Science.gov

Sample records for advanced human capital

  1. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  2. A Human Capital Framework for a Stronger Teacher Workforce. Advancing Teaching--Improving Learning. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia; Nordstrum, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Building a stronger teacher workforce requires the thoughtful orchestration of multiple processes working together in a human capital system. This white paper presents a framework that can be used to take stock of current efforts to enhance the teacher workforce in school districts or educational organizations, as well as their underlying theories…

  3. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  4. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  5. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  6. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  7. Human Capital and Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    The framework of an aggregate production function shows that growth of human capital is both a condition and a consequence of economic growth. The concurrent growth and diffusion of human capital, involving production of new knowledge, appears necessary to ensure sustained economic development worldwide. (TE)

  8. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis.

    PubMed

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-03-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the impact of our political variables on human capital, using a cross-sectional structural model for some 100 countries. We conclude that democracy is positively related to basic human capital, while regime instability has a negative link with basic human capital. Governance has a positive relationship with advanced human capital, while government instability has a negative link with advanced human capital. Finally, we also find an indirect positive effect of governance and democracy on both types of human capital through their effect on income. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9983-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  9. 24 CFR 891.808 - Capital advance funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital advance funds. 891.808... § 891.808 Capital advance funds. (a) HUD is authorized to provide capital advance funds to expand the... projects, HUD provides a capital advance funds reservation to the sponsor, which transfers the...

  10. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  11. Human capital, schooling and health.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  12. The Economic Importance of Human Capital in Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1993-01-01

    Human capital invests in new forms of physical capital, hence, human capital is key to economic progress. Lists eight attributes of human capital; for example, human capital cannot be separated from person who has it, and human capital is not visible. Human capital is necessary component when attempting to improve a person's income and welfare in…

  13. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  14. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  15. Continuing Professional Education and Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, continuing professional education (CPE) is linked to human capital theory. Since human capital theory does not explicitly focus on CPE but does provide important insights on training evaluation, we discuss the differences between CPE and training. We review the main insights on training evaluation and discuss the implications for…

  16. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  17. A Human Capital Approach to Career Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.; Zalewski, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    We began this series by addressing the challenges of career advising in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. In this article, we define human capital and suggest that advisors encourage students to utilize the principle of maximizing human capital when making decisions. We describe the personal traits and attitudes needed to…

  18. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  19. Human Capital and Technology Development in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Halimah

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…

  20. 24 CFR 891.170 - Repayment of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repayment of capital advance. 891... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN... General Program Requirements § 891.170 Repayment of capital advance. (a) Interest prohibition...

  1. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  2. Child Well-Being as Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores how the general principles of child development intersect with the emerging interest in child well-being as an outcome for children who come in contact with the child welfare system. Drawing on the idea of trajectories within the life course perspective, the author also borrows on the notion of human capital.…

  3. Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…

  4. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  5. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (collectively, the agencies) are seeking comment on three notices of proposed rulemaking (NPRs) that would revise and replace the agencies' current capital rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the......

  6. Advanced distillation saves energy and capital

    SciTech Connect

    Lestak, F.; Collins, C.

    1997-07-01

    Although new separation methods are continuously being explored, distillation remains the most frequently used separation process. It is well known that distillation is both energy intensive and inefficient. Compared to conventional column sequences, one particular configuration--the fully thermally coupled distillation column--can save significant amounts of energy by reducing thermodynamic losses. In such a setup, a number of columns (typically two) are linked together through vapor and liquid streams without reboilers or condensers between the columns. One practical application of the fully thermal coupled column has been known for a long time. However, lack of design experience and fear of operational and control problems, have prevented its widespread use to date. In addition to energy savings, divided-wall columns can save capital costs, by reducing the number of column shells, reboilers and condensers. The divided-wall column can be applied with real benefits in a variety of refinery, gas separation and chemical processes. Generally, the technology should be considered in any ternary (three-component) separation, as a possible low-cost alternative to conventional schemes. Generic guidelines for the use of divided-wall columns are discussed. The application of the divided-wall column for natural gas liquids separation is also presented.

  7. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  8. 75 FR 82317 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...) meeting certain thresholds for total consolidated assets or foreign exposure.\\6\\ The advanced approaches... Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards: A Revised Framework'' (New Accord).\\7\\ \\6\\ 72 FR... use the advanced approaches rules. See 72 FR 69397 (December 7, 2007). \\7\\ The BCBS is a committee...

  9. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  10. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  11. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  12. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  13. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  14. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  15. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  16. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  17. Human Capital Development in the International Organization: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulvisaechana, Somboon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence of the nature of corporate rhetoric in developing human capital and how it becomes embedded within a large international organization operating in the Nordic region. The qualitative case study aims to examine the sensemaking of individual managers, and how human capital rhetoric…

  18. Using Human Capital Planning to Predict Future Talent Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruse, Donald; Jansen, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Human capital planning is an important tool in predicting future talent needs and sustaining organizational excellence over the long term. This article examines the concept of human capital planning and outlines how institutions can use HCP to identify the type and number of talent needed both now and in the future, recognize and prioritize talent…

  19. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  20. Human Capital and the Internal Rate of Return.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Sherwin

    The theory of human capital has made a significant impact on the practice of modern labor economics. At a broad and general level, the concept of human capital has obvious appeal for its simplicity, analytical power, and relationship to economic theory. The fundamental problem in labor economics is the determination of wage rates and earnings;…

  1. Theorizing Translanguaging and Multilingual Literacies through Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…

  2. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    PubMed

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment.

  3. Empirical Evidence on Occupation and Industry Specific Human Capital

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents instrumental variables estimates of the effects of firm tenure, occupation specific work experience, industry specific work experience, and general work experience on wages using data from the 1979 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The estimates indicate that both occupation and industry specific human capital are key determinants of wages, and the importance of various types of human capital varies widely across one-digit occupations. Human capital is primarily occupation specific in occupations such as craftsmen, where workers realize a 14% increase in wages after five years of occupation specific experience but do not realize wage gains from industry specific experience. In contrast, human capital is primarily industry specific in other occupations such as managerial employment where workers realize a 23% wage increase after five years of industry specific work experience. In other occupations, such as professional employment, both occupation and industry specific human capital are key determinants of wages. PMID:20526448

  4. Does Human Capital Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Human Capital and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, T. Russell; Todd, Samuel Y.; Combs, James G.; Woehr, David J.; Ketchen, David J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Theory at both the micro and macro level predicts that investments in superior human capital generate better firm-level performance. However, human capital takes time and money to develop or acquire, which potentially offsets its positive benefits. Indeed, extant tests appear equivocal regarding its impact. To clarify what is known, we…

  5. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization. PMID:12462657

  6. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization.

  7. Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity–quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters. PMID:20495605

  8. People, partnerships and human progress: building community capital.

    PubMed

    Hancock, T

    2001-09-01

    The Victorian-era journal The Sanitarian used on its masthead the slogan 'A nation's health is a nation's wealth'. Today, we are re-discovering that wisdom, recognizing that health is indeed a form of wealth. Moreover, we are beginning to understand that wealth is not merely our economic capital, but includes three other forms of capital--social, natural and human capital. Health is one key element of human capital. A healthy community is one that has high levels of social, ecological, human and economic 'capital', the combination of which may be thought of as 'community capital'. The challenge for communities in the 21st century will be to increase all four forms of capital simultaneously. This means working with suitable partners in the private sector, making human development the central purpose of governance, and more closely integrating social, environmental and economic policy. Community gardens, sustainable transportation systems and energy conservation programmes in community housing projects are some of the ways in which we can build community capital.

  9. Human Capital and Its Development in Present-Day Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nureev, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the broad sense of the word human capital is a specific form of capital that is embodied in people themselves. It consists of the individual's reserve of health, knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivations that enable him to increase his labor productivity and give him an income in the form of wages, salaries, and other income. The structure…

  10. National HRD and Investment in Human Capital: Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornachione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This study explores opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades. Based on human capital theory, data from the U.S. Census, along with parameters for high education achievement (involving bachelors and advanced degrees), were fed into a forecasting model developed for this purpose. Beyond descriptive…

  11. Labor emigration and the accumulation and transfer of human capital.

    PubMed

    Tan, E A

    1993-01-01

    "This article examines the processes involved in the acquisition and transfer of human capital by Filipino overseas workers.... In the four major occupational groupings (seamen, production/construction workers, domestic helpers and entertainers), little homeward transmission of human capital has been identified.... Because of the high rate of unemployment in the economy, the outflow of workers has had no observable impact on domestic wage rates."

  12. Physical activity: an underestimated investment in human capital?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Richard; Hillman, Charles; Arent, Shawn; Petitpas, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that physical activity is universally acknowledged to be an important part of healthy functioning and well-being, the full scope of its value is rarely appreciated. This article introduces a novel framework for understanding the relationships between physical activity (and specifically sport-related forms of physical activity) and different aspects of human development. It proposes that the outcomes of physical activity can be framed as differential 'capitals' that represent investments in domain-specific assets: Emotional, Financial, Individual, Intellectual, Physical, and Social. These investments, especially when made early in the life course, can yield significant rewards, both at that time and for years to come. The paper presents a new model-the Human Capital Model-that makes sense of these effects, outlines the different capitals, and briefly articulates the conditions necessary for the realization of Human Capital growth through physical activity.

  13. Human Capital, HRD and VET: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomé, Eduardo; Goyal, Apoorva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the role of human capital (HC), human resource development (HRD) and vocational educational and training (VET) in the emerging Indian economy. How may we define the HC, HRD and VET in India? To what extent and how as HRD investments in India contributed to India's recent economic development? What were the…

  14. Adult Education and Human Capital: Leadership from the Fortune 500.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Teresa M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 333 Fortune 500 firms received 81 replies indicating that (1) two-thirds formally recognized the value of human resources; (2) most had changed corporate policy regarding human capital; and (3) most training was provided in the ares of new employee orientation, current job needs, customer relations, personal development, and…

  15. Evaluating human, social and cultural capital in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Royal, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Using the concepts of human, social and cultural capital this paper will review the literature on these theories and evaluate their application to nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK). Each concept will be explored before considering the impact and application within nurse education. Issues of sponsorship via mentoring and increased skills and contribution to the knowledge economy alongside the delivery of quality care by nursing students will be discussed with reference to theory and current policy drivers. As nursing education moves to a graduate profession in the UK this paper evaluates the drivers of human, social and cultural capital that affect this development.

  16. 2013 Snapshot of NGSI Human Capital Development and Future Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Melissa A; Poe, Sarah M; Dewji, Shaheen A; Finklea, Lauren R

    2013-01-01

    Since its creation in 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogram of NNSA s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has been striving to develop sustainable academic and technical programs that support the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals. This effort endeavors to develop additional human resources to equip a new cadre of safeguards and nonproliferation experts to meet the needs of both the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for decades to come, specifically in response to data that indicates that 82% of the 2009 safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the program since its last presentation at the INMM Annual Meeting in 2010, including strengthened and integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and mid-career professional support, additional short safeguards coursework, and expanded university engagement. In particular, the paper will cover the NGSI Human Capital Roadmap currently being developed in safeguards and nonproliferation education, training, and knowledge retention. The NGSI Human Capital Roadmap aims to provide additional data points and metrics on where the human capital demand lies, which disciplines and skill sets are needed in the field, and how NGSI HCD can best address these issues to meet future demand.

  17. Investment in Human Capital through Institutions of Higher Education for the Revival of Kenya's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawire, Nelson W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite economic theory postulating that increases in investment in human capital and physical capital leads to increase in economic growth, in the Kenyan case, this has not been true. This paper empirically examines the contribution of human capital and physical capital to economic growth in Kenya. Measures to be undertaken by higher education…

  18. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  19. Human Capital Planning in Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Human Resource Development Initiative in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…

  20. Human Capital Augmentation versus the Signaling Value of MBA Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Panel data on MBA graduates is used in an attempt to empirically distinguish between human capital and signaling models of education. The existence of employment observations prior to MBA enrollment allows for the control of unobserved ability or selection into MBA programs (through the use of individual fixed effects). In addition, variation in…

  1. Educating Lone Wolves: Pedagogical Implications of Human Capital Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Educational practices based on human capital theory are unlikely to alleviate social inequities because the theory views people as isolated materialists driven by desire for goods and security. It assumes an educational meritocracy in which socioeconomic status is limited only by educational investment, and more educated people are presumed to be…

  2. The Development of Human Capital in Young Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickie, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…

  3. The Strategic Management of Human Capital: Issues and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Most recently a number of school districts, with support from growing numbers of philanthropic foundations, have been honing in on the strategic management of human capital(SMHC)--which has been defined as "the acquisition, development, performance management and retention of top talent." Granted, over the last two decades policymakers and…

  4. Teaching Human Capital by Calculating the True Costs of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an approach to calculating the costs of college education to maximize students' human capital. When considering college expenses, students often overlook the opportunity costs of income foregone while pursuing degrees. A true-cost calculation worksheet and a strategy for making true costs salient to students (projecting the number of…

  5. Building Social, Human, and Cultural Capital through Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.; Lewis, Wayne D.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Donkor, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between schools and society in the United States and uses human, social, and cultural capital theories to reframe the discussion of the role of schools in nurturing parent engagement. We argue that the ramifications of parent engagement in schools transcend functionalist ideas of complying with state and…

  6. Improving Human Capital Practices in Indianapolis Public Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Teacher Project, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In the winter and spring of 2008-2009, The New Teacher Project (TNTP) partnered with the Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS) and the Indianapolis Education Association (IEA), at the request of The Mind Trust to analyze district human capital policies and practices and make recommendations to increase the concentration of high-quality teachers in IPS…

  7. ADN to BSN: lessons from human capital theory.

    PubMed

    Graf, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Currently, approximately 16% of associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates acquire baccalaureate or higher degrees. Human capital analysis demonstrated negative to minimal average returns on investment (ROI) in BSN education. Increasing the ROI may influence ADNs to pursue baccalaureate education and can be an effective strategy for meeting the projected need for BSN-prepared nurses.

  8. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  9. Taking Human Capital Investment Seriously: Reflections on Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Trivina

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the 2002 Junior College/Upper Secondary Review in Singapore in the context of the nation-state's commitment to human capital investment. It discusses how these changes have led to a radically altered upper secondary educational landscape through the implementation of the Integrated Programme, the establishment of Specialized…

  10. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

  11. Does Human Capital Contribute to Economic Growth in Mauritius?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…

  12. The Role of Human Capital and Technological Change in Overeducation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, M. Mendes; Santos, M. C.; Kiker, B. F.

    2000-01-01

    Employs Portuguese data to test competing hypotheses about effects of over- and under-education on earnings. The human capital trade-off theory seems irrelevant. The hypothesis of technology-produced pockets of over- and under-education is consistent with Portugal's efforts to promote economic growth, modernize industry, and upgrade educational…

  13. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future. PMID:16905991

  14. Chicano Return Migration to the Southwest: An Integrated Human Capital Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Rogelio; Davila, Alberto

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationships among human capital, employment, and ethnic factors, and return migration to the Southwest among Chicanos using an integrated human capital framework and data for 1,926 Chicano householders. Results suggest the importance of various human capital, employment, and ethnic composition variables as predictors of Chicano…

  15. 76 FR 69031 - Order of Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer AGENCY: Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Chief Human Capital Officer for the Department of Housing and Urban Development...

  16. Business Teacher Education (BTE); A Panacea for Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okifo, Joseph; Ayo, Abel O.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on business teacher education, a panacea for human capital development in Nigeria. Human capital suggests that education, and training, health and standard of living raises the productivity of workers and increases their lifetime earning capacity. Therefore, BTE is a panacea for human capital development because the…

  17. Pursuit of University Education among the Children of Immigrants in Canada: The Roles of Parental Human Capital and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abada, Teresa; Tenkorang, Eric Y.

    2009-01-01

    Using the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, this article examines the roles of parental human capital and social capital in the pursuit of university education among immigrant youth in Canada. We find segmented patterns across the largest minority groups in Canada, with the Chinese and the south Asians, such as Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis,…

  18. Building "Special Capital" for Entrepreneurial Development: Special Populations as Human Capital in the Context of Global Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Ten to twelve percent of the world population is identified as having one or more types of disability. This ecodeme has been historically known to be discriminated, marginalized, and disempowered by the lack of access to resources and to education. This article discusses the importance of adding special capital to the global human capital in the…

  19. Human Capital Management Plan Fiscal Years 2003- 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-09

    Western, like many other Federal agencies, will face significant and challenging human capital issues in the next decade. The Federal workforce is aging; baby boomers, with their valuable skills and experience, are drawing nearer to retirement and new employees joining the Federal workforce today have different career expectations from the generation that preceded them. The average age of Western’s workforce is approaching 48. Almost a third of the workforce is between 50 and 54 years and most will be eligible to retire in five years. Western has almost twice as many employees who are 55 and older as it has who are 35 and younger. As the workforce ages, the proportion of younger workers is shrinking. The U.S. Census Bureau says you can expect these developments for the next 20 years. The 45 to 65 year-old work group will grow by 54 percent but the 18 to 44 population will rise by only 4 percent. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics workers age 25 to 44 will decline by 3 million, dropping from 51 percent of the labor force in 1998 to 44 percent in 2008. Western employees who will retire include highly skilled workers in fields such as information technology, engineering, and craft occupations. Deregulation of the electric utility industry and the establishment of regional transmission organizations and independent system operators are also demanding new and different skill mixes than those currently available in Western. Changes in workforce demographic, in the education and skills that will be required in the future, and an increasingly competitive job market, will require flexible and responsive human capital tools to attract and retain talented employees. These trends were the reason for a comprehensive review of Western’s human capital programs to determine its readiness for the future. In July 2001, a team of managers conducted a comprehensive assessment of Western’s human capital needs. The team used the assessment to draft a framework that

  20. Network effects in a human capital based economic growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz Martins, Teresa; Araújo, Tanya; Augusta Santos, Maria; St Aubyn, Miguel

    2009-06-01

    We revisit a recently introduced agent model [ACS, 11, 99 (2008)], where economic growth is a consequence of education (human capital formation) and innovation, and investigate the influence of the agents’ social network, both on an agent’s decision to pursue education and on the output of new ideas. Regular and random networks are considered. The results are compared with the predictions of a mean field (representative agent) model.

  1. Human capital needs - teaching, training and coordination for nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Retegan, T.; Ekberg, C.; John, J.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-07-01

    Human capital is the accumulation of competencies, knowledge, social and creativity skills and personality attributes, which are necessary to perform work so as to produce economic value. In the frame of the nuclear fuel cycle, this is of paramount importance that the right human capital exists and in Europe this is fostered by a series of integrated or directed projects. The teaching, training and coordination will be discussed in the frame of University curricula with examples from several programs, like e.g. the Master of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University, Sweden and two FP7 EURATOM Projects: CINCH - a project for cooperation in nuclear chemistry - and ASGARD - a research project on advanced or novel nuclear fuels and their reprocessing issues for generation IV reactors. The integration of the university curricula in the market needs but also the anchoring in the research and future fuel cycles will be also discussed, with examples from the ASGARD project. (authors)

  2. Sabotaging the benefits of our own human capital: Work unit characteristics and sleep.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Jiang, Kaifeng; Lepak, David P

    2016-02-01

    The strategic human capital literature indicates the importance of human capital to work unit performance. However, we argue that human capital only aids performance when it is translated into actions beneficial to the unit. We examine a set of common human capital leveraging characteristics (including the use of extended shifts, night shifts, shift flexibility, norms for work as a priority over sleep, and norms for constant connectivity) as factors that enhance the effect of human capital on human capital utilization. We also draw from the 2-process model of sleep regulation to examine how these characteristics undermine employee sleep, and thus weaken the link between human capital and work unit performance efficiency. Overall, we propose that human capital leveraging strategies initially enhance the effect of human capital on work unit performance, but over time weaken the effect of human capital on work unit performance efficiency. Thus, strategies intended to enhance the beneficial effect of human capital on work unit performance can end up doing the opposite.

  3. Human rights, health, and capital accumulation in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Chossudovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between human rights and the pattern of capital accumulation in the Third World. The repressive authoritarian State increasingly constitutes the means for enforcing the intensive exploitation of labor in Third World industrial enclaves and commercial agriculture. While the development of center capitalism has evolved toward "the Welfare State" and a framework of liberal sociodemocracy, the "peripheral State" is generally characterized by nondemocratic forms of government. This bipolarity in the state structure between center and periphery is functionally related to the international division of labor and the unity of production and circulation on a world level. The programs and policies of the center Welfare State (health, education, social security, etc.) constitute an input of "human capital" into the high-technology center labor process. Moreover, welfare programs in center countries activate the process of circulation by sustaining high levels of consumer demand. In underdeveloped countries, the underlying vacuum in the social sectors and the important allocations to military expenditure support the requirements of the peripheral labor process. Programs in health in the center and periphery are related to the bipolarity (qualification/dequalification) in the international division of labor. The social and economic functions of health programs are intimately related to the organic structure of the State and the mechanics whereby the State allocates its financial surplus in support of both capitalist production and circulation. PMID:422298

  4. Advances in human genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, H.; Hirschhorn, K.

    1993-01-01

    This book has five chapters covering peroxisomal diseases, X-linked immunodeficiencies, genetic mutations affecting human lipoproteins and their receptors and enzymes, genetic aspects of cancer, and Gaucher disease. The chapter on peroxisomes covers their discovery, structure, functions, disorders, etc. The chapter on X-linked immunodeficiencies discusses such diseases as agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, animal models, linkage analysis, etc. Apolipoprotein formation, synthesis, gene regulation, proteins, etc. are the main focus of chapter 3. The chapter on cancer covers such topics as oncogene mapping and the molecular characterization of some recessive oncogenes. Gaucher disease is covered from its diagnosis, classification, and prevention, to its organ system involvement and molecular biology.

  5. 10 CFR 1.39 - Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. 1.39 Section 1... Headquarters Staff Offices § 1.39 Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer. The Office of the Chief Human... effective organization, utilization, and development of the agency's human resources; (b) Provides...

  6. Neoliberalism, Human Capital and the Skills Agenda in Higher Education--The Irish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holborow, Marnie

    2012-01-01

    The making of human capital is increasingly seen as a principal function of higher education. A keyword in neoliberal ideology, human capital represents a subtle masking of social conflict and expresses metaphorically the commodification of human abilities and an alienating notion of human potential, both of which sit ill with the goals of…

  7. The Role of Human Resource Capital of Black and Latino Middle Schoolers' Mathematics Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck-Staley, Tracey Lavette

    2010-01-01

    Student learning in the mathematics classroom is described as being both social and personal. Students' prior knowledge (human capital), attitudes (personal capital), and social skills and/or cultural values (sociocultural capital) are personal components they bring into the classroom. The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore (a)…

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  9. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  10. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  11. Health, Human Capital, and African American Migration Before 1910

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Trevon D.

    2009-01-01

    Using both IPUMS and the Colored Troops Sample of the Civil War Union Army Data, I estimate the effects of literacy and health on the migration propensities of African Americans from 1870 to 1910. I find that literacy and health shocks were strong predictors of migration and the stock of health was not. There were differential selection propensities based on slave status—former slaves were less likely to migrate given a specific health shock than free blacks. Counterfactuals suggest that as much as 35 percent of the difference in the mobility patterns of former slaves and free blacks is explained by differences in their human capital, and more than 20 percent of that difference is due to health alone. Overall, the selection effect of literacy on migration is reduced by one-tenth to one-third once health is controlled for. The low levels of human capital accumulation and rates of mobility for African Americans after the Civil War are partly explained by the poor health status of slaves and their immediate descendants. PMID:20161107

  12. Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education: Improving Instructional Practice and Student Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    "Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education" offers a comprehensive and strategic approach to address what has become labeled as "talent and human capital." Grounded in extensive research and examples of leading edge districts, this book shows how the entire human resource system in schools--from recruitment, to selection/placement,…

  13. Investing in People: The Human Capital Needs of Rural America. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J., Ed.; Mulkey, David, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of existing human resource conditions in rural America; examines key economic, social, and technological forces shaping the future viability of rural areas; describes human capital issues for rural women and minority groups; and outlines strategies to strengthen rural human capital resources. Chapters are: (1)…

  14. Human capital management in government: replacing government retirees.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Yvonne J

    2011-01-01

    Faced with high levels of senior civil servant retirement in the coming years and limited by civil service requirements, government organizations often struggle to maintain the knowledge base of previous processes and results while promoting people who are truly interested in being leaders in an agency. Upcoming generations of public sector workers do not share the same motivation and workplace characteristics of current exiting civil servants, further complicating smooth transitions of leadership. Government personnel systems for the most part are inflexible and slow to hire, and retention methods for workers do not encourage succession planning. Against this backdrop, a five-phased human capital management system, using some of the best practices found in both public and private sector organizations, is proposed as a solution for replacing government retirees with workers who are prepared for their leadership and management roles.

  15. HOME COMPUTER USE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL*

    PubMed Central

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of home computers on child and adolescent outcomes by exploiting a voucher program in Romania. Our main results indicate that home computers have both positive and negative effects on the development of human capital. Children who won a voucher to purchase a computer had significantly lower school grades but show improved computer skills. There is also some evidence that winning a voucher increased cognitive skills, as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. We do not find much evidence for an effect on non-cognitive outcomes. Parental rules regarding homework and computer use attenuate the effects of computer ownership, suggesting that parental monitoring and supervision may be important mediating factors. PMID:22719135

  16. A Multicultural Competencies Approach to Developing Human Capital Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolliscroft, Paul; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš; Šefčíková, Miriam; Kamenova, Joana Valery

    2012-12-01

    The globalisation phenomenon has been prevalent since the last decade of 20th century and remains a significant factor influencing both organisations and individuals today. Within a globalised business environment the effective management of multicultural aspects and differences has become imperative to ensure success. It is increasingly evident there is a need to develop a clear understanding of multicultural competencies in order to fully develop a strategic approach to human capital management (HCM). The adoption of a strategic approach is necessary to ensure a focus on the issues critical to success and competitive advantage including multicultural management, professional skills and knowledge management. This paper aims to identify the importance of intercultural management and the impact of globalisation upon international business.

  17. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  18. Development and Initial Validation of an Instrument for Human Capital Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zula, Kenneth J.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on development and validation of an instrument for use in human capital approaches for organizational planning. The article describes use of a team of subject matter experts in developing a measure of human capital planning, and use of exploratory factor analysis techniques to validate the resulting instrument. These data were…

  19. Performance of the Higher Education Students Loans Board in Human Capital Investment from 2005-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Zun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies conducted on the Higher Education Students Loans Board (HESLB) have mostly concentrated on its success, sustainability and effectiveness on loans issuance and repayment. None had focused on its performance towards human capital investment. This study sought to explain and analyze HESLB's performance in human capital investment, which…

  20. Human Capital Obsolescence: The Effects on Earnings Patterns of Engineers of the Expansion of Technical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, John Stirling, Jr.

    This study analyzes the impact on earnings of human-capital obsolescence, human-capital deterioration, unstructured on-the-job learning, and structured on-the-job learning. The study defines these four concepts, discusses their determinants, and analyzes the market mechanics by which each influences earning rates. A model is developed and adapted…

  1. AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying Our Investment in Human Capital Interim Update

    PubMed Central

    White, Carla; Adams, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The 2015-2017 AACP Special Taskforce on Diversifying our Investment in Human Capital was appointed for a two-year term, therefore the interim update from the Taskforce. A full report will be provided in 2017 in the form of a white paper for academic pharmacy on diversifying our investment in human capital. PMID:27756938

  2. Does Human Capital Theory Explain the Value of Higher Education? A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2010-01-01

    A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…

  3. Current and Future Value of Human Capital: Predictors of Reemployment Compensation Following a Job Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowan, Mary A.; Lepak, David

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between an individual's human capital profile--knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics--and compensation before and after a job loss. The results of this study show that the types of human capital that predicted pre-job-loss salary differ from the types that predict reemployment salary. The…

  4. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  5. Human Capital Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria: A Symbiotic Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaju, Kayode

    2012-01-01

    Human Capital development through education is a long time investment made by the state to enhance the well being of her citizenry. By investing in education, well educated individuals bring to bear their talents, knowledge, skills and experiences as they function in the various sectors of the economy. Human Capital development is therefore a…

  6. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  7. Testing the Human Capital Development Model: The Case of Apprenticeships in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…

  8. Do Colleges and Universities Increase Their Region's Human Capital? Staff Report No. 401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the degree production and research and development (R&D) activities of colleges and universities are related to the amount and types of human capital present in the metropolitan areas where the institutions are located. We find that degree production has only a small positive relationship with local stocks of human capital,…

  9. Workplace Training and Human Capital: Livelihood Protection and Promotion in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zeyu

    2005-01-01

    Workplace training produces 2 types of human capital: general and firm-specific. Based on specific human capital theories pioneered by Gary Becker, this article empirically examines the impact of on-the-job training and off-the-job training on wage levels in urban China. It is found that off-the-job training in previous firms significantly raises…

  10. Measuring What People Know. Human Capital Accounting for the Knowledge Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Riel

    This book explores the problem of developing a framework for rethinking human capital information and decision making in light of the economic changes that are currently occurring in many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. It examines human capital information and decision making in the context of recent developments…

  11. Accumulating Human Capital While Increasing Educational Inequality: A Study on Higher Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wing Kit; Ngok, Kinglun

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, the expansion of higher education has been viewed as an important step in accumulating human capital for China that was to gradually open its domestic sectors to the global market at a turbulent time at the turn of the century. Recent studies suggest that the improvement of human capital has succeeded in preparing China with a solid…

  12. Changes and Challenges in the Flow of International Human Capital: China's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article tracks the changes in the directions of the international flow of Chinese human capital between the 1870s and 2000s. Although many studies on international academic flow adopt the pull-and-push approach, this article argues that the direction of human capital flow is not determined solely by an individual's choice when faced with a…

  13. Human Capital and the Labor of Learning: A Case of Mistaken Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Alexander Sidorkin offers a conceptual critique of the human capital theory that makes erroneous assumptions about the nature of student work and the private cost of schooling. Specifically, human capital theorists underestimate the private cost of schooling by taking low-level manual labor as the basis for estimating students'…

  14. Knowledge Creation and Human Capital for Development: The Role of Graduate Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…

  15. Human Capital or Human Connections? The Cultural Meanings of Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the field of educational research, conventional wisdom holds that primary-level schooling, specifically literacy acquisition, promotes economic mobility for individuals and economic development for the nation. This belief is rooted in human capital theory, the causal argument claiming that state investment in schooling or…

  16. Determining How Tertiary Education and Human Capital Formation Influenced Economic Expansion in Israel, Japan, and Norway from 2000-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkbrenner, Erin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have calculated the relationship between human capital development and economic output by various means of econometric modeling and by use of numerous indicators under the context of an assortment of human capital theory. This study was conducted to identify new interpretations of the expansion of human capital in the form of tertiary…

  17. Key Future Engineering Capabilities for Human Capital Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivich, Lorrie

    Projected record retirements of Baby Boomer generation engineers have been predicted to result in significant losses of mission-critical knowledge in space, national security, and future scientific ventures vital to high-technology corporations. No comprehensive review or analysis of engineering capabilities has been performed to identify threats related to the specific loss of mission-critical knowledge posed by the increasing retirement of tenured engineers. Archival data from a single diversified Fortune 500 aerospace manufacturing engineering company's engineering career database were analyzed to ascertain whether relationships linking future engineering capabilities, engineering disciplines, and years of engineering experience could be identified to define critical knowledge transfer models. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression analyses were used to map patterns of discipline-specific, mission-critical knowledge using archival data of engineers' perceptions of engineering capabilities, key developmental experiences, and knowledge learned from their engineering careers. The results from the study were used to document key engineering future capabilities. The results were then used to develop a proposed human capital retention plan to address specific key knowledge gaps of younger engineers as veteran engineers retire. The potential for social change from this study involves informing leaders of aerospace engineering corporations on how to build better quality mentoring or succession plans to fill the void of lost knowledge from retiring engineers. This plan can secure mission-critical knowledge for younger engineers for current and future product development and increased global competitiveness in the technology market.

  18. The Well-Being of Nations: The Role of Human and Social Capital. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Tom; Cote, Sylvain

    In a rapidly changing world, the success of nations, communities, and individuals may be linked, more than ever before, to how they adapt to change, learn, and share knowledge. This report helps clarify the concepts of human and social capital and evaluates their impact on economic growth and well being. Although the evidence on social capital is…

  19. Bookworms and Party Animals: An Artificial Labour Market with Human and Social Capital Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and are unemployed less often. Some researchers believe that education improves a worker's productivity (or "human capital"), making them more desirable on the job market, while others believe that it improves a worker's network (or "social capital"), giving them more…

  20. Reading, Writing, and Relationships: Human and Social Capital in Family Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The author argues for the importance of social capital effects being taken into account in assessing the effects of family literacy programs, and literacy programs generally. Focus upon short-term effects such as test scores, which can be considered as assessments of human capital, does not serve literacy education well. It would be helpful to…

  1. How Social and Human Capital Predict Participation in Lifelong Learning: A Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…

  2. Chicano return migration to the Southwest: an integrated human capital approach.

    PubMed

    Saenz, R; Davila, A

    1992-01-01

    "This study uses an integrated human capital framework to examine the relationship between human capital, employment and ethnic factors and return migration to the Southwest [United States] among Chicanos. The sample used in the study is derived from the 1980 Public Use Microdata Samples and contains 1,926 Chicano householders between the ages of 25 and 64 who were born in one of five southwest states, lived outside of this region in 1975, and worked in the civilian labor force at any time between 1975 and 1980. The results suggest that various human capital, employment and ethnic composition variables are important predictors of Chicano return migration."

  3. Development of advanced capitalism: a case study of retired coal miners in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Legeay, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation develops a critical analysis of changes in American society during the last fifty years. It is focused in particular on the southern West Virginia coal fields, and examines the changes in class structure (specifically, coal miners), the labor process, the union, class consciousness, community and leisure. The study is grounded within a theoretical perspective that is dialectical. It is concerned with the interaction between specific social categories (such as the union) and the greater whole of capitalist development. It is centrally concerned with continuing a research orientation to which the Frankfurt School gave a powerful contribution: the development of advanced capitalism in the modern epoch. The study utilizes life-history interviews with retired coal miners, almost all of whom had experience with the exploitive company towns of an earlier time. Thus, techniques for the study of oral history are instrumental in developing an analysis of social developments, inasmuch as they provide data appropriate for an analysis of the transformation from early to late capitalism. Finally, this dissertation examines a problem central to dialectical theory, that of the relation between theory and praxis, by approaching the life histories as exemplifications of collective (i.e., social) experience. It integrates the biographical experience of individual miners with the theoretical dimensions of political economy in early and late capitalism. The current crisis in the coal fields is examined, with a view to possible transformation.

  4. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  5. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  6. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M.; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  7. Essays on the economics and econometrics of human capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosso, Stefano

    This thesis is composed by three distinct chapters. They are related by their common theme: the economic analysis of the process of human capital formation. The first chapter distills and extends the recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It critically analyzes the literature on the role of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills with emphasis on the importance of critical and sensitive investments periods in influencing skill development. It develops economic models that rationalize the empirical evidence on treatment effects of social programs and on family influence. It investigates the empirical support of recent claims, made by part of the literature, on the relevance of credit constraints in limiting skill development. It shows how credit constraints are not a major force explaining differences in the amount of parental and self-investments in skills and how untargeted income transfer policies to poor families do not significantly boost child outcomes. The second chapter compares the performance of maximum likelihood and simulated methods of moments in estimating dynamic discrete choice models. It presents a structural model of education and shows how it can be used to estimate heterogeneous returns from schooling choices which account for their continuation values. Continuation values have a large impact on returns, but are ignored in the measures commonly used to assess the value of schooling choices. The estimates from the model are used to compute a synthetic dataset. This is used to assess the ability of maximum likelihood and simulated methods of moments to recover the model parameters. It finally proposes a Monte Carlo exercise to gain confidence on the performance of a simulated method of moments algorithm. The last chapter proposes a method to assess long run impacts on earnings of early interventions even in absence of long-term data collection on earnings histories for program participants. It

  8. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    According to Thomas Stewart's book, intellectual capital comprises three broad categories: human, structural, and customer. Structural, or organizational capital, is knowledge that does not leave at night (with workers, or human capital). Developing a "best practices" database using Lotus Notes software would preserve and access schools'…

  9. Taking Human Capital Seriously: Talented Teachers in Every Classroom, Talented Principals in Every School. Principles and Recommendations for the Strategic Management of Human Capital in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Strategic Management of Human Capital in Education Project was founded in 2008 with one goal: to improve student achievement dramatically in the 100 largest urban school districts. Unless teaching quality and principal leadership improve significantly, lasting education improvement is impossible. In policy terms, without "strategic management"…

  10. The Effect of Maternal Depression and Substance Abuse on Child Human Capital Development. NBER Working Paper No. 15314

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Richard G.; Meara, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Recent models of human capital formation represent a synthesis of the human capital approach and a life cycle view of human development that is grounded in neuroscience (Heckman 2007). This model of human development, the stability of the home and parental mental health can have notable impacts on skill development in children that may affect the…

  11. A Coupled Human-Natural Systems Approach to Valuing Natural Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenichel, E. P.; Abbott, J.; Fujitani, M.

    2012-12-01

    The idea that geological and biological natural resources provide ecosystem services and that the physical geological and biological stocks, referred to as ecological stocks, are forms of capital is not new, but has attracted increased attention since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was released in 2005. Yet, the exact meaning of these terms, the connection between natural capital and ecosystem services, and the broader links between biophysical science and economics is often vague. The conceptual connection between ecosystem services and natural capital is that ecosystem services are the flow of goods and services that people receive from natural resources, and these flows are generated by an endowment of ecological stocks. While individuals derive benefits from a flow of services, the extent that people value the underlying natural capital asset depends on institutional arrangements in addition to the ecological properties of the stocks, because the value of capital relates to the future flow of services. A coupled human-natural systems modeling approach can help understand the value of natural capital in addition to helping scientist and policy makers better manage earth's resources. The value of a capital asset is the net present value of the flow of service, often calculated by the NPV rule. The NPV rule almost always assumes perfectly functioning markets for services and capital, but for many important ecosystem services such markets simply do not exist. The NPV rule can be derived by maximizing the net present value of capital. Indeed, the NPV rule comes from the adjoint condition of an optimal control problem where the flow of services from the capital asset are the benefits, and the dynamics of the capital stock are the constraints. Yet, trying to apply the traditional NPV rule to ecosystem services and natural capital can be frustrated by not knowing where pieces of the puzzle fit. We compare the standard NPV rule with a modified NPV rule derived by

  12. Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ress, William E.; Wackernagel, Mathis

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts conventional economic rationality with economic principles. Develops an empirical approach based on a reinterpretation of carrying capacity that can account for technological advances and trade. Discusses the necessity of diverting much of the present consumption to investment in the maintenance of natural capital stocks. (AIM)

  13. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-04-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  14. Role of a University of Technology in Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedeji, A. O.; Adepoju, O. O.

    2011-01-01

    The greatness of nations appears to be based on the level of their human capital development as the world continues its march in the knowledge economy. It has become imperative for Nigeria to remain competitive in the comity of nations in the production, transfer and utilisation of knowledge. The realisation of the importance of human capital…

  15. The worth of land use: a GIS-emergy evaluation of natural and human-made capital.

    PubMed

    Mellino, Salvatore; Buonocore, Elvira; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-02-15

    Natural systems make their natural capital and ecosystem services available to human economy. A careful analysis of the interplay between natural and human-made capital is needed to prevent natural capital being overexploited for present economic benefits, affecting lifestyles and wellbeing of future generations. In this study, the emergy synthesis is used to evaluate the natural and the human-made capital of Campania region (southern Italy) by accounting for the environmental support directly and indirectly provided by nature to resource generation. Furthermore, geographic information system (GIS) models are integrated with the emergy accounting procedure to generate maps of the spatial patterns of both natural and human-made capital distribution. Regional storages of natural and human-made capital are identified and evaluated in emergy units (seJ). The human-made capital of the Campania region (6.29E+24seJ) results to be about 11 times higher than the natural capital (5.69E+23seJ) due to the past and present exploitation of the natural resources needed to generate it over time. Moreover, by overlaying the total natural capital map and the total human-made capital map with a map of the protected areas within the region, only the 19% of the regional natural capital appears to be concentrated within protected areas, while most of it (81%) is concentrated outside. These findings suggest that the conservation of natural resources is also necessary outside protected areas by means of suitable policies, directives and investments. The human-made capital is mainly concentrated (88%) inside non-protected areas and interacts with the local natural capital. A management of the interactions between the two categories of wealth is crucial to prevent that the growth of human-made storages degrades the natural ecosystems and the environment. The proposed emergy-GIS framework reveals to be a useful tool for environmental planning and resource management aimed to conserve and

  16. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 567 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF... Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C,...

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    McAlpine, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  18. Life expectancy and human capital: evidence from the international epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Casper Worm

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting preintervention variation in mortality from various infectious diseases, together with the time variation arising from medical breakthroughs in the late 1940s and the 1950s, this study examines how a large positive shock to life expectancy influenced the formation of human capital within countries during the second half of the 20th century. The results establish that the rise in life expectancy was behind a significant part of the increase in human capital over this period. According to the baseline estimate, for one additional year of life expectancy, years of schooling increase by 0.17 year. Moreover, the evidence suggests that declines in pneumonia mortality are the underlying cause of this finding, indicating that improved childhood health increases human capital investments. PMID:24157844

  19. Life expectancy and human capital: evidence from the international epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Casper Worm

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting preintervention variation in mortality from various infectious diseases, together with the time variation arising from medical breakthroughs in the late 1940s and the 1950s, this study examines how a large positive shock to life expectancy influenced the formation of human capital within countries during the second half of the 20th century. The results establish that the rise in life expectancy was behind a significant part of the increase in human capital over this period. According to the baseline estimate, for one additional year of life expectancy, years of schooling increase by 0.17 year. Moreover, the evidence suggests that declines in pneumonia mortality are the underlying cause of this finding, indicating that improved childhood health increases human capital investments.

  20. The impact of corruption on the sustainable development of human capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absalyamova, Svetlana; Absalyamov, Timur; Khusnullova, Asiya; Mukhametgalieva, Chulpan

    2016-08-01

    The article explains the use of the human capital sustainable development index (HCSDI) to assess the quality of the reproduction of human capital. The paper provides the algorithm for calculating HCSDI and its components. Authors estimated cross-country differences of HCSDI and developed econometric model of the impact of corruption on HCSDI. The use of this model has allowed to reveal the mechanism and assess the impact of corruption on HCSDI and its components. The results of econometric analysis revealed a negative multiplier effect: an increase in the corruption of the socio-economic system of the state by 1% caused HCSDI reduce by more than 1%. The results and conclusions may be proxy-assessments of the socio-economic consequences of violations of the stability of reproduction of human capital in the conditions of the growth of corruption in the country

  1. Maternal Welfare and Employment Experiences and Adolescent Well-Being: Do Mothers' Human Capital Characteristics Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Lohman, Brenda J.; LiGrining, Christine P.

    2007-01-01

    Using a representative sample of over 900 low-income urban families from the Three-City Study, analyses assessed whether maternal human capital characteristics moderate relationships between mothers' welfare and employment experiences and young adolescents' well-being. Results indicate synergistic effects whereby greater maternal education and literacy skills enhanced positive links between mothers' new or sustained employment and improvements in adolescent cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Greater human capital also enhanced the negative links between loss of maternal employment and adolescent functioning. Mothers' entrances onto welfare appeared protective for adolescents of mothers with little education but predicted decreased psychosocial functioning among teens of more educated mothers. Results suggest that maternal human capital characteristics may alter the payback of welfare and work experiences for low-income families. PMID:18239724

  2. Human Capital Redistribution in the USA: The Migration of the College-bound

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Almost all the contributions on human capital and migration have focused on individuals who recently completed a tertiary education degree. Not much has been done with regard to high-school leavers. However, studying the migration of high-school leavers (college-bound individuals), is at least as important as studying college graduates’ migration. We present an analysis of college-bound individuals’ migration patterns for the USA. We argue that understanding the main determinants of these migration patterns is fundamental for policy makers in their ‘quest for human capital retention’. PMID:27066104

  3. Globalisation: Frame Word for Education and Training, Human Capital and Human Development/Rights. Language Australia Research Policy and Practice Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    This booklet discusses some consequences of internationalization for national training systems from the standpoint of the following two broad approaches often taken by international organizations: (1) the human capital ideology, which assumes human capital is an appropriate basis for education policy; and (2) the human rights and human development…

  4. Disaster Impacts on Human Capital Accumulation Shown in the Typhoon Haiyan Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özceylan Aubrecht, Dilek; Aubrecht, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    School children and their school environment are increasingly exposed to all kinds of hazards. Many disaster events have shown the extent of disaster impacts on the education sector which this study also highlights in the Typhoon Haiyan Case. Disasters do not only cause loss of lives or damage to educational facilities, they also entail significant economic and social consequences on human capital development in the short and long-run. While the trend of short term disaster impact can easily be analyzed in rapid post disaster assessments taking destroyed assets as proxy, usually analyses of medium and long-term effects of disasters include large inherent uncertainties and are of less tangible nature, require more time and complex methods and can often not give comprehensive results. The consequences of disasters especially in developing countries are therefore to a certain extent often left unknown. Generally, economic and social effects of disasters on human capital seem to be ambiguous and to some degree these effects are related to economic, social and institutional well-being. Thus, clear understanding is crucial to interpret its complex effects on human capital accumulation. This essential nature of medium and long-term effects has not been reflected in many analyses. Focus has mostly been given on the extent of physical damage, displacements, lives and assets lost instead of targeting resilience of social and economic characteristics of communities in terms of preventing human capital accumulation disruption. Main objective of this study is to provide a conceptual framework illustrating the impacts of disasters on schooling which might help in assessing such effects, as one of the fundamental components of human capital accumulation (Ozceylan Aubrecht, 2013). The dimensions of human capital building and its relationship to disasters under the light of past disaster events are discussed with a special focus on the recent Typhoon Haiyan that struck the

  5. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  6. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  7. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  8. African-American Communities in Economic Crisis: Adult Educators Investing in the Human Capital Development of the Urban Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mattyna L.

    2010-01-01

    Through discourse analysis the research will unearth the tension between the Theories of Human Capital (HCT) and the Work First Policy (WFP), Policies Informing Education (PIE), and Human Capital Development (HCD) as they relate to the labor market. The application of discourse analysis demonstrates how the tenants of HCT are missing components…

  9. Employers' Perspectives on the Roles of Human Capital Development and Management in Creating Value. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    Human capital--the productive capacity that is embedded in people--is one of the most important contributors to the growth in nations' output and standard of living. Globalisation and technological change have increased the importance of human capital in recent years, to the point that there are now only two options to sustain high profits and…

  10. Building Innovation Capacity: The Role of Human Capital Formation in Enterprises--A Review of the Literature. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Courvisanos, Jerry; Tuck, Jacqueline; McEachern, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This literature review examines the role of human capital formation in building innovative capacity in firms. The aim of the review is to develop a model of human capital development factors to be used as a basis for a larger research project where the factors that develop innovation capacity in enterprises will be investigated. The review finds…

  11. Human Capital Spillovers in Families: Do Parents Learn from or Lean on Their Children? NBER Working Paper No. 17235

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuziemko, Ilyana

    2011-01-01

    I develop a model in which a child's acquisition of a given form of human capital incentivizes adults in his household to either learn from him (if children act as teachers then adults' cost of learning the skill falls) or lean on him (if children's human capital substitutes for that of adults in household production then adults' benefit of…

  12. Equality of Educational Opportunity: Its Relation to Human Capital, and Its Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanningmeier, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, public education has been high on the national agenda. The nation's need for human capital and the need to provide equality of educational opportunity to all children and youth without regard to their race, ethnicity, or social status are the two needs that then framed education…

  13. Human Capital Problems in Zimbabwean Rural Schools: A Case Study of Mazowe District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the management of human capital in Zimbabwean rural schools. It was observed that teachers in rural schools preferred urban postings which turned out to have better facilities and incentives. Rural to urban migration of teachers is a cause for concern in Mazowe District. This study was motivated by the high teacher-turnover…

  14. Educational Reforms in Greece (1959-1997) and Human Capital Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadis, Nikos M.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the effects of Human Capital Theory on the theoretical frameworks, the rhetoric and the aims of the educational reforms that took place in Greece during the period 1959 to 1997. It also deals with the re-emergence of the theory in the 1990s within the new context, as an important element of the neo-liberal education…

  15. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  16. Human Capital Background and the Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…

  17. ePortfolios in the Workplace for Human Capital Management: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This study researches whether the ePortfolio is a suitable instrument for human capital management in the business environment. The implementation of ePortfolio systems in five different organizations is analyzed. It considers whether ePortfolio implementations were successful, and relevant critical success factors were identified. For the latter…

  18. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other.

  19. The Strategic Management of Human Capital: Making the Smart Investments in Teachers and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the author summarizes some of the most relevant issues, evidence, and divergent thinking relative to the strategic management of human capital in education. This paper has been built upon the most recent research, interviews with 20 of the leading experts around the nation, and structured conversations with leading-edge educators in…

  20. Managing Human Capital in World Cities: The Development of Hong Kong into an Education Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ada; Maclean, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the Hong Kong government has sought to build a regional education hub and develop an education industry. However, the rationales and intentions behind this move and the implications these have for the nurturing of local human capital and economic capacity are not always clear. This article seeks to contextualize Hong Kong's economic…

  1. Human Capital: How What You Know Shapes Your Life. OECD Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This first book in the new OECD Insights Series examines the increasing economic and social importance of human capital--our education, skills, competencies, and knowledge. As economies in developed countries shift away from manufacturing, economic success for individuals and national economies is increasingly reliant on the quality of human…

  2. The Rewards of Human Capital Competences for Young European Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Mora, Jose-Gines; Vila, Luis E.

    2004-01-01

    The labour market rewards for a number of required human capital competences are analysed using a sample of young European higher education graduates. Factor analysis is applied to classify competences by jobs into eight orthogonal groups, namely participative, methodological, specialised, organisational, applying rules, physical, generic and…

  3. Do Modern Forms of Human Capital Matter in Primitive Economies? Comparative Evidence from Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godoy, R.; Karlan, D.S.; Rabindran, S.; Huanca, T

    2005-01-01

    We examine the correlation between modern human capital and income among adult men in four foraging-horticultural societies of Bolivia. Despite their remote location, we find results similar to those found in developed nations. We find that: (a) education correlates with 4.5% higher overall income and with 5.9% higher wages and math skills…

  4. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  5. Human Capital Response to Globalization: Education and Information Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shastry, Gauri Kartini

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that globalization increases inequality, by increasing skilled wage premiums in developing countries. This effect may be mitigated, however, if human capital responds to global opportunities. I study how the impact of globalization varies across Indian districts with different costs of learning English. Linguistic diversity…

  6. Human Resource Development, Social Capital, Emotional Intelligence: Any Link to Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kit; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to offer a theoretical framework that attempts to show the integration among human resource development (HRD), social capital (SC), emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational productivity. Design/methodology/approach: The literature search included the following: a computerized search of accessible and available…

  7. Using Human Capital Theory to Develop a Policy Approach towards College Student Migration in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ryan Lee

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use human capital theory to develop a policy approach towards college student migration in Illinois. A rate of return analysis revealed the social rate of return for college student migrants who return to Illinois and the private rate of return was 15.95%. It was estimated that due to college student migration in…

  8. Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

  9. 76 FR 69029 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Register notice published on June 14, 2011 at 76 FR 34745. DATES: Effective Date: October 20, 2011. FOR... 76 FR 34745, the Deputy Secretary delegated authority to manage and supervise the operations of the... departmental policy guidance for human capital management and programs, administering leadership and...

  10. From Bureaucratic Control to Building Human Capital: The Importance of Teacher Learning in Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smylie, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Disputes the reform agenda of the 1996 conference of the nation's governors in Palisades, New York that focused on high-quality academics, specifically on standards and assessment as the means for change. Believes that by building human capital and promoting teacher learning, a more significant and worthwhile change will occur in the schools. (CMK)

  11. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  12. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. PMID:24767595

  13. Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation, and the Wages of Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.; Shapiro, David

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women aged fourteen to twenty-four in 1968, a study was made to determine the impact that women's ex ante labor market expectations have on their salary and development and to examine the effect of women's postschool training and maturation (human capital accumulation) on wages. Six findings…

  14. The Complementarity of Language and Other Human Capital: Immigrant Earnings in Canada. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    This paper analyzes the effects of language practice on earnings among adult male immigrants in Canada using data from the 1991 Census of Canada. It examines whether destination language skills are complements to or substitutes in generating earnings with respect to other kinds of human capital (schooling and pre- and post-migration labor market…

  15. Civil Conflict and Human Capital Accumulation: The Long-Term Effects of Political Violence in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Gianmarco

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence of the persistent effect of exposure to political violence on human capital accumulation. I exploit the variation in conflict location and birth cohorts to identify the long- and short-term effects of the civil war on educational attainment. Conditional on being exposed to violence, the average person…

  16. The State of Human Capital in the U.S. South: 1980-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.

    This report examines the progress in human capital development made by counties in the South during the 1980s. County-level data from 13 southern states were collected primarily from the 1980 and 1990 censuses. Thirteen maps depict, at the county level, completion of high school or more in 1980 and 1990, percent change in high school completion…

  17. Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History. PEPG/07-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sascha O.; Wohmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    Max Weber attributed the higher economic prosperity of Protestant regions to a Protestant work ethic. We provide an alternative theory, where Protestant economies prospered because instruction in reading the Bible generated the human capital crucial to economic prosperity. County-level data from late 19th-century Prussia reveal that Protestantism…

  18. Rethinking Human Capital in Education: Singapore as a Model for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafani, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Thinking and acting strategically about human capital development and management is the lifeblood of most high-performing businesses and organizations. Public education in this nation should be no different. Principals' and teachers' performance has more effect on student achievement than any other factor and their effectiveness in increasing…

  19. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  20. A Framework for a Multi-State Human Capital Development Data System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.; Ewell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The rise of a globalized knowledge economy requires nations to understand the distribution of skills and abilities in their populations. It is no longer sufficient to know how many resources are devoted to the development of nations' human capital. Today, nations also must be able to demonstrate and understand the outcomes of their educational…

  1. Can Human Capital Metrics Effectively Benchmark Higher Education with For-Profit Companies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Kathy; Forlaw, Blair

    2007-01-01

    Last fall, Saint Louis University participated in St. Louis, Missouri's, first Human Capital Performance Study alongside several of the region's largest for-profit employers. The university also participated this year in the benchmarking of employee engagement factors conducted by the St. Louis Business Journal in its effort to quantify and select…

  2. Policies to Create and Destroy Human Capital in Europe. NBER Working Paper No. 15742

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, James J.; Jacobs, Bas

    2010-01-01

    Trends in skill bias and greater turbulence in modern labor markets put wages and employment prospects of unskilled workers under pressure. Weak incentives to utilize and maintain skills over the life-cycle become manifest with the ageing of the population. Policies to promote human capital formation reduce welfare state dependency among the…

  3. Aligning Evaluation Results and Professional Development: Driving Systemic Human Capital Management Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Jacques, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This brief provides district and other educational leaders with research-based information on aligning professional development policies with teacher evaluations to drive more comprehensive human capital management. First, this brief describes an aligned evaluation and professional development system. Next, it discusses existing models and…

  4. Education and Human Capital Management in a World City: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, K. C.; Ge, Yun

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest that the human capital needs of the world city differ from what Robinson calls "ordinary cities" or what Markusen and associates term as "second tier cities". This path is blazed most notably in the field of world cities and the flow of skilled labour, in the work by Sassen and with case examples (finance,…

  5. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  6. Congratulations or Condolences? The Role of Human Capital in the Cultivation of a University Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, John; Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Stater, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Administrative skill is essential to organizational effectiveness. Yet, few studies examine how human capital investments over a career affect selection into administration. We use panel data for economists to estimate the probability of choosing administration over a pure academic track. The results show that, while research-specific human…

  7. The Gender Pay Gap Beyond Human Capital: Heterogeneity in Noncognitive Skills and in Labor Market Tastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Wayne A.; Hussey, Andrew; Jetter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Focused on human capital, economists typically explain about half of the gender earnings gap. For a national sample of MBAs, we account for 82 percent of the gap by incorporating noncognitive skills (for example, confidence and assertiveness) and preferences regarding family, career, and jobs. Those two sources of gender heterogeneity account for…

  8. Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America. Staff Report No. 332

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Jaison R.; Gabe, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relationship between human capital and economic activity in U.S. metropolitan areas, extending the literature in two ways. First, we utilize new data on metropolitan area GDP to measure economic activity. Results show that a one-percentage-point increase in the proportion of residents with a college degree is associated with about a…

  9. Education and the Labour Market: Subjective Aspects of Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, John; Turton, Richard; Diamond, Wayne; Dosnon, Odile; Wach, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Explores subjective aspects of human-capital investment decisions in education. Explores connections that 11th- and 13th-year British students perceive between their education and the labor market, and between qualifications mechanisms and life chances. Most students believe education plays a market-signaling role and a marginal role in raising…

  10. The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Human Capital Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, James David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs are increasingly being used through the developing world to reduce inequality, break the intergenerational poverty cycle, and build human capital. These programs vary by country but typically make cash transfers conditional upon children meeting certain healthcare and educational standards. While previous…

  11. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  12. Life Expectancy and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Maternal Mortality Declines. NBER Working Paper No. 13947

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayachandran, Seema; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Longer life expectancy should encourage human capital accumulation, since a longer time horizon increases the value of investments that pay out over time. Previous work has been unable to determine the empirical importance of this life-expectancy effect due to the difficulty of isolating it from other effects of health on education. We examine a…

  13. Labor market segmentation, human capital and the economics of crime. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGahey, R.M.

    1982-08-24

    This dissertation analyzes the relationships between human capital, labor market structure and crime. Using a unique micro-level data base with individually matched crime and employment data for over 900 felony arrestees, it tests the relative explanatory power of neoclassical economic choice theory and labor market segmentation theory on the determinants of labor market outcomes, criminal behavior, and their interactions.

  14. Review of Teaching Performance Assessments for Use in Human Capital Management. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony T.; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Kimball, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The major goal of this study is to review the current state of the art in teaching assessment by examining a sample of assessment systems, then to develop a "specification" for a state-of the art performance assessment system to be used for human capital management (HCM) functions. This specification could be a stimulus and guidepost for working…

  15. Labor Market Effects of Human Capital and of Its Adjustment to Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    This document, a review of labor market effects of human capital, focuses on two related topics. Part I describes the following early findings of the research on effects of education and job training on the wage structure, labor turnover, and unemployment: decline of training with experience, positive and significant effects of training on length…

  16. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  17. Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

  18. States' Investment in Human Capital: Higher Education Funding Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Diminishing state support for higher education threatens human capital development. This quantitative study undertook to determine the state factors that influence higher education funding and to what degree they do so, what level of funding is required to satisfy higher education expenditure need, and what can help to ensure that those funding…

  19. Returns to Human and Research Capital, United States Agriculture, 1949-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishelson, Gideon

    This study estimated rates of return to public investments in human and research capital (formal schooling and extension and vocational agricultural education) in the United States agricultural industry. (Southern states were excluded because of demographic and educational factors that would have biased the variables.) Output per farm was defined…

  20. Education, Labour Market and Human Capital Models: Swedish Experiences and Theoretical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlman, Asa

    An empirical study concerning development of the Swedish educational system from a labor market point of view, and a theoretical study on human capital models are discussed. In "Education and Labour Market; The Swedish Experience 1900-1975," attention is directed to the following concerns: the official educational policy regarding education and…

  1. A Human Capital Model: Service-Learning in the Micro Business Incubator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desplaces, David E.; Steinberg, Margery; Coleman, Susan; Kenworthy-U'Ren, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a service-learning approach to inner city revitalization that is grounded in a human capital model for economic development. The case study demonstrates how a private university became the catalyst for growth in an "at risk" neighborhood of an urban inner city. Our ongoing service-learning project, called The Upper Albany Micro…

  2. Vocational Education and Training and Human Capital Development: Current Practice and Future Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenborn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    EU neighbouring countries (partner countries) have made considerable efforts to improve their vocational education and training (VET) systems, with different policies and strategies that take account of country-specific priorities in human capital development. This article addresses the donor community. It analyses the role of partner countries'…

  3. Female Educators, Development, and Human Capital: A Brazilian Case. Working Paper #35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda

    The role of female educators in the Brazilian Amazon community of Itaituba (population in 1970: 12,690) has fallen short of that envisioned by the policymakers and social scientists in the early 1970s, as indicated by research conducted in 1976-77. Based on the "human capital" theory, better-trained local teachers were to train the local labor…

  4. The Knowledge Trap: Human Capital and Development Reconsidered. NBER Working Paper No. 14138

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Benjamin F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model where human capital differences--rather than technology differences--can explain several central phenomena in the world economy. The results follow from the educational choices of workers, who decide not just how long to train, but also how broadly. A "knowledge trap" occurs in economies where skilled workers favor…

  5. The Strategic Management of Human Capital: Brief Reflections and a Few Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett

    2008-01-01

    The author shares how he was fascinated by the recent interest in and focus on the strategic management of human capital (SMHC)--which has been defined as "the acquisition, development, performance management and retention of top talent in the nation's schools." It is one thing to identify talented educators; it is another to utilize them…

  6. Building the Capacity to Innovate: The Role of Human Capital--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Courvisanos, Jerry; Tuck, Jacqueline; McEachern, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Building the Capacity to Innovate: The Role of Human Capital," and is an added resource for further information. This document contains the following appendices: (1) Survey methodology; (2) Synopsis of the literature; (3) Interview questions; and (4) Survey…

  7. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  8. The Nature of Credit Constraints and Human Capital. NBER Working Paper No. 13912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Lance J.; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the nature and impact of credit constraints in the market for human capital. We derive endogenous constraints from the design of government student loan programs and from the limited repayment incentives in private lending markets. These constraints imply cross-sectional patterns for schooling, ability, and family income that…

  9. Human Capital: A Self-Assessment Checklist for Agency Leaders. Version 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents and discusses a self-assessment checklist that the General Accounting Office (GAO) developed to enable agency leaders to examine their human capital efforts through a process consisting of the following stages: analyze and plan; implement change; and evaluate and continuously improve. The preface defines the term "human…

  10. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  11. Integrative Literature Review: Human Capital Planning--A Review of Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zula, Kenneth J.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The shift in the U.S. economy from a manufacturing powerhouse to a service-driven economy has placed a great emphasis on human capital planning within organizations in order to remain competitive in a new global economy. The link between critical business strategy and the successful implementation of strategy has been well documented in the…

  12. Human Capital or Humane Talent? Rethinking the Nature of Education in China from a Comparative Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Limin

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the impact of human capital theory on contemporary Chinese education, this paper first draws a conceptual outline of how this theory was introduced and interpreted to suit the Chinese quest for modernization. The study then adopts a comparative historical approach to the points of similarity between Neo-Confucian educational…

  13. Development in the Learning Factory: Training Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Harry; Delbridge, Rick

    2001-01-01

    A study of human resource practices in 18 automobile factories in the United States and Britain showed that manufacturing innovations are placing greater demands on line managers and workers. Training is being refocused to develop their interpersonal, team, and leadership skills. However, lack of time and suitable training facilities are barriers.…

  14. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  15. Advances in Computationally Modeling Human Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  16. Taking it to another level: do personality-based human capital resources matter to firm performance?

    PubMed

    Oh, In-Sue; Kim, Seongsu; Van Iddekinge, Chad H

    2015-05-01

    Drawing on the attraction-selection-attrition perspective, strategic human resource management (SHRM) scholarship, and recent human capital research, this study explores organization-level emergence of personality (i.e., personality-based human capital resources) and its direct, interactive, and (conditional) indirect effects on organization-level outcomes based on data from 6,709 managers across 71 firms. Results indicate that organization-level mean emotional stability, extraversion, and conscientiousness are positively related to organization-level managerial job satisfaction and labor productivity but not to financial performance. Furthermore, organization-level mean and variance in emotional stability interact to predict all three organization-level outcomes, and organization-level mean and variance in extraversion interact to predict firm financial performance. Specifically, the positive effects of organization-level mean emotional stability and extraversion are stronger when organization-level variance in these traits is lower. Finally, organization-level mean emotional stability, extraversion, and conscientiousness are all positively related to firm financial performance indirectly via labor productivity, and the indirect effects are more positive when organization-level variance in those personality traits is lower. Overall, the findings suggest that personality-based human capital resources demonstrate tangible effects on organization-level outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed along with study limitations and future research directions. PMID:25822069

  17. The privatization of human services: myths, social capital and civil society.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lawrence L

    2004-01-01

    It is fashionable to point to privatization and the involvement of for-profits as the parties responsible for many, if not most, of the ills that plague the social welfare system today. This article takes a contrary point of view. Three arguments are made. First, private sector human service delivery and the use of for-profits in the United States predate privatization as a defined public policy. Second, the privatization of the human services is a world wide phenomenon that transcends politics and ideology. Third, the privatization of human services helps to promote civil society and generate social capital.

  18. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Developing Our Human Capital FY2015

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S.; Hawkins Erpenbeck, Heather

    2015-10-13

    This report documents the accomplishments of the Safeguards HCD Fiscal Year 2015 (FY15) Project Work Plan, highlighting LANL’s work as well as the accomplishments of our NGSI-sponsored students, graduate and postdoctoral fellows, and mid-career professionals during this past year. While fiscal year 2015 has been a year of transition in the Human Capital Development area for LANL, we are working to revitalize our efforts to promote and develop Human Capital in Safeguards and Non-proliferation and are looking forward to implementing new initiatives in the coming fiscal year and continuing to transition the knowledge of staff who have been on assignment at IAEA and Headquarters to improve our support to HCD.

  19. Skills on the Move: Rethinking the Relationship Between Human Capital and Immigrant Economic Mobility.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Jacqueline; Lowe, Nichola; Quingla, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Studies of immigrant labor market incorporation in the unregulated sector of the US economy either assume that immigrant workers are trapped in low-wage jobs because of low human capital, or paint a picture of blocked mobility because of exploitation and discrimination. In this paper we offer a third sociological alternative to understand processes of occupational mobility and skill learning. Drawing on work histories of 111 immigrant construction workers, we find that many immigrants are skilled, having come to their jobs with technical skill sets acquired in their home communities and their previous U.S. jobs. We further find that these less-educated immigrants, who rank low on traditional human capital attributes but high on work experience may circumvent exploitation and build mobility pathways through skill transference, on- the- job reskilling, and brincando (job jumping). PMID:23700356

  20. Skills on the Move: Rethinking the Relationship Between Human Capital and Immigrant Economic Mobility *

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Jacqueline; Lowe, Nichola; Quingla, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Studies of immigrant labor market incorporation in the unregulated sector of the US economy either assume that immigrant workers are trapped in low-wage jobs because of low human capital, or paint a picture of blocked mobility because of exploitation and discrimination. In this paper we offer a third sociological alternative to understand processes of occupational mobility and skill learning. Drawing on work histories of 111 immigrant construction workers, we find that many immigrants are skilled, having come to their jobs with technical skill sets acquired in their home communities and their previous U.S. jobs. We further find that these less-educated immigrants, who rank low on traditional human capital attributes but high on work experience may circumvent exploitation and build mobility pathways through skill transference, on- the- job reskilling, and brincando (job jumping). PMID:23700356

  1. The worth of land use: a GIS-emergy evaluation of natural and human-made capital.

    PubMed

    Mellino, Salvatore; Buonocore, Elvira; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-02-15

    Natural systems make their natural capital and ecosystem services available to human economy. A careful analysis of the interplay between natural and human-made capital is needed to prevent natural capital being overexploited for present economic benefits, affecting lifestyles and wellbeing of future generations. In this study, the emergy synthesis is used to evaluate the natural and the human-made capital of Campania region (southern Italy) by accounting for the environmental support directly and indirectly provided by nature to resource generation. Furthermore, geographic information system (GIS) models are integrated with the emergy accounting procedure to generate maps of the spatial patterns of both natural and human-made capital distribution. Regional storages of natural and human-made capital are identified and evaluated in emergy units (seJ). The human-made capital of the Campania region (6.29E+24seJ) results to be about 11 times higher than the natural capital (5.69E+23seJ) due to the past and present exploitation of the natural resources needed to generate it over time. Moreover, by overlaying the total natural capital map and the total human-made capital map with a map of the protected areas within the region, only the 19% of the regional natural capital appears to be concentrated within protected areas, while most of it (81%) is concentrated outside. These findings suggest that the conservation of natural resources is also necessary outside protected areas by means of suitable policies, directives and investments. The human-made capital is mainly concentrated (88%) inside non-protected areas and interacts with the local natural capital. A management of the interactions between the two categories of wealth is crucial to prevent that the growth of human-made storages degrades the natural ecosystems and the environment. The proposed emergy-GIS framework reveals to be a useful tool for environmental planning and resource management aimed to conserve and

  2. Advances in Human B Cell Phenotypic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Denise A.; Wei, Chungwen; Qian, Yu; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Sanz, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    To advance our understanding and treatment of disease, research immunologists have been called-upon to place more centralized emphasis on impactful human studies. Such endeavors will inevitably require large-scale study execution and data management regulation (“Big Biology”), necessitating standardized and reliable metrics of immune status and function. A well-known example setting this large-scale effort in-motion is identifying correlations between eventual disease outcome and T lymphocyte phenotype in large HIV-patient cohorts using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity are also characterized by correlative and functional contributions of B lymphocytes, which to-date have received much less attention in the human Big Biology enterprise. Here, we review progress in human B cell phenotyping, analysis, and bioinformatics tools that constitute valuable resources for the B cell research community to effectively join in this effort. PMID:23087687

  3. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000–2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed. PMID:25419203

  4. Inequalities in nonfatal work injury: the significance of race, human capital, and occupations.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Shin, Eui Hang

    2003-12-01

    Little research is conducted to examine the determinants of nonfatal injury on the job. In particular, this study stresses the importance of race, human capital, and occupational conditions in explaining nonfatal injury at work. It measures nonfatal work injury as an episode of work injury, using the data from the 1988 Occupational Health Supplement (1988 OHS) to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). First, this study confirms no association between race and nonfatal injury at work. Second, the findings show that human capital, expressed through education and work experience, is the crucial determinant of nonfatal injury at work. In general, workers of more years of schooling and more work experience encounter less nonfatal injury at work than their counterparts. Third, the results also demonstrate the significance of occupational conditions (occupational positions and work activity) for nonfatal injury at work. Specifically, workers in professional occupations experience less work injury than workers in production occupations, but more work injury than workers engaged in clerical jobs. Even after controlling for occupational positions, there is a significant correlation between work activity and nonfatal work injury. Our study is a first step towards the causation of nonfatal injury on the job in terms of race, human capital, and occupational conditions. Therefore, the next step of work injury study needs to consider the influence of the other important determinants on nonfatal injury at work.

  5. Rising Inequality and Intergenerational Mobility: The Role of Public Investments in Human Capital.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-06-01

    One consequence of the rise in inequality witnessed over the past 40 years is its potentially negative impact on intergenerational mobility if parents at the bottom of the income distribution invest significantly less in their children's human capital. I consider whether public investments in children can potentially offset the inequality of private investments. Specifically, examining changes in public spending in 25 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 2000-2009, I find that increases in spending on health are most strongly associated with reductions in the importance of family background and declines in inequality in the production of child human capital as measured by the Program for International Student Assessment test scores among 15-year-olds. Public spending on family support, housing, and education are also moderately related. In contrast, increased spending on the elderly is associated with increases in the importance of parental background and inequality of child test scores. These results suggest that public investments in child human capital have the potential to offset the potentially negative impact of increasing income inequality on intergenerational mobility and inequality of the next generation. Further research firmly establishing a causal relationship is needed.

  6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Rabies: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. The true disease burden and public health impact due to rabies remain underestimated due to lack of sensitive laboratory diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnosis of rabies can help initiate prompt infection control and public health measures, obviate the need for unnecessary treatment/medical tests, and assist in timely administration of pre- or postexposure prophylactic vaccination to family members and medical staff. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies provides an impetus for clinicians to attempt experimental therapeutic approaches in some patients, especially after the reported survival of a few cases of human rabies. Traditional methods for antemortem and postmortem rabies diagnosis have several limitations. Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. These assays which complement traditional methods have the potential to revolutionize rabies diagnosis in future. PMID:24348170

  7. Inequality in Landownership, the Emergence of Human-Capital Promoting Institutions, and the Great Divergence

    PubMed Central

    GALOR, ODED; MOAV, OMER; VOLLRATH, DIETRICH

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests that inequality in the distribution of landownership adversely affected the emergence of human-capital promoting institutions (e.g. public schooling), and thus the pace and the nature of the transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy, contributing to the emergence of the great divergence in income per capita across countries. The prediction of the theory regarding the adverse effect of the concentration of landownership on education expenditure is established empirically based on evidence from the beginning of the 20th century in the U.S. PMID:23946551

  8. Economic perspective on strategic human capital management and planning for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kakoli; Chen, Zhuo Adam; Crawford, Carol A Gotway

    2009-11-01

    An organization's workforce--or human capital--is its most valuable asset. The 2002 President's Management Agenda emphasizes the importance of strategic human capital management by requiring all federal agencies to improve performance by enhancing personnel and compensation systems. In response to these directives, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) drafted its strategic human capital management plan to ensure that it is aligned strategically to support the agency's mission and its health protection goals. In this article, we explore the personnel economics literature to draw lessons from research studies that can help CDC enhance its human capital management and planning. To do so, we focus on topics that are of practical importance and empirical relevance to CDC's internal workforce and personnel needs with an emphasis on identifying promising research issues or methodological approaches. The personnel economics literature is rich with theoretically sound and empirically rigorous approaches for shaping an evidence-based approach to human capital management that can enhance incentives to attract, retain, and motivate a talented federal public health workforce, thereby promoting the culture of high-performance government.

  9. Lifelong learning as an instrument for human capital development in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-10-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the unintentional creation of a large population of unskilled and unproductive youths and adults. Integrated education systems which hold great potential and opportunities for both initial and continuing education remain hardly explored and virtually untapped. Yet, the challenges of the 21st century are such that only the unveiling and continuous cultivation of multi-faceted human capital can help individual citizens lead both a productive and fulfilled life. Formal education alone or non-formal education alone, irrespective of how well each is delivered, is no longer sufficient in facing up to the multifarious challenges of the 21st century. If education is to serve Benin beneficially in this century, the current national system of education must be reoriented to free up citizens' human capital through the implementation of an integrated educational system. This article proposes a new national education system which is rooted in the concept of lifelong learning and combines formal and non-formal systems of education for Benin.

  10. The (Bio)Politicization of Neuroscience in Australian Early Years Policies: Fostering Brain-Resources "as" Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millei, Zsuzsa; Joronen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    At the present, human capital theory (HCT) and neuroscience reasoning are dominant frameworks in early childhood education and care (ECEC) worldwide. Popular since the 1960s, HCT has provided an economic understanding of human beings and offered strategies to manage the population with the promise of bringing improvements to nations. Neuroscience…

  11. Evolution of Gender Differences in Post-Secondary Human Capital Investments: College Majors. Working Paper #03-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemici, Ahu; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the level of human capital investments has changed substantially for men and women. Changes in the intensive margin of college major selection have been also been substantial, as the number of graduates in humanities, social science, and teaching has declined, and the number in science, engineering, and business has…

  12. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Adair, Linda; Fall, Caroline; Hallal, Pedro C; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh

    2008-01-26

    In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and--for women--lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain--especially after infancy--is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and

  13. Examining drug treatment program entry of injection drug users: human capital and institutional disaffiliation.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lena M; Schilling, Robert F; Ferguson, Faith; Davis, Karen; Amodeo, Maryann

    2003-05-01

    Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the likelihood of either entering residential treatment, methadone treatment or solely entering detoxification programs for 32,173 injection drug users (IDUs) using drug treatment in Massachusetts, 1996-1999. Those IDUs who were employed, more educated, health-insured, not homeless and who resided with their children were less likely to solely enter detoxification programs. This population, with more human capital and lower levels of institutional disaffiliation, was also more likely to enter methadone maintenance programs. These results were consistent for two groups of drug users: those who reported having injected in the past year and those with a history of injecting who had not injected in the past year. Overall, the findings demonstrate a need for more complex drug treatment program planning efforts that also respond to issues of employment, education and social isolation.

  14. Capitalizing on Advances in Mathematics and K-12 Mathematics Education in Undergraduate Mathematics: An Inquiry-Oriented Approach to Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Kwon, Oh Nam; Allen, Karen; Marrongelle, Karen; Burtch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Inquiry-Oriented Differential Equations (IO-DE) project and reports on the main results of a study that compared students' beliefs, skills, and understandings in IO-DE classes to more conventional approaches. The IO-DE project capitalizes on advances within mathematics and mathematics education, including the…

  15. Entrepreneurial Human Capital Accumulation and the Growth of Rural Businesses: A Four-Country Survey in Mountainous and Lagging Areas of the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal…

  16. Trends in Opportunity Costs of U.S. Postsecondary Education: A National HRD and Human Capital Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchione, Edgard; Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore opportunity costs of postsecondary education in the U.S. in the past three decades (1975-2005), as a measure to support investment decisions at national levels and as experienced by individuals deciding on pursuing further education. Based on human capital theory and inspired by a set of studies aiming at…

  17. Economic Opportunities and Gender Differences in Human Capital: Experimental Evidence for India. NBER Working Paper No. 16021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in health and education are a concern for a number of developing countries. While standard theory predicts human capital should respond to market returns, social norms (e.g., disapproval of women working outside the home) may weaken or even sever this link for girls. Though many studies have examined the link between women's…

  18. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  19. The Role of Social Trust in Reducing Long-Term Truancy and Forming Human Capital in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how social trust influences human capital formation using prefectural level data in Japan. To this end, I constructed a proxy for social trust, based on the Japanese General Social Surveys. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, I found that social trust plays an important role in reducing the rate of long-term…

  20. Trends Affecting Ohio State University Extension in the 21st Century and the Implications for Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.; Chen, Claire Yueh-Ti

    2012-01-01

    Research with a diverse array of organizations in the public and private sectors has documented a common set of trends affecting organizations and their human capital in the 21st century. Similar trends have been identified as important for Extension organizations and the Cooperative Extension System. It is important to determine if such trends…

  1. A Critique of Human Capital Formation in the U.S. and the Economic Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Josh M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the history of human capital in the United States in relation to scholarly study of the private economic returns to higher education. The focus of this study is the private economic returns to subbaccalaureate education in two-year community and technical colleges. This article argues that although there are some beneficial…

  2. The Relationships between Human Capital, Implicit Views of Intelligence, and Literacy Performance: Implications for the Obama Education Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rihana S.; Ari, Omer; Dortch, Cedrick

    2011-01-01

    African American adolescents from families with low levels of human capital (i.e., caregiver level of education) are at risk for poor early adult outcomes. The current study examined the relationships among 48 African American high school students' literacy performance (e.g., reading and vocabulary), their implicit views of intelligence, their…

  3. Pomp and Circumstance: University Presidents and the Role of Human Capital in Determining Who Leads U.S. Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Tang, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    While there is wide agreement that leaders matter, little is known regarding the role that human capital plays in determining who becomes one. We exploit unique attributes of the higher education industry to examine if training and academic ability affect the placement of university presidents within the research hierarchy of U.S. institutions.…

  4. Education and Health in Late-Life among High School Graduates: Cognitive versus Psychological Aspects of Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Just as postsecondary schooling serves as a dividing line between the advantaged and disadvantaged on outcomes like income and marital status, it also serves as a dividing line between the healthy and unhealthy. Why are the better educated healthier? Human capital theory posits that education makes one healthier via cognitive (skill improvements)…

  5. Effects of Organizational Characteristics and Human Capital Endowments on Pay of Female and Male Middle School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Phillip; Reimer, Don; Young, Karen Holsey

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies addressing pay discrimination for females in education have relied on main effect regression models, mostly examining amount (intercept values) rather than rate of pay (slope coefficients). Purpose: The purpose is to determine if organizational characteristics and human capital endowments purported to influence pay are facially…

  6. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  7. The Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Re-examination of the Evidence. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.; Shapiro, David

    This paper discusses specification and interpretation of human capital models of women's earnings when data on actual work experience are available. It uses the segmented earnings function framework developed by Jacob Mincer and Solomon Polachek and considers the effects of data errors, issues involving data interpretation, consequences of model…

  8. Human Capital Metrics: An Approach to Teaching Using Data and Metrics to Design and Evaluate Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Joshua L.; Murphy, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that a class in human capital metrics (HCM) will benefit all undergraduate management majors. After introducing what is meant by HCM through a discussion of its evolution, the authors enumerate the benefits such a course brings to students. Primary among those benefits is a change in mind-set toward using data and metrics to…

  9. Human Capital Formation as a Strategy for Rural Development: Who Benefits and Who Pays? Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, J. C.; And Others

    This paper theorizes on the pattern in which investment in human capital affects the well-being of the rural community and is affected by public policy on education finding. Outmigration from rural regions is more likely for individuals with the highest educational achievement. Therefore, remote school districts tend to underinvest in education.…

  10. An Exchange: The Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women. A Reexamination of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.; Shapiro, David

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing data on the work experience of women, the authors examine both the empirical specification of human capital models of earnings in the presence of discontinuous work experience over the life cycle and simultaneous-equations models of wage determination and labor supply. (EM)

  11. Morpheus: Advancing Technologies for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Baine, Michael

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing. Designed to serve as a vertical testbed (VTB) for advanced spacecraft technologies, the vehicle provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. This allows individual technologies to mature into capabilities that can be incorporated into human exploration missions. The Morpheus vehicle is propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a payload of 1100 lb to the lunar surface. In addition to VTB vehicles, the Project s major elements include ground support systems and an operations facility. Initial testing will demonstrate technologies used to perform autonomous hazard avoidance and precision landing on a lunar or other planetary surface. The Morpheus vehicle successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tethered hover tests, leading up to un-tethered free-flights. The initial phase of this development and testing campaign is being conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), with the first fully integrated vehicle firing its engine less than one year after project initiation. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs that traditionally require longer, more expensive development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. Morpheus testing includes three major types of integrated tests. A hot-fire (HF) is a static vehicle test of the LOX/Methane propulsion system. Tether tests (TT) have the vehicle suspended above the ground using a crane, which allows testing of the propulsion and integrated Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in hovering flight without the risk of a vehicle departure or crash. Morpheus free-flights (FF) test the complete Morpheus system without the additional

  12. PROBABILISTIC MODELING FOR ADVANCED HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to environmental pollutants widely vary depending on the emission patterns that result in microenvironmental pollutant concentrations, as well as behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with these pollutants. Probabilistic human exp...

  13. Advancing Humanities Studies at Community, Technical, and Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Diane U.; And Others

    The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges' (AACJC's) two-year Advancing the Humanities Project (AHP) has assisted selected community colleges in promoting the humanities on their campuses. Parts I and II of this report on the AHP present statements by Dale Parnell and Judith Jeffrey Howard about the AACJC's humanities initiatives…

  14. Of neoliberalism and global health: human capital, market failure and sin/social taxes

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal. In contrast, taxation policies are the result of a different epistemological rupture in international development: the move from economies and physical capital to people and human capital, advocated by Gary Becker and others. This move was part of wider change, which saw Chicago School economists, under the influence of rational choice theory, redefine the object of their discipline, from the study of markets to individual choices. It was this concern with people and their choices that made it possible for Becker and others to identify the importance of price for the demand for tobacco, alcohol and sugar. The same concern also made it easier for them to recognise that there were inefficiencies in the tobacco, alcohol and sugar markets that required government intervention. This story, I suggest, shows that structural adjustment policies and pro-market ideology do not exhaust the relationship between neoliberalism and global health and should not monopolise how we, as political and social scientists, conceive it. PMID:27721572

  15. Capital cost estimates of selected advanced thermal energy storage technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, W.T.

    1980-06-01

    A method for evaluating the first cost of diverse advances TES concepts on a common basis is presented. For a total sample of at least 20 baseline and advanced TES technologies, the methodology developed was to be applied in the calculation of actual cost and performance measures. Work on the development of TES has focused on 5 types of application areas: electric power generation, with solar input in which TES is used to store energy for use during cloudy periods or at night; conventional fuel-fired electric power generation, in which TES is used to improve load factors; cyclic losses, in which TES is used to reduce losses that occur when devices start and stop; batch losses, in which TES is used to recover waste heat; and source/sink mismatch, in which TES is used to increase the efficiency of processes that are dependent upon ambient temperatures. Chapter 2 defines reference operating characteristics; Chapter 2 gives the costing methodology; Chapter 4 describes the system; Chapter 5 describes the baseline systems; Chapter 6 analyzes the effect of input-storage-temperature requirements on solar-collector-hardware costs and the input-temperature requirements of off-peak electric-storage systems on compressor operating costs; and in Chapter 7, the effects of chemical heat pump COP and collector temperature on storage size and collector area are considered. (MCW)

  16. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Sola schola et sanitate: human capital as the root cause and priority for international development?

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes new scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis that among the many factors contributing to international development, the combination of education and health stands out as a root cause on which other dimensions of development depend. Much of this recent analysis is based on new reconstructions and projections of populations by age, sex and four levels of educational attainment for more than 120 countries using the demographic method of multi-state population dynamics. It also refers to a series of systems analytical population–development–environment case studies that comprehensively assess the role of population and education factors relative to other factors in the struggle for sustainable development. The paper also claims that most concerns about the consequences of population trends are in fact concerns about human capital, and that only by adding the ‘quality’ dimension of education to the traditionally narrow focus on size and age structure can some of the long-standing population controversies be resolved. PMID:19770154

  18. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI’s ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI’s long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  19. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A; Dreicer, M; Essner, J; Gaffney, A; Reed, J; Williams, R

    2009-11-16

    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  20. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  1. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures in 12 CFR 3.12. (c) Reservation of authority—(1) Additional capital in the aggregate. The OCC may require a bank to hold an amount of capital greater than otherwise required under this appendix if the OCC... and response procedures in 12 CFR 3.12. (2) Specific risk-weighted asset amounts. (i) If the...

  2. Social Capital and Entrepreneurial Behaviour Advancing Innovativeness in Interaction between Small Rural Entrepreneurs and Researchers: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, Sari; Kyro, Paula; Mynttinen, Sinikka; Sarkka-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Innovation processes between entrepreneurs and researchers are activated by interaction. Social capital increases the efficiency of action, for example, information dissemination by minimising redundancy. To learn more about how to build and develop social capital assumes that we understand how entrepreneurs behave and what their expectations of…

  3. Unemployment scarring by gender: Human capital depreciation or stigmatization? Longitudinal evidence from the Netherlands, 1980-2000.

    PubMed

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Ganzeboom, Harry B

    2015-07-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Force Supply Panel (OSA), this article examines how unemployment scarring (i.e., wage setbacks following unemployment) and its underlying mechanisms operate across gender in the Netherlands over the period 1985-2000. A series of fixed effect panel models that correct for unobserved heterogeneity, reveal a notable disparity in unemployment scarring by gender. Interestingly, while unemployment scarring is short-lived and partly conditional upon human capital differences among women, it is strongly persistent among men and contingent upon old age, ethnicity, and tight economic conditions. Our findings provide new evidence regarding unemployment scarring by gender while they support the hypothesis that among women the effects of unemployment scarring are predominantly driven by human capital depreciation, while among men stigma effects dominate. PMID:26004486

  4. Unemployment scarring by gender: Human capital depreciation or stigmatization? Longitudinal evidence from the Netherlands, 1980-2000.

    PubMed

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Ganzeboom, Harry B

    2015-07-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Force Supply Panel (OSA), this article examines how unemployment scarring (i.e., wage setbacks following unemployment) and its underlying mechanisms operate across gender in the Netherlands over the period 1985-2000. A series of fixed effect panel models that correct for unobserved heterogeneity, reveal a notable disparity in unemployment scarring by gender. Interestingly, while unemployment scarring is short-lived and partly conditional upon human capital differences among women, it is strongly persistent among men and contingent upon old age, ethnicity, and tight economic conditions. Our findings provide new evidence regarding unemployment scarring by gender while they support the hypothesis that among women the effects of unemployment scarring are predominantly driven by human capital depreciation, while among men stigma effects dominate.

  5. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Advances in Human B19 Erythrovirus Biology▿

    PubMed Central

    Servant-Delmas, Annabelle; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Morinet, Frédéric; Pillet, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery, human parvovirus B19 (B19V), now termed erythrovirus, has been associated with many clinical situations (neurological and myocardium infections, persistent B19V DNAemia) in addition to the prototype clinical manifestations, i.e., erythema infectiosum and erythroblastopenia crisis. In 2002, the use of new molecular tools led to the characterization of three different genotypes of human B19 erythrovirus. Although the genomic organization is conserved, the geographic distribution of the different genotypes varies worldwide, and the nucleotidic divergences can impact the molecular diagnosis of B19 virus infection. The cell cycle of the virus remains partially unresolved; however, recent studies have shed light on the mechanism of cell entry and the interactions of B19V proteins with apoptosis pathways. PMID:20631151

  7. Human Capital, Values, and Attitudes of Persons Seeking Refuge in Austria in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kohlenberger, Judith; Rengs, Bernhard; Al Zalak, Zakarya; Goujon, Anne; Striessnig, Erich; Potančoková, Michaela; Gisser, Richard; Testa, Maria Rita; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception in 2010, the Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of violent conflict in many countries, leading to high levels of migration from the affected region. Given the social impact of the large number of individuals applying for asylum across Europe in 2015, it is important to study who these persons are in terms of their skills, motivations, and intentions. DiPAS (Displaced Persons in Austria Survey) aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in 2015, mainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Particular focus is on human capital, attitudes and values. This survey, the first of its kind in Austria and possibly in Europe, was carried out among adult displaced persons, mostly residing in Vienna, yielding 514 completed interviews. Information gathered on spouses and children allows for the analysis of 972 persons living in Austria, and of further 419 partners and children abroad. Results indicate that the surveyed population comprised mainly young families with children, particularly those coming from Syria and Iraq. Their educational level is high compared with the average level in their country of origin. A vast majority of respondents are Muslims, rating their religiosity at medium levels. Judging from stated attitudes towards gender equity, interviewed men seem to have more liberal attitudes than their compatriots. The majority of respondents do not intend to return to their home countries, mostly because of the perception of permanent threat. DiPAS provides data for political decision-making and the on-going societal dialogue. Its findings can help to inform assessments about the integration potential of the displaced population into the host society. In addition, the applied methodological technique and experiences during the fieldwork provide valuable insights on sampling asylum seekers and refugees in the current European context. PMID:27662373

  8. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  9. Towards a learning networked organisation: human capital, compatibility and usability in e-learning systems.

    PubMed

    Ivergård, Toni; Hunt, Brian

    2005-03-01

    lack of compatibility between the different subsystems. In this first part we note two paradoxes which impact learning and for which we propose solutions. The second part deals with 'usability' aspects of these competency-related systems; in particular, usability in e-learning systems. In this second part we describe an example of a new organisational structure. We conclude by discussing four key concepts that are necessary conditions for organisations to address when developing their human capital. Establishing these conditions helps ensure compatibility and usability in e-learning systems. PMID:15694069

  10. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  11. Intellectual Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  12. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  13. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  14. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  15. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Imagining STEM Higher Education Futures: Advancing Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores a conceptual approach to the question of what it means to provide a university education that addresses equity, and encourages the formation of STEM graduates oriented to public-good values and with commitments to making professional contributions to society which will advance human well-being. It considers and rejects…

  17. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  18. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  19. Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Adrian J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

  20. Human Capital in Hartford Public Schools: Rethinking How to Attract, Develop, and Retain Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Connecticut has the largest achievement gap in the country, an unacceptable disparity in achievement of children who are poor and/or minority with children who are middle class and/or white. Hartford, its capital city, is the site of some of the state's most concentrated poverty and racial isolation. All but a small percentage of the district's…

  1. Social Capital and Human Mortality: Explaining the Rural Paradox with County-Level Mortality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Jensen, Leif; Haran, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The "rural paradox" refers to standardized mortality rates in rural areas that are unexpectedly low in view of well-known economic and infrastructural disadvantages there. We explore this paradox by incorporating social capital, a promising explanatory factor that has seldom been incorporated into residential mortality research. We do so while…

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Differences in GDP per Capita and the Role of Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sfakianakis, George; Magoutas, Anastasios I.; Georgopoulos, Demosthenes

    2010-01-01

    Using a generalized production function approach and insights from empirical research on the determinants of growth, this paper assesses the relative importance of specific factors in explaining differences in the levels of per capita GDP. Emphasis is placed on education, physical capital accumulation, the share of the public sector in economic…

  3. The longer-term effects of human capital enrichment programs on poverty and inequality: Oportunidades in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Douglas; Todd, Petra E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical research has shown that Mexico’s Oportunidades program has succeeded in increasing schooling and improving health of disadvantaged children. This paper studies the program’s potential longer-term consequences for the poverty and inequality of these children. It adapts methods developed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996) and incorporates existing experimental estimates of the program’s effects on human capital to analyze how Oportunidades will affect future earnings of program participants. We nonparametrically simulate earnings distributions, with and without the program, and predict that Oportunidades will increase future mean earnings but have only modest effects on poverty rates and earnings inequality. PMID:22577618

  4. Fuzzy inference systems, ASKE, knowledge value added, and Monte Carlo risk simulation for evaluating intangible human capital investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Johnathan; de Albuquerque, Nelson R.; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the ASKE-Risk method, coupled with Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Monte Carlo Risk Simulation to measure and prioritize Individual Technical Competence of a value chain to assess changes in the human capital of a company. ASKE is an extension of the method Knowledge Value Added, which proposes the use of a proxy variable for measuring the flow of knowledge used in a key process, creating a relationship between the company's financial results and the resources used in each of the business processes.

  5. Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights

    PubMed Central

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital. PMID:20634153

  6. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subject to 12 CFR part 3, appendix B, calculates its risk-based capital requirements under this appendix, the bank must also refer to 12 CFR part 3, appendix B, for supplemental rules to calculate risk-based.... 1467a) provided all or substantially all of the holding company's activities are permissible for...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 167, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 325 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 167 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 167, appendix C, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (FFIEC) 009 Country Exposure Report); (iii) Is a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR part 567... company that uses 12 CFR part 225, appendix G, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements. (2)...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 567 - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hold an amount of capital greater than otherwise required under this appendix if the OTS determines... it were consolidated on the savings association's balance sheet. OTS will look to the substance of... form or in substance: (1) Represents a contractual right to receive some or all of the interest and...

  5. Advanced automated glass cockpit certification: Being wary of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalberti, Rene; Wilbaux, Florence

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some facets of the French experience with human factors in the process of certification of advanced automated cockpits. Three types of difficulties are described: first, the difficulties concerning the hotly debated concept of human error and its non-linear relationship to risk of accident; a typology of errors to be taken into account in the certification process is put forward to respond to this issue. Next, the difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. The last difficulties to be considered are those related to the goals of certification itself on these new aircraft and the status of findings from human factor analyses (in particular, what should be done with disappointing results, how much can the changes induced by human factors investigation economically affect aircraft design, how many errors do we need to accumulate before we revise the system, what should be remedied when human factor problems are discovered at the certification stage: the machine? pilot training? the rules? or everything?). The growth of advanced-automated glass cockpits has forced the international aeronautical community to pay more attention to human factors during the design phase, the certification phase and pilot training. The recent creation of a human factor desk at the DGAC-SFACT (Official French services) is a direct consequence of this. The paper is divided into three parts. Part one debates human error and its relationship with system design and accident risk. Part two describes difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. Part three focuses on concrete outcomes of human factors for certification purposes.

  6. Technical advances and pitfalls on the way to human cloning.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Richard; Denham, Mark; Trounson, Alan

    2002-03-01

    There exists a widespread consensus that the cloning of human beings to term would be detrimental to both the mother and child and of little value to society. However, the ambition of a few organisations and the recent advances in cellular and molecular technologies that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep, for example, have meant that such a procedure will be possible if not illegal in the near future. The science associated with the cloning technologies practiced in other mammalian species reported to date provide important advances in our understanding of how cells function during early developmental processes and commit themselves to specific developmental pathways. However, many technological insufficiencies remain. Both technological advances and several of the associated insufficiencies are outlined in this review.

  7. Technical advances and pitfalls on the way to human cloning.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Richard; Denham, Mark; Trounson, Alan

    2002-03-01

    There exists a widespread consensus that the cloning of human beings to term would be detrimental to both the mother and child and of little value to society. However, the ambition of a few organisations and the recent advances in cellular and molecular technologies that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep, for example, have meant that such a procedure will be possible if not illegal in the near future. The science associated with the cloning technologies practiced in other mammalian species reported to date provide important advances in our understanding of how cells function during early developmental processes and commit themselves to specific developmental pathways. However, many technological insufficiencies remain. Both technological advances and several of the associated insufficiencies are outlined in this review. PMID:11963651

  8. Social Capital and Human Mortality: Explaining the Rural Paradox with County-Level Mortality Data

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Leif; Haran, Murali

    2014-01-01

    The “rural paradox” refers to standardized mortality rates in rural areas that are unexpectedly low in view of well-known economic and infrastructural disadvantages there. We explore this paradox by incorporating social capital, a promising explanatory factor that has seldom been incorporated into residential mortality research. We do so while being attentive to spatial dependence, a statistical problem often ignored in mortality research. Analyzing data for counties in the contiguous United States, we find that: (1) the rural paradox is confirmed with both metro/non-metro and rural-urban continuum codes, (2) social capital significantly reduces the impacts of residence on mortality after controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic covariates, (3) this attenuation is greater when a spatial perspective is imposed on the analysis, (4) social capital is negatively associated with mortality at the county level, and (5) spatial dependence is strongly in evidence. A spatial approach is necessary in county-level analyses such as ours to yield unbiased estimates and optimal model fit. PMID:25392565

  9. Social Capital and Human Mortality: Explaining the Rural Paradox with County-Level Mortality Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Jensen, Leif; Haran, Murali

    2011-09-01

    The "rural paradox" refers to standardized mortality rates in rural areas that are unexpectedly low in view of well-known economic and infrastructural disadvantages there. We explore this paradox by incorporating social capital, a promising explanatory factor that has seldom been incorporated into residential mortality research. We do so while being attentive to spatial dependence, a statistical problem often ignored in mortality research. Analyzing data for counties in the contiguous United States, we find that: (1) the rural paradox is confirmed with both metro/non-metro and rural-urban continuum codes, (2) social capital significantly reduces the impacts of residence on mortality after controlling for race/ethnicity and socioeconomic covariates, (3) this attenuation is greater when a spatial perspective is imposed on the analysis, (4) social capital is negatively associated with mortality at the county level, and (5) spatial dependence is strongly in evidence. A spatial approach is necessary in county-level analyses such as ours to yield unbiased estimates and optimal model fit.

  10. Human Capital Development (HCD) through Open, Distance and E-Learning: Evidence from Corporate Annual Reports (CARs) of Top South African Listed Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelowotan, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of open, distance and e-learning in the development of human resources by examining human capital development related disclosures in the corporate annual reports (CARs) of top South African listed companies. The study employed content analysis method to analyse the CARs of these companies with the aid of qualitative…

  11. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  12. The Influence of Early-Life Events on Human Capital, Health Status, and Labor Market Outcomes Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are substantial and robust to the inclusion of sibling fixed effects and an extensive set of controls. The results reveal that low birth weight ages people in their 30s and 40s by 12 years, increases the probability of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent. While poor birth outcomes reduce human capital accumulation, they explain only 10 percent of the total effect of low birth weight on labor market earnings. Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children. PMID:23412970

  13. A Cryptochrome 2 mutation yields advanced sleep phase in humans.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Arisa; Shi, Guangsen; Jones, Christopher R; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len A; Xu, Ying; Hallows, William C; McMahon, Thomas; Yamazaki, Maya; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Familial Advanced Sleep Phase (FASP) is a heritable human sleep phenotype characterized by very early sleep and wake times. We identified a missense mutation in the human Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) gene that co-segregates with FASP in one family. The mutation leads to replacement of an alanine residue at position 260 with a threonine (A260T). In mice, the CRY2 mutation causes a shortened circadian period and reduced phase-shift to early-night light pulse associated with phase-advanced behavioral rhythms in the light-dark cycle. The A260T mutation is located in the phosphate loop of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain of CRY2. The mutation alters the conformation of CRY2, increasing its accessibility and affinity for FBXL3 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase), thus promoting its degradation. These results demonstrate that CRY2 stability controlled by FBXL3 plays a key role in the regulation of human sleep wake behavior. PMID:27529127

  14. Advances in culture and manipulation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, X; Villa-Diaz, L G; Krebsbach, P H

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of pluripotent stem cell biology and emerging technologies to reprogram somatic cells to a stem cell-like state are helping bring stem cell therapies for a range of human disorders closer to clinical reality. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become a promising resource for regenerative medicine and research into early development because these cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and are capable of differentiation into specialized cell types of all 3 germ layers and trophoectoderm. Human PSCs include embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated via the reprogramming of somatic cells by the overexpression of key transcription factors. The application of hiPSCs and the finding that somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed into different cell types will likely have a significant impact on regenerative medicine. However, a major limitation for successful therapeutic application of hPSCs and their derivatives is the potential xenogeneic contamination and instability of current culture conditions. This review summarizes recent advances in hPSC culture and methods to induce controlled lineage differentiation through regulation of cell-signaling pathways and manipulation of gene expression as well as new trends in direct reprogramming of somatic cells.

  15. [Human capital vs. manpower: fostering a greater global perspective within the nursing profession in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Yen; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Nursing today is an occupation greatly influenced and shaped by global standards and internationally recognized standard practices and requirements. Therefore, cultivating nursing capital and ensuring nursing manpower requires an international perspective. Nursing migration is currently a popular approach used by many developed countries to address domestic shortfalls in nursing manpower. These international medical services have had a great impact on nursing education. Being able to communicate in English and to adapt transculturally have thus become increasingly important. Ability to communicate well in English is one effective way both to minimize nurse-patient misunderstandings and to increase the quality of care available to foreign patients. In addition, transcultural communication underscores the value of respecting cultural diversity. Fostering and enhancing these abilities will enhance and expand the role of Taiwanese nurses in the professional global movement and increase their contributions to the internal medical community.

  16. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  17. Capital access.

    PubMed

    Towne, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    To maintain their viability, hospitals are being compelled to invest in big capital projects such as information technology and renovation and construction. This gatefold examines the trends in credit and capital, and how they affect hospitals' access to money.

  18. Recent advances in research on climate and human conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly growing body of empirical, quantitative research examines whether rates of human conflict can be systematically altered by climatic changes. We discuss recent advances in this field, including Bayesian meta-analyses of the effect of temperature and rainfall on current and future large-scale conflicts, the impact of climate variables on gang violence and suicides in Mexico, and probabilistic projections of personal violence and property crime in the United States under RCP scenarios. Criticisms of this research field will also be explained and addressed.

  19. The Back Pocket Map: Social Class and Cultural Capital as Transferable Assets in the Advancement of Second-Generation Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Kelly, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I move beyond current understandings of family- and school-related dynamics that explain the educational and occupational success of low-income immigrant children to investigate the role of cultural capital acquired in the country of origin. Class-related forms of knowledge acquired prior to migration can become invaluable assets in areas of destination through the realization of what Pierre Boutdieu calls habitus, that is, a series of embodied predispositions deployed by individuals in their pursuit of set objectives. Although the concept has attracted prolonged attention, the mechanisms by which the habitus is fulfilled remain unspecified. Here, I propose and examine three of those mechanisms: (a) cognitive correspondence, (b) positive emulation, and (c) active recollection. My study shows that class-related resources, like education, self definition, and remembrance of nation and ancestry play an important function, shaping youthful expectations and behaviors, and protecting the children of low-income immigrants from downward mobility. PMID:25431497

  20. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Tri, T. O.; Packham, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  1. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  2. Human Capital Theory and the Industry Training Strategy in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Patrick; Peters, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Perpetual training is the new rationale for education and training in advanced industrial countries, providing the link between education and the economic system. This paper is concerned with Skill New Zealand, a "seamless" education system integrating all education levels with workplace training. The paper examines this new program's policy…

  3. The Impact of Human Capital and Selected Job Rewards on Community College Faculty Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Frankie W.; Akroyd, Duane

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges accommodate nearly half of all United States college students. Increased reliance upon community colleges is driven by the current economic downturn, rising costs of higher education, and changing expectations for today's workforce requiring advanced skill sets. Community colleges offer more affordable options for broader…

  4. Netflixing Human Capital Development: Personalized Learning Technology and the Corporatization of K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Mahoney, Heather; Means, Alexander J.; Garrison, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced by powerful venture philanthropies, educational technology companies, and the US Department of Education, a growing movement to apply "big data" through "learning analytics" to create "personalized learning" is currently underway in K-12 education in the United States. While scholars have offered various…

  5. Human Capital among Rural Community Leaders: An Examination of the Skills and Knowledge Contributed by Return Migrants and Newcomers "From Away" to Town Governance in a Down East Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jody

    In these changing times, rural communities must be able to solve unforeseen problems, adapt to economic and social changes, and sustain their efforts into the future. Their capacity to do so is dependent on the human capital among civic leaders. This paper examines human capital among civic leaders in Herring Bay, Maine, a rural, coastal…

  6. Building the Capacity to Innovate: The Role of Human Capital. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Courvisanos, Jerry; Tuck, Jacqueline; McEachern, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This report examines the link between human resource management practices and innovation. It is based on a conceptual framework in which "human resource stimuli measures"--work organisation, working time, areas of training and creativity--feed into innovative capacity or innovation. Of course, having innovative capacity does not necessarily mean…

  7. Quality of Life Experienced by Human Capital: An Assessment of European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Paulo; Migueis, Vera L.; Camanho, Ana S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an assessment of urban quality of life (QoL) of European cities from the perspective of qualified human resources. The competitiveness of cities relies increasingly in their capacity to attract highly educated workers, as they are important assets for firms when choosing a location. Qualified human resources, on the…

  8. Human and Financial Capital in the Rural Educational Environment: The Effects of Exceeding the Carrying Capacity Threshold on Standardized Test Scores in Rural Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peoples, Glenn

    The Rural Educational Environment (REE) is a complex mixture of demographic and economic forces that interact to impact the rural school corporation. The condition of REE financial and human capital indicates REE health and may influence student performance on standardized tests. This paper proposes an ecosystem model of the impact of financial,…

  9. Human Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 211 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 211)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Koji

    2003-01-01

    This paper synthesises the existing literature on human capital formation and foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The aim is to take a bird's eye view of the complex linkages between the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and policies of host developing countries. In doing so, general trends, best practices and…

  10. Managing for Results: Using Strategic Human Capital Management To Drive Transformational Change. Testimony before the National Commission on the Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the effectiveness of using strategic human capital (HC) management to drive transformational change in federal agencies and reported on its own implementation of a new competency-based performance management system. First, the potential impacts of the following three broad HC reform opportunities to…

  11. Perceived Quality of Private Education and Fears of Stratification: Investigating the Propositions of Human Capital Theory by Exploring the Case of Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel Páez, Pedro; Teelken, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recent developments in the higher education system of Colombia in order to illustrate how these encourage stratification between (types of) universities and their students. We do so by discussing propositions generated by human capital theory and apply them to the experiences of students and graduates…

  12. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  13. Teaching Assessment for Teacher Human Capital Management: Learning from the Current State of the Art. WCER Working Paper No. 2011-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony T.; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the current state of the art in teaching assessment. The major goal of the study was to examine a sample of assessment systems and then develop a specification for a state-of the art performance assessment system to be used for human capital management functions. The authors hope was that this specification would…

  14. What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology". NBER Working Paper No. 17820

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron; Autor, David

    2012-01-01

    Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology" is a monumental achievement that supplies a unified framework for interpreting how the demand and supply of human capital have shaped the distribution of earnings in the U.S. labor market over the 20th century. This essay reviews the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of this work…

  15. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  16. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607

  17. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  18. 76 FR 74631 - Capital Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... assets. \\1\\ 76 FR 35351 (June 17, 2011). \\2\\ The amendments to Regulation Y are codified at 12 CFR 225.8... (Pillar 2) Related to the Implementation of the Basel II Advanced Capital Framework, 73 FR 44620 (July 31... Owners' Loan Act. See 76 FR 22662, 22665 (April 22, 2011). The Board may extend the capital plan...

  19. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  20. Human umbilical cord blood cells and diabetes mellitus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Alluru S; Kothari, Neil; Kuppasani, Kishore; Ende, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for patients with diabetes is an area of great interest to both scientists and clinicians. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) are being increasingly used as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapy for diabetes because these cells can differentiate into pancreatic islet β-cells. Administration of HUCBCs has been shown to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. The use of autologous HUCBC transfusion in type 1 diabetic children has not shown any benefit. However, "Stem Cell Educator" therapy has shown promise in long term lowering of blood glucose levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we will briefly discuss recent advances in HUCBC therapy in the treatment of diabetes and some of its complications.

  1. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  2. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  3. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicholas R.; Laroche, Fabrice J.F.; Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  4. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  5. Human capital accumulation in post green revolution rural Pakistan: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Sabot, R H

    1992-01-01

    There are hugh gender gaps in school enrollments and in cognitive achievements in rural Pakistan. The findings in this study were that the gaps were due to gender differences in school supply. The gender gap in school achievement could have been reduced by half, by eliminating the gender gap in primary school supply, assuming appropriate treatment of preschool ability. Findings also showed that the gender gap in cognitive skills has increased over time, regardless of the more rapid increase in rural schools for girls. Parents now are just as likely to send a girl child to school as a boy child. The gender gap in school supply has narrowed in recent years, except for the age group 10-14 years. School supply can be increased by operating different shifts in boys' schools or with coeducation, which would reduce the need for large capital investments. Cognitive achievement was related to the quantity of rural schooling a child received. There were variations in school quality that were evident and affected girls' cognitive achievement. High quality schools produced more skilled workers, who have an advantage in income potential. Higher levels of educational attainment were related to higher earnings. The estimated return for increasing expenditures on primary schools to insure high quality and increased cognitive achievement was 11%. The rate of return was higher for higher quality schools than primary or middle schools of average quality. Findings were considered tentative and caveats were indicated. Data were obtained from surveys to a panel of over 800 rural households (over 7000 persons) from villages in Attock and Faisalabad districts of the Punjab; respondents were interviewed 4 times a year. The 10th round of the survey was in spring 1989. Background information was provided on gender differences in schooling and the school system. The models yielded 7 equations on gender differences in the determinants of schooling attainment, conditioned on school supply, and

  6. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  7. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gara, Chloe; Lusk, Diane

    This study analyzes human resources for kindergarten in Egypt, focusing on the provision of kindergarten programs as part of the public education system and as part of the private sector. The report is organized in 10 parts. Following an executive summary and introductory remarks, the report provides an inventory of public and private kindergarten…

  8. The Right to Education: Reaganism, Reaganomics, or Human Capital? Occasional Paper, 1983, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollett, Kenneth S.

    This paper begins with the theme that because education is so important to the exercise of one's fundamental rights and to personal, social, cultural, political, economic, and human development, it is one of the unenumerated rights retained by the American people through Amendment IX of the Bill of Rights. After arguing for the proposition that…

  9. Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life: A Human Capital Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J., Ed.; Rolnick, Arthur J., Ed.; Englund, Michelle M., Ed.; Temple, Judy A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Childhood Programs and Practices in the First Decade of Life" presents research findings on the effects of early childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life and their implications for policy development and reform. Leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of human development and in early childhood learning discuss the…

  10. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, Robert J

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

  11. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    ScienceCinema

    Shiller, Robert J [Yale University

    2016-07-12

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

  12. Building the Competitive Workforce: Investing in Human Capital for Corporate Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirvis, Philip H., Ed.

    This book assesses the competitive strengths and weaknesses of the management practices of North American companies. It undertakes four tasks: (1) compilation and analysis of the results of "Laborforce 2000," an intensive survey of the human resource strategies of more than 400 Conference Board member companies; (2) examination of practices across…

  13. Employability during Unemployment: Adaptability, Career Identity and Human and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Sarah; Waters, Lea; Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Fugate et al. [Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65"(1), 14] defined employability as a psycho-social construct comprised of three dimensions: (i) adaptability; (ii) career identity; and (iii) human and social…

  14. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in human dentine.

    PubMed

    Miura, Jiro; Nishikawa, Kantaro; Kubo, Mizuho; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Takeshige, Fumio; Araki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Cross-linking of collagen by Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) occurs by non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction). The purpose of this study was to examine whether AGEs are formed in human dentinal collagen, and to consider any possible influence of AGEs on dentinal physiology. Mechanical characteristics, fluorescence spectra and immunohistochemical analyses of demineralized dentine sections from young subjects were compared with those of aged ones. The same investigations were performed with young dentine artificially glycated by incubation in 0.1M ribose solution. Indentation measurement indicated that the sections from aged dentine were mechanically harder than those from young dentine. The hardness of young dentine increased after incubation in ribose solution. Fluorescence peak wavelength of the young dentine was shorter than that of the aged one, but shifted towards the peak wavelength of the aged one after incubation in ribose solution. These changes were considered to be due to accumulation of AGEs. Existence of AGEs in dentinal collagen was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. The obtained results suggest that AGEs accumulation occurs in dentinal collagen and is affected by both human age and physiological conditions such as glucose level in blood because dentinal collagen receives nourishment via dental pulp and tubules. PMID:24370182

  15. Maximum Capital Project Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Describes the stages of capital project planning and development: (1) individual capital project submission; (2) capital project proposal assessment; (3) executive committee; and (4) capital project execution. (EV)

  16. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined: trends and events that have an effect on the mission of international safeguards; the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements of the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system; and, the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review’s findings and recommendations were summarized in the report International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007). The executive summary is available at the following link: http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/inlinefiles/NGSI_Report.pdf.

  18. Technical Advancement and Human Progress and The Problems of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Louis W.

    1980-01-01

    Projects and discusses possible future developments resulting from electrochemical technological advancements. Educational implications are explored, and examples of integrated learning in diverse interest areas are given. (CS)

  19. The Challenges of Integrating NASA's Human, Budget, and Data Capital within the Constellation Program's Exploration Launch Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Luanne; Morris, Kenneth B.; Self, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to retire the Space Shuttle in 2010 and replace it with safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation systems for crew and cargo travel to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Such emerging space transportation initiatives face massive organizational challenges, including building and nurturing an experienced, dedicated team with the right skills for the required tasks; allocating and tracking the fiscal capital invested in achieving technical progress against an integrated master schedule; and turning generated data into useful knowledge that equips the team to design and develop superior products for customers and stakeholders. It has been more than 30 years since the Space Shuttle was designed; therefore, the current aerospace workforce has limited experience with developing new designs for human-rated spaceflight hardware. To accomplish these activities, NASA is using a wide range of state-of-the-art information technology tools that connect its diverse, decentralized teams and provide timely, accurate information for decision makers. In addition, business professionals are assisting technical managers with planning, tracking, and forecasting resource use against an integrated master schedule that horizontally and vertically interlinks hardware elements and milestone events. Furthermore, NASA is employing a wide variety of strategies to ensure that it has the motivated and qualified staff it needs for the tasks ahead. This paper discusses how NASA's Exploration Launch Projects Office, which is responsible for delivering these new launch vehicles, integrates its resources to create an engineering business environment that promotes mission success, which is defined by replacing the Space Shuttle by 2014 and returning to the Moon by 2020.

  20. The human capital characteristics and household living standards of returning international migrants in Eastern and Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s experience with return migration is not new. However, few empirical studies have examined the social and economic characteristics of returning migrants within the continent. In this study, the human capital endowments and household living standards of returning migrants in Uganda and South Africa are examined using recently available data. The study compares returnees in both countries with immigrants as well as the native-born population with no international migration experience. It also investigates how factors such as previous country of residence, year of arrival, and other demographic factors predict levels of education and living standards among returning migrants. In Uganda, the results show that recently arrived returning migrants had better educational endowments than both immigrants and non-migrants. Migrants who returned to Uganda following the fall of Idi Amin’s regime had the lowest educational levels and lowest living standards compared to other returnees. Furthermore, the results indicate that previous residence in countries in the West was associated with four additional years of schooling while returning migrants arriving from other African countries had the lowest levels of schooling among returning migrants. In South Africa, the study finds that returnees arriving almost immediately following the end of Apartheid had the highest levels of education compared to either immigrants or non-migrants. Returnees on average also had the highest household living standards in South Africa. Among South African immigrants, the results indicate that those arriving towards the end of the century had lower educational endowments compared to immigrants who arrived in the country two to four years after the end of Apartheid. PMID:24970950

  1. Capital Formation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

    The need for new capital in higher education and major areas where the interests of the business and higher education communities are aligned are considered. Higher education is a major employer and makes a large contribution to the gross national product. Human capital has become the accepted term for referring to the contribution of education,…

  2. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26424605

  3. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics.

  4. Human factors of advanced technology (glass cockpit) transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year study of airline crews at two U.S. airlines who were flying an advanced technology aircraft, the Boeing 757 is discussed. The opinions and experiences of these pilots as they view the advanced, automated features of this aircraft, and contrast them with previous models they have flown are discussed. Training for advanced automation; (2) cockpit errors and error reduction; (3) management of cockpit workload; and (4) general attitudes toward cockpit automation are emphasized. The limitations of the air traffic control (ATC) system on the ability to utilize the advanced features of the new aircraft are discussed. In general the pilots are enthusiastic about flying an advanced technology aircraft, but they express mixed feelings about the impact of automation on workload, crew errors, and ability to manage the flight.

  5. Human Capital and Hierarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, M. J. Manohar; Datta, Ramesh C.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the relationships among schooling, experience, job status, and earnings in a large, private company in India. Results indicate that job status rises monotonically with experience and channels the transmission effects of schooling and experience onto earnings. Marginal productivity theory and the weak version of the screening…

  6. Constructivist Learning Theory and Human Capital Theory: Shifting Political and Educational Frameworks for Teachers ICT Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupal, Linda V.

    2004-01-01

    This case study discusses the influence of politics on educational technology policies and practices by tracing the effects of a change of governing political parties with differing ideologies and advisory constituencies. It begins by describing a democratic socialist government initiative based on social capital theory and emphasising connections…

  7. Are Returns to Investment Lower for the Poor? Human and Physical Capital Interactions in Rural Vietnam. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Walle, Dominique

    Unless disparities in education are addressed, market-oriented reforms in Vietnam will generate inequitable agricultural growth. It is argued that if the marginal gains from investment in physical capital depend positively on knowledge, but a household cannot hire skilled labor to compensate for low skills, then even if it has access to credit,…

  8. Capital Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    "Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…

  9. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  10. [Advances on research of human exposure to triclosan].

    PubMed

    Jin, Chenye; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peiqi; Xiong, Zhezhen; Wang, Caifeng; Tian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, was reported to have been widely detected in various human biological samples such as urine, blood and human milk among foreign populations. In China, limited reports have been found on human exposure to triclosan, and the reported urinary triclosan concentrations were significantly lower than that of American populations. Besides, the potential influencing factors still remain unclear regarding human exposure to triclosan, but evidences suggest that those in middle age and with higher household income and higher social class tend to have higher urinary triclosan concentrations. Furthermore, triclosan exposure tend to differ by sex, geography, heredity, metabolism and life style.

  11. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised? PMID

  12. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised?

  13. Diagnosis and monetary quantification of occupational injuries by indices related to human capital loss: analysis of a steel company as an illustration.

    PubMed

    Sheu, J J; Hwang, J S; Wang, J D

    2000-05-01

    Prevention of occupational injuries is an important task of human resource management. In this study, new indices of human capital loss of occupational injury including cumulative injury rate, proportion of potential workdays lost, and potential salary lost were applied to the analysis of registry data of occupational injuries from 1986 to 1994 of a steel company in Taiwan. In addition, we compared these indices with disabling frequency rate and severity rate. The results showed that the average disabling frequency rate and cumulative injury rate of the whole company were 4.12 and 0.41, respectively; and the average disabling severity rate and proportion of potential workdays lost of the whole company were 563 and 229 x 10(-6), respectively, during 1986-1994. There was no consistent improvement in occupational safety in this period. The average potential salary lost of the whole company was more than US$ 2 million per year with a discount rate of 0.04, which was equivalent to 92 times of average annual income of a worker. The major monetary loss were due to non-traffic injuries of operators and traffic injuries of non-operators, which amounted to US$ 145 and 152 per person per year. As the new indices can provide additional information on lifetime occupational risk and human capital loss in monetary values, we concluded that they may be useful supplementary tools for monitoring and analyzing occupational injury data in a company. PMID:10776862

  14. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Davis, W L

    1989-01-01

    Current planetary quarantine considerations focus on robotic missions and attempt a policy of no biological contamination. The presence of humans on Mars, however, will inevitably result in biological contamination and physical alteration of the local environment. The focus of planetary quarantine must therefore shift toward defining and minimizing the inevitable contamination associated with humans. This will involve first determining those areas that will be affected by the presence of a human base, then verifying that these environments do not harbor indigenous life nor provide sites for Earth bacteria to grow. Precursor missions can provide salient information that can make more efficient the planning and design of human exploration missions. In particular, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate the concern about returning samples with humans or the return of humans themselves from a planetary quarantine perspective. Without a robotic return the cost of quarantine that would have to be added to a human mission may well exceed the cost of a robotic return mission. Even if the preponderance of scientific evidence argues against the presence of indigenous life, it must be considered as part of any serious planetary quarantine analysis for missions to Mars. If there is life on Mars, the question of human exploration assumes an ethical dimension. PMID:11537372

  15. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  17. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs).

  18. Racial Gaps in Child Health Insurance Coverage in Four South American Countries: The Role of Wealth, Human Capital, and Other Household Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. Design Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. Data Collection/Extraction Methods In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. Principal Findings The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. Conclusions Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries. PMID:21210797

  19. Racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in four South American countries: the role of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. DESIGN. Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries.

  20. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations.

  1. Advanced Research Training in Human Geography: The Scottish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwanzura-Ottemoeller, Fungisai; Hopkins, Peter; Lorimer, Hayden; Philip, Lorna J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal research training is integral to research degrees in human geography completed in UK higher education institutions today. The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) has been the driving force behind the formalization of research training. Arguably less well known among the ESRC research training recommendations is the stipulation that…

  2. Human Relationships That Nurture and Advance the Construction of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Gwaltney, Thomas M.

    This paper reviews the historical antecedents and theoretical foundation for a constructivist approach to teaching and learning. One neglected characteristic of constructivism apparent in the professional literature is the need to better understand that human relationships in the classroom are often pivotal in helping students construct knowledge.…

  3. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Z of... - Risk-Based Capital Requirements-Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a subsidiary of a depository institution that uses 12 CFR part 3, appendix C, 12 CFR part 208, appendix F, 12 CFR part 325, appendix D, or 12 CFR subpart Z of part 390, appendix A, to calculate its risk-based capital requirements; or (iv) Is a subsidiary of a bank holding company that uses 12 CFR part...

  7. Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Achard, Carole; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Cellerin, Laurent; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells. Finally, we review how the activation of the immune system and combinations with other types of anticancer treatments could support the development of oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of MM. PMID:27512676

  8. Recent Advances in Computational Mechanics of the Human Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, M.; Dabiri, Y.; Li, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Computational mechanics has been advanced in every area of orthopedic biomechanics. The objective of this paper is to provide a general review of the computational models used in the analysis of the mechanical function of the knee joint in different loading and pathological conditions. Major review articles published in related areas are summarized first. The constitutive models for soft tissues of the knee are briefly discussed to facilitate understanding the joint modeling. A detailed review of the tibiofemoral joint models is presented thereafter. The geometry reconstruction procedures as well as some critical issues in finite element modeling are also discussed. Computational modeling can be a reliable and effective method for the study of mechanical behavior of the knee joint, if the model is constructed correctly. Single-phase material models have been used to predict the instantaneous load response for the healthy knees and repaired joints, such as total and partial meniscectomies, ACL and PCL reconstructions, and joint replacements. Recently, poromechanical models accounting for fluid pressurization in soft tissues have been proposed to study the viscoelastic response of the healthy and impaired knee joints. While the constitutive modeling has been considerably advanced at the tissue level, many challenges still exist in applying a good material model to three-dimensional joint simulations. A complete model validation at the joint level seems impossible presently, because only simple data can be obtained experimentally. Therefore, model validation may be concentrated on the constitutive laws using multiple mechanical tests of the tissues. Extensive model verifications at the joint level are still crucial for the accuracy of the modeling. PMID:23509602

  9. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Perumal, A N I; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2016-03-01

    Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses, resulting in substantial economic losses in animal husbandry in the tropics. Due to its close resemblance to Wuchereria bancrofti, this nematode is also frequently used as a model organism to study human lymphatic filariasis. This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. PMID:25924635

  10. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  11. Assessing human exposure to airborne pollutants: Advances and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J. )

    1991-08-01

    A committee which was convened by the National Research Council, recently completed an analysis of new methods and technologies for assessing exposure to air pollutants. The committee identified three major ways of determining human exposure to airborne pollutants. Monitoring the air around an individual with a portable personal air sampler is, of course, the most comprehensive and most accurate. It is also the costliest and most time consuming. The second method is more indirect and involves techniques such as measuring the amount of a contaminant with a stationary monitor and extrapolating exposure by means of personal activity records or mathematical models. Exposure to carbon monoxide inside a car, for example, might be roughly calculated from the amount of time spent in the car and the quantity of carbon monoxide in the car under typical operating conditions. The third method involves biological markers as a measure of the integrated dose within the body and of past contact with pollutants. For example, a marker for airborne lead exposure can be elevated lead levels in the blood. However, this must be weighed against contributions from other media. A final and major point made in the report is the need to have accurate and realistic assessments to ensure optimal reduction of human exposure. To accomplish this, exposure assessment research should be supported by government programs. Although not stated, such research should also be supported by other sectors, including the regulated community.

  12. Human mortality at very advanced age might be constant.

    PubMed

    Klemera, P; Doubal, S

    1997-11-01

    An attempt was made to identify the course of the mortality rate at the upper tail of human age. The only known data suitable for this purpose were published by Riggs and Millecchia (J.E. Riggs, R.J. Millecchia, Mech. Ageing Dev. 62 (1992) 191-199) and our analysis follows up their results. By means of mathematical elaboration it was proved that these data imply a constant mortality rate (approx. 25% per year) at ages above 113 years for men and above 116 years for women. Indirect arguments supporting the validity of the source data are discussed. Nevertheless, even if the source data are mistaken, we proved they cannot be the product of purely random errors and our results may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of those systematic errors. PMID:9379712

  13. The Challenges of Integrating NASA's Human, Budget, and Data Capital within the Constellation Program's Exploration Launch Projects Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Luanne; Morris, Kenneth B.; Self, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to retire the Space Shuttle in 2010 and replace it with safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation systems for crew and cargo travel to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Such emerging space transportation initiatives face massive organizational challenges, including building and nurturing an experienced, dedicated team with the right skills for the required tasks; allocating and tracking the fiscal capital invested in achieving technical progress against an integrated master schedule; and turning generated data into usehl knowledge that equips the team to design and develop superior products for customers and stakeholders. This paper discusses how NASA's Exploration Launch Projects Office, which is responsible for delivering these new launch vehicles, integrates these resources to create an engineering business environment that promotes mission success.

  14. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... comments that appeared in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory... NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-21357, appearing on page 55518... Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule,...

  15. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Basel Committee standards. \\1\\ 77 FR 52792 (August 30, 2012); 77 FR 52888 (August 30, 2012); 77 FR 52978... (Pub. L. 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376, 1435-38 (2010).\\10\\ \\5\\ 77 FR 52792 (August 30, 2012). \\6\\ 77 FR...). \\10\\ See 77 FR 52856 (August 30, 2012). The NPR titled ``Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced...

  16. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-06-04

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over {approx}2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters.

  17. Advanced UV Absorbers for the Protection of Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hüglin, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the damaging effects of UV radiation to human skin triggered the market introduction of new cosmetic UV absorbers. This article summarizes the outcome of a multi-year research program, in which the author contributed to the development of different new UV filters. First of all, the molecular design and the basic properties of bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT) will be presented. This oil-soluble filter, which today is widely used in both beach products and skin care products, exhibits inherent photostability and strong broad-spectrum UV-A+B absorbance. Based on the concept of micronized organic UV absorbers, the UV-B filter tris biphenyl triazine (TBPT) will be introduced. At present TBPT exhibits the highest efficacy of all cosmetic UV absorbers in the market (measured by area under the UV spectrum). Finally, the concept of liposomogenic UV absorbers will be featured. This approach was developed to create water-resistant UV filters, as liposomogenic structures are thought to integrate into the lipids of the horny layer. Due to prohibitively high costs, this technology did not result in a commercial product so far. PMID:27561611

  18. Advanced UV Absorbers for the Protection of Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hüglin, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the damaging effects of UV radiation to human skin triggered the market introduction of new cosmetic UV absorbers. This article summarizes the outcome of a multi-year research program, in which the author contributed to the development of different new UV filters. First of all, the molecular design and the basic properties of bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT) will be presented. This oil-soluble filter, which today is widely used in both beach products and skin care products, exhibits inherent photostability and strong broad-spectrum UV-A+B absorbance. Based on the concept of micronized organic UV absorbers, the UV-B filter tris biphenyl triazine (TBPT) will be introduced. At present TBPT exhibits the highest efficacy of all cosmetic UV absorbers in the market (measured by area under the UV spectrum). Finally, the concept of liposomogenic UV absorbers will be featured. This approach was developed to create water-resistant UV filters, as liposomogenic structures are thought to integrate into the lipids of the horny layer. Due to prohibitively high costs, this technology did not result in a commercial product so far.

  19. Advanced Analysis of Pharmaco-Sleep Data in Humans.

    PubMed

    Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaco-sleep studies in humans aim at the description of the effects of drugs, most frequently substances that act on the central nervous system, by means of quantitative analysis of biosignals recorded in subjects during sleep. Up to 2007, the only standard for the classification of sleep macrostructure that found worldwide acceptance were the rules published in 1968 by Rechtschaffen and Kales. In May 2007, the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events was published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and concerning the classification of sleep stages, these new rules are supposed to replace those developed by Rechtschaffen and Kales. As compared to the rather low interrater reliability of manual sleep scoring, semiautomated approaches may achieve a reliability close to 1 (Cohen's kappa 0.99 for 2 semiautomated scorings as compared to 0.76 for 2 manual scorings) without any decline in validity. Depending on the aim of the pharmaco-sleep study, additional analyses concerning sleep fragmentation, sleep microstructure, sleep depth, sleep processes and local aspects of sleep should be considered. For some of these additional features, rules for visual scoring have been established, while for others automatic analysis is obligatory. Generally, for reasons of cost-effectiveness but also reliability, automatic analysis is preferable to visual analysis. However, the validity of the automatic method applied has to be proven. PMID:26901054

  20. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  1. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  2. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  3. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  4. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor. PMID:25516349

  5. Where's the capital? A geographical essay.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth A

    2014-12-01

    This paper is inspired by Thomas Piketty's book Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Piketty does a wonderful job of tracing income and wealth over time, and relating changes to trends of economic and population growth, and drawing out the implications for inequality, inheritance and even democracy. But, he says relatively little about where capital is located, how capital accumulation in one place relies on activities elsewhere, how capital is urbanized with advanced capitalism and what life is like in spaces without capital. This paper asks 'where is the geography in Capital' or 'where is the geography of capital in Capital'? Following Piketty's lead, the paper develops its analysis through a number of important novels. It examines, first, the debate that Jane Austen ignored colonialism and slavery in her treatment of nineteenth century Britain, second, how Balzac and then Zola provide insight to the urban political economy of capital later in the century, and third, how Katherine Boo attends to inequality as the everyday suffering of the poor.

  6. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  7. Perspectives on the Development and Future of Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrant, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography faced a number of hurdles that nearly derailed the course before it launched in 2000-2001. A dedicated cadre of geography professionals and high school teachers rose to the challenge and the course remains one of the fastest growing AP courses currently offered by College Board. Seventeen readers and leaders…

  8. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  9. Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: A short-period circadian rhythm variant in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, C R; Campbell, S S; Zone, S E; Cooper, F; DeSano, A; Murphy, P J; Jones, B; Czajkowski, L; Ptácek, L J

    1999-09-01

    Biological circadian clocks oscillate with an approximately 24-hour period, are ubiquitous, and presumably confer a selective advantage by anticipating the transitions between day and night. The circadian rhythms of sleep, melatonin secretion and body core temperature are thought to be generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, the anatomic locus of the mammalian circadian clock. Autosomal semi-dominant mutations in rodents with fast or slow biological clocks (that is, short or long endogenous period lengths; tau) are associated with phase-advanced or delayed sleep-wake rhythms, respectively. These models predict the existence of familial human circadian rhythm variants but none of the human circadian rhythm disorders are known to have a familial tendency. Although a slight 'morning lark' tendency is common, individuals with a large and disabling sleep phase-advance are rare. This disorder, advanced sleep-phase syndrome, is characterized by very early sleep onset and offset; only two cases are reported in young adults. Here we describe three kindreds with a profound phase advance of the sleep-wake, melatonin and temperature rhythms associated with a very short tau. The trait segregates as an autosomal dominant with high penetrance. These kindreds represent a well-characterized familial circadian rhythm variant in humans and provide a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of human circadian physiology. PMID:10470086

  10. The Impact of Human Capital-Based Education and Training Programs on an Economically Marginalized Rural County in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna Jo

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, low-wage manufacturing areas in advanced industrialized countries experienced deindustrialization and worker dislocation as transnational corporations left for sites of lower-cost labor. In response, communities sought to rebuild their economies and pursue new employment opportunities in the restructured labor markets of…

  11. Reducing the Human Burden of Breast Cancer: Advanced Radiation Therapy Yields Improved Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Currey, Adam D; Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy R; Wilson, J Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an important modality in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. While its efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer was known shortly after the discovery of x-rays, significant advances in radiation delivery over the past 20 years have resulted in improved patient outcomes. With the development of improved systemic therapy, optimizing local control has become increasingly important and has been shown to improve survival. Better understanding of the magnitude of treatment benefit, as well as patient and biological factors that confer an increased recurrence risk, have allowed radiation oncologists to better tailor treatment decisions to individual patients. Furthermore, significant technological advances have occurred that have reduced the acute and long-term toxicity of radiation treatment. These advances continue to reduce the human burden of breast cancer. It is important for radiation oncologists and nonradiation oncologists to understand these advances, so that patients are appropriately educated about the risks and benefits of this important treatment modality.

  12. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  13. Human Capital: Attracting and Retaining a High-Quality Information Technology Workforce. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, David L.

    The General Accounting Office examined the problem of attracting and retaining a high-quality information technology (IT) workforce in federal government agencies. The problem was traced to a longstanding lack of effective leadership and management and lack of a strategic approach to marshaling, managing, and maintaining the human capital needed…

  14. 12 CFR 3.11 - Capital conservation buffer and countercyclical capital buffer amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or Federal savings association under subparts H and I of this part; 12 CFR 5.46, 12 CFR part 5, subpart E; 12 CFR part 6. (b) Countercyclical capital buffer amount. (1) General. An advanced approaches... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Capital conservation buffer and...

  15. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  16. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  17. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  18. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  19. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  20. Toward a Humanizing Pedagogy: Leveling the Cultural and Linguistic Capital in a Fifth-Grade Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisselsberger, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students in the United States has created a priority for examining the perspectives, dispositions, and attitudes that best support these learners' writing. This study explores the link between a teacher's developing pedagogical language knowledge and humanizing practices and her…

  1. Sleight of Hand: Job Myths, Literacy and Social Capital. CRLRA Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ian

    The relationships existing among human capital theory, Australian public policy, literacy education, and the plight of Australia's long-term unemployed were examined. The following topics were considered: human capital theory-based public policies and literacy education; social capital and learning; building and using social capital; the "social…

  2. Some inadequacies of the current human factors certification process of advanced aircraft technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paries, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Automation related accidents or serious incidents are not limited to advanced technology aircraft. There is a full history of such accidents with conventional technology aircraft. However, this type of occurrence is far from sparing the newest 'glass cockpit' generation, and it even seems to be a growing contributor to its accident rate. Nevertheless, all these aircraft have been properly certificated according to the relevant airworthiness regulations. Therefore, there is a growing concern that with the technological advancement of air transport aircraft cockpits, the current airworthiness regulations addressing cockpit design and human factors may have reached some level of inadequacy. This paper reviews some aspects of the current airworthiness regulations and certification process related to human factors of cockpit design and focuses on questioning their ability to guarantee the intended safety objectives.

  3. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  4. Open Innovation at NASA: A New Business Model for Advancing Human Health and Performance Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Keeton, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new business model for advancing NASA human health and performance innovations and demonstrates how open innovation shaped its development. A 45 percent research and technology development budget reduction drove formulation of a strategic plan grounded in collaboration. We describe the strategy execution, including adoption and results of open innovation initiatives, the challenges of cultural change, and the development of virtual centers and a knowledge management tool to educate and engage the workforce and promote cultural change.

  5. Enhancing Natural Capital across the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, G.; Tallis, H.; Goldstein, J.; Nelson, E.; Polasky, S.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. Yet, in promising a return (of services) on investments in natural capital, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, we have developed a suite of models for integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs (InVEST). Based on future scenarios of resource use, climate, and human population, InVEST projects the future provision of services in biophysical and economic terms. The outputs of InVEST provide decision-makers with maps and other spatially explicit information about costs, benefits, tradeoffs, and synergies of alternative investments in natural capital and ecosystem service provision. InVEST is now being used in major resource decisions in Bolivia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Tanzania, and the United States (California, Hawai'i, Oregon, and Washington). To meet increasing demand for this tool and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.

  6. Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Human Genome Evolution12

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Kaixiong; Gu, Zhenglong

    2011-01-01

    Dietary transitions in human history have been suggested to play important roles in the evolution of mankind. Genetic variations caused by adaptation to diet during human evolution could have important health consequences in current society. The advance of sequencing technologies and the rapid accumulation of genome information provide an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize genetic variations in human populations and unravel the genetic basis of human evolution. Series of selection detection methods, based on various theoretical models and exploiting different aspects of selection signatures, have been developed. Their applications at the species and population levels have respectively led to the identification of human specific selection events that distinguish human from nonhuman primates and local adaptation events that contribute to human diversity. Scrutiny of candidate genes has revealed paradigms of adaptations to specific nutritional components and genome-wide selection scans have verified the prevalence of diet-related selection events and provided many more candidates awaiting further investigation. Understanding the role of diet in human evolution is fundamental for the development of evidence-based, genome-informed nutritional practices in the era of personal genomics. PMID:22332091

  7. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  8. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412.302 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  9. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412.302 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  10. 42 CFR 412.302 - Introduction to capital costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Introduction to capital costs. 412.302 Section 412.302 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs General Provisions § 412.302 Introduction to capital costs. (a) New...

  11. Increasing Returns to Education and the Impact on Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeves, Gareth D.

    2014-01-01

    The returns to education have been increasing. It is suggested that high-skilled workers' social capital investment has been adversely affected by the increasing incentives to devote human capital to career development. Lower social capital is linked to reduced economic growth and innovation and higher transaction costs and is detrimental to…

  12. Multiple Pathogen Detection Using Biosensors: Advancements and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advancements in biosensor research have considerably impacted clinical diagnostics for human health. Efforts in capitalizing on the sensitivity of biosensors for food pathogen detection are evident in the food safety/security research community. For practical application with foods that normally h...

  13. Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services - interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India--Gujarat and Tamil Nadu--have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five. PMID:19250542

  14. Combination of Light and Melatonin Time Cues for Phase Advancing the Human Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tina M.; Markwald, Rachel R.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Snider, Jesse A.; Bessman, Sara C.; Jung, Christopher M.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Photic and non-photic stimuli have been shown to shift the phase of the human circadian clock. We examined how photic and non-photic time cues may be combined by the human circadian system by assessing the phase advancing effects of one evening dose of exogenous melatonin, alone and in combination with one session of morning bright light exposure. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind circadian protocol. The effects of four conditions, dim light (∼1.9 lux, ∼0.6 Watts/m2)-placebo, dim light-melatonin (5 mg), bright light (∼3000 lux, ∼7 Watts/m2)-placebo, and bright light-melatonin on circadian phase was assessed by the change in the salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) prior to and following treatment under constant routine conditions. Melatonin or placebo was administered 5.75 h prior to habitual bedtime and 3 h of bright light exposure started 1 h prior to habitual wake time. Setting: Sleep and chronobiology laboratory environment free of time cues. Participants: Thirty-six healthy participants (18 females) aged 22 ± 4 y (mean ± SD). Results: Morning bright light combined with early evening exogenous melatonin induced a greater phase advance of the DLMO than either treatment alone. Bright light alone and melatonin alone induced similar phase advances. Conclusion: Information from light and melatonin appear to be combined by the human circadian clock. The ability to combine circadian time cues has important implications for understanding fundamental physiological principles of the human circadian timing system. Knowledge of such principles is important for designing effective countermeasures for phase-shifting the human circadian clock to adapt to jet lag, shift work, and for designing effective treatments for circadian sleep-wakefulness disorders. Citation: Burke TM; Markwald RR; Chinoy ED; Snider JA; Bessman SC; Jung CM; Wright Jr KP. Combination of light and melatonin time cues for phase advancing the human circadian

  15. Advances in probing the blood vessels of the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacke, E. Mark

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers a marvelous means to probe the vasculature of the human body non-invasively. The first major advances came when the physics of the effects of motion in MRI were first understood well enough that new methods could be designed to compensate for the motion. This led to the development of MR angiography. The second major advance occurred when a contrast agent was used to enhance the signal from vessels independent of blood flow. This made it possible to image much smaller vessels because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio. The third major advance occurred when the susceptibility of the venous blood was used to create a new contrast unique to veins even in the presence of the contrast agent to enhance their signal. The fourth advance is close behind with the potential to use the susceptibility to measure the local oxygen content. Each of these advances involved some interesting physics and raised questions about local magnetic field effects, some of which remain unanswered yet today. We will show results from the first three levels with hints at how to proceed to the fourth. The development of this technology has important clinical implications. With new higher relaxivity contrast agents and higher field magnets coming on the market, the possibility to image vessels down to on the order of 100 microns may be viable. Each advance has enhanced the range of applications from just imaging vessels to occult vascular disease, trauma, the detection of blood products, and physiologic function of the tissue itself.

  16. 77 FR 11618 - Solutions Capital I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... from MCG Capital Corporation in Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., 195 Chatillon Road NE., Rome, GA, 30162... Solutions Capital I, L.P., has a greater than 10% equity interest in Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., thereby making Advanced Sleep Concepts, Inc., an Associate of Solutions Capital I, L.P., as defined in Sec....

  17. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  18. Operational problems of Haniwa net as a form of social capital: interdependence between human networks of physicians and information networks.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Minoru; Araki, Sanae; Suzuki, Muneou; Umemoto, Katsuhiro; Kai, Yukiko; Araki, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    In August 2009, Miyazaki Health and Welfare Network (Haniwa Net, hereafter referred to as "the Net"), centrally led by University of Miyazaki Hospital (UMH), adopted a center hospital-based system offering a unilateral linkage that enables the viewing of UMH's medical records through a web-based browser (electronic medical records (EMR)). By the end of December 2010, the network had developed into a system of 79 collaborating physicians from within the prefecture. Beginning in August 2010, physicians in 12 medical institutions were visited and asked to speak freely on the operational issues concerning the Net. Recordings and written accounts were coded using the text analysis software MAXQDA 10 to understand the actual state of operations. Analysis of calculations of Kendall's rank correlation confirmed that the interdependency between human networks and information networks is significant. At the same time, while the negative opinions concerning the functions of the Net were somewhat conspicuous, the results showed a correlation between requests and proposals for operational improvements of the Net, clearly indicating the need for a more user-friendly system and a better viewer.

  19. Challenges and advances in mouse modeling for human pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wanglong

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is critical for developed countries, where its rate of diagnosis has been increasing steadily annually. In the past decade, the advances of pancreatic cancer research have not contributed to the decline in mortality rates from pancreatic cancer—the overall 5-year survival rate remains about 5% low. This number only underscores an obvious urgency for us to better understand the biological features of pancreatic carcinogenesis, to develop early detection methods, and to improve novel therapeutic treatments. To achieve these goals, animal modeling that faithfully recapitulates the whole process of human pancreatic cancer is central to making the advancements. In this review, we summarize the currently available animal models for pancreatic cancer and the advances in pancreatic cancer animal modeling. We compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of three major categories of these models: (1) carcinogen-induced; (2) xenograft and allograft; and (3) genetically engineered mouse models. We focus more on the genetically engineered mouse models, a category which has been rapidly expanded recently for their capacities to mimic human pancreatic cancer and metastasis, and highlight the combinations of these models with various newly developed strategies and cell-lineage labeling systems. PMID:23114842

  20. A framework for advanced methods of control of human-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures under human dynamic excitation is becoming ever more critical with the design and redevelopment of structures with reduced mass, stiffness and damping. A large number of problems have been reported in floors, footbridges, sports stadia, staircases and other structures. Unfortunately, the range of options available to fix such problems are very limited and are primarily limited to structural modification or the implementation of passive vibration control measures, such as tuned mass dampers. This paper presents the initial development of a new framework for advanced methods of control of humaninduced vibrations in civil engineering structures. This framework includes both existing passive methods of vibration control and more advanced active, semi-active and hybrid control techniques, which may be further developed as practical solutions for these problems. Through the use of this framework, rational decisions as to the most appropriate technologies for particular human vibration problems may be made and pursued further. This framework is also intended to be used in the design of new civil engineering structures, where advanced control technologies may be used both to increase the achievable slenderness and to reduce the amount of construction materials used and hence their embodied energy. This will be an ever more important consideration with the current drive for structures with reduced environmental impact.

  1. High human exposure to pyrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in Kinshasa, a capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on human exposure to chemicals in Africa are scarce. A biomonitoring study was conducted in a representative sample of the population in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) to document exposure to polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons. Methods 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was measured by HPLC fluorescence in spot urine samples from 220 individuals (50.5% women), aged 6–70 years living in the urban area and from 50 additional subjects from the sub-rural area of Kinshasa. Data were compiled as geometric means and selected percentiles, expressed without (μg/L) or with creatinine adjustment (μg/g cr). Multiple regression analyses were applied to factors (creatinine, grilled meat habits and smoking habits) influencing 1-OHP (stepwise procedure, criteria: probability F to enter ≤ 0.05 and probability F to remove ≥ 0.10). Results According to the regression models, creatinine, grilled meat habits and smoking habits contribute to explain 45% of the variation in population’s urinary 1-OHP by the environmental exposure. Overall, living in urban area of Kinshasa was associated with increased levels of 1-OHP in urine as compared to a population living in the sub-rural area [GM: 1.8 μg/L (n = 220) versus 1.4 μg/L (n = 50), p < 0.01] as well as compared to the reference values from databases involving American or German populations. Conclusion This study reveals the high pyrene (PAH) exposure of the Kinshasa population. However, more work, with a rigorous design in the exposed population (monitoring of air concentrations and identifying other sources of pyrene –PAH exposure), is needed to establish further documentation. PMID:23782930

  2. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.

  3. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  4. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  5. Recent advances in the prenatal interrogation of the human fetal genome.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lisa; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-02-01

    The amount of genetic and genomic information obtainable from the human fetus during pregnancy is accelerating at an unprecedented rate. Two themes have dominated recent technological advances in prenatal diagnosis: interrogation of the fetal genome in increasingly high resolution and the development of non-invasive methods of fetal testing using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma. These two areas of advancement have now converged with several recent reports of non-invasive assessment of the entire fetal genome from maternal blood. However, technological progress is outpacing the ability of the healthcare providers and patients to incorporate these new tests into existing clinical care, and further complicates many of the economic and ethical dilemmas in prenatal diagnosis. This review summarizes recent work in this field and discusses the integration of these new technologies into the clinic and society.

  6. Measuring therapeutic alliance between oncologists and patients with advanced cancer: The Human Connection Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W; Block, Susan D.; Nilsson, Matthew; Wright, Alexi; Trice, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Robert; Paulk, Elizabeth; Prigerson, Holly G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients consider having a human connection with a physician to be an important aspect of end-of-life (EOL) care. We sought to develop and validate a measure of therapeutic alliance between advanced cancer patients and their physicians, and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic alliance on EOL experiences and care. Methods We developed The Human Connection (THC) scale to measure the extent to which patients felt a sense of mutual understanding, caring, and trust with their physicians. The scale was administered to 217 advanced cancer patients along with measures of attributes hypothesized to be related to therapeutic alliance, including emotional acceptance of terminal illness. EOL outcomes in 90 patients who died during the study were also examined. Results The 16-item THC questionnaire was internally consistent (Cronbach’s α =.90) and valid, based on its expected positive association with emotional acceptance of the terminal illness (r=.31, P<.0001). THC scores were inversely related to symptom burden (r=−.19, P=.006), functional status (Karnofsky score, r=.22, P=.001), and mental illness (THC score 50.69 for patients with any DSM diagnosis versus 55.22 for those without, P=.03). THC scores were not significantly associated with EOL discussions (P=.68). Among patients who had died, EOL ICU care was inversely associated with therapeutic alliance (THC score 46.5 for those with ICU care versus 55.5 for those without, P=.002), such that patients with higher THC scores were less likely to spend time in the ICU during the last week of life. Conclusion The THC scale is a valid and reliable measure of therapeutic alliance between advanced cancer patients and their physicians. In addition, we found no evidence to suggest that EOL discussions harm patients’ therapeutic alliance. A strong therapeutic alliance is associated with emotional acceptance of a terminal illness and with decreased ICU care at the end of life among patients with advanced cancer

  7. Association between human papillomavirus and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Deng, Fang; Qian, Li-Ting; Meng, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Yang; Shan, Wu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Bao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancer patients; however, few studies have investigated this association in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients undergoing gefitinib treatment. The present study investigated the association between HPV and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. A total of 95 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled in the study. The HPV infection status and presence of EGFR mutations in tumor tissue was evaluated. Patient clinical characteristics were also determined and compared with HPV infection and EGFR mutation status to analyze their impact on progression-free survival. HPV DNA was identified in 27/95 (28.4%) lung adenocarcinoma tumors and was most common in patients with lymph node metastasis (P=0.016). A total of 44/95 (46.3%) cases exhibited EGFR mutations, which were predominantly observed in female patients and non-smokers. The presence of HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (P=0.012) and multivariate analysis also revealed that HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (odds ratio=3.971) in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with both HPV infections and EGFR mutations exhibit a marked decrease in the risk of lung cancer progression when compared with those without HPV infection or EGFR mutations (adjusted HR=0.640; 95% confidence interval: 0.488–0.840; P=0.001). HPV infection was significantly associated with EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, patients with HPV infections exhibited the longest progression-free survival times, which may be due to good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor- or platinum-based-adjuvant therapy in these patients. Patients with EGFR mutations exhibited a better prognosis when compared with those exhibiting wild-type EGFR, regardless of HPV status. PMID:27602120

  8. Association between human papillomavirus and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Deng, Fang; Qian, Li-Ting; Meng, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Yang; Shan, Wu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Bao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancer patients; however, few studies have investigated this association in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients undergoing gefitinib treatment. The present study investigated the association between HPV and EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. A total of 95 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients were enrolled in the study. The HPV infection status and presence of EGFR mutations in tumor tissue was evaluated. Patient clinical characteristics were also determined and compared with HPV infection and EGFR mutation status to analyze their impact on progression-free survival. HPV DNA was identified in 27/95 (28.4%) lung adenocarcinoma tumors and was most common in patients with lymph node metastasis (P=0.016). A total of 44/95 (46.3%) cases exhibited EGFR mutations, which were predominantly observed in female patients and non-smokers. The presence of HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (P=0.012) and multivariate analysis also revealed that HPV DNA was significantly associated with EGFR mutations (odds ratio=3.971) in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with both HPV infections and EGFR mutations exhibit a marked decrease in the risk of lung cancer progression when compared with those without HPV infection or EGFR mutations (adjusted HR=0.640; 95% confidence interval: 0.488–0.840; P=0.001). HPV infection was significantly associated with EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, patients with HPV infections exhibited the longest progression-free survival times, which may be due to good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor- or platinum-based-adjuvant therapy in these patients. Patients with EGFR mutations exhibited a better prognosis when compared with those exhibiting wild-type EGFR, regardless of HPV status.

  9. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  11. What Matters Most? The Relative Role of Mentoring and Career Capital in Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Romila; Ragins, Belle Rose; Tharenou, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    This study used a career capital framework to compare the relative role of mentoring and three other forms of career capital (human, agentic, and developmental network capital) in predicting career success. Using a three-wave longitudinal design we found that mentoring added value, above and beyond the other forms of career capital, in predicting…

  12. A Comparative Study of Family Social Capital and Literacy Practices in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei

    2013-01-01

    Social capital--the social relations between people--is an important component of the family environment and is crucial for the creation of human capital for the next generation. Drawing on James S. Coleman's theory of family capital, this study focuses on parents' utilization of social capital to support children's literacy acquisition in four…

  13. Advances in Pemphigus and its Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus (Fogo Selvagem) Phenotype: A Paradigm of Human Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Culton, Donna A.; Qian, Ye; Li, Ning; Rubenstein, David; Aoki, Valeria; Filhio, Gunter Hans; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Diaz, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    Pemphigus encompasses a group of organ specific, antibody mediated autoimmune diseases of the skin characterized by keratinocyte detachment that leads to the development of blisters and erosions, which can become life-threatening. The pathogenic autoantibodies recognize desmogleins, which are members of the desmosomal cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules. Desmoglein 3 is targeted in pemphigus vulgaris while desmoglein 1 is targeted in pemphigus foliaceus and its endemic form, fogo selvagem. This review will briefly define the salient features of pemphigus and the proposed steps in pathogenesis. We will then summarize the most recent advances in three important areas of investigation: (i) epidemiologic, genetic, and immunologic features of fogo selvagem, (ii) molecular mechanisms of injury to the epidermis, and (iii) novel therapeutic strategies targeting specific steps in disease pathogenesis. The advances in each of these three seemingly separate areas contribute to the overall understanding of the pemphigus disease model. These recent advancements also underscore the dynamic interplay between the treatment of patients in a clinical setting and basic science research, which has led to an integrative understanding disease pathogenesis and treatment and allow pemphigus to serve as a paradigm of human autoimmunity. PMID:18838249

  14. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  15. Knowledge and Intellectual Capital. Symposium 13. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 13, Knowledge and Intellectual Capital, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference proceedings. "Human Capital Measurement" (Joanne Provo) begins with a literature review that provides a context for understanding how investments in human capital add value to the firm,…

  16. Cryptic parasite revealed improved prospects for treatment and control of human cryptosporidiosis through advanced technologies.

    PubMed

    Jex, Aaron R; Smith, Huw V; Nolan, Matthew J; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Young, Neil D; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important genus of parasitic protozoa of humans and other vertebrates and is a major cause of intestinal disease globally. Unlike many common causes of infectious enteritis, there are no widely available, effective vaccine or drug-based intervention strategies for Cryptosporidium, and control is focused mainly on prevention. This approach is particularly deficient for infections of severely immunocompromised and/or suppressed, the elderly or malnourished people. However, cryptosporidiosis also presents a significant burden on immunocompetent individuals, and can, for example have lasting effects on the physical and mental development of children infected at an early age. In the last few decades, our understanding of Cryptosporidium has expanded significantly in numerous areas, including the parasite life-cycle, the processes of excystation, cellular invasion and reproduction, and the interplay between parasite and host. Nonetheless, despite extensive research, many aspects of the biology of Cryptosporidium remain unknown, and treatment and control are challenging. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of Cryptosporidium, with a focus on major advances arising from the recently completed genome sequences of the two species of greatest relevance in humans, namely Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. In addition, we discuss the potential of next-generation sequencing technologies, new advances in in silico analyses and progress in in vitro culturing systems to bridge these gaps and to lead toward effective treatment and control of cryptosporidiosis.

  17. Identifying human disease genes: advances in molecular genetics and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, S M; Ali, A; Baig, S M; Barh, D; Miyoshi, A; Azevedo, V

    2014-07-04

    The human genome project is one of the significant achievements that have provided detailed insight into our genetic legacy. During the last two decades, biomedical investigations have gathered a considerable body of evidence by detecting more than 2000 disease genes. Despite the imperative advances in the genetic understanding of various diseases, the pathogenesis of many others remains obscure. With recent advances, the laborious methodologies used to identify DNA variations are replaced by direct sequencing of genomic DNA to detect genetic changes. The ability to perform such studies depends equally on the development of high-throughput and economical genotyping methods. Currently, basically for every disease whose origen is still unknown, genetic approaches are available which could be pedigree-dependent or -independent with the capacity to elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms. Computer algorithms and programs for linkage analysis have formed the foundation for many disease gene detection projects, similarly databases of clinical findings have been widely used to support diagnostic decisions in dysmorphology and general human disease. For every disease type, genome sequence variations, particularly single nucleotide polymorphisms are mapped by comparing the genetic makeup of case and control groups. Methods that predict the effects of polymorphisms on protein stability are useful for the identification of possible disease associations, whereas structural effects can be assessed using methods to predict stability changes in proteins using sequence and/or structural information.

  18. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing.

  19. Human Capital in Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Finding, keeping and supporting great educators presents the single biggest challenge to successful school turnarounds. Without teachers and administrators who bring the needed combination of skills and passion, nothing else will achieve the desired effect. The turnaround model supported by the U.S. Department of Education School Improvement Grant…

  20. Essays on Human Capital Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castex Hernandez, Gonzalo A.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze two issues on the efficiency of schooling choice. The first chapter analyzes changes in the distribution of college enrollment rates that occurred between 1980 and 2000. It aims not only to explain the 69% increase in the overall college enrollment rates, but also changes in the distribution of college attendees by their ability and…

  1. An Audit of Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    In pursuit of creating a culture that would contribute to the successful learning outcomes envisioned by the superintendent of the Beaufort County, South Carolina, School District, the author returned to her roots and experiences in organizational development. She discovered an article about McBassi and Co., an agency specializing in the…

  2. Human Capital Management Plan, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Education is a leader in improving the quality of education and raising expectations of what students can accomplish. The Department has promised to leave no child behind in order to ensure that all Americans can use their knowledge and skills to lead productive lives, enhance communities, and participate fully in the economy. To…

  3. The crisis in human capital

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, E. D. K.; Kersey, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    This overview discusses the current shortfalls in the U.S. national education system with attention to their effects on the aerospace industry and potential remedies. Student-achievement and literacy rates are examined to compare U.S. students to those of other countries, and the sociological and cultural phenomena are listed which can contribute to deficiencies in learning. Intervention programs for young children and for students in math and science are discussed, and corporate mechanisms are described which support scholarly activities. Also examined are teaching resources provided by government agencies that deal with science and technology. The general conclusion of the paper is that the efforts to date are insufficient because they do not address education levels across the country. It is suggested that corporations and communities rather than federal and state governments address the educational shortfalls.

  4. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for

  5. Correlation of Respirator Fit Measured on Human Subjects and a Static Advanced Headform

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Michael S.; He, Xinjian; Joseph, Michael E.; Zhuang, Ziqing; Heimbuch, Brian K.; Shaffer, Ronald E.; Choe, Melanie; Wander, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the correlation of N95 filtering face-piece respirator (FFR) fit between a Static Advanced Headform (StAH) and 10 human test subjects. Quantitative fit evaluations were performed on test subjects who made three visits to the laboratory. On each visit, one fit evaluation was performed on eight different FFRs of various model/size variations. Additionally, subject breathing patterns were recorded. Each fit evaluation comprised three two-minute exercises: “Normal Breathing,” “Deep Breathing,” and again “Normal Breathing.” The overall test fit factors (FF) for human tests were recorded. The same respirator samples were later mounted on the StAH and the overall test manikin fit factors (MFF) were assessed utilizing the recorded human breathing patterns. Linear regression was performed on the mean log10-transformed FF and MFF values to assess the relationship between the values obtained from humans and the StAH. This is the first study to report a positive correlation of respirator fit between a headform and test subjects. The linear regression by respirator resulted in R2 = 0.95, indicating a strong linear correlation between FF and MFF. For all respirators the geometric mean (GM) FF values were consistently higher than those of the GM MFF. For 50% of respirators, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different between humans and the StAH. For data grouped by subject/respirator combinations, the linear regression resulted in R2 = 0.49. A weaker correlation (R2 = 0.11) was found using only data paired by subject/respirator combination where both the test subject and StAH had passed a real-time leak check before performing the fit evaluation. For six respirators, the difference in passing rates between the StAH and humans was < 20%, while two respirators showed a difference of 29% and 43%. For data by test subject, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different for 40% of the subjects. Overall, the advanced headform system has

  6. Correlation of respirator fit measured on human subjects and a static advanced headform.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Michael S; He, Xinjian; Joseph, Michael E; Zhuang, Ziqing; Heimbuch, Brian K; Shaffer, Ronald E; Choe, Melanie; Wander, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the correlation of N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit between a Static Advanced Headform (StAH) and 10 human test subjects. Quantitative fit evaluations were performed on test subjects who made three visits to the laboratory. On each visit, one fit evaluation was performed on eight different FFRs of various model/size variations. Additionally, subject breathing patterns were recorded. Each fit evaluation comprised three two-minute exercises: "Normal Breathing," "Deep Breathing," and again "Normal Breathing." The overall test fit factors (FF) for human tests were recorded. The same respirator samples were later mounted on the StAH and the overall test manikin fit factors (MFF) were assessed utilizing the recorded human breathing patterns. Linear regression was performed on the mean log10-transformed FF and MFF values to assess the relationship between the values obtained from humans and the StAH. This is the first study to report a positive correlation of respirator fit between a headform and test subjects. The linear regression by respirator resulted in R(2) = 0.95, indicating a strong linear correlation between FF and MFF. For all respirators the geometric mean (GM) FF values were consistently higher than those of the GM MFF. For 50% of respirators, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different between humans and the StAH. For data grouped by subject/respirator combinations, the linear regression resulted in R(2) = 0.49. A weaker correlation (R(2) = 0.11) was found using only data paired by subject/respirator combination where both the test subject and StAH had passed a real-time leak check before performing the fit evaluation. For six respirators, the difference in passing rates between the StAH and humans was < 20%, while two respirators showed a difference of 29% and 43%. For data by test subject, GM FF and GM MFF values were significantly different for 40% of the subjects. Overall, the advanced headform system has potential

  7. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  8. "Science Capital": A Conceptual, Methodological, and Empirical Argument for Extending Bourdieusian Notions of Capital beyond the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Dawson, Emily; DeWitt, Jennifer; Seakins, Amy; Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out an argument and approach for moving beyond a primarily arts-based conceptualization of cultural capital, as has been the tendency within Bourdieusian approaches to date. We advance the notion that, in contemporary society, scientific forms of cultural and social capital can command a high symbolic and exchange value. Our…

  9. Leasing equipment minimizes capital investment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M E; Maier, R A

    1989-03-01

    As consumers continue to demand the most advanced technology at the lowest cost, healthcare organizations are turning to leasing as a way of acquiring equipment with a minimum amount of capital investment. Institutions considering leasing should determine their balance sheet constraints, compare the relative costs of debt financing and leasing, and assess the residual value of the equipment at the end of its use. Comparing potential lessors requires careful analysis of rate structures and the capability of the companies to commit to a contract promptly.

  10. Dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts are risk factors to human health.

    PubMed

    Kanner, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    Lipid oxidation in foods is one of the major degradative processes responsible for losses in food quality. The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids results in significant generation of dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts (ALEs) which are in part cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to dietary oxidized food compounds, after digestion a part of them are absorbed into the lymph or directly into the blood stream. After ingestion of oxidized fats animals and human have been shown to excrete in urine increase amounts of malondialdehyde but also lipophilic carbonyl compounds. Oxidized cholesterol in the diet was found to be a source of oxidized lipoproteins in human serum. Some of the dietary ALEs, which are absorbed from the gut to the circulatory system, seems to act as injurious chemicals that activate an inflammatory response which affects not only circulatory system but also organs such as liver, kidney, lung, and the gut itself. We believe that repeated consumption of oxidized fat in the diet poses a chronic threat to human health. High concentration of dietary antioxidants could prevent lipid oxidation and ALEs generation not only in foods but also in stomach condition and thereby potentially decrease absorption of ALEs from the gut. This could explains the health benefit of diets containing large amounts of dietary antioxidants such those present in fruits and vegetables, or products such as red-wine or tea consuming during the meal. PMID:17854006

  11. Dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts are risk factors to human health.

    PubMed

    Kanner, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    Lipid oxidation in foods is one of the major degradative processes responsible for losses in food quality. The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids results in significant generation of dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts (ALEs) which are in part cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to dietary oxidized food compounds, after digestion a part of them are absorbed into the lymph or directly into the blood stream. After ingestion of oxidized fats animals and human have been shown to excrete in urine increase amounts of malondialdehyde but also lipophilic carbonyl compounds. Oxidized cholesterol in the diet was found to be a source of oxidized lipoproteins in human serum. Some of the dietary ALEs, which are absorbed from the gut to the circulatory system, seems to act as injurious chemicals that activate an inflammatory response which affects not only circulatory system but also organs such as liver, kidney, lung, and the gut itself. We believe that repeated consumption of oxidized fat in the diet poses a chronic threat to human health. High concentration of dietary antioxidants could prevent lipid oxidation and ALEs generation not only in foods but also in stomach condition and thereby potentially decrease absorption of ALEs from the gut. This could explains the health benefit of diets containing large amounts of dietary antioxidants such those present in fruits and vegetables, or products such as red-wine or tea consuming during the meal.

  12. Biological effects of space radiation on human cells: history, advances and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Mira; Durante, Marco; Foray, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to radiation is one of the main concerns for space exploration by humans. By focusing deliberately on the works performed on human cells, we endeavored to review, decade by decade, the technological developments and conceptual advances of space radiation biology. Despite considerable efforts, the cancer and the toxicity risks remain to be quantified: 1) the nature and the frequency of secondary heavy ions need to be better characterized in order to estimate their contribution to the dose and to the final biological response; 2) the diversity of radiation history of each astronaut and the impact of individual susceptibility make very difficult any epidemiological analysis for estimating hazards specifically due to space radiation exposure. 3) Cytogenetic data undoubtedly revealed that space radiation exposure produce significant damage in cells. However, our knowledge of the basic mechanisms specific to low-dose, to repeated doses and to adaptive response is still poor. The application of new radiobiological techniques, like immunofluorescence, and the use of human tissue models different from blood, like skin fibroblasts, may help in clarifying all the above items. PMID:21436608

  13. Endothelial lipase is highly expressed in macrophages in advanced human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Emil D; Nielsen, John E; Lindegaard, Marie L S; Hulten, Lillemor M; Schroeder, Torben V; Nielsen, Lars B

    2007-12-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is expressed in endothelial cells, and affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism by hydrolyzing phospholipids in HDL. To determine the cellular expression of EL mRNA and protein in human atherosclerotic lesions, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies on sections of carotid endarterectomy specimens from patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease. In each of eight patients, EL mRNA and/or protein were seen in areas between the necrotic core and the fibrotic cap where they colocalized with LPL and macrophage-specific CD68. Moreover, there was a positive association between the expression of EL mRNA and CD68 mRNA in plaques from 26 patients. The impact of differentiation from monocytes into macrophages, and subsequently foam cells (by incubation with acetylated LDL) on expression was studied using THP-1 monocytes and primary human monocytes. EL mRNA expression increased markedly when either type of monocytes was differentiated into macrophages. Upon further differentiation into foam cells EL mRNA decreased whereas protein levels remained high compared to monocytes. In conclusion, macrophages in advanced human atherosclerotic lesions display high levels of EL expression, and the level of EL expression varies greatly during transformation of blood monocytes into foam cells.

  14. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    PubMed

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  15. Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human rights and…

  16. Differential oxidative status and immune characterization of the early and advanced stages of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Freitas, L F; De Rossi, T; Campos, F C; Simão, A N Colado; Barbosa, D S; Pinge-Filho, P; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant neoplasia with the highest incidence in women worldwide. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation have been indicated as major mediators during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Human studies have not considered the complexity of tumor biology during the stages of cancer advance, limiting their clinical application. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic oxidative stress and immune response parameters in early (ED; TNM I and II) and advanced disease (AD; TNM III and IV) of patients diagnosed with infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cancer. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated by plasmatic lipoperoxidation, carbonyl content, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide levels (NO), total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities and GSH levels. Immune evaluation was determined by TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10 levels and leukocytes oxidative burst evaluation by chemiluminescence. Tissue damage analysis included heart (total CK and CKMB), liver (AST, ALT, GGT), and renal (creatinine, urea, and uric acid) plasmatic markers. C-reactive protein (CRP) and iron metabolism were also evaluated. Analysis of the results verified different oxidative stress statuses occur at distinct cancer stages. ED was characterized by reduction in catalase, 8-isoprostanes, and GSH levels, with enhanced lipid peroxidation and TBARS levels. AD exhibited more pronounced oxidative status, with reduction in catalase activity and TRAP, intense lipid peroxidation and high levels of NO, TBARs, and carbonyl content. ED patients presented a Th2 immune pattern, while AD exhibited Th1 status. CRP levels and ferritin were increased in both stages of disease. Leukocytes burst impairment was observed in both the groups. Plasma iron levels were significantly elevated in AD. The data obtained indicated that oxidative stress enhancement and immune response impairment may be necessary to ensure

  17. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  18. Computational methods to extract meaning from text and advance theories of human cognition.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have made great advances in the area of computational methods for extracting meaning from text. This research has to a large extent been spurred by the development of latent semantic analysis (LSA), a method for extracting and representing the meaning of words using statistical computations applied to large corpora of text. Since the advent of LSA, researchers have developed and tested alternative statistical methods designed to detect and analyze meaning in text corpora. This research exemplifies how statistical models of semantics play an important role in our understanding of cognition and contribute to the field of cognitive science. Importantly, these models afford large-scale representations of human knowledge and allow researchers to explore various questions regarding knowledge, discourse processing, text comprehension, and language. This topic includes the latest progress by the leading researchers in the endeavor to go beyond LSA.

  19. Computational methods to extract meaning from text and advance theories of human cognition.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have made great advances in the area of computational methods for extracting meaning from text. This research has to a large extent been spurred by the development of latent semantic analysis (LSA), a method for extracting and representing the meaning of words using statistical computations applied to large corpora of text. Since the advent of LSA, researchers have developed and tested alternative statistical methods designed to detect and analyze meaning in text corpora. This research exemplifies how statistical models of semantics play an important role in our understanding of cognition and contribute to the field of cognitive science. Importantly, these models afford large-scale representations of human knowledge and allow researchers to explore various questions regarding knowledge, discourse processing, text comprehension, and language. This topic includes the latest progress by the leading researchers in the endeavor to go beyond LSA. PMID:25164173

  20. Advances in microfluidic platforms for analyzing and regulating human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Tongcheng; Shusta, Eric V; Palecek, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    Microfluidic devices employ submillimeter length scale control of flow to achieve high-resolution spatial and temporal control over the microenvironment, providing powerful tools to elucidate mechanisms of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) regulation and to elicit desired hPSC fates. In addition, microfluidics allow control of paracrine and juxtracrine signaling, thereby enabling fabrication of microphysiological systems comprised of multiple cell types organized into organs-on-a-chip. Microfluidic cell culture systems can also be integrated with actuators and sensors, permitting construction of high-density arrays of cell-based biosensors for screening applications. This review describes recent advances in using microfluidics to understand mechanisms by which the microenvironment regulates hPSC fates and applications of microfluidics to realize the potential of hPSCs for in vitro modeling and screening applications.

  1. Recent Advances in Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bawage, Swapnil Subhash; Tiwari, Pooja Munnilal; Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in infants and the elderly, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The interdisciplinary fields, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology, have facilitated the development of modern detection systems for RSV. Many anti-RSV compounds like fusion inhibitors and RNAi molecules have been successful in laboratory and clinical trials. But, currently, there are no effective drugs for RSV infection even after decades of research. Effective diagnosis can result in effective treatment, but the progress in both of these facets must be concurrent. The development in prevention and treatment measures for RSV is at appreciable pace, but the implementation into clinical practice still seems a challenge. This review attempts to present the promising diverse research approaches and advancements in the area of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that contribute to RSV management. PMID:24382964

  2. The Role of PPARγ in Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-qing; Chen, Cheng; Cai, Wei; Zeng, Yue-lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Advances made in the past ten years highlight the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ) has protective properties in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to define the roles of PPARγ in AGEs-induced inflammatory response in human chondrocytes. Methods Primary human chondrocytes were stimulated with AGEs in the presence or absence of neutralizing antibody against RAGE (anti-RAGE), MAPK specific inhibitors and PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. The expression of IL-1, MMP-13, TNF-α, PPARγ, nuclear NF-κB p65 and cytosol IκBα was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR. Results AGEs could enhance the expression of IL-1, TNF-α, and MMP-13, but the level of PPARγ was decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by anti-RAGE, SB203580 (P38 MAPK specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a selective inhibitor of JNK). PPARγ agonist pioglitazone could inhibit the effects of AGEs-induced inflammatory response and PPARγ down-regulation. In human chondrocytes, AGEs could induce cytosol IκBα degradation and increase the level of nuclear NF-κB p65, which was inhibited by PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. Conclusions In primary human chondrocytes, AGEs could down-regulate PPARγ expression and increase the inflammatory mediators, which could be reversed by PPARγ agonist pioglitazone. Activation of RAGE by AGEs triggers a cascade of downstream signaling, including MAPK JNK/ p38, PPARγ and NF-κB. Taken together, PPARγ could be a potential target for pharmacologic intervention in the treatment of OA. PMID:26024533

  3. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  4. Opening the Solar System: An Advanced Nuclear Spacecraft for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werka, R. O.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is limited by our technology, not our imagination. We dream of a time when we can freely travel among the planets and truly become a spacefaring people. However, the current state of our technology limits our options for architecting missions to other planets. Instead of sailing the seas of space in the way that we cruise the seas of Earth, our limited propulsion technology requires us to depart Earth on a giant cluster of gas tanks and return in a lifeboat. This inefficient approach to exploration is evident in many of today's leading mission plans for human flights to Mars, asteroids, and other destinations. The cost and complexity of this approach to mission architecting makes it extremely difficult to realize our dreams of exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This does not need to be the case. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been investigating the feasibility of a new take on nuclear propulsion with the performance to enable a paradigm shift in human space exploration. During the fall of 2013, engineers at MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office developed a spacecraft concept (pictured below) around this new propulsion technology and redefined the human Mars mission to show its full potential. This spacecraft, which can be launched with a fleet of soon-to-be available SLS launch vehicles, is fueled primarily with hydrogen, and is fully reusable with no staging required. The reusable nature of this design enables a host of alternative mission architectures that more closely resemble an ocean voyage than our current piecemeal approach to exploration.

  5. Receptors for advanced glycosylation endproducts in human brain: role in brain homeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J. J.; Dickson, D.; Hof, P. R.; Vlassara, H.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the reactive derivatives of nonenzymatic glucose-macromolecule condensation products. Aging human tissues accumulate AGEs in an age-dependent manner and contribute to age-related functional changes in vital organs. We have shown previously that AGE scavenger receptors are present on monocyte/macrophages, lymphocytes, and other cells. However, it remains unclear whether the human brain can efficiently eliminate AGE-modified proteins and whether excessive AGEs can contribute to inflammatory changes leading to brain injury in aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore the expression and characteristics of AGE-binding proteins on CNS glia components and their putative function, such as degradation of AGE-modified proteins, primary human astrocytes and human monocytes (as a microglial cell surrogate) and murine microglia (N9) cells and cell membrane extracts were used. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of AGE-binding proteins in the human hippocampus; RT-PCR techniques were used to examine the biologic effects of AGEs and a model AGE compound, FFI, on AGE-binding protein modulation and cytokine responses of human astrocytes and monocytes. RESULTS: Our results showed that AGE-binding proteins AGE-R1, -R2, and -R3 are present in glial cells. Western blot analyses and radiolabeled ligand binding studies show that AGE-R1 and -R3 from human astrocytes bind AGE-modified proteins; binding could be blocked by anti-AGE-R1 and anti-AGE-R3 antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that AGE-R1 and -R2 are expressed mainly in neurons; only some glial cells express these AGE-binding proteins. In contrast, AGE-R3 was found only on those astrocytes whose positively stained foot processes extend and surround the sheath of microcapillaries. RT-PCR results showed that mRNAs of the three AGE-binding proteins are expressed constitutively in human astrocytes and monocytes, and receptor transcripts are

  6. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  7. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  8. Implementing a Capital Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses four questions regarding implementation of a long-term capital plan to manage a college's facilities portfolio: When should the projects be implemented? How should the capital improvements be implemented? What will it actually cost in terms of project costs as well as operating costs? Who will implement the plan? (EV)

  9. Using four capitals to assess watershed sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  10. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  11. 76 FR 42768 - Capital Distribution

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Capital Distribution AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Capital Distribution. OMB Number: 1550..., the information provides the OTS with a mechanism for monitoring capital distributions since...

  12. Providing capital for physician group practices: new opportunities for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Coddington, D C; Moore, K D; Clarke, R L

    1999-12-01

    As physician group practices grow and consolidate, they have an increasing interest in developing close capital partnerships to ensure access to capital. Yet as many healthcare organizations have sought to divest poorly performing acquired physician practices, physicians have seen their pool of potential capital partners shrink. Under these conditions, hospitals have a new opportunity to present themselves to physician group practices as attractive capital partners. To understand the nature of this opportunity, one needs to know why group practices seek capital, how groups approach their investment strategies, and what criteria they use to compare prospective capital partners. To build stronger relationships with physicians, hospitals should focus on turning around their poorly performing acquired physician practices and pursue strategies such as collaborating with physician practice management companies and developing new models for partnering with physicians (e.g., special purchase agreements and more advanced management services organizations). PMID:11066695

  13. Technical advance: liposomal alendronate depletes monocytes and macrophages in the nonhuman primate model of human disease.

    PubMed

    Burwitz, Benjamin J; Reed, Jason S; Hammond, Katherine B; Ohme, Merete A; Planer, Shannon L; Legasse, Alfred W; Ericsen, Adam J; Richter, Yoram; Golomb, Gershon; Sacha, Jonah B

    2014-09-01

    Nonhuman primates are critical animal models for the study of human disorders and disease and offer a platform to assess the role of immune cells in pathogenesis via depletion of specific cellular subsets. However, this model is currently hindered by the lack of reagents that safely and specifically ablate myeloid cells of the monocyte/macrophage Lin. Given the central importance of macrophages in homeostasis and host immunity, development of a macrophage-depletion technique in nonhuman primates would open new avenues of research. Here, using LA at i.v. doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg, we show a >50% transient depletion of circulating monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages in RMs by an 11-color flow cytometric analysis. Diminution of monocytes was followed rapidly by emigration of monocytes from the bone marrow, leading to a rebound of monocytes to baseline levels. Importantly, LA was well-tolerated, as no adverse effects or changes in gross organ function were observed during depletion. These results advance the ex vivo study of myeloid cells by flow cytometry and pave the way for in vivo studies of monocyte/macrophage biology in nonhuman primate models of human disease. PMID:24823811

  14. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  15. Technical Advance: Liposomal alendronate depletes monocytes and macrophages in the nonhuman primate model of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Reed, Jason S.; Hammond, Katherine B.; Ohme, Merete A.; Planer, Shannon L.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Ericsen, Adam J.; Richter, Yoram; Golomb, Gershon; Sacha, Jonah B.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are critical animal models for the study of human disorders and disease and offer a platform to assess the role of immune cells in pathogenesis via depletion of specific cellular subsets. However, this model is currently hindered by the lack of reagents that safely and specifically ablate myeloid cells of the monocyte/macrophage Lin. Given the central importance of macrophages in homeostasis and host immunity, development of a macrophage-depletion technique in nonhuman primates would open new avenues of research. Here, using LA at i.v. doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg, we show a >50% transient depletion of circulating monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages in RMs by an 11-color flow cytometric analysis. Diminution of monocytes was followed rapidly by emigration of monocytes from the bone marrow, leading to a rebound of monocytes to baseline levels. Importantly, LA was well-tolerated, as no adverse effects or changes in gross organ function were observed during depletion. These results advance the ex vivo study of myeloid cells by flow cytometry and pave the way for in vivo studies of monocyte/macrophage biology in nonhuman primate models of human disease. PMID:24823811

  16. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  17. Recent advances in determining protein and amino acid requirements in humans.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2012-08-01

    During the past 25 years a significant amount of research has been conducted to determine amino acid requirements in humans. This is primarily due to advancements in the application of stable isotopes to examine amino acid requirements. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method has emerged as a robust and minimally invasive technique to identify requirements. The IAAO method is based on the concept that when one indispensable dietary amino acid (IDAA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then the excess of all other IDAA, including the indicator amino acid, will be oxidized. With increasing intakes of the limiting amino acid, IAAO will decrease, reflecting increasing incorporation into protein. Once the requirement for the limiting amino acid is met there will be no further change in the indicator oxidation. The IAAO method has been systematically applied to determine most IDAA requirements in adults. The estimates are comparable to the values obtained using the more elaborate 24h-indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (24h-IAAO/IAAB) model. Due to its non-invasive nature the IAAO method has also been used to determine requirements for amino acids in neonates, children and in disease. The IAAO model has recently been applied to determine total protein requirements in humans. The IAAO method is rapid, reliable and has been used to determine amino acid requirements in different species, across the life cycle and in disease. The recent application of IAAO to determine protein requirements in humans is novel and has significant implications for dietary protein intake recommendations globally.

  18. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  19. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  20. Contralateral acoustic stimulation induces a phase advance in evoked otoacoustic emissions in humans.

    PubMed

    Giraud, A L; Perrin, E; Chéry-Croze, S; Chays, A; Collet, L

    1996-05-01

    In 28 normal-hearing human subjects, the medial olivocochlear efferent system was activated by contralateral acoustic stimulation which is able to mimic the inhibitory effects of electrical stimulation of the crossed olivocochlear bundle. A first experiment on 16 subjects demonstrated that a contralateral white noise of 35 dB SL was able to induce temporal changes on transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions in response to clicks of 63 dB SPL. These temporal changes consisted of an advance of click-evoked otoacoustic signals in 87% of cases and is referred to as phase-shift effect. The phase advance, quantified using two signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains, was found to be mainly associated with lower frequencies, with a maximal effect at 1.5 kHz and minimal effects around 3.5 and 4 kHz. In a second experiment, carried out on 12 subjects, a negative relationship was found to exist between the ipsilateral stimulation level (level of clicks ranging from 57 to 69 dB SPL) and the phase-shift effect (PSE). Specifically in the range of levels tested (25-45 dB SL), a linear relationship presenting no obvious saturation effect was observed between the contralateral level and the PSE. The PSE was examined in 6 additional subjects exhibiting pathological symptoms; 2 of 3 individuals, who had no contralateral stapedial reflexes unilaterally, showed the PSE whereas this response was reduced or absent in 3 other subjects in the ear with severed efferents associated with a vestibular neurotomy. The integrity of olivocochlear efferents was, therefore, necessary to obtain a full effect, but the absence of stapedial reflex did not prevent the effect from occurring. PMID:8789811