring the HIAD to employ a thermal protection system (TPS). This TPS must be capable of surviving the heat pulse, and the rigors of fabrication handling, high density packing, deployment, and aerodynamic loading. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of flexible TPS tests and results, conducted over the last three years. This paper also includes an overview of each test facility, the general approach for testing flexible TPS, the thermal analysis methodology and results, and a comparison with 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory, and Panel Test Facility test data. Results are presented for a baseline TPS layup that can withstand a 20 W/cm2 heat flux, silicon carbide (SiC) based TPS layup, and polyimide insulator TPS layup. Recent work has focused on developing material layups expected to survive heat flux loads up to 50 W/cm2 (which is adequate for many potential applications), future work will consider concepts capable of withstanding more than 100 W/cm2 incident radiant heat flux. This paper provides an overview of the experimental setup, material layup configurations, facility conditions, and planned future flexible TPS activities.

  10. High-temperature behavior of advanced spacecraft TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to develop more efficient, lighter weight, and higher temperature thermal protection systems (TPS) for future reentry space vehicles. The research carried out during this funding period involved the design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and characterization of thermal protection materials to be used on future hypersonic vehicles. This work is important for the prediction of material performance at high temperature and aids in the design of thermal protection systems for a number of programs including programs such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), Pegasus and Pegasus/SWERVE, the Comet Rendezvous and Flyby Vehicle (CRAF), and the Mars mission entry vehicles. Research has been performed in two main areas including development and testing of thermal protection systems (TPS) and computational research. A variety of TPS materials and coatings have been developed during this funding period. Ceramic coatings were developed for flexible insulations as well as for low density ceramic insulators. Chemical vapor deposition processes were established for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. Experimental testing and characterization of these materials has been carried out in the NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities and in the Ames time-of-flight mass spectrometer facility. By means of computation, we have been better able to understand the flow structure and properties of the TPS components and to estimate the aerothermal heating, stress, ablation rate, thermal response, and shape change on the surfaces of TPS. In addition, work for the computational surface thermochemistry project has included modification of existing computer codes and creating new codes to model material response and shape change on atmospheric entry vehicles in a variety of environments (e.g., earth and Mars atmospheres).

  11. Advanced high-temperature, high-pressure transport reactor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center Office of Power Systems Product Management is to foster the development and deployment of advanced, clean, and affordable fossil-based (coal) power systems. These advanced power systems include the development and demonstration of gasification-based advanced power systems. These systems are integral parts of the Vision 21 Program for the co-production of power and chemicals which is being developed at DOE. DOE has been developing advanced gasification systems which lower the capital and operating cost of producing syngas for electricity or chemicals production. A transport reactor gasifier has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer as compared to other gasification systems because of its high throughput. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) utilizing the Kellogg, Brown and Root (KBR) transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 1000 hours of operation on three different fuels in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) has been completed to date. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has established an extensive database on the operation of various fuels in a transport reactor gasifier. This database will be useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on a transport reactor gasifier. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging between 105 to 130 Btu/scf can be achieved. Factors that affect the TRDU product gas quality appear to be circulation rate, coal type, temperature, and air:coal and steam:coal ratios. Future plans are to modify the transport reactor mixing zone and J-leg loop seal to increase backmixing, thereby increasing solids residence time and gasifier performance. Enriched air- and oxygen-blown gasification tests, especially on widely available low-cost fuels such as petroleum coke, will also be

  12. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  13. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher

  14. Welding and performance of advanced high temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, M.; Masuyama, F.

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has witnessed the development of many new alloys for elevated temperature service and recognition of a large number of them in the form of allowable stresses by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These alloys offer considerable advantages in terms of higher tensile and stress rupture strengths, lower thermal stresses, superior corrosion resistance and, in one case, weldability. The improvements are obtained through additions of tungsten, vanadium, columbium, copper, nitrogen and other elements which significantly affect microstructure and weldability. The paper will discuss where introduction of these advanced materials may be warranted, the properties to be expected in comparison to conventional alloys, PWHT requirements and concerns regarding weld failure modes. Higher performance in operation of power plants is achieved by use of tungsten alloyed advanced 9--12%Cr ferritic steels, NF616 (9Cr-0.5 Mo-1.8W-V-Nb) and HCM12A (12Cr-0.4Mo-2W-1 Cu-V-Nb), which exhibit over 30% higher creep strength than T91/P91 (Mod. 9Cr-1 Mo) at 600 C. Thick-walled and large-diameter pipes of NF616 and HCM12A were subjected to fabrication tests such as joint welding and induction bending, and it was shown that the properties of the fabricated parts were satisfactory for the practical application of those steels. HCM2S, a newly developed low alloy steel (0.06C-2.25Cr-1.6W-0.25V0.05Nb) is approximately 1.8 times stronger than conventional T22 (2.25Cr-1 Mo) at around 600 C. The weldability of this low carbon content steel is much improved, as it needs no pre-weld nor postweld heat treatment. HCM2S was installed in a large capacity utility boiler.

  15. Nuclear matter at high temperature and low net baryonic density

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-11-12

    We study the effect of the {sigma}-{omega} mesons interaction on nucleon-antinucleon matter properties. This interaction is employed in the context of the linear Walecka model to discuss the behavior of this system at high temperature and low net baryonic density regime. The field equations are solved in the relativistic mean-field approximation and our results show that the phase transition pointed out in the literature for this regime is eliminated when the meson interaction are considered.

  16. Advanced characterizations of austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels for high-temperature reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yinbin

    Future advanced nuclear systems involve higher operation temperatures, intenser neutron flux, and more aggressive coolants, calling for structural materials with excellent performances in multiple aspects. Embedded with densely and dispersedly distributed oxide nanoparticles that are capable of not only pinning dislocations but also trapping radiation-induced defects, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels provide excellence in mechanical strength, creep resistance, and radiation tolerance. In order to develop ODS steels with qualifications required by advanced nuclear applications, it is important to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the enhancement of ODS steels in mechanical properties. In this dissertation, a series of austenitic ODS stainless steels were investigated by coordinated state-of-the-art techniques. A series of different precipitate phases, including multiple Y-Ti-O, Y-Al-O, and Y-Ti-Hf-O complex oxides, were observed to form during mechanical alloying. Small precipitates are likely to have coherent or cubic-on-cubic orientation relationships with the matrix, allowing the dislocation to shear through. The Orowan looping mechanism is the dominant particle-dislocation interaction mode as the temperature is low, whereas the shearing mechanism and the Hirsch mechanism are also observed. Interactions between the particles and the dislocations result in the load-partitioning phenomenon. Smaller particles were found to have the stronger loading-partitioning effect. More importantly, the load-partitioning of large size particles are marginal at elevated temperatures, while the small size particles remain sustaining higher load, explaining the excellent high temperature mechanical performance of ODS steels.

  17. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to exhibit better heat

  18. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN AND SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY – SYSTEM SIMULATION AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; C. M. Stoots

    2009-05-01

    A research and development program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assess the technological and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for efficient high-temperature hydrogen production from steam. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This paper will provide an overview of large-scale system modeling results and economic analyses that have been completed to date. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. Economic analysis results were based on the DOE H2A analysis methodology. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor outlet temperatures. Pure steam electrolysis for hydrogen production as well as coelectrolysis for syngas production from steam/carbon dioxide mixtures have both been considered. In addition, the feasibility of coupling the high-temperature electrolysis process to biomass and coal-based synthetic fuels production has been considered. These simulations demonstrate that the addition of supplementary nuclear hydrogen to synthetic fuels production from any carbon source minimizes emissions of carbon dioxide during the production process.

  19. Verification of a Depletion Method in SCALE for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, RYAN; Ilas, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a new approach employing the Dancoff correction method to model the TRISO-based fuel form used by the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) reactor design concept. The Dancoff correction method is used to perform isotope depletion analysis using the TRITON sequence of SCALE and is verified by code-to-code comparisons. The current AHTR fuel design has TRISO particles concentrated along the edges of a slab fuel element. This geometry prevented the use of the DOUBLEHET treatment, previously developed in SCALE to model spherical and cylindrical fuel. The new method permits fuel depletion on complicated geometries that traditionally can be handled only by continuous energy based depletion code systems. The method was initially tested on a fuel configuration typical of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), where DOUBLEHET treatment is possible. A confirmatory study was performed on the AHTR reference core geometry using the VESTA code, which uses the continuous energy MCNP5 code as a transport solver and ORIGEN2.2 code for depletion calculations. Comparisons of the results indicate good agreement of whole core characteristics, such as the multiplication factor and the isotopics, including their spatial distribution. Key isotopes analyzed included 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu. The results from this study indicate that the Dancoff factor method can generate estimates of core characteristics with reasonable precision for scoping studies of configurations where DOUBLEHET treatment cannot be performed.

  20. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  1. Core and Refueling Design Studies for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Ilas, Dan; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Kelly, Ryan P; Gehin, Jess C

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central generating station type [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. This report presents the current status of ongoing design studies of the core, in-vessel structures, and refueling options for the AHTR. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity as important material, structural, neutronic, and hydraulic issues remain to be addressed. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. An illustration of the current AHTR core, reactor vessel, and nearby structures is shown in Fig. ES1. The AHTR core design concept is based upon 252 hexagonal, plate fuel assemblies configured to form a roughly cylindrical core. The core has a fueled height of 5.5 m with 25 cm of reflector above and below the core. The fuel assembly hexagons are {approx}45 cm across the flats. Each fuel assembly contains 18 plates that are 23.9 cm wide and 2.55 cm thick. The reactor vessel has an exterior diameter of 10.48 m and a height of 17.7 m. A row of replaceable graphite reflector prismatic blocks surrounds the core radially. A more complete reactor configuration description is provided in Section 2 of this report. The AHTR core design space exploration was performed under a set of constraints. Only low enrichment (<20%) uranium fuel was considered. The coated particle fuel and matrix materials were derived from those being developed and demonstrated under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) advanced gas reactor program. The coated particle volumetric packing fraction was restricted to at most 40%. The pressure

  2. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  3. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  4. ECUT energy data reference series: high-temperature materials for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of high-temperature materials in advanced heat engines for ground transportation applications is summarized. Applications discussed are: automobiles, light trucks, and medium and heavy trucks. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  5. High-pressure and High-temperature Studies With Nuclear Resonant Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturhahn, W.; Lin, J.; Zhao, J.; Shen, G.; Prakapenka, V.; Mao, H.

    2003-12-01

    In this contribution, we report the extention of nuclear resonant scattering techniques into the high-pressure and high-temperature sector relevant to the geophysical problem area. Nuclear resonant scattering techniques that utilize synchrotron radiation have provided new opportunities for the study of vibrational properties, magnetic properties, and iron valancies of condensed matter under extreme conditions. Here we will address nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS), a method that uses probe nuclei with suitable resonances to measure the vibrational density of states, and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (SMS) for determination of valancies. Both methods are very sensitive to small amounts of material and take advantage of the high brilliance of synchrotron radiation, which makes micrometer-sized x-ray beams with high intensity possible. These properties allowed NRIXS and SMS investigations on materials under pressures in the Mbar regime using diamond anvil cells [1,2]. In general, NRIXS provides the phonon density of states [3] and sound velocities [4], whereas SMS gives access to the abundance of ferric iron in lower mantle polymorphs [2]. The introduction of Laser heating in combination with NRIXS and SMS at sector 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source permits us now to conduct these studies under high pressure \\textit{and} high temperature. First results on iron metal and iron-containing perovskite Fe0.1Mg0.9SiO3 up to 50 GPa and 1500 K will be presented to exemplify the usefulness of these novel techniques. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE-BES, Office of Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38. {}[1] H.K.Mao, J.Xu, V.V.Struzhkin, J.Shu, R.J.Hemley, W.Sturhahn, M.Y.Hu, E.E.Alp, L.Vocadlo, D.Alfe, G.D.Price, M.J.Gillan, M.Schwoerer-Böhning, D.Häusermann, P.Eng, G.Shen, H.Giefers, R.Lübbers, G.Wortmann, Science \\textbf{292}, 914 (2001) {}[2] J.M.Jackson, W.Sturhahn, G.Shen, J.D.Bass, (unpublished) {}[3] W.Sturhahn, T.S.Toellner, E

  6. Development of an advanced high-temperature fastener system for advanced aerospace vehicle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kull, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a program to develop a lightweight high temperature reusable fastening system for aerospace vehicle thermal protection system applications are documented. This feasibility program resulted in several fastener innovations which will meet the specific needs of the heat shield application. Three systems were designed from Hayes 188 alloy and tested by environmental exposure and residual mechanical properties. The designs include a clinch stud with a collar retainer, a weld stud with a split ring retainer, and a caged stud with a collar retainer. The results indicated that a lightweight, reusable, high temperature fastening system can be developed for aerospace vehicle application.

  7. The use of a very high temperature nuclear reactor in the manufacture of synthetic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    The three parts of a program directed toward creating a cost-effective nuclear hydrogen production system are described. The discussion covers the development of a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) as a nuclear heat and power source capable of producing the high temperature needed for hydrogen production and other processes; the development of a hydrogen generation process based on water decomposition, which can utilize the outputs of the VHTR and be integrated with many different ultimate hydrogen consuming processes; and the evaluation of the process applications of the nuclear hydrogen systems to assess the merits and potential payoffs. It is shown that the use of VHTR for the manufacture of synthetic fuels appears to have a very high probability of making a positive contribution to meeting the nation's energy needs in the future.

  8. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  9. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  10. Advanced High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, David; Carella, John

    1999-01-01

    This document, submitted by AlliedSignal Engines (AE), a division of AlliedSignal Aerospace Company, presents the program final report for the Advanced High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion in compliance with data requirements in the statement of work, Contract No. NAS3-97003. This document includes: 1 -Technical Summary: a) Component Design, b) Manufacturing Process Selection, c) Vendor Selection, and d) Testing Validation: 2-Program Conclusion and Perspective. Also, see the Appendix at the back of this report. This report covers the program accomplishments from December 1, 1996, to August 24, 1998. The Advanced High Temperature PMC's for Gas Turbine Engines Program Expansion was a one year long, five task technical effort aimed at designing, fabricating and testing a turbine engine component using NASA's high temperature resin system AMB-21. The fiber material chosen was graphite T650-35, 3K, 8HS with UC-309 sizing. The first four tasks included component design and manufacturing, process selection, vendor selection, component fabrication and validation testing. The final task involved monthly financial and technical reports.

  11. Advanced materials and electrochemical processes in high-temperature solid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.; Weber, W.J.

    1990-10-01

    Fuel cells for the direct conversion of fossil fuels to electric energy necessitates the use of high-temperature solid electrodes. This study has included: (1) determination of electrical transport, thermal and electrical properties to illucidate the effects of microstructure, phase equilibria, oxygen partial pressure, additives, synthesis and fabrication on these properties; (2) investigation of synthesis and fabrication of advanced oxide materials, such as La{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}; and (3) application of new analytical techniques using complex impedance coupled with conventional electrochemical methods to study the electrochemical processes and behavior of materials for solid oxide fuel cells and other high-temperature electrolyte electrochemical process. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs. (BM)

  12. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E.; Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G.; Pletcher, R.H.; Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P.; Jackson, J.D.; Kunugi, T.; Satake, S.-i.

    2002-12-31

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications.

  13. An Evaluation of High Temperature Airframe Seals for Advanced Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Drlik, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature seals are required for advanced hypersonic airframe applications. In this study, both spring tube thermal barriers and innovative wafer seal systems were evaluated under relevant hypersonic test conditions (temperatures, pressures, etc.) via high temperature compression testing and room temperature flow assessments. Thermal barriers composed of a Rene 41 spring tube filled with Saffil insulation and overbraided with a Nextel 312 sheath showed acceptable performance at 1500 F in both short term and longer term compression testing. Nextel 440 thermal barriers with Rene 41 spring tubes and Saffil insulation demonstrated good compression performance up to 1750 F. A silicon nitride wafer seal/compression spring system displayed excellent load performance at temperatures as high as 2200 F and exhibited room temperature leakage values that were only 1/3 those for the spring tube rope seals. For all seal candidates evaluated, no significant degradation in leakage resistance was noted after high temperature compression testing. In addition to these tests, a superalloy seal suitable for dynamic seal applications was optimized through finite element techniques.

  14. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  15. High Temperature, Slow Strain Rate Forging of Advanced Disk Alloy ME3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; OConnor, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    The advanced disk alloy ME3 was designed in the HSR/EPM disk program to have extended durability at 1150 to 1250 F in large disks. This was achieved by designing a disk alloy and process producing balanced monotonic, cyclic, and time-dependent mechanical properties. combined with robust processing and manufacturing characteristics. The resulting baseline alloy, processing, and supersolvus heat treatment produces a uniform, relatively fine mean grain size of about ASTM 7, with as-large-as (ALA) grain size of about ASTM 3. There is a long term need for disks with higher rim temperature capabilities than 1250 F. This would allow higher compressor exit (T3) temperatures and allow the full utilization of advanced combustor and airfoil concepts under development. Several approaches are being studied that modify the processing and chemistry of ME3, to possibly improve high temperature properties. Promising approaches would be applied to subscale material, for screening the resulting mechanical properties at these high temperatures. n obvious path traditionally employed to improve the high temperature and time-dependent capabilities of disk alloys is to coarsen the grain size. A coarser grain size than ASTM 7 could potentially be achieved by varying the forging conditions and supersolvus heat treatment. The objective of this study was to perform forging and heat treatment experiments ("thermomechanical processing experiments") on small compression test specimens of the baseline ME3 composition, to identify a viable forging process allowing significantly coarser grain size targeted at ASTM 3-5, than that of the baseline, ASTM 7.

  16. Advanced Materials for High Temperature, High Performance, Wide Bandgap Power Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Chad B.; McGee, Brad; McPherson, Brice; Stabach, Jennifer; Lollar, Richard; Liederbach, Ross; Passmore, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Advanced packaging materials must be utilized to take full advantage of the benefits of the superior electrical and thermal properties of wide bandgap power devices in the development of next generation power electronics systems. In this manuscript, the use of advanced materials for key packaging processes and components in multi-chip power modules will be discussed. For example, to date, there has been significant development in silver sintering paste as a high temperature die attach material replacement for conventional solder-based attach due to the improved thermal and mechanical characteristics as well as lower processing temperatures. In order to evaluate the bond quality and performance of this material, shear strength, thermal characteristics, and void quality for a number of silver sintering paste materials were analyzed as a die attach alternative to solder. In addition, as high voltage wide bandgap devices shift from engineering samples to commercial components, passivation materials become key in preventing premature breakdown in power modules. High temperature, high dielectric strength potting materials were investigated to be used to encapsulate and passivate components internal to a power module. The breakdown voltage up to 30 kV and corresponding leakage current for these materials as a function of temperature is also presented. Lastly, high temperature plastic housing materials are important for not only discrete devices but also for power modules. As the operational temperature of the device and/or ambient temperature increases, the mechanical strength and dielectric properties are dramatically reduced. Therefore, the electrical characteristics such as breakdown voltage and leakage current as a function of temperature for housing materials are presented.

  17. Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Li, Meimei; Chopra, O. K.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels. Focus is on Type 316SS and mod.9Cr-1Mo. The sodium effects were evaluated by comparing the mechanical properties data in air and sodium. Carburization and decarburization were found to be the key factors that determine the tensile and creep properties of the steels. A beneficial effect of sodium exposure on fatigue life was observed under fully reversed cyclic loading in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. However, when hold time was applied during cyclic loading, the fatigue life was significantly reduced. Based on the mechanical performance of the steels in sodium, consideration of sodium effects in high temperature structural design of advanced fast reactors is discussed.

  18. Nuclear design methodology for analyzing ultra high temperature highly compact ternary carbide reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouw, Reza Raymond

    Recent studies at the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI) have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating solid solutions of ternary carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, (U,Zr,Ta)C, (U,Zr,Hf)C and (U,Zr,W)C. The necessity for accurate nuclear design analysis of these ternary carbides in highly compact nuclear space systems prompted the development of nuclear design methodology for analyzing these systems. This study will present the improvement made in the high temperature nuclear cross-sections. It will show the relation between Monte Carlo and Deterministic calculations. It will prove the significant role of the energy spectrum in the multigroup nuclear cross-sections generation in the highly-thermalized-nuclear system. The nuclear design methodology will address several issues in the homogenization of a nuclear system, such as energy spectrum comparison between a heterogeneous system and homogeneous system. It will also address several key points in the continuous and multigroup nuclear cross-sections generation. The study will present the methodology of selecting broad energy group structures. Finally, a comparison between the Monte Carlo and Deterministic methods will be performed for the Square-Lattice Honeycomb Nuclear Space Reactor. In the comparison calculations, it will include the system characterization calculations, such as energy spectrum comparison, 2-D power distributions, temperature coefficient analysis, and water submersion accident analysis.

  19. Diffusion velocity correlation for nuclear graphite gasification at high temperature and low Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M. S.; Tournier, J. M. P.

    2012-07-01

    The safety analysis of High-Temperature and Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors requires reliable estimates of nuclear graphite gasification as a function of temperature, among other parameters, in the unlikely event of an air ingress accident. Although the rates of the prevailing chemical reactions increase exponentially with temperature, graphite gasification at high temperatures is limited by the oxygen diffusion through the boundary layer. The effective diffusion velocity depends on the total flow rate and pressure of the bulk air-gas mixture. This paper develops a semi-empirical Sherwood number correlation for calculating the oxygen diffusion velocity. The correlation is based on a compiled database of the results of convective heat transfer experiments with wires and cylinders of different diameters in air, water and paraffin oil at 0.006 {<=} Re {<=} 1,604 and 0.068 {<=} Sc {<=} 35.2, and of mass transfer experiments at 4.8 {<=} Re {<=} 77 and 1,300 {<=} Sc {<=} 2,000. The developed correlation is within {+-} 8% of the compiled database of 567 data points and consistent with reported gasification rate measurements at higher temperatures in experiments using different size specimens of nuclear graphite grades of NBG-18 and NB-25, IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 in atmospheric air at 0.08 {<=} Re {<=} 30. Unlike the Graetz solution that gives a constant Sh of 3.66 at Re {<=} 1.0, the present correlation shows Sh decreases monotonically to much lower values with decreasing Re. (authors)

  20. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  1. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL).

  2. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine and return irradiated samples for each measurement make this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated under pressurized water reactor coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory.

  3. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  4. Future needs for inelastic analysis in design of high-temperature nuclear plant components. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The role that inelastic analyses play in the design of high-temperature nuclear plant components is described. The design methodology, which explicitly accounts for nonlinear material deformation and time-dependent failure modes, requires a significant level of realism in the prediction of structural response. Thus, material deformation and failure modeling are, along with computational procedures, key parts of the methodology. Each of these is briefly discussed along with validation by comparisons with benchmark structural tests, and problem areas and needs are discussed for each.

  5. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Carroll, Laura; Sham, Sam

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  6. Studies of the use of high-temperature nuclear heat from an HTGR for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterman, D. D.; Fontaine, R. W.; Quade, R. N.; Halvers, L. J.; Jahromi, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study which surveyed various methods of hydrogen production using nuclear and fossil energy are presented. A description of these methods is provided, and efficiencies are calculated for each case. The process designs of systems that utilize the heat from a general atomic high temperature gas cooled reactor with a steam methane reformer and feed the reformer with substitute natural gas manufactured from coal, using reforming temperatures, are presented. The capital costs for these systems and the resultant hydrogen production price for these cases are discussed along with a research and development program.

  7. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  8. Biaxial experiments supporting the development of constitutive theories for advanced high-temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex states of stress and strain are introduced into components during service in engineering applications. It follows that analysis of such components requires material descriptions, or constitutive theories, which reflect the tensorial nature of stress and strain. For applications involving stress levels above yield, the situation is more complex in that material response is both nonlinear and history dependent. This has led to the development of viscoplastic constitutive theories which introduce time by expressing the flow and evolutionary equation in the form of time derivatives. Models were developed here which can be used to analyze high temperature components manufactured from advanced composite materials. In parallel with these studies, effort was directed at developing multiaxial testing techniques to verify the various theories. Recent progress in the development of constitutive theories from both the theoretical and experimental viewpoints are outlined. One important aspect is that material descriptions for advanced composite materials which can be implemented in general purpose finite element codes and used for practical design are verified.

  9. High temperature tribology for piston ring and cylinder liner in advanced low heat rejection engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, L.S.; Kleyman, A.S.; Bryzik, W.; Mekari, M.

    1996-12-31

    High temperature tribology research efforts being pursued at Adiabatics are directed in the area of post treatment densified plasma sprayed coatings. Previous work has yielded good results for laboratory bench tests using no liquid lubrication. The process infiltrates a thermal sprayed coating layer with Chrome Oxide and Phosphate Glass compounds which serve to enhance the mechanical bond of a thermal sprayed layer, while improving its internal integrity, and sealing off open porosity. It has been applied to over 150 different wear combinations. Of these tests, Iron Oxide based coatings versus Molybdenum alloy materials provide the best results. Testing in a modified Low Heat Rejection (LHR) single cylinder diesel engine proved this wear combination superior to the state of the art materials available today. These data show improvement over past research efforts directed at developing solid lubricants, but they do not achieve goals set for operation in future advanced military LHR diesel powerplants. Through involvement with the support of the US Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) the authors have predetermined a goal of attaining bench test friction coefficients of {mu}{sub f} < 0.10, and material wear rates {le}1.0 mg/hr, at a temperature of 540 C. The research efforts discussed in this paper, focus on optimizing material friction and wear combinations and their interaction with liquid lubricants to generate boundary lubrication effects noted in previous studies and their correlation to advanced diesel engine design.

  10. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  11. High temperature spin dynamics in linear magnetic chains, molecular rings, and segments by nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Adelnia, Fatemeh; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Mariani, Manuel; Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella; Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore; Corti, Maurizio Borsa, Ferdinando

    2015-05-07

    We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac){sub 3}NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr{sub 8} closed ring and in Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 8}Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.

  12. RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: SINGLE CELL TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    X. Zhang; J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien

    2012-07-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOECs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus has been developed for single cell and small stack tests from different vendors. Single cells from Ceramatec Inc. show improved durability compared to our previous stack tests. Single cells from Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) demonstrate low degradation both in fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Single cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain) show stable performance in fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Electrolyte-electrode delamination is found to have significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the microstructure help to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements are performed during the tests to characterize the cell performance and degradation.

  13. Development, Implementation and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High Temperature Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the final report to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the research project entitled Development, Implementation, and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High-Temperature Composites. The research supporting this initiative has been conducted by Dr. Brett A. Bednarcyk, a Senior Scientist at OM in Brookpark, Ohio from the period of August 1998 to March 2005. Most of the work summarized herein involved development, implementation, and application of enhancements and new capabilities for NASA GRC's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package. When the project began, this software was at a low TRL (3-4) and at release version 2.0. Due to this project, the TRL of MAC/GMC has been raised to 7 and two new versions (3.0 and 4.0) have been released. The most important accomplishments with respect to MAC/GMC are: (1) A multi-scale framework has been built around the software, enabling coupled design and analysis from the global structure scale down to the micro fiber-matrix scale; (2) The software has been expanded to analyze smart materials; (3) State-of-the-art micromechanics theories have been implemented and validated within the code; (4) The damage, failure, and lifing capabilities of the code have been expanded from a very limited state to a vast degree of functionality and utility; and (5) The user flexibility of the code has been significantly enhanced. MAC/GMC is now the premier code for design and analysis of advanced composite and smart materials. It is a candidate for the 2005 NASA Software of the Year Award. The work completed over the course of the project is summarized below on a year by year basis. All publications resulting from the project are listed at the end of this report.

  14. Advances In High Temperature (Viscoelastoplastic) Material Modeling for Thermal Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Saleeb, Atef F.

    2005-01-01

    Typical High Temperature Applications High Temperature Applications Demand High Performance Materials: 1) Complex Thermomechanical Loading; 2) Complex Material response requires Time-Dependent/Hereditary Models: Viscoelastic/Viscoplastic; and 3) Comprehensive Characterization (Tensile, Creep, Relaxation) for a variety of material systems.

  15. Erosion Coatings for High-Temperature Polymer Composites: A Collaborative Project With Allison Advanced Development Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages of replacing metals in aircraft turbine engines with high-temperature polymer matrix composites (PMC's) include weight savings accompanied by strength improvements, reduced part count, and lower manufacturing costs. Successfully integrating high-temperature PMC's into turbine engines requires several long-term characteristics. Resistance to surface erosion is one rarely reported property of PMC's in engine applications because PMC's are generally softer than metals and their erosion resistance suffers. Airflow rates in stationary turbine engine components typically exceed 2.3 kg/sec at elevated temperatures and pressures. In engine applications, as shown in the following photos, the survivability of PMC components is clearly a concern, especially when engine and component life-cycle requirements become longer. Although very few publications regarding the performance of erosion coatings on PMC's are available particularly in high-temperature applications the use of erosion-resistant coatings to significantly reduce wear on metallic substrates is well documented. In this study initiated by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, a low-cost (less than $140/kg) graphite-fiber-reinforced T650 35/PMR 15 sheet-molding compound was investigated with various coatings. This sheet-molding compound has been compression molded into many structurally complicated components, such as shrouds for gas turbine inlet housings and gearboxes. Erosion coatings developed for PMC s in this study consisted of a two-layered system: a bondcoat sprayed onto a cleaned PMC surface, followed by an erosion-resistant, hard topcoat sprayed onto the bondcoat as shown in following photomicrograph. Six erosion coating systems were evaluated for their ability to withstand harsh thermal cycles, erosion resistance (ASTM G76 83 "Standard Practice for Conducting Erosion Tests by Solid Particle Impingement Using Gas Jets") using Al2O3, and adhesion to the graphite fiber polyimide

  16. Advanced High-Temperature Reactor Dynamic System Model Development: April 2012 Status

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A L; Cetiner, M S; Wilson, Jr, T L

    2012-04-30

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a large-output fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). An early-phase preconceptual design of a 1500 MW(e) power plant was developed in 2011 [Refs. 1 and 2]. An updated version of this plant is shown as Fig. 1. FHRs feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR is designed to be a “walk away” reactor that requires no action to prevent large off-site releases following even severe reactor accidents. This report describes the development of dynamic system models used to further the AHTR design toward that goal. These models predict system response during warmup, startup, normal operation, and limited off-normal operating conditions. Severe accidents that include a loss-of-fluid inventory are not currently modeled. The scope of the models is limited to the plant power system, including the reactor, the primary and intermediate heat transport systems, the power conversion system, and safety-related or auxiliary heat removal systems. The primary coolant system, the intermediate heat transport system and the reactor building structure surrounding them are shown in Fig. 2. These systems are modeled in the most detail because the passive interaction of the primary system with the surrounding structure and heat removal systems, and ultimately the environment, protects the reactor fuel and the vessel from damage during severe reactor transients. The reactor silo also plays an important role during system warmup. The dynamic system modeling tools predict system performance and response. The goal is to accurately predict temperatures and pressures within the primary, intermediate, and power conversion systems and to study the impacts of design changes on those responses. The models are design tools and are not intended to be used in reactor qualification. The important details to capture in the primary

  17. Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; El-Dasher, B; de Caro, M S; Ferreira, J

    2008-11-25

    Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. This paper also reports electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of steels at their corrosion potentials in high-temperature molten salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra interpreted in terms of the interfacial charge transfer resistance and capacitance, as well as the electrolyte conductivity. Such in situ measurement techniques provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.

  18. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  19. Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, M.; Seki, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Fukaya, Y.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nuclear design by reducing the number of fuel enrichment to as few as possible. The nuclear calculations were performed with SRAC code system whose validity was proven by the HTTR burn-up data. The calculation results suggested that the optimization of the power distribution was reasonably achieved and the maximum fuel temperature was kept below the limitation by using three kinds of fuel enrichment. (authors)

  20. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  1. Separation Requirements for a Hydrogen Production Plant and High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Scott Beck; William Galyean

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the engineering methods, models, and results used in an evaluation for locating a hydrogen production facility near a proposed next-generation nuclear power plant. Standard probabilistic safety assessment methodologies were used to answer the risk-related questions for a combined nuclear and chemical facility: what can go wrong? how likely is it to happen? and what are the consequences of it happening? As part of answering these questions, a model was developed suitable for determining the distances separating a hydrogen-production process and nuclear plant structures. The objective of the model-development and analysis is to answer key safety questions relating to the placement of one or more hydrogen production plants in the vicinity of a high-temperature nuclear reactor. From a thermal-hydraulic efficiency standpoint, close proximity of the two facilities is beneficial. Safety and regulatory implications, however, force the separation to be increased, perhaps substantially. The likelihood of obtaining a permit to construct and build such as facility in the United States without answering these safety questions is uncertain. The quantitative analysis performed and described in this paper offers a scoping mechanism to determine key parameters relating to the development of a nuclear-based hydrogen production facility. The calculations indicate that when the facilities are less than 100 m apart, the core damage frequency is large enough (greater than 1E-6/yr) to become problematic in a risk-informed environment. However, a variety of design modifications (blast-deflection barriers, for example) could significantly reduce risk and should be further explored as design of the hydrogen production facility evolves.

  2. Separation Requirements for a Hydrogen Production Plant and High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Scott Beck; Bill Galyean

    2005-09-01

    This report provides the methods, models, and results of an evaluation for locating a hydrogen production facility near a nuclear power plant. In order to answer the risk-related questions for this combined nuclear and chemical facility, we utilized standard probabilistic safety assessment methodologies to answer three questions: what can happen, how likely is it, and what are the consequences? As part of answering these questions, we developed a model suitable to determine separation distances for hydrogen process structures and the nuclear plant structures. Our objective of the model-development and analysis is to answer key safety questions related to the placement of one or more hydrogen production plants in the vicinity of a high-temperature nuclear reactor. From a thermal-hydraulic standpoint we would like the two facilities to be quite close. However, safety and regulatory implications force the separation distance to be increased, perhaps substantially. Without answering these safety questions, the likelihood for obtaining a permit to construct and build such as facility in the U.S. would be questionable. The quantitative analysis performed for this report provides us with a scoping mechanism to determine key parameters related to the development of a nuclear-based hydrogen production facility. From our calculations, we estimate that when the separation distance is less than 100m, the core damage frequency is large enough (greater than 1E-6/yr) to become problematic in a risk-informed environment. However, a variety of design modifications, for example blast-deflection barriers, were explored to determine the impact of potential mitigating strategies. We found that these mitigating cases may significantly reduce risk and should be explored as the design for the hydrogen production facility evolves.

  3. High temperature materials technology research for advanced thermionic systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Rose, M.F.

    1998-09-01

    Tungsten and tungsten alloys are candidate materials for the thermionic emitter in the space nuclear power convertor. In this work, the creep behavior of HfC strengthened tungsten alloys was studied. An ultrahigh vacuum, high precision creep test system was constructed for this purpose so that the samples could be heated up to 3,000 K for heat treatment and creep strain could be measured from the creep sample inside the UHV chamber. To explain the creep behavior observed in this dispersion strengthened alloy, a creep model was proposed which accounted for the presence of HfC particles in the form of a back stress generated by these particles. This model was verified by the creep test data of W-0.37 HfC alloys tested under both extruded and recrystallized microstructural conditions. According to this model, the steady state creep of this type of alloys was expected to increase with time due to coarsening of HfC particle and recrystallization of the alloys under high temperatures. In contrast, conventional simple power law creep model only predicts a constant steady state creep for these materials, which does not represent the microstructural evolution of the materials. The creep of solid solution alloys such as W-Re, W-Nb and W-Hf and Mo-Nb was also studied. These materials are expected to be more stable in creep properties due to the absence of coarsening particles. These solid solution alloys, in their single crystalline state, are reported possessing better corrosion resistance over their polycrystalline counterparts. Existing creep data of both solid solution tungsten and molybdenum alloys were re-analyzed. The data of these alloys showed two distinct different creep mechanisms: Class I and Class II. The dominating creep mechanism at low stresses could be explained by the Takuchi-Argon model (Class I). At higher stresses, the data could not be explained by any of the existing creep models. A creep model was thus proposed that contained a shift factor due to the

  4. An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

    2014-03-01

    Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when “must-take” wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

  5. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  6. High temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1991-03-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have acknowledged a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high-temperature operation. Aeropropulsion applications for high-temperature electronic devices include engine ground test instrumentation such as multiplexers, analog-to-digital converters, and telemetry systems capable of withstanding hot section engine temperatures in excess of 600 C. Uncooled operation of control and condition monitoring systems in advanced supersonic aircraft would subject the electronics to temperatures in excess of 300 C. Similarly, engine-mounted integrated electronic sensors could reach temperatures which exceed 500 C. In addition to aeronautics, there are many other areas that could benefit from the existence of high-temperature electronic devices. Space applications include power electronic devices for space platforms and satellites. Since power electronics require radiators to shed waste heat, electronic devices that operate at higher temperatures would allow a reduction in radiator size. Terrestrial applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, high power electronics, and nuclear reactor instrumentation and control. To meet the needs of the applications mentioned previously, the high-temperature electronics (HTE) program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high-temperature semiconductor material. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, growth modeling, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices. Interest in SiC has grown dramatically in recent years due to solid advances in the technology. Much research remains to be performed, but SiC appears ready to emerge as a useful semiconductor material.

  7. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  8. AMSAHTS 1990: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Larry H. (Editor); Flom, Yury (Editor); Moorjani, Kishin (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This publication is comprised of abstracts for oral and poster presentations scheduled for AMSAHTS '90. The conference focused on understanding high temperature superconductivity with special emphasis on materials issues and applications. AMSAHTS 90, highlighted the state of the art in fundamental understanding of the nature of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC) as well as the chemistry, structure, properties, processing and stability of HTSC oxides. As a special feature of the conference, space applications of HTSC were discussed by NASA and Navy specialists.

  9. Detailed Reaction Kinetics for CFD Modeling of Nuclear Fuel Pellet Coating for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Francine

    2008-11-29

    The research project was related to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and was in direct alignment with advancing knowledge in the area of Nuclear Fuel Development related to the use of TRISO fuels for high-temperature reactors. The importance of properly coating nuclear fuel pellets received a renewed interest for the safe production of nuclear power to help meet the energy requirements of the United States. High-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors use fuel in the form of coated uranium particles, and it is the coating process that was of importance to this project. The coating process requires four coating layers to retain radioactive fission products from escaping into the environment. The first layer consists of porous carbon and serves as a buffer layer to attenuate the fission and accommodate the fuel kernel swelling. The second (inner) layer is of pyrocarbon and provides protection from fission products and supports the third layer, which is silicon carbide. The final (outer) layer is also pyrocarbon and provides a bonding surface and protective barrier for the entire pellet. The coating procedures for the silicon carbide and the outer pyrocarbon layers require knowledge of the detailed kinetics of the reaction processes in the gas phase and at the surfaces where the particles interact with the reactor walls. The intent of this project was to acquire detailed information on the reaction kinetics for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of carbon and silicon carbine on uranium fuel pellets, including the location of transition state structures, evaluation of the associated activation energies, and the use of these activation energies in the prediction of reaction rate constants. After the detailed reaction kinetics were determined, the reactions were implemented and tested in a computational fluid dynamics model, MFIX. The intention was to find a reduced mechanism set to reduce the computational time for a simulation, while still providing accurate results

  10. High temperature materials technology research for advanced thermionic systems. Quarterly progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Rose, M.F.

    1993-12-31

    Objective was to understand the strengthening mechanisms in advanced refractory alloys for high-temperature thermionic applications. During the first 6 months, the role of substitutional solutes in refractory alloy single crystals was identified and modeled using a simple size misfit factor as the governing parameter. During the past period, effort was concentrated on the strengthening effects in various refractory structures and the growth of refractory alloy single crystals. 11 figs, 4 tabs.

  11. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  12. Nuclear Microprobe using Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) for Hydrogen Profiling in High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Pascal; Sayir, Ali; Berger, Marie-Helene

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between hydrogen and various high temperature protonic conductors (HTPC) has not been clearly understood due to poor densification and unreacted secondary phases. the melt-processing technique is used in producing fully dense simple SrCe(0.9)Y (0.10) O(3-delta) and complex Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) perovskites that can not be achieved by solid-state sintering. the possibilities of ion beam analysis have been investigated to quantify hydrogen distribution in HTPC perovskites subjected to water heat treatment. Nuclear microprobe technique is based on the interactions of a focused ion beam of MeV light ions (H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4,.) with the sample to be analyzed to determine local elemental concentrations at the cubic micrometer scale, the elastic recoil detection analysis technique (ERDA) has been carried out using He-4(+) microbeams and detecting the resulting recoil protons. Mappings of longitudinal sections of water treated SrCeO3 and Sr(Ca(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 perovskites have been achieved, the water treatment strongly alters the surface of simple SrCe(0.9)Y(0.10)O(3-delta) perovskite. From Rutherford Back Scattering measurements (RBS), both Ce depletion and surface re-deposition is evidenced. the ERDA investigations on water treated Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) perovskite did not exhibit any spatial difference for the hydrogen incorporation from the surface to the centre. the amount of hydrogen incorporation for Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) was low and required further development of two less conventional techniques, ERDA in forward geometry and forward elastic diffusion H-1(p,p) H-1 with coincidence detection.

  13. Hypothetical air ingress scenarios in advanced modular high temperature gas cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Considering an extremely hypothetical scenario of complete cross duct failure and unlimited air supply into the reactor vessel of a modular high temperature gas cooled ractor, it is found that the potential air inflow remains limited due to the high friction pressure drop through the active core. All incoming air will be oxidized to CO and some local external burning would be temporarily possible in such a scenario. The accident would have to continue with unlimited air supply for hundreds of hours before the core structural integrity would be jeopardized.

  14. Feasibility study for the advanced one-dimensional high temperature optical strain measurement system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1990-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division is developing optical strain measurement systems for applications using high temperature wire and fiber specimens. This feasibility study has determined that stable optical signals can be obtained from specimens at temperatures beyond 2,400 C. A system using an area array sensor is proposed to alleviate off-axis decorrelation arising from rigid body motions. A digital signal processor (DSP) is recommended to perform speckle correlations at a rate near the data acquisition rate. Design parameters are discussed, and fundamental limits on the speckle shift strain measurement technique are defined.

  15. AMSAHTS 1990: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is comprised of abstracts for oral and poster presentations scheduled for AMSAHTS '90. The conference will focus on understanding high-temperature superconductivity with special emphases on materials issues and applications. AMSAHTS '90, will highlight the state of the art in fundamental understanding of the nature of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC) as well as the chemistry, structure, properties, processing and stability of HTSC oxides. As a special feature of the conference, space applications of HTSC will be discussed by NASA and Navy specialists.

  16. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  17. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

  18. Further Investigations of High Temperature Knitted Spring Tubes for Advanced Control Surface Seal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2006-01-01

    Knitted metallic spring tubes are the structural backbones that provide resiliency in control surface seals for use on current and future reusable space launch vehicles. Control surface seals fill the space between movable control surfaces such as body flaps, rudders and elevons, and the static body structures to which they are attached. These seals must remain in continuous contact with opposing surfaces to prevent the ingestion of damaging hot gases encountered during atmospheric re-entry. The Inconel X-750 (Special Metals Corporation) spring tube utilized in the baseline control surface seal shows significant resiliency loss when compressed at temperatures as low as 1200 F. High temperature compression testing and microstructural analysis show that creep is the dominant deformation mechanism leading to permanent set and resiliency loss in tested spring tube samples. Additional evaluation using a structured design of experiments approach shows that spring tube performance, primarily high temperature resiliency, can be enhanced through material substitution of Rene 41 (Allvac) alloy (for the baseline Inconel X-750 material) when coupled with specialized thermal processing.

  19. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

  20. Effect of multiaxial stresses on the high-temperature behavior and rupture of advanced alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nancy Louise

    1998-05-01

    The evolution and effect of multiaxial stress states on the high temperature deformation and rupture behavior of materials with non-uniform microstructures has been investigated. Through a detailed description of the role that multiaxial stresses play on damage evolution and rupture, the abundant existing data for uniaxial rupture can be used to more successfully design for the life of high temperature components. Three dimensional finite element calculations of primary creep deformation were performed for particulate reinforced metal matrix composites under a variety of multiaxial loading conditions. A quasi-steady state stress distribution develops during primary creep for each of the conditions considered. The results indicate that higher stresses exist in regions above and below the particles and accommodate the development of creep damage. The nature of the stress state within these regions is not significantly altered by the presence of the particles. The strain fields show a distribution similar to the stress fields. Despite significantly large regions of enhanced stress, the overall creep strain rates for all models are decreased by the presence of the particles. The applied effective stress does not have a unique relationship with overall effective strain rate for particulate reinforced composites under different applied stress states. The failure of sections of turbine rotor disks formed from the superalloy V-57 which operate under highly multiaxial stresses has been investigated. Optical microscopy of a turbine rotor disk removed from service after 30,000 hrs showed an intergranular crack that initiated at the root of a fir-tree turbine rotor blade attachment. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed heavy grain boundary oxidation that could account for the cracking and failure of the rotor disks. Heat treatments of a TiAl alloy have been established for producing a microstructure suitable for high temperature multiaxial rupture testing. The

  1. Injection repair of advanced aircraft composites with a high temperature cyanate ester resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Amy Elizabeth

    Polymer matrix composites, especially those with carbon fiber reinforcement, are becoming increasingly common in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness to weight ratio, resulting in significant weight and fuel savings on commercial and military aircraft. Despite their excellent properties, carbon fiber composites are often susceptible to damage in the form of delaminations or interlaminar cracking caused by low energy impact or manufacturing defects. Often not easily detectable, delaminations are detrimental to the strength of the composite and can ultimately result in failure of the component. Therefore methods must be developed to repair damaged composites. Injection repair is a procedure that involves injecting a low viscosity resin into the damaged area and subjecting the composite to heat to cure the resin. Currently, injection repairs are rarely used in high temperature applications because of the lack of resins with both low viscosity and high thermal stability. Therefore demonstrating the use of a resin with satisfactory viscosity and Tg requirements would expand the application of injection repairs to more vigorous environments. In the present study, the injection repair method was developed to repair damaged bismaleimide carbon fiber composites that are similar to composites used on several high temperature weapon platforms. Bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) was chosen as the injection resin due to having the unique combination of low viscosity and a high glass transition temperature. Cure kinetic studies found an optimum undercure schedule to achieve the maximum T g while avoiding the high temperature postcure. Mechanical and adhesive tests revealed that partially cured BECy had properties superior to that of the fully cured resin. Following the evaluation of the resin, the injection repair procedure and set up were developed. Successful and reproducible repairs were performed on panels pre-damaged through static loading and drop tower impact

  2. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program`s goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station.

  3. Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

    2007-09-01

    Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire

  4. Design of a high-temperature experiment for evaluating advanced structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mockler, Theodore T.; Castro-Cedeno, Mario; Gladden, Herbert J.; Kaufman, Albert

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the design of an experiment for evaluating monolithic and composite material specimens in a high-temperature environment and subject to big thermal gradients. The material specimens will be exposed to aerothermal loads that correspond to thermally similar engine operating conditions. Materials evaluated in this study were monolithic nickel alloys and silicon carbide. In addition, composites such as tungsten/copper were evaluated. A facility to provide the test environment has been assembled in the Engine Research Building at the Lewis Research Center. The test section of the facility will permit both regular and Schlieren photography, thermal imaging, and laser Doppler anemometry. The test environment will be products of hydrogen-air combustion at temperatures from about 1200 F to as high as 4000 F. The test chamber pressure will vary up to 60 psia, and the free-stream flow velocity can reach Mach 0.9. The data collected will be used to validate thermal and stress analysis models of the specimen. This process of modeling, testing, and validation is expected to yield enhancements to existing analysis tools and techniques.

  5. Advances in Thin Film Thermocouple Durability Under High Temperature and Pressure Testing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Taylor, Keith F.

    1999-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples for measuring material surface temperature have been previously demonstrated on several material systems and in various hostile test environments. A well-developed thin film fabrication procedure utilizing shadow masking for patterning the sensors elements had produced thin films with sufficient durability for applications in high temperature and pressure environments that exist in air-breathing and hydrogen-fueled burner rig and engine test facilities. However, while shadow masking had been a reliable method for specimens with flat and gently curved surfaces, it had not been consistently reliable for use on test components with sharp contours. This work reports on the feasibility of utilizing photolithography processing for patterning thin film thermocouples. Because this patterning process required changes in the thin film deposition process from that developed for shadow masking, the effect of these changes on thin film adherence during burner rig testing was evaluated. In addition to the results of changing the patterning method, the effects on thin film adherence of other processes used in the thin film fabrication procedure is also presented.

  6. Design of a high-temperature experiment for evaluating advanced structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockler, Theodore T.; Castro-Cedeno, Mario; Gladden, Herbert J.; Kaufman, Albert

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the design of an experiment for evaluating monolithic and composite material specimens in a high-temperature environment and subject to big thermal gradients. The material specimens will be exposed to aerothermal loads that correspond to thermally similar engine operating conditions. Materials evaluated in this study were monolithic nickel alloys and silicon carbide. In addition, composites such as tungsten/copper were evaluated. A facility to provide the test environment has been assembled in the Engine Research Building at the Lewis Research Center. The test section of the facility will permit both regular and Schlieren photography, thermal imaging, and laser Doppler anemometry. The test environment will be products of hydrogen-air combustion at temperatures from about 1200 F to as high as 4000 F. The test chamber pressure will vary up to 60 psia, and the free-stream flow velocity can reach Mach 0.9. The data collected will be used to validate thermal and stress analysis models of the specimen. This process of modeling, testing, and validation is expected to yield enhancements to existing analysis tools and techniques.

  7. Testing of molded high temperature plastic actuator road seals for use in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, A. W.; Huxford, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Molded high temperature plastic first and second stage rod seal elements were evaluated in seal assemblies to determine performance characteristics. These characteristics were compared with the performance of machined seal elements. The 6.35 cm second stage Chevron seal assembly was tested using molded Chevrons fabricated from five molding materials. Impulse screening tests conducted over a range of 311 K to 478 K revealed thermal setting deficiencies in the aromatic polyimide molding materials. Seal elements fabricated from aromatic copolyester materials structurally failed during impulse cycle calibration. Endurance testing of 3.85 million cycles at 450 K using MIL-H-83283 fluid showed poorer seal performance with the unfilled aromatic polyimide material than had been attained with seals machined from Vespel SP-21 material. The 6.35 cm first stage step-cut compression loaded seal ring fabricated from copolyester injection molding material failed structurally during impulse cycle calibration. Molding of complex shape rod seals was shown to be a potentially controllable technique, but additional molding material property testing is recommended.

  8. High temperature, radiation hardened electronics for application to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic circuits were developed and built at Sandia for many aerospace and energy systems applications. Among recent developments were high temperature electronics for geothermal well logging and radiation hardened electronics for a variety of aerospace applications. Sandia has also been active in technology transfer to commercial industry in both of these areas.

  9. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Sherrell R; Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Carbajo, Juan J; Ilas, Dan; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Corwin, William R; Wilson, Dane F; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Qualls, A L; Peretz, Fred J; Flanagan, George F; Clayton, Dwight A; Bradley, Eric Craig; Bell, Gary L; Hunn, John D; Pappano, Peter J; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  10. Development and applications of methodologies for the neutronic design of the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano

    This study investigated the neutronic characteristics of the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a novel nuclear reactor concept that combines liquid salt (7LiF-BeF2---flibe) cooling and TRISO coated-particle fuel technology. The use of flibe enables operation at high power density and atmospheric pressure and improves passive decay-heat removal capabilities, but flibe, unlike conventional helium coolant, is not transparent to neutrons. The flibe occupies 40% of the PB-AHTR core volume and absorbs ˜8% of the neutrons, but also acts as an effective neutron moderator. Two novel methodologies were developed for calculating the time dependent and equilibrium core composition: (1) a simplified single pebble model that is relatively fast; (2) a full 3D core model that is accurate and flexible but computationally intensive. A parametric analysis was performed spanning a wide range of fuel kernel diameters and graphite-to-heavy metal atom ratios to determine the attainable burnup and reactivity coefficients. Using 10% enriched uranium ˜130 GWd/tHM burnup was found to be attainable, when the graphite-to-heavy metal atom ratio (C/HM) is in the range of 300 to 400. At this or smaller C/HM ratio all reactivity coefficients examined---coolant temperature, coolant small and full void, fuel temperature, and moderator temperature, were found to be negative. The PB-AHTR performance was compared to that of alternative options for HTRs, including the helium-cooled pebble-bed reactor and prismatic fuel reactors, both gas-cooled and flibe-cooled. The attainable burnup of all designs was found to be similar. The PB-AHTR generates at least 30% more energy per pebble than the He-cooled pebble-bed reactor. Compared to LWRs the PB-AHTR requires 30% less natural uranium and 20% less separative work per unit of electricity generated. For deep burn TRU fuel made from recycled LWR spent fuel, it was found that in a single pass through the core ˜66% of the TRU can be

  11. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E.

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  12. Novel Methods of Tritium Sequestration: High Temperature Gettering and Separation Membrane Materials Discovery for Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Franglin; Sholl, David; Brinkman, Kyle; Lyer, Ratnasabapathy; Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2015-01-22

    This project is aimed at addressing critical issues related to tritium sequestration in next generation nuclear energy systems. A technical hurdle to the use of high temperature heat from the exhaust produced in the next generation nuclear processes in commercial applications such as nuclear hydrogen production is the trace level of tritium present in the exhaust gas streams. This presents a significant challenge since the removal of tritium from the high temperature gas stream must be accomplished at elevated temperatures in order to subsequently make use of this heat in downstream processing. One aspect of the current project is to extend the techniques and knowledge base for metal hydride materials being developed for the ''hydrogen economy'' based on low temperature absorption/desorption of hydrogen to develop materials with adequate thermal stability and an affinity for hydrogen at elevated temperatures. The second focus area of this project is to evaluate high temperature proton conducting materials as hydrogen isotope separation membranes. Both computational and experimental approaches will be applied to enhance the knowledge base of hydrogen interactions with metal and metal oxide materials. The common theme between both branches of research is the emphasis on both composition and microstructure influence on the performance of sequestration materials.

  13. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  14. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  15. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Howell, M.

    1990-09-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquidus temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, are presented. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  17. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  18. Advanced Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Device Optimization For High Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Almost all solar cells available today for space or terrestrial applications are optimized for low temperature or "room temperature" operations, where cell performances demonstrate favourable efficiency figures. The fact is in many space applications, as well as when using solar concentrators, operating cell temperature are typically highly elevated, where cells outputs are severely depreciated. In this paper, a novel approach for the optimization of multi-junction photovoltaic devices at such high expected operating temperature is presented. The device optimization is carried out on the novel cell physical model previously developed at the Naval Postgraduate School using the SILVACO software tools [1]. Taking into account the high cost of research and experimentation involved with the development of advanced cells, this successful modelling technique was introduced and detailed results were previously presented by the author [2]. The flexibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated and example results are shown throughout the whole process. The research demonstrated the capability of developing a realistic model of any type of solar cell, as well as thermo-photovoltaic devices. Details of an example model of an InGaP/GaAs/Ge multi-junction cell was prepared and fully simulated. The major stages of the process are explained and the simulation results are compared to published experimental data. An example of cell parameters optimization for high operating temperature is also presented. Individual junction layer optimization was accomplished through the use of a genetic search algorithm implemented in Matlab.

  19. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  20. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E.

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  1. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  2. High Temperature Oxidation of Silicon Carbide and Advanced Iron-Based Alloys in Steam-Hydrogen Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Keiser, James R; Brady, Michael P; Cheng, Ting; Silva, G W Chinthaka M; Pint, Bruce A; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    A side by side comparison of the oxidation behavior of zirconium alloys with SiC materials and advanced iron-based alloys is provided. Oxidation tests were conducted in steam and steam-hydrogen environments at 800-1350 C and 0.34-2MPa for durations up to 48 hours. Monolithic SiC specimens as well as SiC/SiC composites were examined during the study where the material recession mechanism appeared to be governed by silica layer volatilization at the surface for CVD SiC. A wide set of austenitic and ferritic steels were also examined where a critical Cr content (>20 wt.%) was shown to be necessary to achieve oxidation resistance at high temperatures. SiC materials and alumina-forming ferritic steels exhibited slowest oxidation kinetics; roughly two orders of magnitude lower than zirconium alloys.

  3. The AVR nuclear power plant - a milestone in high-temperature reactor development

    SciTech Connect

    Schulten, R.

    1985-08-01

    For some time small high-temperature reactors, because of their special safety properties, have been of interest to various countries. The prototype of these facilities is the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor in Julich. During the past 17 years of operation, the components of the reactor, especially the fuel elements, have proved suitable for achieving permanent temperatures of the heat transfer medium of up to 950/sup 0/ C with low contamination of the loop. The convincing safety behavior of th reactor has been demonstrated. It is apparent that for this design an afterheat removal system is not required, since the afterheat can be adequately removed by heat conduction. In addition to the thorium/uranium fuel cycle originally planned, utilization of low-enrichment uranium in the fuel elements has also been fully developed.

  4. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Kim, Inhun; O'Brien, James; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  5. The Effects of High Temperature and Nuclear Radiation on the Optical Transmission of Silica Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawn, David P.

    Distributed measurements made with fiber optic instrumentation have the potential to revolutionize data collection for facility monitoring and process control in industrial environments. Dozens of sensors etched into a single optical fiber can be used to instrument equipment and structures so that dozens of spatially distributed temperature measurements, for example, can be made quickly using one optical fiber. Optically based sensors are commercially available to measure temperature, strain, and other physical quantities that can be related to strain, such as pressure and acceleration. Other commercially available technology eliminates the need to etch discrete sensors into an optical fiber and allows temperature measurements to be made along the length of an ordinary silica fiber. Distributed sensing with optical instrumentation is commonly used in the petroleum industry to measure the temperature and pressure profiles in down hole applications. The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in extending the distributed sensing capabilities of optical instrumentation to high temperature reactor radiation environments. For this technology extension to be possible, the survivability of silica optical fibers needed to be determined in this environment. In this work the optical attenuation added to silica optical fiber exposed simultaneously to reactor radiation and temperatures to 1000°C was experimentally determined. Optical transmission measurements were made in-situ from 400nm-2300nm. For easy visualization, all of the results generated in this work were processed into movies that are available publicly [1]. In this investigation, silica optical fibers were shown to survive optically and mechanically in a reactor radiation environment to 1000°C. For the combined high temperature reactor irradiation experiments completed in this investigation, the maximum attenuation increase in the low-OH optical fibers was around 0.5db/m at 1550nm and 0.6dB/m at 1300nm. The

  6. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen-Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2010-06-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  7. THATCH: A computer code for modelling thermal networks of high- temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.; Kennett, R.J.; Colman, J.; Ginsberg, T. )

    1991-10-01

    This report documents the THATCH code, which can be used to model general thermal and flow networks of solids and coolant channels in two-dimensional r-z geometries. The main application of THATCH is to model reactor thermo-hydraulic transients in High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The available modules simulate pressurized or depressurized core heatup transients, heat transfer to general exterior sinks or to specific passive Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems, which can be air or water-cooled. Graphite oxidation during air or water ingress can be modelled, including the effects of added combustion products to the gas flow and the additional chemical energy release. A point kinetics model is available for analyzing reactivity excursions; for instance due to water ingress, and also for hypothetical no-scram scenarios. For most HTGR transients, which generally range over hours, a user-selected nodalization of the core in r-z geometry is used. However, a separate model of heat transfer in the symmetry element of each fuel element is also available for very rapid transients. This model can be applied coupled to the traditional coarser r-z nodalization. This report described the mathematical models used in the code and the method of solution. It describes the code and its various sub-elements. Details of the input data and file usage, with file formats, is given for the code, as well as for several preprocessing and postprocessing options. The THATCH model of the currently applicable 350 MW{sub th} reactor is described. Input data for four sample cases are given with output available in fiche form. Installation requirements and code limitations, as well as the most common error indications are listed. 31 refs., 23 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Effects of nuclear forces on ion thermalization in high-temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A number of investigations have been concerned with the kinetic theory and processes associated with a relativistic electron gas. Gould (1981) has considered a condition in which upon the ultimate thermalization the temperature can be such that the electron gas is highly relativistic while the gas of protons and other ions is nonrelativistic. With the nuclear component nonrelativistic but having energies in the MeV range and above, it is necessary to consider the effects of nuclear forces in the scattering of the ions in their thermalization. The effects of nuclear forces in the thermalization of ions in plasmas have been computed, principally in connection with problems of controlle; fusion. The present investigation is concerned with an attempt to express results in analytic form to as great a degree as possible. The p-p problem, which is the fundamental problem in astrophysical plasma, is studied. Attention is given to a low-energy formulation, the s-wave phase shift, the effective stopping number, Fokker-Planck operators, and the interaction with the electron gas.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 4: High-Temperature Materials PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Ballinger, R.; Majumdar, S.; Weaver, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) technique was used to identify safety-relevant/safety-significant phenomena and assess the importance and related knowledge base of high-temperature structural materials issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The major aspects of materials degradation phenomena that may give rise to regulatory safety concern for the NGNP were evaluated for major structural components and the materials comprising them, including metallic and nonmetallic materials for control rods, other reactor internals, and primary circuit components; metallic alloys for very high-temperature service for heat exchangers and turbomachinery, metallic alloys for high-temperature service for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), other pressure vessels and components in the primary and secondary circuits; and metallic alloys for secondary heat transfer circuits and the balance of plant. These materials phenomena were primarily evaluated with regard to their potential for contributing to fission product release at the site boundary under a variety of event scenarios covering normal operation, anticipated transients, and accidents. Of all the high-temperature metallic components, the one most likely to be heavily challenged in the NGNP will be the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Its thin, internal sections must be able to withstand the stresses associated with thermal loading and pressure drops between the primary and secondary loops under the environments and temperatures of interest. Several important materials-related phenomena related to the IHX were identified, including crack initiation and propagation; the lack of experience of primary boundary design methodology limitations for new IHX structures; and manufacturing phenomena for new designs. Specific issues were also identified for RPVs that will likely be too large for shop fabrication and transportation. Validated procedures

  10. Ultra-High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Complex Silicates for Nuclear Applications: A Computational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Glazoff, Michael V.; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for safety of nuclear reactors. Presently, silicon carbide (SiC) is being studied as a cladding material candidate for fuel rods in boiling-water and pressurized water-cooled reactors (BWRs and PWRs) that would substitute or modify traditional zircaloy materials. The rate of corrosion of the SiC ceramics in hot vapor environment (up to 2200 degrees C) simulating emergency conditions of light water reactor (LWR) depends on many environmental factors such as pressure, temperature, viscosity, and surface quality. Using the paralinear oxidation theory developed for ceramics in the combustion reactor environment, we estimated the corrosion rate of SiC ceramics under the conditions representing a significant power excursion in a LWR. It was established that a significant time – at least 100 h – is required for a typical SiC braiding to significantly degrade even in the most aggressive vapor environment (with temperatures up to 2200 °C) which is possible in a LWR at emergency condition. This provides evidence in favor of using the SiC coatings/braidings for additional protection of nuclear reactor rods against off-normal material degradation during power excursions or LOCA incidents. Additionally, we discuss possibilities of using other silica based ceramics in order to find materials with even higher corrosion resistance than SiC. In particular, we found that zircon (ZrSiO4) is also a very promising material for nuclear applications. Thermodynamic and first-principles atomic-scale calculations provide evidence of zircon thermodynamic stability in aggressive environments at least up to 1535 degrees C.

  11. Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

    2007-11-01

    This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercialscale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540° C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 × 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  12. Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current, AC, to direct current, DC, conversion is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of the plant was also performed using the H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. A required cost of $3.23 per kg of hydrogen produced was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. Approximately 73% of this cost ($2.36/kg) is the result of capital costs associated

  13. Recent advances in the study of the UO2-PuO2 phase diagram at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhler, R.; Welland, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Cakir, P.; Vitova, T.; Pruessmann, T.; Pidchenko, I.; Hennig, C.; Guéneau, C.; Konings, R. J. M.; Manara, D.

    2014-05-01

    Recently, novel container-less laser heating experimental data have been published on the melting behaviour of pure PuO2 and PuO2-rich compositions in the uranium dioxide-plutonium dioxide system. Such data showed that previous data obtained by more traditional furnace heating techniques were affected by extensive interaction between the sample and its containment. It is therefore paramount to check whether data so far used by nuclear engineers for the uranium-rich side of the pseudo-binary dioxide system can be confirmed or not. In the present work, new data are presented both in the UO2-rich part of the phase diagram, most interesting for the uranium-plutonium dioxide based nuclear fuel safety, and in the PuO2 side. The new results confirm earlier furnace heating data in the uranium-dioxide rich part of the phase diagram, and more recent laser-heating data in the plutonium-dioxide side of the system. As a consequence, it is also confirmed that a minimum melting point must exist in the UO2-PuO2 system, at a composition between x(PuO2) = 0.4 and x(PuO2) = 0.7 and 2900 K ⩽ T ⩽ 3000 K. Taking into account that, especially at high temperature, oxygen chemistry has an effect on the reported phase boundary uncertainties, the current results should be projected in the ternary U-Pu-O system. This aspect has been extensively studied here by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The current results suggest that uncertainty bands related to oxygen behaviour in the equilibria between condensed phases and gas should not significantly affect the qualitative trend of the current solid-liquid phase boundaries.

  14. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 1. Ingot and forging production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Steiner, J.E.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation.

  15. THR-TH: a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor core thermal hydraulics code

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL version of PEBBLE, the (RZ) pebble bed thermal hydraulics code, has been extended for application to a prismatic gas cooled reactor core. The supplemental treatment is of one-dimensional coolant flow in up to a three-dimensional core description. Power density data from a neutronics and exposure calculation are used as the basic information for the thermal hydraulics calculation of heat removal. Two-dimensional neutronics results may be expanded for a three-dimensional hydraulics calculation. The geometric description for the hydraulics problem is the same as used by the neutronics code. A two-dimensional thermal cell model is used to predict temperatures in the fuel channel. The capability is available in the local BOLD VENTURE computation system for reactor core analysis with capability to account for the effect of temperature feedback by nuclear cross section correlation. Some enhancements have also been added to the original code to add pebble bed modeling flexibility and to generate useful auxiliary results. For example, an estimate is made of the distribution of fuel temperatures based on average and extreme conditions regularly calculated at a number of locations.

  16. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Lessons Learned Applicable to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Beck; L. F. Pincock

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify possible issues highlighted by these lessons learned that could apply to the NGNP in reducing technical risks commensurate with the current phase of design. Some of the lessons learned have been applied to the NGNP and documented in the Preconceptual Design Report. These are addressed in the background section of this document and include, for example, the decision to use TRISO fuel rather than BISO fuel used in the Peach Bottom reactor; the use of a reactor pressure vessel rather than prestressed concrete found in Fort St. Vrain; and the use of helium as a primary coolant rather than CO2. Other lessons learned, 68 in total, are documented in Sections 2 through 6 and will be applied, as appropriate, in advancing phases of design. The lessons learned are derived from both negative and positive outcomes from prior HTGR experiences. Lessons learned are grouped according to the plant, areas, systems, subsystems, and components defined in the NGNP Preconceptual Design Report, and subsequent NGNP project documents.

  17. Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in La2CuO4 at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, A.; Gagliano, E.; Bacci, S.

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation in La2CuO4 is reexamined in connection with the recent measurements of the NQR relaxation rate for temperatures up to 900 K [T. Imai, C. P. Slichter, K. Yoshimura, and K. Kosuge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1002 (1993)]. We use an approach based on the exact diagonalization for the Heisenberg model to calculate the short-wavelength contribution to the relaxation rate in the high-temperature region, T>~J/2. It is shown that the spin diffusion accounts for approximately 10% of the total relaxation rate at 900 K and would beome dominant for T>J. The calculated 1/T1 is in good agreement with the experiment both in terms of the absolute value and temperature dependence.

  18. Nuclear Island Engineering MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor] preliminary and final designs. Technical progress report, December 12, 1988--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded work performed by General Atomics (GA) under the Nuclear Island Engineering (NIE)-Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR) Preliminary and Final Designs Contract DE-AC03-89SF17885 for the period December 12, 1988 through September 30, 1989. This reporting period is the first (partial) fiscal year of the 5-year contract performance period. The objective of DOE`s MHTGR program is to advance the design from the conceptual design phase into preliminary design and then on to final design in support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) design review and approval of the MHTGR Design Team, is focused on the Nuclear Island portion of the technology and design, primarily in the areas of the reactor and internals, fuel characteristics and fuel fabrication, helium services systems, reactor protection, shutdown cooling, circulator design, and refueling system. Maintenance and implementation of the functional methodology, plant-level analysis, support for probabilistic risk assessment, quality assurance, operations, and reliability/availability assessments are included in GA`s scope of work.

  19. Gigawatt-year nuclear-geothermal energy storage for light-water and high-temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C. W.; Lee, Y.; Kulhanek, M.; Driscoll, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    Capital-intensive, low-operating cost nuclear plants are most economical when operated under base-load conditions. However, electricity demand varies on a daily, weekly, and seasonal basis. In deregulated utility markets this implies high prices for electricity at times of high electricity demand and low prices for electricity at times of low electricity demand. We examined coupling nuclear heat sources to geothermal heat storage systems to enable these power sources to meet hourly to seasonal variable electricity demand. At times of low electricity demand the reactor heats a fluid that is then injected a kilometer or more underground to heat rock to high temperatures. The fluid travels through the permeable-rock heat-storage zone, transfers heat to the rock, is returned to the surface to be reheated, and re-injected underground. At times of high electricity demand the cycle is reversed, heat is extracted, and the heat is used to power a geothermal power plant to produce intermediate or peak power. When coupling geothermal heat storage with light-water reactors (LWRs), pressurized water (<300 deg. C) is the preferred heat transfer fluid. When coupling geothermal heat storage with high temperature reactors at higher temperatures, supercritical carbon dioxide is the preferred heat transfer fluid. The non-ideal characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide create the potential for efficient coupling with supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles. Underground rock cannot be insulated, thus small heat storage systems with high surface to volume ratios are not feasible because of excessive heat losses. The minimum heat storage capacity to enable seasonal storage is {approx}0.1 Gigawatt-year. Three technologies can create the required permeable rock: (1) hydro-fracture, (2) cave-block mining, and (3) selective rock dissolution. The economic assessments indicated a potentially competitive system for production of intermediate load electricity. The basis for a nuclear

  20. Recent Advances in Nuclear Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine. PMID:27540423

  1. Understanding microstructure-induced limitations of hydrogen transport in high temperature proton conductors: can nuclear microanalysis give an answer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    High temperature protonic conductors (HTPC) are envisioned as electrolytes for fuel cells working at intermediate temperature (400 C -- 600 C) to complement Y:ZrO2 electrolytes operating at 800 C -- 1000 C. The most mature HTPC are doped perovskites (ABO3) where tetravalent cation B is partially substituted by a trivalent one. Protons can be introduced in the lattice as point defects corresponding to hydroxyl groups on oxygen ion sites. In the temperature region of interest for technological applications, lattice vibrations allow the diffusion of protons by jumping and reorientation of O-H bonds (hoping mechanism). BaCeO3 or SrCeO3-based perovskites doped with a rare earth are the most widely studied compounds. However the proton conductance of these ceramics and their chemical stability are lower than the calculated values on single crystals and not sufficient to fulfill technological requirements. In most cases, the reasons for these discrepancies lie in uncontrolled microstructures with inter- and intra-granular defects that act as barriers for hydrogen diffusion but are preferential paths for chemical degradation by hydrolysis or carbonatation. Despite this crucial point, very few efforts are devoted to the optimization of microstructure of HTPC. Microstructure induced limitations are usually evidenced via impedance measurements which enable determination of respective contributions of bulk and grain boundaries to overall conductivity. Further information on hydrogen transport relevant for improvement of microstructure design requires local methods for hydrogen concentration measurement. Nuclear microanalysis, based on the use of MeV light ions microbeam, meets this demand. According to the chosen technique, nuclear reaction, elastic recoil or forward coincident scattering, the nuclear microprobe gives 2D-3D quantitative information on hydrogen distribution and diffusion within microstructure and enables to identify barriers and short-circuits.

  2. On The Creep Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms Found in an Advanced Polycrystalline Nickel-Base Superalloy at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutchman, Hallee Zox

    Polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys are used as turbine disks in the hot section in jet engines, placing them in a high temperature and stress environment. As operating temperatures increase in search of better fuel efficiency, it becomes important to understand how these higher temperatures are affecting mechanical behavior and active deformation mechanisms in the substructure. Not only are operating temperatures increasing, but there is a drive to design next generation alloys in shorter time periods using predictive modeling capabilities. This dissertation focuses on mechanical behavior and active deformation mechanisms found in two different advanced polycrystalline alloy systems, information which will then be used to build advanced predictive models to design the next generation of alloys. The first part of this dissertation discusses the creep behavior and identifying active deformation mechanisms in an advanced polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy (ME3) that is currently in operation, but at higher temperatures and stresses than are experienced in current engines. Monotonic creep tests were run at 700°C and between 655-793MPa at 34MPa increments, on two microstructures (called M1 and M2) produced by different heat treatments. All tests were crept to 0.5% plastic strain. Transient temperature and transient stress tests were used determine activation energy and stress exponents of the M1 microstructure. Constant strain rate tests (at 10-4s-1) were performed on both microstructures as well. Following creep testing, both M1 and M2 microstructures were fully characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for basic microstructure information, and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) to determine active deformation mechanism. It was found that in the M1 microstructure, reorder mediated activity (such as discontinuous faulting and microtwinning) is dominant at low stresses (655-724 MPa). Dislocations in the gamma matrix, and overall planar

  3. Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, John J.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Donohoue, Collin D.

    2009-04-30

    The project uses an exothermic combustion synthesis reaction, termed self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), to produce high quality, reproducible nitride fuels and other ceramic type nuclear fuels (cercers and cermets, etc.) in conjunction with the fabrication of transmutation fuels. The major research objective of the project is determining the fundamental SHS processing parameters by first using manganese as a surrogate for americium to produce dense Zr-Mn-N ceramic compounds. These fundamental principles will then be transferred to the production of dense Zr-Am-N ceramic materials. A further research objective in the research program is generating fundamental SHS processing data to the synthesis of (i) Pu-Am-Zr-N and (ii) U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. In this case, Ce will be used as the surrogate for Pu, Mn as the surrogate for Am, and depleted uranium as the surrogate for U. Once sufficient fundamental data has been determined for these surrogate systems, the information will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for synthesis of Zr-Am-N, Pu-Am-Zr-N and U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or low–heat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS

  4. A High Temperature-Tolerant and Radiation-Resistant In-Core Neutron Sensor for Advanced Reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Lei; Miller, Don

    2015-01-23

    The objectives of this project are to develop a small and reliable gallium nitride (GaN) neutron sensor that is capable of withstanding high neutron fluence and high temperature, isolating gamma background, and operating in a wide dynamic range. The first objective will be the understanding of the fundamental materials properties and electronic response of a GaN semiconductor materials and device in an environment of high temperature and intense neutron field. To achieve such goal, an in-situ study of electronic properties of GaN device such as I-V, leakage current, and charge collection efficiency (CCE) in high temperature using an external neutron beam will be designed and implemented. We will also perform in-core irradiation of GaN up to the highest yet fast neutron fluence and an off-line performance evaluation.

  5. High temperature materials technology research for advanced thermionic systems. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Rose, M.F.

    1993-12-31

    The effort was concentrated on two aspects of modeling of deformation in refractory alloy single crystals: deformation map in a tube with a [111] axial orientation and creep retardation due to solution strengthening (both effects are important in bcc single crystalline refractory alloys for high temperature emitters). Lattice misfit parameters are given between tungsten and 3 solutes (Re, Nb, Hf). 3 figs, 10 refs, 1 tab.

  6. Advances in Nuclear Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Brent

    2006-03-01

    Homeland security requires low-cost, large-area detectors for locating and identifying weapons-usable nuclear materials and monitors for radiological isotopes that are more robust than current systems. Recent advances in electronics materials and nanotechnology, specifically organic semiconductors and inorganic quantum dots, offer potential improvements. We provide an overview of the physical processes involved in radiation detection using these new materials in the design of new device structures. Examples include recent efforts on quantum dots, as well as more traditional radiation-detecting materials such as CdZnTe and high-pressure xenon. Detector improvements demand not only new materials but also enhanced data-analysis tools that reduce false alarms and thus increase the quality of decisions. Additional computing power on hand-held platforms should enable the application of advanced algorithms to radiation-detection problems in the field, reducing the need to transmit data and thus delay analysis.

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and High-Temperature Superconductivity in YTTRIUM(1-X)PRASEODYMIUM(X)BARIUM Cuprate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arneil Payongayong

    dependence of the correlation length and spin susceptibility. Magnetic correlations have been found to increase with higher Pr doping, consistent with a decrease of mobile hole concentration. The intimate relation between spin fluctuations and hole-carrier density in these materials offers the suggestion that magnetism may be important in high temperature superconductivity.

  8. Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.

    2013-08-01

    NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

  9. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  10. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-03-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  11. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  12. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  13. High-pressure, high-temperature magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance devices and processes for making and using same

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-10-06

    Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.

  14. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  15. Nuclear Engineering Computer Modules, Thermal-Hydraulics, TH-3: High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reihman, Thomas C.

    This learning module is concerned with the temperature field, the heat transfer rates, and the coolant pressure drop in typical high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel assemblies. As in all of the modules of this series, emphasis is placed on developing the theory and demonstrating its use with a simplified model. The heart of the module…

  16. Advanced processing of gallium nitride and gallium nitride-based devices: Ultra-high temperature annealing and implantation incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijiang

    This dissertation is focused on three fields: ultra-high temperature annealing of GaN, activation of implanted GaN and the implantation incorporation into AlGaN/GaN HEMT processing, with an aim to increase the performance, manufacturability and reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. First, the ultra high temperature (around 1500°C) annealing of MOCVD grown GaN on sapphire has been studied, and a thermally induced threading dislocation (TD) motion and reaction are reported. Using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) approach capable of heating 2 inch wafers to around 1500°C with 100 bar N2 over-pressure, evidence of dislocation motion was first observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of both planar and patterned GaN films protected by an AIN capping layer. An associated decrease in x-ray rocking curve (XRC) full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) was also observed for both the symmetric and asymmetric scans. After annealing, the AIN capping layer remained intact, and optical measurements showed no degradation of the opto-electronic properties of the films. Then activation annealing of Si implants in MOCVD grown GaN has been studied for use in ohmic contacts. Si was implanted in semi-insulating GaN at 100 keV with doses from 5 x 1014 cm-2 to 1.5 x 1016 cm-2. Rapid thermal annealing at 1500°C with 100 bar N2 over-pressure was used for dopant activation, resulting in a minimum sheet resistance of 13.9 O/square for a dose of 7 x 1015 cm-2. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements showed a post-activation broadening of the dopant concentration peak by 20 nm (at half the maximum), while X-Ray triple axis o-2theta scans indicated nearly complete implant damage recovery. Transfer length method measurements of the resistance of Ti/Al/Ni/Au contacts to activated GaN:Si (5 x 1015 cm-2 at 100 keV) indicated lowest contact resistances of 0.07 Omm and 0.02 Omm for as-deposited and subsequently annealed contacts, respectively. Finally, the incorporation of Si implantation

  17. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome somemore » of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.« less

  18. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome some of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.

  19. An Advanced Integrated Diffusion/Transport Method for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Very-High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Farzad Rahnema; Dingkang Zhang; Abderrafi Ougouag; Frederick Gleicher

    2011-04-04

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

  20. Oxidation and the Effects of High Temperature Exposures on Notched Fatigue Life of an Advanced Powder Metallurgy Disk Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Draper, Susan L.; Gorman, Timothy T.; Telesman, Jack; Gab, Timothy P.; Hull, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation and the effects of high temperature exposures on notched fatigue life were considered for a powder metallurgy processed supersolvus heat-treated ME3 disk superalloy. The isothermal static oxidation response at 704 C, 760 C, and 815 C was consistent with other chromia forming nickel-based superalloys: a TiO2-Cr2O3 external oxide formed with a branched Al2O3 internal subscale that extended into a recrystallized - dissolution layer. These surface changes can potentially impact disk durability, making layer growth rates important. Growth of the external scales and dissolution layers followed a cubic rate law, while Al2O3 subscales followed a parabolic rate law. Cr- rich M23C6 carbides at the grain boundaries dissolved to help sustain Cr2O3 growth to depths about 12 times thicker than the scale. The effect of prior exposures was examined through notched low cycle fatigue tests performed to failure in air at 704 C. Prior exposures led to pronounced debits of up to 99 % in fatigue life, where fatigue life decreased inversely with exposure time. Exposures that produced roughly equivalent 1 m thick external scales at the various isotherms showed statistically equivalent fatigue lives, establishing that surface damage drives fatigue debit, not exposure temperature. Fractographic evaluation indicated the failure mode for the pre-exposed specimens involved surface crack initiations that shifted with exposure from predominately single intergranular initiations with transgranular propagation to multi-initiations from the cracked external oxide with intergranular propagation. Weakened grain boundaries at the surface resulting from the M23C6 carbide dissolution are partially responsible for the intergranular cracking. Removing the scale and subscale while leaving a layer where M23C6 carbides were dissolved did not lead to a significant fatigue life improvement, however, also removing the M23C6 carbide dissolution layer led to nearly full recovery of life, with a

  1. High-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance study of phase transition kinetics in LiNaSO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhovoy, R. A. E-mail: r.a.shakhovoy@gmail.com; Sarou-Kanian, V.; Rakhmatullin, A.; Véron, E.; Bessada, C.

    2015-12-28

    A new high-temperature NMR technique for measurements of the phase transition kinetics in solids has been developed. The technique allows measuring the time evolution of the volume of the appearing phase at controlled cooling rates. Developed method was applied to study the phase transition kinetics in the superionic conductor LiNaSO{sub 4}. It was revealed that the phase transition in LiNaSO{sub 4} is governed by the diffusion-controlled growth of nuclei (“germs”). An effect of the crystallite rearrangement in the LiNaSO{sub 4} powder after cooling through the phase transition was also revealed. This effect was studied by means of high-temperature XRD and NMR.

  2. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  3. Development of a fiber-guided laser ultrasonic system resilient to high temperature and gamma radiation for nuclear power plant pipe monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinyeol; Lee, Hyeonseok; Lim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nakhyeon; Yeo, Hwasoo; Sohn, Hoon

    2013-08-01

    This study develops an embeddable optical fiber-guided laser ultrasonic system for structural health monitoring (SHM) of pipelines exposed to high temperature and gamma radiation inside nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently, noncontact laser ultrasonics is gaining popularity among the SHM community because of its advantageous characteristics such as (a) scanning capability, (b) immunity against electromagnetic interference (EMI) and (c) applicability to high-temperature surfaces. However, its application to NPP pipelines has been hampered because pipes inside NPPs are often covered by insulators and/or target surfaces are not easily accessible. To overcome this problem, this study designs embeddable optical fibers and fixtures so that laser beams used for ultrasonic inspection can be transmitted between the laser sources and the target pipe. For guided-wave generation, an Nd:Yag pulsed laser coupled with an optical fiber is used. A high-power pulsed laser beam is guided through the optical fiber onto a target structure. Based on the principle of laser interferometry, the corresponding response is measured using a different type of laser beam guided by another optical fiber. All devices are especially designed to sustain high temperature and gamma radiation. The robustness/resilience of the proposed measurement system installed on a stainless steel pipe specimen has been experimentally verified by exposing the specimen to high temperature of up to 350 °C and optical fibers to gamma radiation of up to 125 kGy (20 kGy h-1).

  4. Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Heat Transfer Fluid Requirements and Characteristics for Coupling A Hydrogen Production Plant to a High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh; R. B. Barner; D. F. Wilson

    2005-06-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the hightemperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant, may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. Seven possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermalhydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermalhydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The

  5. A technique to achieve uniform stress distribution in compressive creep testing of advanced ceramics at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.C.; Stevens, C.O.; Brinkman, C.R.; Holshauser, N.E.

    1996-05-01

    A technique to achieve stable and uniform uniaxial compression is offered for creep testing of advanced ceramic materials at elevated temperatures, using an innovative self-aligning load-train assembly. Excellent load-train alignment is attributed to the inherent ability of a unique hydraulic universal coupler to maintain self-aligning. Details of key elements, design concept, and pricniples of operation of the self-aligning coupler are described. A method of alignment verification using a strain-gaged specimen is then discussed. Results of verification tests indicate that bending below 1.5% is routinely achievable usin the load-train system. A successful compression creep test is demonstrated using a dumbbell-shpaed Si nitride specimen tested at 1300 C for over 4000 h.

  6. Development of a high-temperature durable catalyst for use in catalytic combustors for advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Snow, G. C.; Chu, E. K.; Chang, R. L. S.; Angwin, M. J.; Pessagno, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Durable catalytic reactors for advanced gas turbine engines were developed. Objectives were: to evaluate furnace aging as a cost effective catalytic reactor screening test, measure reactor degradation as a function of furnace aging, demonstrate 1,000 hours of combustion durability, and define a catalytic reactor system with a high probability of successful integration into an automotive gas turbine engine. Fourteen different catalytic reactor concepts were evaluated, leading to the selection of one for a durability combustion test with diesel fuel for combustion conditions. Eight additional catalytic reactors were evaluated and one of these was successfully combustion tested on propane fuel. This durability reactor used graded cell honeycombs and a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. The reactor was catalytically active and structurally sound at the end of the durability test.

  7. Preliminary Results of the Combined Third and Fourth Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, Michael E.; Palmer, A. Joseph; Petti, David A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor Technology Development Office (VHTR-TDO) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is irradiating up to seven low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation high temperature gas-cooled reactors in the United States. The experiments will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of several independent capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and completed in October 2013. The third and fourth experiments were combined into a single experiment designated (AGR-3/4), which started its irradiation in December 2011 and completed in April 2014. Since the purpose of this combined experiment was to provide data on fission product migration and retention in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the design of

  8. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Tressler, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter {times} 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  9. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M. . Science and Technology Center); Tressler, R.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter [times] 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  10. Long term out-of-pile thermocouple tests in conditions representative for nuclear gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie, M.; Fourrez, S.; Fuetterer, M. A.; Lapetite, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    During irradiation tests at high temperature, failure of commercial Inconel 600 sheathed thermocouples is commonly encountered. To understand and remedy this problem, out-of-pile tests were performed with thermocouples in carburizing atmospheres which can be assumed to be at least locally representative for High Temperature Reactors. The objective was to screen those thermocouples which would consecutively be used under irradiation. Two such screening tests have been performed with a set of thermocouples embedded in graphite (mainly conventional Type N thermocouples and thermocouples with innovative sheaths) in a dedicated furnace with helium flushing. Performance indicators such as thermal drift, insulation and loop resistance were monitored and compared to those from conventional Type N thermocouples. Several parameters were investigated: niobium sleeves, bending, thickness, sheath composition, temperature as well as the chemical environment. After the tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examinations were performed to analyze possible local damage in wires and in the sheath. The present paper describes the two experiments, summarizes results and outlines further work, in particular to further analyze the findings and to select suitable thermocouples for qualification under irradiation. (authors)

  11. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests; Mesures des tres hautes temperatures: Applications a des essais de surete des reacteurs nucleaires

    SciTech Connect

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-09-27

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  12. Development of a high-temperature durable catalyst for use in catalytic combustors for advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, H; Snow, G C; Chu, E K :; Chang, R L.S.; Angwin, M J; Pessagno, S L

    1981-09-01

    An experimental program was performed to develop durable catalytic reactors for advanced gas turbine engines. This program was performed as part of DOE's Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle Systems Project. Objectives of this program were to evaluate furnace aging as a cost-effective catalytic reactor screening test, measure reactor degradation as a function of furnace aging, demonstrate 1000 h of combustion durability, and define a catalytic reactor system with a high probability of successfful integration into an automotive gas turbine engine. In the first phase of this program, 14 different catalytic reactor concepts were evaluated, leading to the selection of one for a durability combustion test with diesel fuel at 1700 K combustion coditions. The durability reactor, a proprietary UOP noble metal catalyst, failed structurally after about 136 h and the catalyst was essentially inactive after about 226 h. In Phase II, eight additional catalytic reactors were evalated and one of these was sucessfully combustion-tested for 1000 h at 1700 K on propane fuel. This durability reactor used graded-cell honeycombs and a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalysts. The reactor was catalytically active and structurally sound at the end of the durability test.

  13. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  14. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  15. Nuclear propulsion technology advanced fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Walter A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced fuels technology are presented. Topics covered include: nuclear thermal propulsion reactor and fuel requirements; propulsion efficiency and temperature; uranium fuel compounds; melting point experiments; fabrication techniques; and sintered microspheres.

  16. Development and investigations of compact heat-transfer equipment for a nuclear power station equipped with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovko, V. F.; Dmitrieva, I. V.; Kodochigov, N. G.; Bykh, O. A.

    2013-07-01

    The project of a nuclear power station the reactor coolant system of which includes a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor combined with a gas-turbine energy conversion unit supposes the use of high-efficient gas-cycle-based heat-transfer equipment. An analysis aimed at selecting the optimal heat-transfer surfaces is presented together with the results from their calculated and experimental investigation. The design features of recuperators arranged integrally with end and intermediate coolers and placed in a vertical sealed high-pressure vessel of limited sizes are considered.

  17. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  18. High-temperature resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    The basic chemistry, cure processes, properties, and applications of high temperature resins known as polyimides are surveyed. Condensation aromatic polymides are prepared by reacting aromatic diamines with aromatic dianhydrides, aromatic tetracarboxylic acids, or with dialkyl esters of aromatic tetracarboxylic acids, depending on the intended end use. The first is for coatings or films while the latter two are more suitable for polyimide matrix resins. Prepreg solutions are made by dissolving reactants in an aprotic solvent, and advances in the addition of a diamine on the double bond and radical polymerization of the double bond are noted to have yielded a final cure product with void-free characteristics. Attention is given to properties of the Skybond, Pyralin, and NR-150B polyimide prepreg materials and characteristics of aging in the NP-150 polyimides. Finally, features of the NASA-developed PMR polyimides are reviewed.

  19. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  20. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  1. Advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping, device passivation, and piezoelectric-based RF MEMS/NEMS resonator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, S. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Nagaraj, B.; Kulkarni, V. N.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K. A.; Derenge, M.; Zheleva, T.; Ervin, M. H.; Lelis, A.; Scozzie, C. J.; Habersat, D.; Wickenden, A. E.; Currano, L. J.; Dubey, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report recent advances in pulsed-laser-deposited AIN thin films for high-temperature capping of SiC, passivation of SiC-based devices, and fabrication of a piezoelectric MEMS/NEMS resonator on Pt-metallized SiO2/Si. The AlN films grown using the reactive laser ablation technique were found to be highly stoichiometric, dense with an optical band gap of 6.2 eV, and with a surface smoothness of less than 1 nm. A low-temperature buffer-layer approach was used to reduce the lattice and thermal mismatch strains. The dependence of the quality of AlN thin films and its characteristics as a function of processing parameters are discussed. Due to high crystallinity, near-perfect stoichiometry, and high packing density, pulsed-laser-deposited AlN thin films show a tendency to withstand high temperatures up to 1600°C, and which enables it to be used as an anneal capping layer for SiC wafers for removing ion-implantation damage and dopant activation. The laser-deposited AlN thin films show conformal coverage on SiC-based devices and exhibit an electrical break-down strength of 1.66 MV/cm up to 350°C when used as an insulator in Ni/AlN/SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) AlN films grown on Pt/SiO2/Si (100) substrates for radio-frequency microelectrical and mechanical systems and nanoelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) demonstrated resonators having high Q values ranging from 8,000 to 17,000 in the frequency range of 2.5-0.45 MHz. AlN thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (in normal and oxygen resonance mode), atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Applications exploiting characteristics of high bandgap, high bond strength, excellent piezoelectric characteristics, extremely high chemical inertness, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and high thermal stability of the pulsed

  2. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance monitoring of the degradation of margarines of varied compositions when heated to high temperature.

    PubMed

    Ibargoitia, María L; Sopelana, P; Guillén, María D

    2014-12-15

    In this study, (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used to monitor the evolution of three margarines of varied compositions when submitted to heating at 180°C in an oven with aeration. Heating causes degradation of polyunsaturated acyl groups and this depends not only on their unsaturation degree, but also on the concentration of the different acyl groups. The evolution of monounsaturated groups varies depending on the disappearance rate of the groups with higher unsaturation degree. Heat treatment also causes hydrolysis reactions that lead to a reduction in 1-monoglycerides and an increase in 1,2-diglycerides, especially in the margarines with higher water content, as well as degradation of some vegetable sterols. Different types of aldehydes and epoxides were identified and quantified, above all in the margarine with the highest proportion of polyunsaturated groups, especially linoleic; some of these are toxic, such as 4-hydroxy- and 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals. PMID:25038657

  3. System Analyses of High and Low-Temperature Interface Designs for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; J. E. O'Brien

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, an evaluation of a low-temperature heat-pump interface design for a nuclear-driven high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production plant was performed using the UniSim process analysis software. The lowtemperature interface design is intended to reduce the interface temperature between the reactor power conversion system and the hydrogen production plant by extracting process heat from the low temperature portion of the power cycle rather than from the high-temperature portion of the cycle as is done with the current Idaho National Laboratory (INL) reference design. The intent of this design change is to mitigate the potential for tritium migration from the reactor core to the hydrogen plant, and reduce the potential for high temperature creep in the interface structures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) operating at a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa and a reactor outlet temperature of 900°C. The lowtemperature heat-pump loop is a water/steam loop that operates between 2.6 MPa and 5.0 MPa. The HTE hydrogen production loop operated at 5 MPa, with plant conditions optimized to maximize plant performance (i.e., 800°C electrolysis operating temperature, area specific resistance (ASR) = 0.4 ohm-cm2, and a current density of 0.25 amps/cm2). An air sweep gas system was used to remove oxygen from the anode side of the electrolyzer. Heat was also recovered from the hydrogen and oxygen product streams to maximize hydrogen production efficiencies. The results of the UniSim analysis showed that the low-temperature interface design was an effective heat-pump concept, transferring 31.5 MWt from the low-temperature leg of the gas turbine power cycle to the HTE process boiler, while consuming 16.0 MWe of compressor power. However, when this concept was compared with the current INL reference direct Brayton cycle design and with a modification of the reference design to

  4. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  5. High Temperature Nanocomposites For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and In-Space Fabrication by Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Webb, N. D.; Espinoza, M.; Cook, S.; Houts, M.; Kim, T.

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is an indispensable technology for the manned exploration of the solar system. By using Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (HP-LCVD), the authors propose to design and build a promising next-generation fuel element composed of uranium carbide UC embedded in a latticed matrix of highly refractory Ta4HfC5 for an NTP rocket capable of sustaining temperatures up to 4000 K, enabling an Isp of up to 1250 s. Furthermore, HP-LCVD technology can also be harnessed to enable 3D rapid prototyping of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics and composites, opening up the possibility of in-space fabrication of components, replacement parts, difficult-to-launch solar sails and panels and a variety of other space structures. Additionally, rapid prototyping with HP-LCVD makes a feasible "live off the land" strategy of interplanetary and interstellar exploration ­ the precursors commonly used in the technology are found, often in abundance, on other solar system bodies either as readily harvestable gas (e.g. methane) or as a raw material that could be converted into a suitable precursor (e.g. iron oxide into ferrocene on Mars).

  6. US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

  7. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 2. Mechanical property evaluation. Final report. [CrMoV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Landes, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation. 40 refs., 84 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. High temperature solar thermal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.; Hanseth, E. J.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Some advanced technology concepts under development for high-temperature solar thermal energy systems to achieve significant energy cost reductions and performance gains and thus promote the application of solar thermal power technology are presented. Consideration is given to the objectives, current efforts and recent test and analysis results in the development of high-temperature (950-1650 C) ceramic receivers, thermal storage module checker stoves, and the use of reversible chemical reactions to transport collected solar energy. It is pointed out that the analysis and testing of such components will accelerate the commercial deployment of solar energy.

  9. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  10. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  11. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  12. Thermocouples For High Temperature In-Pile Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe

    2005-11-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding and structural materials. Data are needed to characeterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, oxidizing and radiation conditions. To obtain this data, robust instrumentation is needed htat can survive proposed test conditions. Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project was intiated to develop specialized thermocouples for high temperature in-pile applications (see Rempe and Wilkins, 2005). This paper summarizes efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate these specialized thermocouples.

  13. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  14. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  15. High temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  16. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors (Overview. Part 1) / Augstas Temperatūras Kodolreaktori (Pārskata raksts) 1. daļa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmanis, J.; Tomsons, E.; Zeltiņš, N.

    2013-02-01

    At the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) of 2001 the measures were approved which are necessary for the development of future generation nuclear reactors (NRs). Six best high-temperature NR technologies were selected, with the main criteria being the safe and economically profitable operation, long-term use, protection against the employment of nuclear material for military purposes and terroristic attacks as well as technologies of fuel close cycle in order to increase the amount of fission material and decrease the amount of highly radioactive waste. In four of the technologies, apart from electricity production also hydrogen is obtained. Part 1 presents a generalized description of the high-temperature NRs, their comparative characteristics and history, with the stopped and operational HTNRs outlined. The properties of different type nuclear fuels are described in detail Ceturtās paaudzes kodolreaktoru starptautiskā forumā 2001.gadā nolēma par nepieciešamiem pasākumiem nākamās paaudzes kodolreaktoru izstrādei. Ir atlasītas sešas reaktoru tehnoloģijas, kuras lietderīgi turpmāk izstrādāt. Tās atlasītas ņemot vērā to drošu un ekonomiski izdevīgu darbību, ilgtspējīgu izmantošanu, aizsardzību pret materiālu izmantošanu militārām vajadzībām un teroristu uzbrukumiem, slēgtā degvielas cikla izmantošanu, lai palielinātu kodoldalīšanās materiālu daudzumu un samazinātu augstas aktivitātes atkritumu daudzumu, kurus būs jāapglabā. Četras no plānotām tehnoloģijām bez elektroenerģijas ieguves varēs ražot ūdeņradi. 1. daļā ietverts vispārīgs apraksts par augstas temperatūras kodolreaktoriem, to salīdzinājums pēc raksturlielumiem, pēc attīstības vēstures. Apskatīti gan apturētie, gan strādājošie reaktori, to kodoldegvielas

  17. Modeling the effect in of criticality from changes in key parameters for small High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (U-BatteryTM) using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    The neutron transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) which was wellkown as the gold standard in predicting nuclear reaction was used to model the small nuclear reactor core called "U-batteryTM", which was develop by the University of Manchester and Delft Institute of Technology. The paper introduces on the concept of modeling the small reactor core, a high temperature reactor (HTR) type with small coated TRISO fuel particle in graphite matrix using the MCNPv4C software. The criticality of the core were calculated using the software and analysed by changing key parameters such coolant type, fuel type and enrichment levels, cladding materials, and control rod type. The criticality results from the simulation were validated using the SCALE 5.1 software by [1] M Ding and J L Kloosterman, 2010. The data produced from these analyses would be used as part of the process of proposing initial core layout and a provisional list of materials for newly design reactor core. In the future, the criticality study would be continued with different core configurations and geometries.

  18. Updating of ASME Nuclear Code Case N-201 to Accommodate the Needs of Metallic Core Support Structures for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Currently in Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mit Basol; John F. Kielb; John F. MuHooly; Kobus Smit

    2007-05-02

    On September 29, 2005, ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) executed a multi-year, cooperative agreement with the United States DOE for the Generation IV Reactor Materials project. The project's objective is to update and expand appropriate materials, construction, and design codes for application in future Generation IV nuclear reactor systems that operate at elevated temperatures. Task 4 was embarked upon in recognition of the large quantity of ongoing reactor designs utilizing high temperature technology. Since Code Case N-201 had not seen a significant revision (except for a minor revision in September, 2006 to change the SA-336 forging reference for 304SS and 316SS to SA-965 in Tables 1.2(a) and 1.2(b), and some minor editorial changes) since December 1994, identifying recommended updates to support the current high temperature Core Support Structure (CSS) designs and potential new designs was important. As anticipated, the Task 4 effort identified a number of Code Case N-201 issues. Items requiring further consideration range from addressing apparent inconsistencies in definitions and certain material properties between CC-N-201 and Subsection NH, to inclusion of additional materials to provide the designer more flexibility of design. Task 4 developed a design parameter survey that requested input from the CSS designers of ongoing high temperature gas cooled reactor metallic core support designs. The responses to the survey provided Task 4 valuable input to identify the design operating parameters and future needs of the CSS designers. Types of materials, metal temperature, time of exposure, design pressure, design life, and fluence levels were included in the Task 4 survey responses. The results of the survey are included in this report. This research proves that additional work must be done to update Code Case N-201. Task 4 activities provide the framework for the Code Case N-201 update and future work to provide input on materials. Candidate

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of Li and H diffusion in the high-temperature solid phase of LiBH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Soloninin, A.V.; Skripov, A.V.; Buzlukov, A.L.; Stepanov, A.P.

    2009-09-15

    In order to study the atomic jump motions in the high-temperature solid phase of LiBH{sub 4}, we have measured the {sup 1}H and {sup 11}B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the {sup 1}H, {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B spin-lattice relaxation rates in this compound over the resonance frequency range of 14-34.4 MHz. In the temperature range 384-500 K, all the spin-lattice relaxation data are satisfactorily described in terms of a thermally activated jump motion of Li ions with the pre-exponential factor tau{sub 0}=1.1x10{sup -15} s and the activation energy E{sub a}=0.56 eV. The observed frequency dependences of the spin-lattice relaxation rates in this temperature range exclude a presence of any distributions of the Li jump rate or any other jump processes on the frequency scale of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 10} s{sup -1}. The strong narrowing of the {sup 1}H and {sup 11}B NMR lines above 440 K is consistent with the onset of diffusive motion of the BH{sub 4} tetrahedra. - Graphical abstract: The measured spin-lattice relaxation rates of {sup 1}H (a), {sup 7}Li (b) and {sup 11}B (c) as functions of the inverse temperature for the high-temperature solid phase of LiBH{sub 4}. The curves show the simultaneous Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound fits to the data with the fixed parameters of Li diffusion (the pre-exponential factor tau{sub 0}=1.1x10{sup -15} s and the activation energy E{sub a}=0.56 eV). This plot indicates that all the relaxation data for different nuclei and at different resonance frequencies are governed by a single Li jump process. Display Omitted

  20. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  1. Nuclear material investigations by advanced analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Kuri, G.; Martin, M.; Froideval, A.; Cammelli, S.; Orlov, A.; Bertsch, J.; Pouchon, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize nuclear materials at the Paul Scherrer Institute during the last decade. The analysed materials ranged from reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, Zircaloy claddings to fuel samples. The processes studied included copper cluster build up in RPV steels, corrosion, mechanical and irradiation damage behaviour of PWR and BWR cladding materials as well as fuel defect development. The used advanced techniques included muon spin resonance spectroscopy for zirconium alloy defect characterization while fuel element materials were analysed by techniques derived from neutron and X-ray scattering and absorption spectroscopy.

  2. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  3. High-temperature structural ceramics.

    PubMed

    Katz, R N

    1980-05-23

    The unique properties of ceramics based on silicon carbide and silicon nitride make them prime candidates for use in advanced energy conversion systems. These compounds are the bases for broad families of engineering materials, whose properties are reviewed. The relationships between processing, microstructure, and properties are discussed. A review and assessment of recent progress in the use of these materials in high-temperature engineering systems, and vehicular engines in particular, is presented. PMID:17772807

  4. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Johnson

    2008-11-05

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors — materials that carry electrical c

  5. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  6. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  7. High temperature furnace

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  8. High temperature refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  9. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Seng, Gary T.

    1990-01-01

    To meet the needs of the aerospace propulsion and space power communities, the high temperature electronics program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. This program supports a major element of the Center's mission - to perform basic and developmental research aimed at improving aerospace propulsion systems. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices.

  10. High-temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  11. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Seng, Gary T.

    1990-02-01

    To meet the needs of the aerospace propulsion and space power communities, the high temperature electronics program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. This program supports a major element of the Center's mission - to perform basic and developmental research aimed at improving aerospace propulsion systems. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices.

  12. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  13. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  14. Hydrogen incorporation into high temperature protonic conductors: Nuclear microprobe microanalysis by means of 1H(p, p) 1H scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, P.; Gallien, J.-P.; Khodja, H.; Daudin, L.; Berger, M.-H.; Sayir, A.

    2006-08-01

    Protonic conductivity of some solid state materials at an intermediate temperature range (400-600 °C), referred as high temperature protonic conductor (HTPC), suggests their application as electrolytes in electrochemical cells, batteries, sensors, etc. Among them, some perovskites can be protonic and electronic conductors. Several obstacles remain to achieve the full potential of these ceramic membranes, among them the lack of measurement techniques and of an unambiguous model for conductivity. A precise understanding of the transport mechanisms requires local profiling of hydrogen concentrations within the microstructure of the ceramic. We have used the nuclear microprobe of the Laboratoire Pierre SÜE to investigate quantitatively the spatial distribution of hydrogen after water heat treatment of textured perovskites, SrCe0.9Y0.1O3-δ and Sr3Ca1+xNb2-xO9-δ, x = 0.18, synthesized according to a melt-process developed at NASA GRC. A not very common method has been developed for hydrogen measurements in thin samples, 1H(p, p)1H elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry (ERCS). Early experiments have evidenced hydrogen concentration enhancement within grain boundaries.

  15. A high-throughput investigation of Fe-Cr-Al as a novel high-temperature coating for nuclear cladding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Jonathan Kenneth; Fang, Randy L.; Albing, Mark R.; Mehta, Apurva; Kramer, Matthew J.; Besser, Matthew F.; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature alloy coatings that can resist oxidation are urgently needed as nuclear cladding materials to mitigate the danger of hydrogen explosions during meltdown. Here we apply a combination of computationally guided materials synthesis, high-throughput structural characterization and data analysis tools to investigate the feasibility of coatings from the Fe-Cr-Al alloy system. Composition-spread samples were synthesized to cover the region of the phase diagram previous bulk studies have identified as forming protective oxides. The metallurgical and oxide phase evolution were studied via in situ synchrotron glancing incidence x-ray diffraction at temperatures up to 690 K. A composition region with an Al concentration greater than 3.08 at%, and between 20.0 at% and 32.9 at% Cr showed the least overall oxide growth. Subsequently, a series of samples were deposited on stubs and their oxidation behavior at 1373 K was observed. The continued presence of a passivating oxide was confirmed in this region over a period of 6 h.

  16. A high-throughput investigation of Fe-Cr-Al as a novel high-temperature coating for nuclear cladding materials.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Jonathan Kenneth; Fang, Randy L; Albing, Mark R; Mehta, Apurva; Kramer, Matthew J; Besser, Matthew F; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R

    2015-07-10

    High-temperature alloy coatings that can resist oxidation are urgently needed as nuclear cladding materials to mitigate the danger of hydrogen explosions during meltdown. Here we apply a combination of computationally guided materials synthesis, high-throughput structural characterization and data analysis tools to investigate the feasibility of coatings from the Fe–Cr–Al alloy system. Composition-spread samples were synthesized to cover the region of the phase diagram previous bulk studies have identified as forming protective oxides. The metallurgical and oxide phase evolution were studied via in situ synchrotron glancing incidence x-ray diffraction at temperatures up to 690 K. A composition region with an Al concentration greater than 3.08 at%, and between 20.0 at% and 32.9 at% Cr showed the least overall oxide growth. Subsequently, a series of samples were deposited on stubs and their oxidation behavior at 1373 K was observed. The continued presence of a passivating oxide was confirmed in this region over a period of 6 h. PMID:26086841

  17. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  18. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  19. High temperature electronics technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dening, J. C.; Hurtle, D. E.

    1984-03-01

    This report summarizes the barrier metallization developments accomplished in a program intended to develop 300 C electronic controls capability for potential on-engine aircraft engine application. In addition, this report documents preliminary life test results at 300 C and above and discusses improved design practices required for high temperature integrated injection logic semiconductors. Previous Phase 1 activities focused on determining the viability of operating silicon semiconductor devices over the -55 C to +300 C temperature range. This feasibility was substantiated but the need for additional design work and process development was indicated. Phase 2 emphasized the development of a high temperature metallization system as the primary development need for high temperature silicon semiconductor applications.

  20. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  1. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  2. Proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pierpoint, Lara; Kazimi, Mujid; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2007-07-01

    A methodology for evaluating the proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycles is presented. The methodology, based on multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is intended as a computerized assessment for fuel cycles at their earliest stages of development (i.e. when detailed facility design information is not available). Preliminary results suggest that the methodology may be useful in identifying sources of proliferation vulnerability within different fuel cycles. Of the fuel cycles and segments studied, the fabrication step of the Once- Through fuel cycle and the reprocessing step of the MOX fuel cycle present the greatest vulnerability. The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel cycle with conversion ratio 0.0 appears to be the overall safest fuel cycle from a proliferation protection standpoint. (authors)

  3. Advancing Underground Nuclear Astrophysics with CASPAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The advancement of experimental nuclear astrophysics techniques and the requirement of astrophysical network models for further nuclear data over greater energy ranges, has led to the requirement for the better understanding of nuclear reactions in stellar burning regimes. For those reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, the energy range of astrophysical interest is always problematic to probe. As reaction measurements approach the burning window of interest, the rapid drop off in cross-section hampers laboratory investigation. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13 C(α,n)16 O and 22 Ne(α,n)25 Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, SD. With thanks to funding provided by South Dakota Science and Technology Authority and the NSF under Grant Number PHY-1419765.

  4. Measurements in the Gran Sasso Laboratory: Evidence for nuclear effects in electrolysis with Pd/Ti and in different tests with deuterated high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Liberatori, L.; Stella, B.; Ferrarotto, F.; Corradi, M.; Marini, P.; Fortunati, S.; Tului, M.

    1991-05-01

    Several experiments were performed at the INFN Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) in order to detect nuclear signals, if any, coming from deuterated materials in the framework of so called ``Cold Fusion.'' We followed three, quite different, lines of experimental researches. In the first set of experiments we used electrolytic solutions of heavy water and 0.1 M LiOH with some addition of gaseous CO2, using as cathode a rod of pure Pd or Ti alloys and as anode a Pt net. We detected several intense bursts of gamma rays, lasting up to 15 minutes of duration time, with energy less than 300 KeV. In the second set of experiments we used pellets of sintered High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC) that underwent deuteration by high pressure (˜30 Bar) and temperature (˜370 K) gas loading procedure. The deuterated samples were several times cycled down to liquid nitrogen temperature and we detected by two independent 3He moderated neutron detectors (1.2% total efficiency), sporadic emission of signals mainly during these thermal cycles. Later on similar tests were performed independently by S. E. Jones and collaborators (Provo Univ., Utah) in a deep underground mine and a very intense and short neutron burst was detected by 16 independent 3He moderated neutron detectors (32% efficiency). In the third set of experiments some additional tests were performed using a low activity Am-Be neutron source, in order to study possible phenomena of enhanced neutron emission by radiation stimulation in these HTSC deuterated compounds. We detected excess counts of 2 static standard deviations, pointing to increased D-D cross section due to the effect of ceramic lattice.

  5. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Adam M.; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A.; Peretz, Fred J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Wilson, Dane F.; Yoder, Jr, Graydon L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  6. Fiber Bragg Gratings for High-Temperature Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Fielder, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were used as a characterization tool to study the SAFE-100 thermal simulator at the Nasa Marshal Space Flight Center. The motivation for this work was to support Nasa space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. Distributed high temperature measurements, up to 1150 deg. C, were made with FBG temperature sensors. Additionally, FBG strain measurements were taken at elevated temperatures to provide a strain profile of the core during operation. This paper will discuss the contribution of these measurements to meet the goals of Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center. (authors)

  7. High Temperature Transducers for Online Monitoring of Microstructure Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lissenden, Cliff; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2015-03-30

    A critical technology gap exists relative to online condition monitoring (CM) of advanced nuclear plant components for damage accumulation; there are not capable sensors and infrastructure available for the high temperature environment. The sensory system, monitoring methodology, data acquisition, and damage characterization algorithm that comprise a CM system are investigated here. Thus this work supports the DOE mission to develop a fundamental understanding of advanced sensors to improve physical measurement accuracy and reduce uncertainty. The research involves a concept viability assessment, a detailed technology gap analysis, and a technology development roadmap.

  8. High temperature (35)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance study of the LiCl-KCl system and the effect of CeCl3 dissolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Farnan, I

    2016-08-15

    This paper examines the dynamics of the LiCl-KCl system over a range of temperatures in order to understand the local structure surrounding chlorine, which is the common ion in these systems, during molten salt pyro-processing. Chlorine-35 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is sensitive to the local environments of the resonant nuclei and their motion on a diffusive timescale. Thus, it is a good probe of the atomic scale processes controlling the viscosities, diffusivities and conductivities of these molten salts. The average isotropic chemical shifts (((35)Cl)δ) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of (35)Cl in (Li,K)Cl salt mixtures have been obtained over a compositional range of 0-100 mol% KCl with an interval of 10 mol% using high temperature nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy from room temperature up to 890 °C. The ((35)Cl)δ in the two end member salts are consistent with the cation-anion radius ratio as previously measured on the solid halides and the average radius ratio of cation to anion, can be used to explain the variation of ((35)Cl)δ with composition. The quadrupolar interaction is found to be responsible for the spin-lattice relaxation of the (35)Cl, and the activation energies for T1 relaxation have been obtained for all compositions. The measured T1 ((35)Cl) activation energies do not vary linearly with composition and peak at 50% KCl, which also coincides with the Chemla point for this system. They also are in good agreement with the values from equivalent conductivity measurements. To investigate the response of the system to solutes, 8 wt% of CeCl3 was added to the pure LiCl as a surrogate actinide. The shift induced was 120 ppm and the activation energy for the T1 ((35)Cl) increased by a factor of four. This is a promising preliminary result for probing the effect of actinide dissolution on the dynamics of these pyro-processing salts. PMID:27212395

  9. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T; Klueh, Ronald L; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  10. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  11. High Temperature Thermosets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    A thermoset or network polymer is an organic material where the molecules are tied together through chemical bonds (crosslinks) and therefore they cannot move past one another. As a result, these materials exhibit a certain degree of dimensional stability. The chemical composition and the degree of crosslink density of the thermoset have a pronounced effect upon the properties. High temperature thermosets offer a favorable combination of properties that makes them attractive for many applications. Their most important features are the excellent processability particularly of the low molecular weight precusor forms, the chemical and solvent resistance and the dimensional stability. The market for high temperature thermosets will increase as new uses for them are uncovered and new thermosets with better combinations of properties are developed.

  12. High-Temperature Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1980's, Lewis Research Center began a program to develop high-temperature lubricants for use on future aircraft flying at three or more times the speed of sound, which can result in vehicle skin temperatures as high as 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit. A material that emerged from this research is a plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating metal- glass-fluoride coating able to reduce oxidation at very high temperatures. Technology is now in commercial use under the trade name Surf-Kote C-800, marketed by Hohman Plating and Manufacturing Inc. and manufactured under a patent license from NASA. Among its uses are lubrication for sliding contact bearings, shaft seals for turbopumps, piston rings for high performance compressors and hot glass processing machinery; it is also widely used in missile and space applications.

  13. High temperature future

    SciTech Connect

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1994-09-01

    During the past few years, there have been dramatic accomplishments and success of high temperature solar thermal systems and significant development of these systems. High temperature technologies, about 500 F and higher, such as dish engines, troughs, central receiver power towers and solar process heat systems, have been tested, demonstrated and used in an array of applications, including many cost-effective utility bulk power production and demand side supply projects in the United States. Large systems provide power and hot water to prisons, schools, nursing homes and other institutions. Joint ventures with industry, utility projects, laboratory design assistance and other activities are building a solid industry of US solar thermal systems ready for use today.

  14. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  15. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMOCOUPLE

    DOEpatents

    Eshayu, A.M.

    1963-02-12

    This invention contemplates a high temperature thermocouple for use in an inert or a reducing atmosphere. The thermocouple limbs are made of rhenium and graphite and these limbs are connected at their hot ends in compressed removable contact. The rhenium and graphite are of high purity and are substantially stable and free from diffusion into each other even without shielding. Also, the graphite may be thick enough to support the thermocouple in a gas stream. (AEC)

  17. High-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Ken C.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of high-temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and near-term prospects are briefly reviewed with particular reference to Lockheed's experience. Emphasis is placed on an integrated approach to systems applications of HTSC thin films, which hold the greatest near-term promise. These new materials are applied in the production of smaller, more sensitive, and more efficient electronic components to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher-performance signal acquisition and processing systems, communications systems, and computers.

  18. Heavy Liquid Metal Corrosion of Structural Materials in Advanced Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, M.; Woloshun, K.; Rubio, F.; Maloy, S. A.; Hosemann, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interest in advanced nuclear concepts using liquid metal coolant has increased in the past few years. Liquid metal coolants have been proposed for the next generation of small-sized nuclear reactors, which offer exceptional safety and reliability, sustainability, nonproliferation, and economic competitiveness. Heavy liquid metal coolants are investigated for advanced fast reactors that operate at high temperatures, reaching high efficiencies. Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolants are also proposed as coolants and targets of accelerator driven systems. High temperature, corrosive environment, high fast neutron flux, high fluence, and radiation damage, among other physical phenomena, challenge the integrity of materials in these advanced systems. Excellent compatibility with the liquid coolant is recognized as a key factor in the selection of structural materials for advanced concepts. In this article, we review materials requirements for heavy metal cooled systems with emphasis on lead and LBE materials corrosion properties. We describe experimental corrosion tests currently ongoing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Development of Lead Alloy Technical Applications (DELTA) loop. DELTA is a facility designed to study the long-term corrosive effects of LBE on structural materials under relevant conditions of chemistry, flow, and temperature. The research studies will provide data of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms in selected steel exposed to high velocity (above 2 m/s) in flowing LBE at 500°C. Fundamental research studies will help support conceptual design efforts and further the development of heavy liquid metals technology.

  19. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  20. High temperature detonator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, James O.; Dinegar, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  1. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  2. Development of Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Fe-Cr-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloy with Improved High Temperature Strenth and Creep-Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, PJ

    2004-09-30

    In February of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Special Metals Corporation-Huntington Alloys (formerly INCO Alloys International, Inc.) to develop a modified wrought austenitic stainless alloy with considerably more strength and corrosion resistance than alloy 800H or 800HT, but with otherwise similar engineering and application characteristics. Alloy 800H and related alloys have extensive use in coal flue gas environments, as well as for tubing or structural components in chemical and petrochemical applications. The main concept of the project was make small, deliberate elemental microalloying additions to this Fe-based alloy to produce, with proper processing, fine stable carbide dispersions for enhanced high temperature creep-strength and rupture resistance, with similar or better oxidation/corrosion resistance. The project began with alloy 803, a Fe-25Cr-35NiTi,Nb alloy recently developed by INCO, as the base alloy for modification. Smaller commercial developmental alloy heats were produced by Special Metals. At the end of the project, three rounds of alloy development had produced a modified 803 alloy with significantly better creep resistance above 815EC (1500EC) than standard alloy 803 in the solution-annealed (SA) condition. The new upgraded 803 alloy also had the potential for a processing boost in that creep resistance for certain kinds of manufactured components that was not found in the standard alloy. The upgraded 803 alloy showed similar or slightly better oxidation and corrosion resistance relative to standard 803. Creep strength and oxidation/corrosion resistance of the upgraded 803 alloy were significantly better than found in alloy 800H, as originally intended. The CRADA was terminated in February 2003. A contributing factor was Special Metals Corporation being in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. Additional testing, further commercial scale-up, and any potential

  3. High Temperature Metallic Seal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Amit; More, D. Greg

    2002-10-01

    A high temperature static seal capable of long term operation at temperature ranging from 1400 F to 1800 F is presented. The contents include: 1) Development approach; 2) Stress relaxation curves; 3) High temperature seal test rig; 4) High temperature seal design; and 5) High temperature seal testing. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  4. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  5. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  6. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  7. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-11-01

    In recent years, there was a growing need for electronics capable of sustained high-temperature operation for aerospace propulsion system instrumentation, control and condition monitoring, and integrated sensors. The desired operating temperature in some applications exceeds 600 C, which is well beyond the capability of currently available semiconductor devices. Silicon carbide displays a number of properties which make it very attractive as a semiconductor material, one of which is the ability to retain its electronic integrity at temperatures well above 600 C. An IR-100 award was presented to NASA Lewis in 1983 for developing a chemical vapor deposition process to grow single crystals of this material on standard silicon wafers. Silicon carbide devices were demonstrated above 400 C, but much work remains in the areas of crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication before the full potential of silicon carbide can be realized. The presentation will conclude with current and future high-temperature electronics program plans. Although the development of silicon carbide falls into the category of high-risk research, the future looks promising, and the potential payoffs are tremendous.

  8. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  9. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  10. High temperature structural silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  11. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  12. High temperature hydraulic seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  13. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  14. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  15. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  16. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  17. Advanced ceramic component development for high temperature indirect gas-fired heating systems. Final report, February 1988-September 1991 and annual report, June 1990-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, R.S.

    1992-10-01

    The CVD silicon carbide process was developed to a point where it can reproducibly deposit material within, around and along the length of tubes, either individually or in multiples. Two methods for sealing the tubes were worked out: one procedure involved a modification of the CVD process, while the other used a sealant coating after the CVD of the silicon carbide. Twenty-three radiant burner tubes 3 inch diameter and 62-1/2 inch long for the Caterpillar field test were made one at a time. The permeabilities of the tubes met the requirements of the furnace at Caterpillar. After eighteen months of operation in the field test of Nextel(TM) 312 Siconex, three tubes failed through the degradation of silicon carbide and one was broken in handling. (A total of 17 tubes were tested.) Installing the Siconex(TM) Corebusters reduced the energy usage by 22 to 25%. A total of six full-sized (8 inch x 94 inch) radiant burner tubes incoorporating the high temperature fiber, Nextel(TM) 440, were coated with silicon carbide. One full-sized 440 tube was painted with a refractory coating and tested at Columbia Gas. Aside from the painted coating flaking off, the tube was able to take the worst that Columbia could give it. Two more full-sized tubes utilizing Nextel(TM) 440 were sealed in the CVD coating process and installed in the pusher forge at SIFCO.

  18. Long Duration Performance of High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Joy L; Knudson, D. L.; Condie, K. G.; Wilkins, S. C.

    2007-05-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding, and structural materials. Data are needed to characterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. However, traditional methods for measuring temperature inpile degrade at temperatures above 1100 ºC. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. To verify the performance of INL’s recommended thermocouple design, a series of high temperature (from 1200 to 1800 ºC) long duration (up to six months) tests has been initiated. This paper summarizes results from the tests that have been completed. Data are presented from 4000 hour tests conducted at 1200 and 1400 ºC that demonstrate the stability of this thermocouple (less than 2% drift). In addition, post test metallographic examinations are discussed which confirm the compatibility of thermocouple materials throughout these long duration, high temperature tests.

  19. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  20. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This

  1. Development of Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Fe-Cr-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloy with Improved High-Temperature Strength and Creep-Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.

    2001-06-15

    In February of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Special Metals Corporation - Huntington Alloys (formerly INCO Alloys International, Inc.) to develop a modified wrought austenitic stainless alloy with considerably more strength and corrosion resistance than alloy 800H or 800HT, but with otherwise similar engineering and application characteristics. Alloy 800H and related alloys have extensive use in coal flue gas environments, as well as for tubing or structural components in chemical and petrochemical applications. The main concept of the project was make small, deliberate elemental microalloying additions to this Fe-based alloy to produce, with proper processing, fine stable carbide dispersions for enhanced high temperature creep-strength and rupture resistance, with similar or better oxidation/corrosion resistance. The project began with alloy 803, a Fe-25Cr-35NiTi,Nb alloy recently developed by INCO, as the base alloy for modification. Smaller commercial developmental alloy heats were produced by Special Metal. At the end of the project, three rounds of alloy development had produced a modified 803 alloy with significantly better creep resistance above 815 C (1500 C) than standard alloy 803 in the solution-annealed (SA) condition. The new upgraded 803 alloy also had the potential for a processing boost in that creep resistance for certain kinds of manufactured components that was not found in the standard alloy. The upgraded 803 alloy showed similar or slightly better oxidation and corrosion resistance relative to standard 803. Creep strength and oxidation/corrosion resistance of the upgraded 803 alloy were significantly better than found in alloy 800 H, as originally intended. The CRADA was terminated in February 2003. A contributing factor was Special Metals Corporation being in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. Additional testing, further commercial scale-up, and any potential

  2. High Temperature Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, C.W.

    1999-01-26

    The Remote and Specialty Equipment Section (RSES) of the Savannah River Technology Center has developed a High Temperature Inspection System (HTIS) for remotely viewing the interior of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter pour spout. The DWPF is a vitrification facility at the Savannah River Site where radioactive waste is processed, mixed and melted with glass frit in an electrically heated melter, and poured into canisters for long-term storage. The glass mixture is transferred from the melter to the canisters via the pour spout, a vertical interface between the melter and the canisters. During initial operation of the melter, problems were experienced with wicking of the glass stream to the sides of the pour spout resulting in pluggage of the pour spout. A removable insert was developed to eliminate the wicking problem. Routine cleaning of the pour spout and replacement of the insert requires that the pour spout interior be inspected on a regular basis. The HTIS was developed to perform the inspection. The HTIS provides two video images: one view for aligning the HTIS with the pour spout and the other for inspecting the pour spout wall condition and other surfaces. The HTIS is carried into the melter cell using an overhead crane and is remotely connected to the cell's telerobotic manipulator (TRM). An operator uses the TRM to insert the HTIS into the 2-inch (5.08 cm) diameter pour spout, rotate it 360 degrees, and then remove it. This application created many challenges for the inspection device, especially regarding size and temperature. The HTIS design allows the video cameras to stay below a safe operating temperature during use in the 1100 degrees C environment. Many devices are designed to penetrate a wall and extend into a heated chamber only a few inches, but the HTIS is inserted into the heated chamber 22 inches (55.88 cm). Other devices can handle the insertion length and small diameter, but they are not designed to handle the high

  3. Recent advances in understanding nuclear size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Richik N; Chen, Pan; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-04-25

    Size and shape are important aspects of nuclear structure. While normal cells maintain nuclear size within a defined range, altered nuclear size and shape are associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown if altered nuclear morphology contributes to pathology, and answering this question requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size and shape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nuclear morphology, focusing on nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell cycle, and potential links between nuclear size and size regulation of other organelles. We then discuss the functional significance of nuclear morphology in the context of early embryonic development. Looking toward the future, we review new experimental approaches that promise to provide new insights into mechanisms of nuclear size control, in particular microfluidic-based technologies, and discuss how altered nuclear morphology might impact chromatin organization and physiology of diseased cells. PMID:26963026

  4. Silicon carbide, an emerging high temperature semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have expressed a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high temperature operation. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include development instrumentation within engines, engine control, and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Other earth-based applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, nuclear reactor instrumentation and control, and automotive sensors. To meet the needs of these applications, the High Temperature Electronics Program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. Research is focussed on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of silicon carbide electronic devices and integrated sensors. The progress made in developing silicon carbide is presented, and the challenges that lie ahead are discussed.

  5. Silicon carbide, an emerging high temperature semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have expressed a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high temperature operation. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include development instrumentation within engines, engine control, and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Other earth-based applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, nuclear reactor instrumentation and control, and automotive sensors. To meet the needs of these applications, the High Temperature Electronics Program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. Research is focussed on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of silicon carbide electronic devices and integrated sensors. The progress made in developing silicon carbide is presented, and the challenges that lie ahead are discussed.

  6. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  7. High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 149 NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (Web, free access)   The NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (WebHTS) provides evaluated thermal, mechanical, and superconducting property data for oxides and other nonconventional superconductors.

  8. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  9. Cost effective machining and inspection of structural ceramic components for advanced high temperature application. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0151

    SciTech Connect

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Haselkorn, M.

    1996-11-29

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was a mutual research and development (R and D) effort among the participants to investigate a range of advanced manufacturing technologies for two silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic materials. The general objective was to identify the most cost-effective part manufacturing processes for the ceramic materials of interest. The focus was determining the relationship between material removal rates, surface quality, and the structural characteristics of each ceramic resulting from three innovative processes. These innovated machining processes were studied using silicon nitride advanced materials. The particular (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) materials of interest were sintered GS-44 from the Norton Company, and reaction-bonded Ceraloy 147-3. The processes studied included the following activities: (1) direct laser machining; (2) rotary ultrasonic machining; and (3) diamond abrasive grinding, including both resinoid and vitreous-bonded grinding wheels. Both friable and non-friable diamond types were included within the abrasive grinding study. The task also conducted a comprehensive survey of European experience in use of ceramic materials, principally aluminum oxide. Originally, the effort of this task was to extend through a prototype manufacturing demonstration of selected engine components. During the execution of this program, however changes were made to the scope of the project, altering the goals. The Program goal became only the development of assessment of their impacts on product strength and surface condition.

  10. Advanced safeguards for the nuclear renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael C; Menlove, Howard O

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy provides not only the benefit of carbon-neutral electricity, but also the potential for proliferation concern as well. Nuclear safeguards implemented at the state level (domestic) and at the international level by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are essential for ensuring that nuclear materials are not misused and are thereby a critical component of the increased usage of nuclear energy. In the same way that the 1950's Atoms for Peace initiative provided the foundation for a robust research and development program in nuclear safeguards, the expansion of nuclear energy that is underway today provides the impetus to enter a new era of technical development in the safeguards community. In this paper, we will review the history of nuclear safeguards research and development as well future directions.

  11. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, G.P.; Blackman, M.

    1961-07-25

    BS>A device is descrined for producing nuclear fusion reactions by additional acceleration of a hydrogen isotope plasma formed and initially accelerated by a collapsing magnetic field. The plasma is enclosed in a toroidal cavity within a vessel composed of a plurality of insulated coaxial segments. The added acceleration is caused by providing progressing potentials to the insulated segments acting as electrodes by means of a segmented delay transmission line coupled to the electrode segments and excited by a two phase alternating current supply.

  13. High temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of the development of new composite materials for advanced aircraft engines. The advantages and disadvantages of Ti-base, NiAl-base, and MoSi2-base composites as replacements for today's Ni-base superalloys are discussed from the standpoint of key technical issues, current status, and future directions. Results describing progress in both improved understanding of the mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and improved material performance will be covered.

  14. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  15. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  16. Advanced thin-film deposition and physical properties of high-temperature and other novel superconducting materials. Annual report, 15 October 1991-31 October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, M.R.; Geballe, T.H.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1993-06-03

    Progress under AFOSR Contract F49620-92-C-0004 for the period 15 October 1991 to 31 October 1992 is reported. Important results include studies of the grain boundaries in a-axis oriented high-Tc superconducting 123 YBCO thin films, the study of the vortex properties of high-Tc single crystals of the superconductor 2212 BSCCO and the artificially structured Mo-Ge/Ge quasi-two-dimensional superconductors. The latter provide an outstanding model system for the study of vortices in highly anisotropic superconductors, such at the high-Tc cuprates, without all the attendant difficult materials problems. Progress in the synthesis and study of the so-called infinite layer cuprate SrCuO4 and the normally conducting oxide SrRuO3 of interest as a barrier materials in high-Tc SNS devices are also reported. Finally the authors report the development of advanced approaches to rate control of the cation fluxes in the reactive coevaporation of the high-Tc superconductors.... High-Tc superconductivity, Anisotropic superconductivity, SrCuO4, SrRuO3, Mo-Ge/Ge superconducting multilayers.

  17. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  18. SciDAC Fusiongrid Project--A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    SCHISSEL, D.P.; ABLA, G.; BURRUSS, J.R.; FEIBUSH, E.; FREDIAN, T.W.; GOODE, M.M.; GREENWALD, M.J.; KEAHEY, K.; LEGGETT, T.; LI, K.; McCUNE, D.C.; PAPKA, M.E.; RANDERSON, L.; SANDERSON, A.; STILLERMAN, J.; THOMPSON, M.R.; URAM, T.; WALLACE, G.

    2006-08-31

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large

  19. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  20. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-25

    The results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  1. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-25

    Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

  2. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    The results of work performed from July 1, 1979 through September 30, 1979 on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-LOOP FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER FACILITY FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR REACTOR THERMAL HYDRAULIC AND HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-09-01

    A new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility for advanced nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Molten salts have been identified as excellent candidate heat transport fluids for primary or secondary coolant loops, supporting advanced high temperature and small modular reactors (SMRs). Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed. A preliminary design configuration will be presented, with the required characteristics of the various components. The loop will utilize advanced high-temperature compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) operating at prototypic intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) conditions. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750°C), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa) at a temperature of ~450°C. Experiment design challenges include identification of suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. Corrosion and high temperature creep behavior are major considerations. The facility will include a thermal energy storage capability designed to support scaled process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will also provide important data for code ve

  4. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, S. D.

    2014-04-15

    The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  5. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  6. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01

    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  7. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  8. High-temperature process heat applications with an HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    An 842-MW(t) HTGR-process heat (HTGR-PH) design and several synfuels and energy transport processes to which it could be coupled are described. As in other HTGR designs, the HTGR-PH has its entire primary coolant system contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) which provides the necessary biological shielding and pressure containment. The high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. With a capability to produce hot helium in the secondary loop at 800/sup 0/C (1472/sup 0/F) with current designs and 900/sup 0/C (1652/sup 0/F) with advanced designs, a large number of process heat applications are potentially available. Studies have been performed for coal liquefaction and gasification using nuclear heat.

  9. Improved Durability of SOEC Stacks for High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Xiaoyu Zhang; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Greg Tao

    2013-01-01

    High temperature steam electrolysis is a promising technology for efficient and sustainable large-scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are able to utilize high temperature heat and electric power from advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors or renewable sources to generate carbon-free hydrogen at large scale. However, long term durability of SOECs needs to be improved significantly before commercialization of this technology can be realized. A degradation rate of 1%/khr or lower is proposed as a threshold value for commercialization of this technology. Solid oxide electrolysis stack tests have been conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate recent improvements in long-term durability of SOECs. Electrolyte-supported and electrode-supported SOEC stacks were provided by Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI), respectively, for these tests. Long-term durability tests were generally operated for a duration of 1000 hours or more. Stack tests based on technologies developed at Ceramatec and MSRI have shown significant improvement in durability in the electrolysis mode. Long-term degradation rates of 3.2%/khr and 4.6%/khr were observed for MSRI and Ceramatec stacks, espectively. One recent Ceramatec stack even showed negative degradation (performance improvement) over 1900 hours of operation. Optimization of electrode materials, interconnect coatings, and electrolyte-electrode interface microstructures contribute to better durability of SOEC stacks.

  10. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  11. NDE standards for high temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1991-01-01

    High temperature materials include monolithic ceramics for automotive gas turbine engines and also metallic/intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites for a range of aerospace applications. These are materials that can withstand extreme operating temperatures that will prevail in advanced high-efficiency gas turbine engines. High temperature engine components are very likely to consist of complex composite structures with three-dimensionality interwoven and various intermixed ceramic fibers. The thermomechanical properties of components made of these materials are actually created in-place during processing and fabrication stages. The complex nature of these new materials creates strong incentives for exact standards for unambiguous evaluations of defects and microstructural characteristics. NDE techniques and standards that will ultimately be applicable to production and quality control of high temperature materials and structures are still emerging. The needs range from flaw detection to below 100 micron levels in monolithic ceramics to global imaging of fiber architecture and matrix densification anomalies in composites. The needs are different depending on the processing stage, fabrication method, and nature of the finished product. The standards are discussed that must be developed in concert with advances in NDE technology, materials processing research, and fabrication development. High temperature materials and structures that fail to meet stringent specifications and standards are unlikely to compete successfully either technologically or in international markets.

  12. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Neutronic Core Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan; Holcomb, David Eugene; Varma, Venugopal Koikal

    2012-01-01

    The AHTR is a 3400 MW(t) FHR class reactor design concept intended to serve as a central generating station type power plant. While significant technology development and demonstration remains, the basic design concept appears sound and tolerant of much of the remaining performance uncertainty. No fundamental impediments have been identified that would prevent widespread deployment of the concept. This paper focuses on the preliminary neutronic design studies performed at ORNL during the fiscal year 2011. After a brief presentation of the AHTR design concept, the paper summarizes several neutronic studies performed at ORNL during 2011. An optimization study for the AHTR core is first presented. The temperature and void coefficients of reactivity are then analyzed for a few configurations of interest. A discussion of the limiting factors due to the fast neutron fluence follows. The neutronic studies conclude with a discussion of the control and shutdown options. The studies presented confirm that sound neutronic alternatives exist for the design of the AHTR to maintain full passive safety features and reasonable operation conditions.

  13. Advanced Metallic Seal for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Terence; Swensen, Jeff; Layer, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The U-Plex(Registered TradeMark) was designed to allow greater elastic deflection capability in a given gland volume than the now conventional E-seal(Regitered TradeMark). Greater deflection capability with the associated lower bending stresses provides several benefits. For pneumatic duct joints, the axial free height is increased to allow sealing of flanges with weld distortions significantly in excess of what could be tolerated with E-seals(Registered TradeMark), This performance is achieved while maintaining the reusability and ease of assembly typical of E-seal(Registered TradeMark) rigid duct joints.

  14. Advanced high-temperature electromagnetic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahan, J. W.; Powell, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Three phase helical, electromagnetic induction pump for use as boiler feed pump in potassium Rankine-cycle power system is described. Techniques for fabricating components of pump are discussed. Specifications of pump are analyzed.

  15. Advanced high temperature static strain sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Stetson, K. A.; Grant, H. P.; Jameikis, S. M.; Morey, W. W.; Raymondo, P.; Grudkowski, T. W.; Bailey, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    An examination was made into various techniques to be used to measure static strain in gas turbine liners at temperatures up to 1150 K (1600 F). The methods evaluated included thin film and wire resistive devices, optical fibers, surface acoustic waves, the laser speckle technique with a heterodyne readout, optical surface image and reflective approaches and capacitive devices. A preliminary experimental program to develop a thin film capacitive device was dropped because calculations showed that it would be too sensitive to thermal gradients. In a final evaluation program, the laser speckle technique appeared to work well up to 1150 K when it was used through a relatively stagnant air path. The surface guided acoustic wave approach appeared to be interesting but to require too much development effort for the funds available. Efforts to develop a FeCrAl resistive strain gage system were only partially successful and this part of the effort was finally reduced to a characterization study of the properties of the 25 micron diameter FeCrAl (Kanthal A-1) wire. It was concluded that this particular alloy was not suitable for use as the resistive element in a strain gage above about 1000 K.

  16. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Yang, Ying; Sridharan, K.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  17. Controlled thermonuclear fusion, high temperature plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    The primary source of nuclear energy comes from the fission process of heavy nuclei. To utilize the energy released by a thermonuclear fusion process, methods of controlling the fusion reaction were studied. This is controlled thermonuclear fusion technology. The fuel used in a thermonuclear fusion process are isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. They can be extracted from the almost unlimited seawater. Nuclear fusion also produces very little radioactive waste. Thermonuclear fusion is a promising energy source with an almost unlimited supply; it is economical, safe, and relatively clean. Ways to raise plasma temperature to a very high level and to maintain it to allow fusion reactions to take place are studied. The physical laws of high temperature plasma was studied to reach this goal which resulted in the development of high temperature plasma physics.

  18. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-04-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

  19. Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Piepsz, A

    1995-04-01

    This review is devoted to some controversial topics in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine. In most cases, drug sedation can be avoided and the nuclear medicine procedure can be successfully achieved simply by taking the emotional life of the child into account. Factors such as past negative experiences (painful procedures, hospitalizations), unfamiliar environment (frightening examination room), physical aggressions related to the nuclear medicine procedure (intravenous injections, cystography), and the feeling of loss of parents' protection all contribute to the child's anxiety. People in charge of pediatric procedures should be adequately trained to be aware of these factors and to create the best environmental conditions to avoid unnecessarily frightening the child. Methods for measuring renal clearance in children are numerous. It is my aim to review the different methods proposed in the literature, including the nonradioisotopic methods, the reference radioisotopic methods, the various simplified algorithms using blood samples, and the gamma-camera methods. Gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy is a well-established procedure for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. However, despite the numerous advantages of this technique, it has not gained wide acceptance in the field of pediatric gastroenterology. This review focuses mainly on the comparison between scintigraphy and pH metry. Finally, the applications of 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylenamine brain single photon emission computer tomography in the field of pediatric neurology are still under development; this part of the review is an attempt to summarize the real contribution of this technique. PMID:7597419

  20. A high temperature superconductivity communications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, P.; Krishen, K.; Arndt, D.; Raffoul, G.; Karasack, V.; Bhasin, K.; Leonard, R.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) millimeter-wave communications flight experiment from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) in geosynchronous orbit is described. The experiment will use a Ka-band HTSC phased array antenna and front-end electronics to receive a downlink communications signal from the ACTS. The discussion covers the system configuration, a description of the ground equipment, the spacecraft receiver, link performance, thermal loading, and the superconducting antenna array.

  1. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. PMID:27400217

  2. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  3. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  5. Containerless high temperature calorimeter apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A calorimeter apparatus for measuring high temperature thermophysical properties of materials is disclosed which includes a containerless heating apparatus in which the specimen is suspended and heated by electron bombardment.

  6. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  7. Measuring flow and pressure of lithium coolant under developmental testing of a high-temperature cooling system of a space nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. Ya.; Sinyavsky, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-megawatt space NPP use lithium as a coolant and niobium alloy as a structural material. In order to refine the lithium-niobium technology of the material and design engineering, lithium-niobium loops were worked out in RSC Energia, and they were tested at a working temperature of lithium equal to 1070-1300 K. In order to measure the lithium flow and pressure, special gauges were developed, which made possible the calibration and checkout of the loops without their dismantling. The paper describes the architecture of the electromagnetic flowmeter and the electromagnetic vibrating-wire pressure transducer (gauge) for lithium coolant in the nuclear power plant cooling systems. The operating principles of these meters are presented. Flowmeters have been developed for channel diameters ranging from 10 to 100 mm, which are capable of measuring lithium flows in the range of 0.1 to 30 L/s with the error of 3% for design calibration and 1% for volume graduation. The temperature error of the pressure transducers does not exceed 0.4% per 100 K; the nonlinearity and hysteresis of the calibration curve do not exceed 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. The transducer applications are illustrated by the examples of results obtained from tests on the NPP module mockup and heat pipes of a radiation cooler.

  8. Life assessment of high temperature headers

    SciTech Connect

    Nakoneczny, G.J.; Schultz, C.C.

    1995-08-01

    High temperature superheater and reheater headers have been a necessary focus of any boiler life extension project done by the electric utilities. These headers operate at high temperatures in excess of 900 F and are subject to thermal stresses and pressure stresses that can lead to cracking and failure. Babcock and Wilcox Company`s investigation of these problems began in 1982 focusing on P11 materials (1{1/4}Cr-{1/2}Mo). Early assessment was limited to dimensional analysis methods which were aimed at quantifying swell due to creep. Condition assessment and remaining useful life analysis methods have evolved since these initial studies. Experience coupled with improved inspection methods and analytical techniques has advanced the life assessment of these high temperature headers. In the discussion that follows the authors provide an overview of B and W`s approach to header life assessment including the location and causes for header failures, inspection techniques and analysis methods which are all directed at determining the remaining useful life of these high temperature headers.

  9. MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) design and development status

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.; Neylan, A.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is an advanced power plant concept which has been under design definition since 1984. The design utilizes basic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor features of ceramic fuel, helium coolant and a graphite moderator which have been under development for 30 years. The geometric arrangement of the reactor vessels, the core and the heat removal components has been selected to exploit the inherent characteristics associated with high temperature materials. The design utilizes passively safe features which provide a higher margin of safety and investment protection than current generation reactors. The design has been evaluated to be economically attractive relative to modern coal fired plants. The design and development program is a cooperative effort by the US government, the utilities and the nuclear industry. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  11. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  13. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  14. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  15. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Advances and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the state-of-the-art in areas important to monitoring, current challenges, specific efforts that illustrate approaches addressing shortcomings in capabilities, and additional approaches that might be helpful. The exponential increase in the number of events that must be screened as magnitude thresholds decrease presents one of the greatest challenges. Ongoing efforts to exploit repeat seismic events using waveform correlation, subspace methods, and empirical matched field processing holds as much "game-changing" promise as anything being done, and further efforts to develop and apply such methods efficiently are critical. Greater accuracy of travel time, signal loss, and full waveform predictions are still needed to better locate and discriminate seismic events. Important developments include methods to model velocities using multiple types of data; to model attenuation with better separation of source, path, and site effects; and to model focusing and defocusing of surface waves. Current efforts to model higher frequency full waveforms are likely to improve source characterization while more effective estimation of attenuation from ambient noise holds promise for filling in gaps. Censoring in attenuation modeling is a critical problem to address. Quantifying uncertainty of discriminants is key to their operational use. Efforts to do so for moment tensor (MT) inversion are particularly important, and fundamental progress on the statistics of MT distributions is the most important advance needed in the near term in this area. Source physics is seeing great progress through theoretical, experimental, and simulation studies. The biggest need is to accurately predict the effects of source conditions on seismic generation. Uniqueness is the challenge here. Progress will depend on studies that probe what distinguishes mechanisms, rather than whether one of many possible mechanisms is consistent with some set of observations.

  16. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Lybeck

    2010-08-01

    ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: 1. Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing – 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. 2. Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram – 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  17. Gallium phosphide high temperature diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop high temperature (> 300/sup 0/C) diodes for geothermal and other energy applications. A comparison of reverse leakage currents of Si, GaAs and GaP is made. Diodes made from GaP should be usable to > 500/sup 0/C. An LPE process for producing high quality, grown junction GaP diodes is described. This process uses low vapor pressure Mg as a dopant which allows multiple boat growth in the same LPE run. These LPE wafers have been cut into die and metallized to make the diodes. These diodes produce leakage currents below 10/sup -3/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 400/sup 0/C while exhibiting good high temperature rectification characteristics. High temperature life test data is presented which shows exceptional stability of the V-I characteristics.

  18. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II

    1993-05-01

    Several advanced power plant concepts are currently under development. These include the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Advanced Light Water Reactors. One measure of the attractiveness of a new concept is its cost. Invariably, the cost of a new type of power plant will be compared with other alternative forms of electrical generation. This report provides a common starting point, whereby the cost estimates for the various power plants to be considered are developed with common assumptions and ground rules. Comparisons can then be made on a consistent basis. This is the second update of these cost estimate guidelines. Changes have been made to make the guidelines more current (January 1, 1992) and in response to suggestions made as a result of the use of the previous report. The principal changes are that the reference site has been changed from a generic Northeast (Middletown) site to a more central site (EPRI`s East/West Central site) and that reference bulk commodity prices and labor productivity rates have been added. This report is designed to provide a framework for the preparation and reporting of costs. The cost estimates will consist of the overnight construction cost, the total plant capital cost, the operation and maintenance costs, the fuel costs, decommissioning costs and the power production or busbar generation cost.

  19. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  20. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  1. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  2. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  3. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  4. High-Temperature Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature electrostatic levitator provides independent control of levitation and heating of sample in vacuum. Does not cause electromagnetic stirring in molten sample (such stirring causes early nucleation in undercooling). Maintenance of levitating force entails control of electrostatic field and electrical charge on sample.

  5. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  6. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  7. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  8. High-temperature plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics.

  9. A solar high temperature kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettenhoelscher, N.; Bergmann, K.

    1981-11-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy in developing countries for baking ceramic construction materials was investigated. The solar high temperature kiln is described. It uses two parabolic concentrators which direct available radiation into the baking chamber. The Sun tracker has only one axis. Preliminary test results with the prototype kiln were satisfactory.

  10. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  11. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  12. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  13. Relevance of advanced nuclear fusion research: Breakthroughs and obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    An in depth understanding of the collective modes that can be excited in a wide range of high-energy plasmas is necessary to advance nuclear fusion research in parallel with other fields that include space and astrophysics in particular. Important achievements are shown to have resulted from implementing programs based on this reality, maintaining a tight connection with different areas of investigations. This involves the undertaking of a plurality of experimental approaches aimed at understanding the physics of fusion burning plasmas. At present, the most advanced among these is the Ignitor experiment involving international cooperation, that is designed to investigate burning plasma regimes near ignition for the first time.

  14. (Advanced materials, robotics, and advanced computers for use in nuclear power plants)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1989-11-17

    The aim of the IAEA Technical Committee Workshop was to provide an opportunity to exchange information on the status of advances in technologies such as improved materials, robotics, and advanced computers already used or expected to be used in the design of nuclear power plants, and to review possible applications of advanced technologies in future reactor designs. Papers were given in these areas by Belgium, France, Mexico, Canada, Russia, India, and the United States. Notably absent from this meeting were Japan, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Scandinavian countries -- all of whom are working in the areas of interest to this meeting. Most of the workshop discussion, however, was focused on advanced controls (including human-machine interface and software development and testing) and electronic descriptions of power plants. Verification and validation of design was also a topic of considerable discussion. The traveler was surprised at the progress made in 3-D electronic images of nuclear power plants and automatic updating of these images to reflect as-built conditions. Canadian plants and one Mexican plant have used photogrammetry to update electronic drawings automatically. The Canadians also have started attaching other electronic data bases to the electronic drawings. These data bases include parts information and maintenance work. The traveler observed that the Advanced Controls Program is better balanced and more forward looking than other nuclear controls R D activities described. The French participants made this observation in the meeting and expressed interest in collaborative work in this area.

  15. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

    2010-10-01

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  16. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  17. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01

    War II. High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of syn-gas production from CO2 and water, with no consumption of fossil fuels, and no production of greenhouse gases. Thermal CO2-splitting and water splitting for syn-gas production can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis, using high-temperature nuclear process heat and electricity. A high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-syn-gas conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%.

  18. High temperature surface protection. [10 gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Alloys of the MCrAlX type are the basis for high temperature surface protection systems in gas turbines. M can be one or more of Ni, Co, or Fe and X denotes a reactive metal added to enhance oxide scale adherence. The selection and formation as well as the oxidation, hot corrosion and thermal fatigue performance of MCrAlX coatings are discussed. Coatings covered range from simple aluminides formed by pack cementation to the more advanced physical vapor deposition overlay coatings and developmental plasma spray deposited thermal barrier coatings.

  19. High temperature superconducting digital circuits and subsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, J.S.; Pance, A.; Whiteley, S.R.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.F.; Lee, L.; Hietala, V.M.; Wendt, J.R.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.

    1993-10-01

    The advances in the fabrication of high temperature superconducting devices have enabled the demonstration of high performance and useful digital circuits and subsystems. The yield and uniformity of the devices is sufficient for circuit fabrication at the medium scale integration (MSI) level with performance not seen before at 77 K. The circuits demonstrated to date include simple gates, counters, analog to digital converters, and shift registers. All of these are mid-sized building blocks for potential applications in commercial and military systems. The processes used for these circuits and blocks will be discussed along with observed performance data.

  20. High-temperature polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymers research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has produced high-temperature, easily processable resin systems, such as PMR-15. In addition, the Polymers Branch has investigated ways to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and the microcracking resistance of polymer matrix composites in response to industry need for new and improved aeropropulsion materials. Current and future research in the Polymers Branch is aimed at advancing the upper use temperature of polymer matrix composites to 700 F and beyond by developing new resins, by examining the use of fiber reinforcements other than graphite, and by developing coatings for polymer matrix composites to increase their oxidation resistance.

  1. Non-contact Creep Resistance Measurement for Ultra-high temperature Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Lee, Jonghuyn; Bradshaw, Richard C.; Rogers, Jan; Rathz, Thomas J.; Wall, James J.; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    Continuing pressures for higher performance and efficiency in propulsion are driving ever more demanding needs for high-temperature materials. Some immediate applications in spaceflight include combustion chambers for advanced chemical rockets and turbomachinery for jet engines and power conversion in nuclear-electric propulsion. In the case of rockets, the combination of high stresses and high temperatures make the characterization of creep properties very important. Creep is even more important in the turbomachinery, where a long service life is an additional constraint. Some very high-temperature materials are being developed, including platinum group metals, carbides, borides, and silicides. But the measurement of creep properties at very high temperatures is itself problematic, because the testing instrument must operate at such high temperatures. Conventional techniques are limited to about 1700 C. A new, containerless technique for measuring creep deformation has been developed. This technique is based on electrostatic levitation (ESL) of a spherical sample, which is heated to the measurement temperature and rotated at a rate such that the centrifugal acceleration causes creep deformation. Creep of samples has been demonstrated at up to 2300 C in the ESL facility at NASA MSFC, while ESL itself has been applied at over 3000 C, and has no theoretical maximum temperature. The preliminary results and future directions of this NASA-funded research collaboration will be presented.

  2. Multifunctional, High-Temperature Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Ghose, Sayata

    2007-01-01

    In experiments conducted as part of a continuing effort to incorporate multifunctionality into advanced composite materials, blends of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a resin denoted gPETI-330 h (wherein gPETI h is an abbreviation for gphenylethynyl-terminated imide h) were prepared, characterized, and fabricated into moldings. PETI-330 was selected as the matrix resin in these experiments because of its low melt viscosity (<10 poise at a temperature of 280 C), excellent melt stability (lifetime >2 hours at 280 C), and high temperature performance (>1,000 hours at 288 C). The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), obtained from the University of Kentucky, were selected because of their electrical and thermal conductivity and their small diameters. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the combination of thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties achievable while still maintaining melt processability. The PETI-330/MWCNT mixtures were prepared at concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 weight-percent of MWCNTs by dry mixing of the constituents in a ball mill using zirconia beads. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing and thermal and rheological properties. The neat resin was found to have melt viscosity between 5 and 10 poise. At 280 C and a fixed strain rate, the viscosity was found to increase with time. At this temperature, the phenylethynyl groups do not readily react and so no significant curing of the resin occurred. For MWCNT-filled samples, melt viscosity was reasonably steady at 280 C and was greater in samples containing greater proportions of MWCNTs. The melt viscosity for 20 weightpercent of MWCNTs was found to be .28,000 poise, which is lower than the initial estimated allowable maximum value of 60,000 poise for injection molding. Hence, MWCNT loadings of as much as 20 percent were deemed to be suitable compositions for scale-up. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed the MWCNTs to be well

  3. High Temperature Calibration Furnace System user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The High Temperature Calibration Furnace System (HTCFS) was developed by Summitec Corporation. It is a high precision instrument providing a constant temperature which can be used to calibrate high temperature thermocouples. Incorporating the many recent technological advances from the fields of optical fiber thermometry, material science, computer systems interfacing, and process control, the engineers at Summitec Corporation have been able to create a system that can reach a steady operating temperature of 1700 C. The precision for the system requires the measurement of temperature to be within 1 C in two hours and within 2 C in 24 hours. As documented, the experimental result shows that this system has been able to stay within .5 C in 5 hours. No other systems commercially available have been able to achieve such high temperature precision. This manual provides an overview of the system design, instructions for instrument setup, and operation procedures. Also included are a vendor list and the source codes for the custom-designed software.

  4. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  5. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  6. Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and

  7. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  8. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  9. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  10. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-06

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  11. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  12. High Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have used photovoltaic arrays for power generation. If future mission to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. In this paper, we derive the optimum bandgap as a function of the operating temperature.

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  14. High-temperature geothermal cableheads

    SciTech Connect

    Coquat, J.A.; Eifert, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    Two high-temperature, corrosion-resistant logging cableheads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable-sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable-sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile-environment loggings in which these cableheads were used.

  15. High temperature solar thermal receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A design concept for a high temperature solar thermal receiver to operate at 3 atmospheres pressure and 2500 F outlet was developed. The performance and complexity of windowed matrix, tube-header, and extended surface receivers were evaluated. The windowed matrix receiver proved to offer substantial cost and performance benefits. An efficient and cost effective hardware design was evaluated for a receiver which can be readily interfaced to fuel and chemical processes or to heat engines for power generation.

  16. Containerless high-temperature calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B.; Robinson, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Samples are heated by electron bombardment in high-temperature calorimeter that operates from 1,000 to 3,600 C yet consumes less that 100 watts at temperatures less than 2,500 C. Contamination of samples is kept to minimum by suspending them from wire in vacuum chamber. Various sample slopes such as wires, dishs, spheres, rods, or irregular bodies can be accommodated and only about 100 nq of samples are needed for accurate measurements.

  17. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  18. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  19. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  20. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  1. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  2. Shielding considerations for advanced space nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.P. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    To meet the anticipated future space power needs, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing components for a compact, 100 kW/sub e/-class heat pipe nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) as its fuel, and is designed to operate around 1500 k. Heat pipes are used to remove thermal energy from the core without the use of pumps or compressors. The reactor heat pipes transfer mal energy to thermoelectric conversion elements that are advanced versions of the converters used on the enormously successful Voyager missions to the outer planets. Advanced versions of this heat pipe reactor could also be used to provide megawatt-level power plants. The paper reviews the status of this advanced heat pipe reactor and explores the radiation environments and shielding requirements for representative manned and unmanned applications.

  3. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  4. Substitution of ceramics for high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramics such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide are currently receiving a great deal of attention as potential materials for advanced gas turbine engines. The primary advantage offered by ceramics is their high temperature capability which can result in turbine engines of improved efficiency. Other advantages when compared to the nickel and cobalt alloys in current use are raw material availability, lower weight, erosion/corrosion resistance, and potentially lower cost. The use of ceramics in three different sizes of gas turbine engines is considered; these are the large utility turbines, advanced aircraft turbines, and small automotive turbines. The effects of material substitutions are reviewed in terms of engine performance, operating economy, and secondary effects.

  5. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  6. High temperature sorbents for oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A sorbent capable of removing trace amounts of oxygen (ppt) from a gas stream at a high temperature above 200 C comprising a porous alumina silicate support, such as zeolite, containing from 1 to 10 percent by weight of ion exchanged transition metal, such as copper or cobalt ions, and 0.05 to 1.0 percent by weight of an activator selected from a platinum group metal such as platinum is described. The activation temperature, oxygen sorption, and reducibility are all improved by the presence of the platinum activator.

  7. High Temperature Sorbents for Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A sorbent capable of removing trace amounts of oxygen (ppt) from a gas stream at a high temperature above 200 C is introduced. The sorbent comprises a porous alumina silicate support such as zeolite containing from 1 to 10 percent by weight of ion exchanged transition metal such as copper or cobalt ions and 0.05 to 1.0 percent by weight of an activator selected from a platinum group metal such as platinum. The activation temperature, oxygen sorption and reducibility are all improved by the presence of the platinum activator.

  8. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  9. High-Temperature Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Chazen, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Two rocket engines that operate at temperature of 2,500 K designed to provide thrust for station-keeping adjustments of geosynchronous satellites, for raising and lowering orbits, and for changing orbital planes. Also useful as final propulsion stages of launch vehicles delivering small satellites to low orbits around Earth. With further development, engines used on planetary exploration missions for orbital maneuvers. High-temperature technology of engines adaptable to gas-turbine combustors, ramjets, scramjets, and hot components of many energy-conversion systems.

  10. High temperature drilling mud composition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a composition having improved rheological properties and improved stability at high temperatures and pressure for use in a water-based drilling mud comprising a high-yield bentonite, a low-yield bentonite and leonardite, wherein the weight ratio of the high-yield bentonite to the low-yield bentonites in the range of about 10:1 to about 1:1, and the leonardite is present in the amount of about 0.1% to 1.0% by total dry weight of the composition.

  11. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  12. High temperature sealed electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Valentin Chung, Brice Hoani; Burke, Paul J.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2015-10-06

    A cell for high temperature electrochemical reactions is provided. The cell includes a container, at least a portion of the container acting as a first electrode. An extension tube has a first end and a second end, the extension tube coupled to the container at the second end forming a conduit from the container to said first end. A second electrode is positioned in the container and extends out of the container via the conduit. A seal is positioned proximate the first end of the extension tube, for sealing the cell.

  13. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  14. High-temperature testing of glass/ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, John F.; Grande, Dodd H.; Dannemann, Kathryn A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in ceramic and other high-temperature composites have created a need for test methods that can be used at 1000 C and above. Present test methods usually require adhesively bonded tabs that cannot be used at high temperatures. This paper discusses some of the difficulties with high-temperature test development and describes several promising test methods. Stress-strain data are given for Nicalon ceramic fiber reinforced glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites tested in air at temperatures up to 1000 C.

  15. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  16. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-02-06

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as {approx} 16 We/kg and {approx} 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is {approx} 640 m2 and {approx} 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is {approx} 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is {approx} 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems.

  17. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-02-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ˜ 16 We/kg and ˜ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ˜ 640 m2 and ˜ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ˜ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ˜ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems.

  18. Advanced Space Nuclear Reactors from Fiction to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    The advanced nuclear power sources are used in a large variety of science fiction movies and novels, but their practical development is, still, in its early conceptual stages, some of the ideas being confirmed by collateral experiments. The novel reactor concept uses the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electricity, has electronic control of reactivity, being surrounded by a transmutation blanket and very thin shielding being small and light that at its very limit may be suitable to power an autonomously flying car. It also provides an improved fuel cycle producing minimal negative impact to environment. The key elements started to lose the fiction attributes, becoming viable actual concepts and goals for the developments to come, and on the possibility to achieve these objectives started to become more real because the theory shows that using the novel nano-technologies this novel reactor might be achievable in less than a century.

  19. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  20. Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator for advanced nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Multi-physics nuclear reactor simulator, which aims to utilize for advanced nuclear engineering education, is being introduced to Nagoya Univ.. The simulator consists of the 'macroscopic' physics simulator and the 'microscopic' physics simulator. The former performs real time simulation of a whole nuclear power plant. The latter is responsible to more detail numerical simulations based on the sophisticated and precise numerical models, while taking into account the plant conditions obtained in the macroscopic physics simulator. Steady-state and kinetics core analyses, fuel mechanical analysis, fluid dynamics analysis, and sub-channel analysis can be carried out in the microscopic physics simulator. Simulation calculations are carried out through dedicated graphical user interface and the simulation results, i.e., spatial and temporal behaviors of major plant parameters are graphically shown. The simulator will provide a bridge between the 'theories' studied with textbooks and the 'physical behaviors' of actual nuclear power plants. (authors)

  1. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  2. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  3. HITCAN: High temperature composite analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.; Lackney, Joseph J.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code, HITCAN (High Temperature Composite Analyzer) was developed to analyze/design metal matrix composite structures. HITCAN is based on composite mechanics theories and computer codes developed at NASA LeRC over the last two decades. HITCAN is a general purpose code for predicting the global structural and local stress-strain response of multilayered (arbitrarily oriented) metal matrix structures both at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) and the structure level and including the fabrication process effects. The thermomechanical properties of the constituents are considered to be nonlinearly dependent on several parameters including temperature, stress, and stress rate. The computational procedure employs an incremental iterative nonlinear approach utilizing a multifactor-interaction material behavior model. HITCAN features and analysis capabilities (static, load stepping, modal, and buckling) are demonstrated through typical example problems.

  4. Compensated High Temperature Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring strain in substrates at high temperatures in which the thermally induced apparent strain is nulled is described. Two gages are used, one active gage and one compensating gage. Both gages are placed on the substrate to be gaged; the active gage is attached such that it responds to mechanical and thermally induced apparent strain while the compensating gage is attached such that it does not respond to mechanical strain and and measures only thermally induced apparent strain. A thermal blanket is placed over the two gages to maintain the gages at the same temperature. The two gages are wired as adjacent arms of a wheatstone bridge which nulls the thermally induced apparent strain giving a true reading of the mechanical strain in the substrate.

  5. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  6. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  7. High temperature size selective membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.F.; Swamikannu, A.X.

    1993-09-01

    The high temperature membrane, capable of operation above 550{degree}C, is designed to be a composite membrane composed of a thin layer of a size selective membrane supported by a microporous ceramic support. The kinetic diameters of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are 2.96 {Angstrom} and 4.00 {Angstrom}. The thin layer will be made from CMS whose pore size will be controlled to be less than 4 {Angstrom}. The membrane will be truly size selective and be impermeable to carbon dioxide. The membrane will have higher selectivity than membranes which operate on Knudsen diffusion mechanism. The ceramic support will be fabricated from Allied Signal`s proprietary Blackglas{trademark} resin. The ceramic material, noted for its high thermal and oxidative resistance, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which matches closely that of CMS. The close match will insure mechanical integrity when the membrane is subjected to thermal cycles. The CMS layer will be produced by controlled pyrolysis of polymeric precursors. Pore size will be suitably modified by post-treatments to the carbon. The composite membrane will be tested for its permeation properties at 550{degree}C or higher. Thermal, mechanical and chemical stability of the membrane will be assessed. We have produced several samples of CMS from polymeric precursors. We have initiated work also on the preparation of microporous supports from Blackglas{trademark} resin. We have completed the design of the high temperature membrane pilot plant. The membrane cell was fabricated out of two kinds of stainless steel. The inner parts are made of SS 316 and the outer ring made of SS 420. The greater thermal expansion of the SS 316 will help obtain a leak free seal at the operating temperatures.

  8. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2<τ /{τy0}≤slant 0.5 and then transitions to a power-law form at even lower stresses τ /{τy0}<0.03 . Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and {τy0} remains as the reference energy and stress scales over the entire range of stresses. The model is applied to literature data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  9. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.B. ); Takahashi, Y. ); Ainsworth, R.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Described is the background work performed jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom with the purpose of developing a high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for reactor components. Existing creep-fatigue crack-growth models are reviewed, and the most promising methods are identified. Sources of material data are outlined, and results of the fundamental deformation and crack-growth tests are discussed. Results of subcritical crack-growth exploratory tests, creep-fatigue crack-growth tests under repeated thermal transient conditions, and exploratory failure tests are presented and contrasted with the analytical modeling. Crack-growth assessment methods are presented and applied to a typical liquid-metal reactor component. The research activities presented herein served as a foundation for the Flaw Assessment Guide for High-Temperature Reactor Components Subjected to Creep-Fatigue Loading published separately. 30 refs., 108 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. The NASA high temperature superconductivity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    It has been recognized from the onset that high temperature superconductivity held great promise for major advances across a broad range of NASA interests. The current effort is organized around four key areas: communications and data, sensors and cryogenics, propulsion and power, and space materials technology. Recently, laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on LaAIO produced far superior RF characteristics when compared to metallic films on the same substrate. This achievement has enabled a number of unique microwave device applications, such as low insertion loss phase shifters and high Q filters. Melt texturing and melt quenched techniques are being used to produce bulk materials with optimized magnetic properties. These yttrium enriched materials possess enhanced flux pinning characteristics and will lead to prototype cryocooler bearings. Significant progress has also occurred in bolometer and current lead technology. Studies are being conducted to evaluate the effect of high temperature superconducting materials on the performance and life of high power magneto-plasma-dynamic thrusters. Extended studies were also performed to evaluate the benefit of superconducting magnetic energy storage for LEO space station, lunar and Mars mission applications. The project direction and level of effort of the program are also described.

  11. Nano copper based high temperature solder alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Akshay

    Nano Cu an alternative to high temperature solder is developed by the Advance Technological Center at the Lockheed Martin Corporation. A printable paste of Cu nano particles is developed with an ability to fuse at 200°C in reflow oven. After reflow the deposited material has nano crystalline and nano porous structure which affects its properties. Accelerated test are performed on nano Cu deposition having nano porous and nano crystalline structure for assessment and prediction of reliability. Nano Cu assemblies with different bond layer thickness are sheared to calculate the strength of the material and are correlated with the porous and crystalline structure of nano Cu. Thermal and isothermal fatigue test are performed on nano Cu to see the dependency of life on stress and further surface of failed assemblies were observed to determine the type of failure. Creep test at RT are performed to find the type of creep mechanism and how they are affected when subjected to high temperature. TEM, SEM, X-ray, C-SAM and optical microscopy is done on the nano Cu sample for structure and surface analysis.

  12. Dynamic high-temperature-phosphor thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.; Capps, G.J.; Muhs, J.D.; Smith, D.B.; Cates, M.R.

    1990-08-01

    Dynamic surface phosphor thermometry is being investigated as part of a continuing effort by the Applied Technology Division (ATD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop and apply thermographic phosphor technology to an ever expanding thermometry field. The purpose of this program is to develop dynamic surface phosphor thermometry to a stage where funding proposals can be strengthened by establishing a strong information base and demonstrating a sound capability. As a new technology development in an area well established by ATD/ORNL, dynamic thermometry is extremely important for high-temperature materials, superconducting materials, advanced turbomachinery, space vehicles, industrial process equipment, and other development areas. This laboratory project illustrated the technique of continuously monitoring dynamic temperature excursions using phosphor thermography. Temperature-increase rates on the order of 100 or more degrees centigrade per millisecond were measured, which illustrated a temporal response of >0.001 s. This exceeded by a factor of ten the goal or the project and gave strong encouragement for further development of the technology. Important to the project, too, was the establishment of a clear analytical base for fluorescent-ratio data. Using the results of this study, specific solutions to dynamic-temperature-measurement problems in many application areas can be developed. In addition, the dynamic-thermographic technology can be coupled with strain measurement, two-dimensional analysis, and thermometry at very high temperatures to add interrelating remote measurement tools for systems that currently cannot be effectively studied. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant's structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

  14. Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2006-11-01

    Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant’s structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

  15. THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS PROGRAM AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: OBSERVATIONS ON PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; K. G. Condie; G. K. Housley

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the high-temperature electrolysis research and development program at the Idaho National Laboratory, with selected observations of electrolysis cell degradation at the single-cell, small stack and large facility scales. The objective of the INL program is to address the technical and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for hydrogen production from steam. In the envisioned application, high-temperature electrolysis would be coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor for efficient large-scale non-fossil non-greenhouse-gas hydrogen production. The program supports a broad range of activities including small bench-scale experiments, larger scale technology demonstrations, detailed computational fluid dynamic modeling, and system modeling. A summary of the current status of these activities and future plans will be provided, with a focus on the problem of cell and stack degradation.

  16. A VISION of Advanced Nuclear System Cost Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    J'Tia Taylor; David E. Shropshire; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2008-08-01

    VISION (VerifIable fuel cycle SImulatiON) is the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s and Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Program’s nuclear fuel cycle systems code designed to simulate the US commercial reactor fleet. The code is a dynamic stock and flow model that tracks the mass of materials at the isotopic level through the entire nuclear fuel cycle. As VISION is run, it calculates the decay of 70 isotopes including uranium, plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products. VISION.ECON is a sub-model of VISION that was developed to estimate fuel cycle and reactor costs. The sub-model uses the mass flows generated by VISION for each of the fuel cycle functions (referred to as modules) and calculates the annual cost based on cost distributions provided by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report1. Costs are aggregated for each fuel cycle module, and the modules are aggregated into front end, back end, recycling, reactor, and total fuel cycle costs. The software also has the capability to perform system sensitivity analysis. This capability may be used to analyze the impacts on costs due to system uncertainty effects. This paper will provide a preliminary evaluation of the cost uncertainty affects attributable to 1) key reactor and fuel cycle system parameters and 2) scheduling variations. The evaluation will focus on the uncertainty on the total cost of electricity and fuel cycle costs. First, a single light water reactor (LWR) using mixed oxide fuel is examined to ascertain the effects of simple parameter changes. Three system parameters; burnup, capacity factor and reactor power are varied from nominal cost values and the affect on the total cost of electricity is measured. These simple parameter changes are measured in more complex scenarios 2-tier systems including LWRs with mixed fuel and fast recycling reactors using transuranic fuel. Other system parameters are evaluated and results will be presented in the paper. Secondly, the uncertainty due to

  17. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Basis and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Jim Kinsey; Dave Alberstein

    2014-01-01

    Various international efforts are underway to assess the safety of advanced nuclear reactor designs. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently held its first Consultancy Meeting on a new cooperative research program on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety. Furthermore, the Generation IV International Forum Reactor Safety Working Group has recently developed a methodology, called the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, for use in Generation IV advanced reactor technology development, design, and design review. A risk and safety assessment white paper is under development with respect to the Very High Temperature Reactor to pilot the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology and to demonstrate its validity and feasibility. To support such efforts, this information paper on the modular HTGR safety basis and approach has been prepared. The paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach. The paper gives those involved in the assessment of advanced reactor designs an opportunity to assess an advanced design that has already received extensive review by regulatory authorities and to judge the utility of recently proposed new methods for advanced reactor safety assessment such as the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology.

  18. High-temperature solar central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinrood, A. C.

    1981-07-01

    Designs and concepts for solar central receiver thermal power plants are reviewed. Concentrations of over 1,000 suns are now possible, and seven prototype plants, producing from 1-10 MWe, are close to completion, employing cavity and external receiver configurations. Heat transfer fluids are discussed, noting that the water/steam cycle is emerging as the dominant mode; liquid sodium is benefitting from extensive testing for nuclear power plants; molten salt provides thermal storage at $10-30/kWt-hr; high temperature gas systems (815 C) can be applied for gypsum board drying and NH3 production. Heliostats are all of a steel/glass configuration and require mass production to become economical. Thermal storage systems, applications for repowering in conjunction with conventional power plants, and cogeneration for electricity/process heat are examined, and power costs are projected to match those of coal if the central receiver construction costs can be halved.

  19. High-Temperature, Flexible, Pressure-Assisted Brush Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic-fibers brush and integral spring clip block hot, engine flows. High-temperature, pressure-assisted brush seal installed in movable panel in advanced hypersonic engine. Seal prevents flow of hot engine gas from penetrating gap between movable panel and adjacent stationary panel. Potential applications include sealing gaps in variable-geometry two-dimensional turbojet exhaust nozzles or sealing control surface gaps of hypersonic vehicles. Ceramic brush seals also used as structural seals in high-temperature furnaces or advanced ceramic heat exchangers.

  20. Indicator system for advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  1. Advances in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background Drug discovery is a complex and unpredictable endeavor with a high failure rate. Current trends in the pharmaceutical industry have exasperated these challenges and are contributing to the dramatic decline in productivity observed over the last decade. The industrialization of science by forcing the drug discovery process to adhere to assembly-line protocols is imposing unnecessary restrictions, such as short project time-lines. Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance are responding to these self-imposed limitations and are providing opportunities to increase the success rate of drug discovery. Objective/Method A review of recent advancements in NMR technology that have the potential of significantly impacting and benefiting the drug discovery process will be presented. These include fast NMR data collection protocols and high-throughput protein structure determination, rapid protein-ligand co-structure determination, lead discovery using fragment-based NMR affinity screens, NMR metabolomics to monitor in vivo efficacy and toxicity for lead compounds, and the identification of new therapeutic targets through the functional annotation of proteins by FAST-NMR. Conclusion NMR is a critical component of the drug discovery process, where the versatility of the technique enables it to continually expand and evolve its role. NMR is expected to maintain this growth over the next decade with advancements in automation, speed of structure calculation, in-cell imaging techniques, and the expansion of NMR amenable targets. PMID:20333269

  2. The high temperature structural evolution of hafnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, Ryan Paul

    The transformations of HfO2 are often described as analogous with the transformations in ZrO2 because of the similar crystal structures; however the phase transformations in HfO2 occur at higher temperatures. Even though this phase transformation has been extensively studied in ZrO2, the respective transformation in HfO2 is relatively unstudied and the properties that are reported are inconsistent. Much of the difficulty associated with studying HfO2 is related to the high temperatures needed and the sensitivity of the crystal to the environmental partial pressure of O2. HfO2 is expected to be capable of producing the same level of transformation toughening as ZrO2 at temperatures beyond 1000°C, the thermodynamic limit for toughened ZrO2. Despite significant effort the toughening acquired has not met with expectation. By providing information on the structure of HfO2 as it undergoes transformation, this study makes a significant step towards solving this problem. Significant advancements in experimentation have enabled a systematic study of the structure of HfO2 in its monoclinic and tetragonal phases in air. Using a quadrupole lamp furnace and a novel curved image plate detector the structure of HfO2 and ZrO 2 have been characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The structural information provided by these experiments allows the properties of the transformation to be further investigated. Using phenomenological theory of martensite crystallography, the strain associated with the transformation from the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase has been described and provides insight into the lack of transformation toughening found in HfO2. Further characterization includes determination of the transformation temperature in air, the change in volume associated with the transformation and the temperature hysteresis of the transformation. In addition to transformation properties, the thermal expansion of HfO2 and ZrO2 has been thoroughly described as a function

  3. A 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, XANES, and high-temperature X-ray diffraction study of NaUO3, Na4UO5, and Na2U2O7.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Raison, P E; Martel, L; Charpentier, T; Farnan, I; Prieur, D; Hennig, C; Scheinost, A C; Konings, R J M; Cheetham, A K

    2014-01-01

    The valence state of uranium has been confirmed for the three sodium uranates NaU(V)O3/[Rn](5f(1)), Na4U(VI)O5/[Rn](5f(0)), and Na2U(VI)2O7/[Rn](5f(0)), using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Solid-state (23)Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements have been performed for the first time, yielding chemical shifts at -29.1 (NaUO3), 15.1 (Na4UO5), and -14.1 and -19 ppm (Na1 8-fold coordinated and Na2 7-fold coordinated in Na2U2O7), respectively. The [Rn]5f(1) electronic structure of uranium in NaUO3 causes a paramagnetic shift in comparison to Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7, where the electronic structure is [Rn]5f(0). A (23)Na multi quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) study on Na2U2O7 has confirmed a monoclinic rather than rhombohedral structure with evidence for two distinct Na sites. DFT calculations of the NMR parameters on the nonmagnetic compounds Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7 have permitted the differentiation between the two Na sites of the Na2U2O7 structure. The linear thermal expansion coefficients of all three compounds have been determined using high-temperature X-ray diffraction: αa = 22.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 12.9 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 16.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 52.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for NaUO3 in the range 298-1273 K; αa = 37.1 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 6.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 81.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na4UO5 in the range 298-1073 K; αa = 6.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 14.4 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 26.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), αβ = -7.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = -217.6 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na2U2O7 in the range 298-573 K. The α to β phase transition reported for the last compound above about 600 K was not observed in the present studies, either by high-temperature X-ray diffraction or by differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:24350659

  4. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  5. High-temperature ceramic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazdiyasni, K. S.

    1990-11-01

    The principal goals of this program are (1) to demonstrate fabrication of high-temperature ceramic superconductors via sol-gel method that can operate at or above 90 K with appropriate current density, J(sub c), in forms useful for application in resonant cavities, magnets, motors, sensors, computers, and other devices; and (2) to fabricate and demonstrate selected components made of these materials, including microwave cavities and magnetic shields. Chemical pathways for synthesis of 123 identified, process parameters window for sol-gel derived 123 fibers established, continuous flexible fibers 15 to 200 microns in diameter producted, fibers with T(sub c) is approximate or equal to 92.5 K, Delta T = 1.5 K, J(sub c) = 2000 A/sqcm at 77 K, 0 field; 4000 at 57K, 100 Oe was produced, formed adherent 123 oriented films on metals and ceramic substrates, achieved film T(sub c) is approximate or equal to 92 K, Delta T = 4 k, J(sub c) = 400 A/sq cm at 40 K, O field.

  6. High-temperature gas filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, H.P.; Laux, S.; Renz, U. . Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik)

    1992-10-01

    High-temperature, high-pressure filtration is important to the development of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology. This volume describes the commissioning and testing of a pilot-scale filter module rated at 1 to 4 bar pressure and up to 900[degrees]C. The module consists of an array of six porous sintered silicon carbide filter elements, designed to be cleaned on-line by jet pulses of compressed air. More than 2000 hours of exposure were achieved with FBC combustion gas with inlet dust concentrations of 500 to 40,000 ppM[sub w] at 200 to 650[degrees]C. Another 3500 hours of operation were achieved with simulated gas and injected dust. The filter elements were subjected to 60,000 cleaning cycles. No dust penetration through the filter modules was detected. After an initial stabilizing period, pressure drop remained moderate at less that 50 mbar (0.7 psi). The energy expended in pulse cleaning was negligible. No crusty deposits of dust were found on the filter elements during inspections, and no irreversible blinding occurred.

  7. High temperature two component explosive

    DOEpatents

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  8. Sialons as high temperature insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Kuo, Y. S.

    1978-01-01

    Sialons were evaluated for application as high temperature electrical insulators in contact with molybdenum and tungsten components in hard vacuum applications. Both D.C. and variable frequency A.C. resistivity data indicate the sialons to have electrical resistivity similar to common oxide in the 1000 C or higher range. Metallographic evaluations indicate good bonding of the type 15R ALN polytype to molybdenum and tungsten. The beta prime or modified silicon nitride phase was unacceptable in terms of vacuum stability. Additives effect on electrical resistivity. Similar resistivity decreases were produced by additions of molybdenum or tungsten to form cermets. The use of hot pressing at 1800 C with ALN, Al2 O3 and Si3N4 starting powders produced a better product than did a combination of SiO2 and AIN staring powders. It was indicated that sialons will be suitable insulators in the 1600K range in contact with molybdenum or tungsten if they are produced as a pure ceramic and subsequently bonded to the metal components at temperatures in the 1600K range.

  9. High-temperature containerless calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.; Lacy, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-temperature (greater than 1500 K) containerless calorimeter is described and its usefulness demonstrated. The calorimeter uses the technique of omnidirectional electron bombardment of pendant drops to achieve an isothermal test environment. The small heat input into the sample (i.e., 15-50 W) can be controlled and measured. The apparatus can be used to determine the total hemispherical emissivity, specific heat, heat of fusion, surface tension, and equilibrium melting temperature of small molten drops in the temperature range of 1500 to 3500 K. The total hemispherical emissivity and specific heat of pure niobium and two alloys of niobium-germanium have been measured in the temperature range of 1700 to 2400 K. As reported in the literature, the total hemispherical emissivity varied as a function of temperature. However, specific heat values for both the pure metal and alloys seem to be independent of temperature. Specific heat for the liquid alloy phase was also measured and compared to the solid phase.

  10. NUCLEAR DATA RESOURCES FOR ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    PRITYCHENKO, B.

    2006-06-05

    The mission of the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) includes collection, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear physics data for basic nuclear research and applied nuclear technologies. In 2004, to answer the needs of nuclear data users, NNDC completed a project to modernize storage and management of its databases and began offering new nuclear data Web services. Examples of nuclear reaction, nuclear structure and decay database applications along with a number of nuclear science codes are also presented.

  11. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Wilkins, S. Curt

    2011-01-18

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  12. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  13. Design of an Integrated Laboratory Scale Test for Hydrogen Production via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    G.K. Housley; K.G. Condie; J.E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

    2007-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800º-900ºC, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. An Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test is underway to study issues such as thermal management, multiple-stack electrical configuration, pre-heating of process gases, and heat recuperation that will be crucial in any large-scale implementation of HTE. The current ILS design includes three electrolysis modules in a single hot zone. Of special design significance is preheating of the inlet streams by superheaters to 830°C before entering the hot zone. The ILS system is assembled on a 10’ x 16’ skid that includes electronics, power supplies, air compressor, pumps, superheaters, , hot zone, condensers, and dew-point sensor vessels. The ILS support system consists of three independent, parallel supplies of electrical power, sweep gas streams, and feedstock gas mixtures of hydrogen and steam to the electrolysis modules. Each electrolysis module has its own support and instrumentation system, allowing for independent testing under different operating conditions. The hot zone is an insulated enclosure utilizing electrical heating panels to maintain operating conditions. The target hydrogen production rate for the ILS is 5000 Nl/hr.

  14. High temperature power electronics for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Baumann, Eric D.; Myers, Ira T.; Overton, Eric

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature electronics program at NASA Lewis Research Center focuses on dielectric and insulating materials research, development and testing of high temperature power components, and integration of the developed components and devices into a demonstrable 200 C power system, such as inverter. An overview of the program and a description of the in-house high temperature facilities along with experimental data obtained on high temperature materials are presented.

  15. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  16. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants. PMID:26716881

  17. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration. PMID:22317419

  18. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  19. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with a relatively low intensity (3  ×  1016 W cm-2) allowed the enhancing of the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the ‘ultraclean’ proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as a target. A combination of the specific target composition and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed the enhancing of the yield of alpha particles up to 109 per steradian. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long-laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  20. IMPULSE---an advanced, high performance nuclear thermal propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, L.J.; Disney, R.K.; Mangus, J.D. ); Gunn, S.A.; Zweig, H.R. )

    1993-01-10

    IMPULSE is an advanced nuclear propulsion engine for future space missions based on a novel conical fuel. Fuel assemblies are formed by stacking a series of truncated (U, Zr)C cones with non-fueled lips. Hydrogen flows radially inward between the cones to a central plenum connected to a high performance bell nozzle. The reference IMPULSE engine rated at 75,000 lb thrust and 1800 MWt weighs 1360 kg and is 3.65 meters in height and 81 cm in diameter. Specific impulse is estimated to be 1000 for a 15 minute life at full power. If longer life times are required, the operating temperature can be reduced with a concomitant decrease in specific impulse. Advantages of this concept include: well defined coolant paths without outlet flow restrictions; redundant orificing; very low thermal gradients and hence, thermal stresses, across the fuel elements; and reduced thermal stresses because of the truncated conical shape of the fuel elements.

  1. INITIAL RESULTS FROM INVESTIGATIONS TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION-RESISTANT THERMOCOUPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Crepeau, John; Rempe, Joy; Wilkins, S. Curtis; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Daw, Joshua

    2007-04-01

    New fuel, cladding, and structural materials offer the potential for safer and more economic energy from existing reactor and advanced nuclear reactor designs. However, insufficient data are available to characterize these materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. To evaluate candidate material performance, robust instrumentation is needed that can survive these conditions. However, traditional thermocouples either drift due to degradation at high temperatures (above 1100 °C) or due to transmutation of thermocouple components. Thermocouples are needed which can withstand both high temperature and high radiation environments. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently developed the design and evaluated the performance of a high temperature radiation-resistant thermocouple that contains commercially-available alloys of molybdenum and niobium (Rempe, 2006). Candidate thermocouple component materials were first identified based on their ability to withstand high temperature and radiation. Then, components were selected based on data obtained from materials interaction tests, ductility investigations, and resolution evaluations. Results from long duration (over 4000 hours) tests at high temperatures (up to 1400 °C) and thermal cycling tests demonstrate the stability and reliability of the INL-developed design. Tests in INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) are underway to demonstrate the in-pile performance of these thermocouples. However, several options have been identified that could further enhance the lifetime and reliability of the INL-developed thermocouples, allowing their use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1700 °C). A joint University of Idaho (UI) and INL University Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (UNERI) is underway to investigate these options and ultimately, provide recommendations for an enhanced thermocouple design. This paper presents preliminary results from this UI/INL effort

  2. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  3. Challenges in the Development of High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Carl Stoots

    2013-10-01

    Advanced reactor designs offer potentially significant improvements over currently operating light water reactors including improved fuel utilization, increased efficiency, higher temperature operation (enabling a new suite of non-electric industrial process heat applications), and increased safety. As with most technologies, these potential performance improvements come with a variety of challenges to bringing advanced designs to the marketplace. There are technical challenges in material selection and thermal hydraulic and power conversion design that arise particularly for higher temperature, long life operation (possibly >60 years). The process of licensing a new reactor design is also daunting, requiring significant data collection for model verification and validation to provide confidence in safety margins associated with operating a new reactor design under normal and off-normal conditions. This paper focuses on the key technical challenges associated with two proposed advanced reactor concepts: the helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the molten salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR).

  4. Development of high temperature, high radiation resistant silicon semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorl, C. A.; Evans, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a hardened silicon power transistor for operation in severe nuclear radiation environments at high temperature was studied. Device hardness and diffusion techniques are discussed along with the geometries of hardened power transistor chips. Engineering drawings of 100 amp and 5 amp silicon devices are included.

  5. Proceedings of the Conference on High-temperature Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of electronic devices for use in high temperature environments is addressed. The instrumentational needs of planetary exploration, fossil and nuclear power reactors, turbine engine monitoring, and well logging are defined. Emphasis is place on the fabrication and performance of materials and semiconductor devices, circuits and systems and packaging.

  6. Extruded Self-Lubricating Solid For High-Temperature Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Waters, W. J.; Soltis, R. F.; Bemis, K.

    1996-01-01

    "EX-212" denotes high-density extruded form of composite solid material self-lubricating over wide range of temperatures. Properties equal or exceed those of powder-metallurgy version of this material. Developed for use in advanced engines at high temperatures at which ordinary lubricants destroyed.

  7. High-Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. For example, the equilibrium temperature of a Mercury surface station will be about 450 C, and the temperature of solar arrays on the proposed "Solar Probe" mission will extend to temperatures as high as 2000 C (although it is likely that the craft will operate on stored power rather than solar energy during the closest approach to the sun). Advanced thermal design principles, such as replacing some of the solar array area with reflectors, off-pointing, and designing the cells to reflect rather than absorb light out of the band of peak response, can reduce these operating temperature somewhat. Nevertheless, it is desirable to develop approaches to high-temperature solar cell design that can operate under temperature extremes far greater than today's cells. Solar cells made from wide bandgap (WBG) compound semiconductors are an obvious choice for such an application. In order to aid in the experimental development of such solar cells, we have initiated a program studying the theoretical and experimental photovoltaic performance of wide bandgap materials. In particular, we have been investigating the use of GaP, SiC, and GaN materials for space solar cells. We will present theoretical results on the limitations on current cell technologies and the photovoltaic performance of these wide-bandgap solar cells in a variety of space conditions. We will also give an overview of some of NASA's cell developmental efforts in this area and discuss possible future mission applications.

  8. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  9. Kinetic evidence for the formation of discrete 1,4-dehydrobenzene intermediates. Trapping by inter- and intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer and observation of high-temperature CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization). [Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, T.P.; Comita, P.B.; Bergman, R.G.

    1981-07-15

    Upon being heated, alkyl-substituted cis-1,2-diethynyl olefins undergo cyclization to yield reactive 1,4-dehydrobenzenes; the products isolated may be derived from either unimolecular or bimolecular reactions of the intermediate. (Z)-4,5-Diethynyl-4-octene (4) undergoes rearrangement to yield 2,3-di-n-propyl-1,4-dehydrobenzene (17). Solution pyrolysis of 4 in inert aromatic solvents produces three unimolecular products, (Z)-dodeca-4,8-diyn-6-ene (7), benzocycloctene (9), and o-allyl-n-propylbenzene (10), in high yield. When 1,4-cyclohexadiene is added to the pyrolysis solution as a trapping agent high yields of the reduced product o-di-n-propylbenzene (12) are obtained. The kinetics of solution pyrolysis of 4 in the presence and absence of trapping agent pyl-1,4-dehydrobenzene is a discrete intermediate on the pathway leading to products. When the reaction was run in the heated probe of an NMR spectrometer, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization was observed in 10. This observation, along with kinetic and chemical trapping evidence, indicates the presence of two additional intermediates, formed from 17 by sequential intramolecular (1,5) hydrogen transfer, on the pathway to products. The observation of CIDNP, coupled with the reactivity exhibited by 17 and the other two intermediates, implicates a biradical description of these molecules.

  10. High temperature durable catalyst development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, G. C.; Tong, H.

    1981-01-01

    A program has been carried out to develop a catalytic reactor capable of operation in environments representative of those anticipated for advanced automotive gas turbine engines. A reactor consisting of a graded cell honeycomb support with a combination of noble metal and metal oxide catalyst coatings was built and successfully operated for 1000 hr. At an air preheat temperature of 740 K and a propane/air ratio of 0.028 by mass, the adiabatic flame temperature was held at about 1700 K. The graded cell monolithic reaction measured 5 cm in diameter by 10.2 cm in length and was operated at a reference velocity of 14.0 m/s at 1 atm. Measured NOx levels remained below 5 ppm, while unburned hydrocarbon concentrations registered near zero and carbon monoxide levels were nominally below 20 ppm.

  11. NUCLEAR DATA NEEDS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS. A NEA NUCLEAR SCIENCE COMMITTEE INITIATIVE.

    SciTech Connect

    SALVATORES,J.M.; ALIBERTI, G.; PALMIOTTI, G.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; HERMANN, M.; TALOU, P.; KAWANO, T.; LEAL, L.; KONING, A.; KODELI, I.

    2007-04-22

    The Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee has established an International Subgroup to perform an activity in order to develop a systematic approach to define data needs for Gen-IV and, in general, for advanced reactor systems. A methodology, based on sensitivity analysis has been agreed and representative core configurations for Sodium, Gas and Lead cooled Fast Reactors (SFR, GFR, LFR) have been defined as well as a high burn-up VHTR and a high burn-up PWR. In the case of SFRs, both a TRU burner (called in fact SFR) and a core configuration with homogeneous recycling of not separated TRU (called EFR) have been considered.

  12. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  13. 187Re - 187Os Nuclear Geochronometry: Advancing Precambrian Chronostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2015-04-01

    ). This age is virtually the same as the previously reported isochrone age of 2501.1 ± 8.2 Ma [6]. However, as can be derived from the nucleogeochronometric TPI calculations, accuracy and precision of the initial 187Os/188Osratio are now significantly improved in comparison with the conventional isochrone approach. Since a TPI age can be calculated for a single drill core sample taken from the stratigraphic column, it may be concluded that 187Re - 187Os nuclear geochronometry is a powerful tool to significantly advance especially (but not only) Archean and Proterozoic chronostratigraphy even on a small scale. [1] Burbidge et al. (1957), Revs. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 - 650. [2] Cameron (1957), CRL-41, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario. [3] Hoyle et al. (1960) ApJ 132, 565 - 590. [4] Roller (2014), GSA Abstr. 46, 6, 323. [5] Roller (1997), PhD Thesis, RKP N+T, Munich. [6] Anbar et al. (2007), Science 317, 1903 - 1906. [7] Ludwig (2012), Isoplot/Ex. 3.75, Special Publication Nr. 5, BGC, Berkeley.

  14. High Temperature Electromechanical Components for Control Rod Drive Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Thomas E.; Lazarus, Jonathan D.; Yaspo, Robert; Cole, Allan R.; Otwell, Robert L.; Schuster, Gary B.; Jaing, Thomas J.; Meyer, Raymond A.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Maldonado, Jerry

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 power system converts heat generated within a compact fast spectrum nuclear reactor directly to electricity for spacecraft applications. The reactor control system contains the only moving mechanical and electromechanical components in the entire electrical generating system. The high temperature, vacuum environment presents unique challenges for these reactor control system components. This paper describes the environmental testing of these components that has been completed and that is in progress. The specific components and assemblies include electromagnetic (EM) coils, stepper motors, EM clutches, EM brakes, ball bearings, ball screw assemblies, constant torque spring motors, gear sets, position sensors, and very high temperature sliding bearings.

  15. NASA's high-temperature engine materials program for civil aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Hugh R.; Ginty, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program is described in terms of its research initiatives and its goal of developing propulsion systems for civil aeronautics with low levels of noise, pollution, and fuel consumption. The program emphasizes the analysis and implementation of structural materials such as polymer-matrix composites in fans, casings, and engine-control systems. Also investigated in the program are intermetallic- and metal-matrix composites for uses in compressors and turbine disks as well as ceramic-matrix composites for extremely high-temperature applications such as turbine vanes.

  16. Recent advances in nuclear physics through on-line isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David Gareth

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear physics is advancing rapidly at the precision frontier, where measurements of nuclear observables are challenging state-of-the-art nuclear models. A major contribution is associated with the increasing availability of accelerated beams of radioactive ions produced using the isotope separation on-line technique. These advances have come hand in hand with significant progress in the development of high-efficiency detector systems and improved target technologies which are invaluable in exploiting these beams to their full advantage. This article reviews some of the recent highlights in the field of nuclear structure profiting from these technological advances.

  17. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-12-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the

  18. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; van der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali

    2009-07-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power ≤5.1 W/kg. A higher specific power would result in more onboard power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same onboard power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermomechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  19. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; Van Der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power less than or equal to 5.1 W/kg. Higher specific power would result in more on-board power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same on-board power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermo-mechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  20. A high-temperature heat sensitive element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This invention concerns the high-temperature heat sensitive element which is stable at high temperatures. A solid solution of the main component MgO-Al2O3-Cr2O3-Fe2O3 which contains spinel crystal structure is mixed with the secondary component ZrO2 at the mol ratio of 100 : 0.1 to 5.0 and sintered to prepare a high-temperature heat sensitive element.

  1. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  2. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  3. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Allen; J. B. Benson; J. A. Foster; F. M. Marshall; M. K. Meyer; M. C. Thelen

    2009-05-01

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  4. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  5. Dynamic, High-Temperature, Flexible Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    New seal consists of multiple plies of braided ceramic sleeves filled with small ceramic balls. Innermost braided sleeve supported by high-temperature-wire-mesh sleeve that provides both springback and preload capabilities. Ceramic balls reduce effect of relatively high porosity of braided ceramic sleeves by acting as labyrinth flow path for gases and thereby greatly increasing pressure gradient seal can sustain. Dynamic, high-temperature, flexible seal employed in hypersonic engines, two-dimensional convergent/divergent and vectorized-thrust exhaust nozzles, reentry vehicle airframes, rocket-motor casings, high-temperature furnaces, and any application requiring non-asbestos high-temperature gaskets.

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  8. An Advanced Tokamak Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2010-11-01

    A Fusion Development Facility (FDF) is a candidate for FNSF-AT. It is a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that uses AT physics to provide the neutron fluence required for fusion nuclear science development. FDF is conceived as a double-null plasma with high elongation and triangularity, predicted to allow good confinement of high plasma pressure. Steady-state is achieved with high bootstrap current and radio frequency current drive. Neutral beam injection and 3D non-resonant magnetic field can provide edge plasma rotation for stabilization of MHD and access to Quiescent H-mode. The estimated power exhaust is somewhat lower than that of ITER because of higher core radiation and stronger tilting of the divertor plates. FDF is capable of further developing all elements of AT physics, qualifying them for an advanced performance DEMO. The latest concept has accounted for realistic neutron shielding and divertor implementation. Self-consistent evolution of the transport profiles and equilibrium will quantify the stability and confinement required to meet the FNS mission.

  9. Urania vapor composition at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pflieger, Rachel; Colle, Jean-Yves; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Sheindlin, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Due to the chemically unstable nature of uranium dioxide its vapor composition at very high temperatures is, presently, not sufficiently studied though more experimental knowledge is needed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors. We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the produced vapor to study urania vapor composition at temperatures in the vicinity of its melting point and higher. The very good agreement between measured melting and freezing temperatures and between partial pressures measured on the temperature increase and decrease indicated that the change in stoichiometry during laser heating was very limited. The evolutions with temperature (in the range 2800-3400 K) of the partial pressures of the main vapor species (UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}, and UO{sub 2}{sup +}) were compared with theoretically predicted evolutions for equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid and gas-solid phase coexistences and showed very good agreement. The measured main relative partial pressure ratios around 3300 K all agree with calculated values for total equilibrium between condensed and vapor phases. It is the first time the three main partial pressure ratios above stoichiometric liquid urania have been measured at the same temperature under conditions close to equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid phase coexistence.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  11. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.B.

    1982-07-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectangular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable, and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  12. Bolting alloy fills high-temperature gap

    SciTech Connect

    Buzolits, S.R.; Kline, L.A.

    1995-02-01

    A high-strength, high-temperature fastener alloy has been developed by SPS Technologies to meet the requirements of today`s advanced turbine engines. Designated Aerex 350, it is based on the multiphase materials cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum to take advantage of their low notch sensitivity, high strength, and excellent resistance to creep and corrosion. In choosing the chemical composition of Aerex 350 Alloy (25Co, 17Cr, 3Mo, 2Ti, 1Al, 1Nb, 4Ta, 2W, balance Ni), researchers sought to produce physical properties equivalent to those of conventional nickel-base superalloys such as Waspaloy. As a result, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, specific heat, enthalpy, modulus, Poisson`s ratio, and density are all in the ranges common to that class. Perhaps the most important of these is its coefficient of thermal expansion, which ranges from 13.5 {mu}m/m{degree}C at 425 C to 14.8 {mu}m/m{degree}C at 700 C. A bolt with a higher coefficient of expansion than the joint material would be detrimental because clamp load can be reduced significantly as the assembly heats up. Therefore, the expansion characteristics of Aerex 350 Alloy ensure joint integrity up to the highest operating temperatures.

  13. Ceramic high temperature receiver design and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver, which was tested a Edwards AFB, CA during the winter of 1980-1981, evolved from technologies developed over a five year period of work. This receiver was tested at the Army Solar Furnace at White Sands, NM in 1976. The receiver, was tested successfully at 1768 deg F and showed thermal efficiencies of 85%. The results were sufficiently promising to lead ERDA to fund our development and test of a 250 kW receiver to measure the efficiency of an open cavity receiver atop a central tower of a heliostat field. This receiver was required to be design scalable to 10, 50, and 100 MW-electric sizes to show applicability to central power tower receivers. That receiver employed rectagular silicon carbide panels and vertical stanchions to achieve scalability. The construction was shown to be fully scalable; and the receiver was operated at temperatures up to 2000 deg F to achieve the performance goals of the experiment during tests at the GIT advanced components test facility during the fall of 1978.

  14. Perspectives on high temperature superconducting electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The major challenges in making high temperature superconducting (HTSC) electronics viable are predominantly materials problems. Unlike their predecessors the metal oxide-based superconductors are integratable with other advanced technologies such as opto-electronics and micro-electronics. The materials problems to be addressed relate to the epitaxial growth of high quality films, highly oriented films on non-lattice matched substrates, heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces of junctions and other novel devices, and the processing of these films with negligible deterioration of the superconducting properties. These issues are illustrated with results based on films prepared in-situ by a pulsed laser deposition process. Films with zero-transition temperatures of 90 K and critical current densities of 5 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K have been prepared by this technique. Ultra-thin films, less than 100 A show T(sub c) is greater than 80 K, supporting the idea of two-dimensional transport in these materials. By the use of appropriate buffer layers, films with T(sub c) of 87 K and J(sub c) of 6 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm were fabricated on silicon substrates. Submicron structures with J(sub c) is greater than 2 x 10(exp 7) at 10 K were fabricated. Results on nonlinear switching elements, IR detectors, and microwave studies will be briefly summarized.

  15. Perspectives on high temperature superconducting electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    1991-01-01

    The major challenges in making high temperature superconducting (HTSC) electronics viable are predominantly materials problems. Unlike their predecessors, the metal oxide-based superconductors are integratable with other advanced technologies such as opto-electronics and micro-electronics. The materials problems to be addressed relate to the epitaxial growth of high quality films, highly oriented films on non-lattice matched substrates, heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces of junctions and other novel devices, and the processing of these films with negligible deterioration of the superconducting properties. These issues are illustrated with results based on films prepared in-situ by a pulsed laser deposition process. Films with zero-transition temperatures of 90 K and critical current densities of 5 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm at 77 K have been prepared by this technique. Ultra-thin films, less than 100 A show T(sub c) is greater than 80 K, supporting the idea of two-dimensional transport in these materials. By the use of appropriate buffer layers, films with T(sub c) of 87 K and J(sub c) of 6 x 10(exp 4) A/sq cm were fabricated on silicon substrates. Submicron structures with J(sub c) is greater than 2 x 10(exp 7) at 10 K were fabricated. Results on nonlinear switching elements, IR detectors, and microwave studies will be briefly summarized.

  16. Containerless processing at high temperatures using acoustic levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, C. A.; Merkley, D. R.; Hampton, S.; Devos, J.; Mapes-Riordan, D.; Zatarski, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced techniques are presented which facilitate the development of inert or reducing atmospheres in excess of 2000 K in order to improve processing of containerless capabilities at higher temperatures and to provide more contamination-free environments. Recent testing, in the laboratory and aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft, of a high-temperature acoustic positioner demonstrated the effectiveness of a specimen motion damping system and of specimen spin control. It is found that stable positioning can be achieved under ambient and heated conditions, including the transient states of heat-up and cool-down. An incorporated high-temperature levitator was found capable of processing specimens of up to 6-mm diameter in a high-purity environment without the contaminating effects of a container at high temperatures and with relative quiescence.

  17. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  18. Status of the INL high-temperature electrolysis research program –experimental and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; K. G. Condie; G. K. Housley; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen

    2009-04-01

    This paper provides a status update on the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) research and development program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), with an overview of recent large-scale system modeling results and the status of the experimental program. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor coolant outlet temperatures. In terms of experimental research, the INL has recently completed an Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) HTE test at the 15 kW level. The initial hydrogen production rate for the ILS test was in excess of 5000 liters per hour. Details of the ILS design and operation will be presented. Current small-scale experimental research is focused on improving the degradation characteristics of the electrolysis cells and stacks. Small-scale testing ranges from single cells to multiple-cell stacks. The INL is currently in the process of testing several state-of-the-art anode-supported cells and is working to broaden its relationship with industry in order to improve the long-term performance of the cells.

  19. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  20. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.; Argonne National Lab., IL; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  1. High temperature tensile deformation behavior of Grade 92 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsagabi, Sultan; Shrestha, Triratna; Charit, Indrajit

    2014-10-01

    Candidate structural materials for advanced reactors need to have superior high temperature strength and creep-rupture properties among other characteristics. The ferritic-martensitic Grade 92 steel (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.5Mo, wt.%) is considered such a candidate structural material. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C in the strain rate range of 10-5-10-3 s-1. After analyzing the tensile results using the Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn (BMD) equation, a stress exponent of about 9.5 and an activation energy of about 646 kJ/mol were obtained. In the light of high values of the stress exponent and activation energy, the threshold stress concept was used to elucidate the operating high temperature deformation mechanism. As a result of this modification, the true activation energy and stress exponent of the high temperature deformation in Grade 92 steel were found to be about 245 kJ/mol and 5, respectively. Thus, the dominant high temperature deformation mechanism was identified as the high temperature climb of edge dislocations and the appropriate constitutive equation was developed.

  2. Interagency Advanced Power Group, Joint Electrical and Nuclear Working Group, meeting minutes, November 16--17, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Reports on soldier power R&D review, N-MCT power electronic building blocks, silicon carbide power semiconductor work, and ground based radar were made to the Power Conditioning Panel. An introduction to high temperature electronics needs, research and development was made to the High Temperature Electronics Subcommittee. The Pulse Power Panel received reports on the navy ETC gun, and army pulse power. The Superconductivity Panel received reports on high-tc superconducting wires, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and superconducting applications. The Nuclear Working Group received presentations on the Topaz nuclear power program, and space nuclear work in the Department of Energy.

  3. High-Temperature, Bellows Hybrid Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Sirocky, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A high-temperature hybrid seal is constructed of multiple elements to meet the many demands placed on the seal. The primary elements are: a central high-temperature bellows, a braided ceramic sheath covering the bellows, an outer abrasion resistant sheath covering the ceramic sheath, and a structurally-sound seal-end termination.

  4. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  5. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  6. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 °C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis. PMID:21456794

  7. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-03-15

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  8. High-Temperature Passive Power Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In many future NASA missions - such as deep-space exploration, the National AeroSpace Plane, minisatellites, integrated engine electronics, and ion or arcjet thrusters - high-power electrical components and systems must operate reliably and efficiently in high-temperature environments. The high-temperature power electronics program at the NASA Lewis Research Center focuses on dielectric and insulating material research, the development and characterization of high-temperature components, and the integration of the developed components into a demonstrable 200 C power system - such as an inverter. NASA Lewis has developed high-temperature power components through collaborative efforts with the Air Force Wright Laboratory, Northrop Grumman, and the University of Wisconsin. Ceramic and film capacitors, molypermalloy powder inductors, and a coaxially wound transformer were designed, developed, and evaluated for high-temperature operation.

  9. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Lybeck

    2011-08-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim fiscal year (FY) 2011 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under the Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA)-1 guidelines and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from seven test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault, including tensile tests, creep tests, and cyclic tests. Of the 5,603,682 records currently in the vault, 4,480,444 have been capture passed, and capture testing is in process for the remaining 1,123,238.

  10. High temperature braided rope seals for static sealing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael L.; Olsen, Andrew; Darolia, Ram; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    Achieving efficiency and performance goals of advanced aircraft and industrial systems are leading designers to implement high temperature materials such as ceramics and intermetallics. Generally these advanced materials are applied selectively in the highest temperature sections of the engine system including the combustor and high pressure turbine, amongst others. Thermal strains that result in attaching the low expansion-rate components to high expansion rate superalloy structures can cause significant life reduction in the components. Seals are being designed to both seal and to serve as compliant mounts allowing for relative thermal growths between high temperature but brittle primary structures and the surrounding support structures. Designers require high temperature, low-leakage, compliant seals to mitigate thermal stresses and control parasitic and cooling airflow between structures. NASA is developing high temperature braided rope seals in a variety of configurations to help solve these problems. This paper will describe the types of seals being developed, describe unique test techniques used to assess seal performance, and present leakage flow data under representative pressure, temperature and scrubbing conditions. Feasibility of the braided rope seals for both an industrial tube seal and a turbine vane seal application is also demonstrated.

  11. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  12. Power Conversion Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh; Richard Moore; Robert Barner

    2005-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. There are some technical issues to be resolved before the selection of the final design of the high temperature gascooled reactor, called as a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is supposed to be built at the INEEL by year 2017. The technical issues are the selection of the working fluid, direct vs. indirect cycle, power cycle type, the optimized design in terms of a number of intercoolers, and others. In this paper, we investigated a number of working fluids for the power conversion loop, direct versus indirect cycle, the effect of intercoolers, and other thermal hydraulics issues. However, in this paper, we present part of the results we have obtained. HYSYS computer code was used along with a computer model developed using Visual Basic computer language.

  13. Viability of Pushrod Dilatometry Techniques for High Temperature In-Pile Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. C. Crepeau

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of new fuel, cladding, and structural materials for use in advanced and existing nuclear reactors, robust instrumentation is needed. Changes in material deformation are typically evaluated out-of-pile, where properties of materials are measured after samples were irradiated for a specified length of time. To address this problem, a series of tests were performed to examine the viability of using pushrod dilatometer techniques for in-pile instrumentation to measure deformation. The tests were performed in three phases. First, familiarity was gained in the use and accuracy of this system by testing samples with well defined thermal elongation characteristics. Second, high temperature data for steels, specifically SA533 Grade B, Class 1 (SA533B1) Low Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel 304 (SS304), found in Light Water Reactor (LWR) vessels, were aquired. Finally, data were obtained from a short pushrod in a horizontal geometry to data obtained from a longer pushrod in a vertical geometry, the configuration likely to be used for in-situ measurements. Results of testing show that previously accepted data for the structural steels tested, SA533B1 and SS304, are inaccurate at high temperatures (above 500 oC) due to extrpolation of high temperature data. This is especially true for SA533B1, as previous data do not account for the phase transformation of the material between 730 oC and 830 oC. Also, comparison of results for horizontal and vertical configurations show a maximum percent difference of 2.02% for high temperature data.

  14. The high temperature superconductivity space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Denis C.; Nisenoff, M.

    1991-01-01

    The history and the current status of the high temperature superconductivity space experiment (HTSSE) initiated in 1988 are briefly reviewed. The goal of the HTSSE program is to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating high temperature superconductivity (HTS) technology into space systems. The anticipated payoffs include the development of high temperature superconductor devices for space systems; preparation and space qualification of a cryogenically cooled experimental package containing HTS devices and components; and acquisition of data for future space experiments using more complex HTS devices and subsystems. The principal HTSSE systems and devices are described.

  15. Dimensionality of high temperature superconductivity in oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to account for the high temperature superconductivity observed in oxide systems. Almost all of these models proposed are based on the uncoupled low dimensional carrier Cu-O layers of the oxides. Results of several experiments are presented and discussed. They suggest that the high temperature superconductivity observed cannot be strictly two- or one-dimensional, and that the environment between the Cu-O layers and the interlayer coupling play an important role in the occurrence of such high temperature superconductivity. A comment on the very short coherence length reported is also made.

  16. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the development of a pressure transducer for measurement of the pressure fluctuations in the high temperature environment of a jet exhaust is reported. A condenser microphone carrier system was adapted to meet the specifications. A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the operation of the condenser microphone in terms of geometry, materials, and other physical properties. The analysis was used as the basis for design of a prototype high temperature microphone. The feasibility of connecting the microphone to a converter over a high temperature cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line was also examined.

  17. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  18. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Cermet compositions having high temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance, and particularly adapted for production of high temperature resistant cermet insulator bodies are presented. The compositions are comprised of a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Also disclosed are novel ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride.

  19. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The physical processes occurring in plasma focus devices were studied. These devices produce dense high temperature plasmas, which emit X rays of hundreds of KeV energy and one to ten billion neutrons per pulse. The processes in the devices seem related to solar flare phenomena, and would also be of interest for controlled thermonuclear fusion applications. The high intensity, short duration bursts of X rays and neutrons could also possibly be used for pumping nuclear lasers.

  20. High-temperature durability considerations for HSCT combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1992-01-01

    The novel combustor designs for the High Speed Civil Transport will require high temperature materials with long term environmental stability. Higher liner temperatures than in conventional combustors and the need for reduced weight necessitates the use of advanced ceramic matrix composites. The combustor environment is defined at the current state of design, the major degradation routes are discussed for each candidate ceramic material, and where possible, the maximum use temperatures are defined for these candidate ceramics.